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Sample records for distribution volume ratio

  1. Millimeter-wave Line Ratios and Sub-beam Volume Density Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronmico Nacional (IGN), C/Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigiel, Frank [Institute für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schinnerer, Eva [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kepley, Amanda [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cormier, Diane; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    We explore the use of mm-wave emission line ratios to trace molecular gas density when observations integrate over a wide range of volume densities within a single telescope beam. For observations targeting external galaxies, this case is unavoidable. Using a framework similar to that of Krumholz and Thompson, we model emission for a set of common extragalactic lines from lognormal and power law density distributions. We consider the median density of gas that produces emission and the ability to predict density variations from observed line ratios. We emphasize line ratio variations because these do not require us to know the absolute abundance of our tracers. Patterns of line ratio variations have the potential to illuminate the high-end shape of the density distribution, and to capture changes in the dense gas fraction and median volume density. Our results with and without a high-density power law tail differ appreciably; we highlight better knowledge of the probability density function (PDF) shape as an important area. We also show the implications of sub-beam density distributions for isotopologue studies targeting dense gas tracers. Differential excitation often implies a significant correction to the naive case. We provide tabulated versions of many of our results, which can be used to interpret changes in mm-wave line ratios in terms of adjustments to the underlying density distributions.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of distribution volume ratios and binding potential: tissue heterogeneity and interindividually averaged time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, G.A. [Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Reischl, G. [Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Due to the stochastic nature of radioactive decay, any measurement of radioactivity concentration requires spatial averaging. In pharmacokinetic analysis of time-activity curves (TAC), such averaging over heterogeneous tissues may introduce a systematic error (heterogeneity error) but may also improve the accuracy and precision of parameter estimation. In addition to spatial averaging (inevitable due to limited scanner resolution and intended in ROI analysis), interindividual averaging may theoretically be beneficial, too. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of such averaging on the binding potential (BP) calculated with Logan's non-invasive graphical analysis and the ''simplified reference tissue method'' (SRTM) proposed by Lammertsma and Hume, on the basis of simulated and measured positron emission tomography data [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate (dMP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (RAC) PET. dMP was not quantified with SRTM since the low k {sub 2} (washout rate constant from the first tissue compartment) introduced a high noise sensitivity. Even for considerably different shapes of TAC (dMP PET in parkinsonian patients and healthy controls, [{sup 11}C]raclopride in patients with and without haloperidol medication) and a high variance in the rate constants (e.g. simulated standard deviation of K {sub 1}=25%), the BP obtained from average TAC was close to the mean BP (<5%). However, unfavourably distributed parameters, especially a correlated large variance in two or more parameters, may lead to larger errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, interindividual averaging before quantification reduced the variance from the SRTM (beyond a critical signal to noise ratio) and the bias in Logan's method. Interindividual averaging may further increase accuracy when there is an error term in the reference tissue assumption E=DV {sub 2}-DV ' (DV {sub 2} = distribution volume of the first tissue compartment, DV &apos

  3. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Oguzhan Kum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. METHODS: Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. RESULTS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p = 0.001. However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect.

  4. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  5. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems.

  7. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  8. Investigation of Pockels Cells Crystal Contrast Ratio Distribution

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    Giedrius Sinkevičius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The BBO Pockel’s cell has been investigated. The investigation results of optimal operating area on the surface of the crystal dependent of intrinsic contrast ratio (ICR and voltage contrast ratio (VCR for Pockel’s cell are presented. The block diagram of Pockel’s cells contrast measurement stand and measurement methodology are introduced and discussed. The graphs of intrinsic contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface, contrast ratio with voltage dependency and voltage contrast ratio distribution on crystal surface with half-wave voltage are presented.

  9. Posterior distributions for likelihood ratios in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Alberink, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken. The posterior likelihood approach has been criticised both theoretically and with respect to applicability. This paper addresses the latter and illustrates an interesting application area. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V d ) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of 123 I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of 123 I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean±SD; 26±6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of 123 I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author)

  11. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  12. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  13. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  14. Sample to moderator volume ratio effects in neutron yield from a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-02-15

    Performance of a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup depends upon thermal neutron yield at the PGNAA sample location. For a moderator, which encloses a sample, thermal neutron intensity depends upon the effective moderator volume excluding the void volume due to sample volume. A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA setup. The thermal and fast neutron yield has been measured inside the sample cavity as a function of its front moderator thickness using alpha particle tracks density and recoil proton track density inside the CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The thermal/fast neutron yield ratio, obtained from the alpha particle tracks density to proton tracks density ratio in the NTDs, shows an inverse correlation with sample to moderator volume ratio. Comparison of the present results with the previously published results of smaller moderators of the KFUPM PGNAA setup confirms the observation.

  15. The effect of reinforcement volume ratio on porosity and thermal conductivity in Al-Mgo composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume ratios (RVR on composite structure and thermal conductivity were examined in Al-MgO reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs of 5%, 10% and 15% RVR produced by melt stirring. In the production of composites, EN AW 1050A aluminum alloy was used as the matrix material and MgO powders with particle size of -105 µm were used as the reinforcement material. For every composite specimen was produced at 500 rev/min stirring speed, at 750 °C liquid matrix temperature and 4 minutes stirring time. Composite samples were cooled under normal atmosphere. Then, microstructures of the samples were determined and evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. In general, it was observed that the reinforcement exhibited a homogeneous distribution. Furthermore, it was determined that the increase in the RVR increased porosity. From the Scanning Electron Microscope images, a thermal Ansys model was generated to determine effective thermal conductivity. Effective thermal conductivity of Al-MgO composites increased with the decrease in reinforcement volume ratio.

  16. Statistical analysis of rockfall volume distributions: Implications for rockfall dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussauge, Carine; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Helmstetter, AgnèS.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the volume distribution of natural rockfalls on different geological settings (i.e., calcareous cliffs in the French Alps, Grenoble area, and granite Yosemite cliffs, California Sierra) and different volume ranges (i.e., regional and worldwide catalogs). Contrary to previous studies that included several types of landslides, we restrict our analysis to rockfall sources which originated on subvertical cliffs. For the three data sets, we find that the rockfall volumes follow a power law distribution with a similar exponent value, within error bars. This power law distribution was also proposed for rockfall volumes that occurred along road cuts. All these results argue for a recurrent power law distribution of rockfall volumes on subvertical cliffs, for a large range of rockfall sizes (102-1010 m3), regardless of the geological settings and of the preexisting geometry of fracture patterns that are drastically different on the three studied areas. The power law distribution for rockfall volumes could emerge from two types of processes. First, the observed power law distribution of rockfall volumes is similar to the one reported for both fragmentation experiments and fragmentation models. This argues for the geometry of rock mass fragment sizes to possibly control the rockfall volumes. This way neither cascade nor avalanche processes would influence the rockfall volume distribution. Second, without any requirement of scale-invariant quenched heterogeneity patterns, the rock mass dynamics can arise from avalanche processes driven by fluctuations of the rock mass properties, e.g., cohesion or friction angle. This model may also explain the power law distribution reported for landslides involving unconsolidated materials. We find that the exponent values of rockfall volume on subvertical cliffs, 0.5 ± 0.2, is significantly smaller than the 1.2 ± 0.3 value reported for mixed landslide types. This change of exponents can be driven by the material strength, which

  17. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  18. Brain size and brain/intracranial volume ratio in major mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teale Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper summarizes the findings of a long term study addressing the question of how several brain volume measure are related to three major mental illnesses in a Colorado subject group. It reports results obtained from a large N, collected and analyzed by the same laboratory over a multiyear period, with visually guided MRI segmentation being the primary initial analytic tool. Methods Intracerebral volume (ICV, total brain volume (TBV, ventricular volume (VV, ventricular/brain ratio (VBR, and TBV/ICV ratios were calculated from a total of 224 subject MRIs collected over a period of 13 years. Subject groups included controls (C, N = 89, and patients with schizophrenia (SZ, N = 58, bipolar disorder (BD, N = 51, and schizoaffective disorder (SAD, N = 26. Results ICV, TBV, and VV measures compared favorably with values obtained by other research groups, but in this study did not differ significantly between groups. TBV/ICV ratios were significantly decreased, and VBR increased, in the SZ and BD groups compared to the C group. The SAD group did not differ from C on any measure. Conclusions In this study TBV/ICV and VBR ratios separated SZ and BD patients from controls. Of interest however, SAD patients did not differ from controls on these measures. The findings suggest that the gross measure of TBV may not reliably differ in the major mental illnesses to a degree useful in diagnosis, likely due to the intrinsic variability of the measures in question; the differences in VBR appear more robust across studies. Differences in some of these findings compared to earlier reports from several laboratories finding significant differences between groups in VV and TBV may relate to phenomenological drift, differences in analytic techniques, and possibly the "file drawer problem".

  19. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  20. Designing the fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic composites under Hertzian stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Sung; Jang, Kyung Soon; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae Woo; Han, In Sub; Woo, Sang Kuk

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Optimum fiber volume ratios in the SiC/SiC composite layers were designed under Hertzian stress. → FEM analysis and spherical indentation experiments were undertaken. → Boron nitride-pyrocarbon double coatings on the SiC fiber were effective. → Fiber volume ratio should be designed against flexural stress. -- Abstract: Finite element method (FEM) analysis and experimental studies are undertaken on the design of the fiber volume ratio in silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC composites under indentation contact stresses. Boron nitride (BN)/Pyrocarbon (PyC) are selected as the coating materials for the SiC fiber. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are modeled by introducing a woven fiber layer in the SiC matrix. Especially, this study attempts to find the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics under Hertzian stress. The analysis is performed by changing the fiber type, fiber volume ratio, coating material, number of coating layers, and stacking sequence of the coating layers. The variation in the stress for composites in relation to the fiber volume ratio in the contact axial or radial direction is also analyzed. The same structures are fabricated experimentally by a hot process, and the mechanical behaviors regarding the load-displacement are evaluated using the Hertzian indentation method. Various SiC matrix/coating/fiber/coating/matrix structures are fabricated, and mechanical characterization is performed by changing the coating layer, according to the introduction (or omission) of the coating layer, and the number of woven fiber mats. The results show that the damage mode changes from Hertzian stress to flexural stress as the fiber volume ratio increases in composites because of the decreased matrix volume fraction, which intensifies the radial crack damage. The result significantly indicates that the optimum fiber volume ratio in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics should be designed for

  1. Value of the regurgitant volume to end diastolic volume ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular dimensions after valve replacement in aortic insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); C. Tirtaman; E. Bos (Egbert); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the value of regurgitant stroke volume (RSV) to end-diastolic volume (EDV) ratio to predict the regression of left ventricular (LV) dimensions after uncomplicated valve replacement in 34 patients with severe pure aortic insufficiency. The RSV/EDV ratio

  2. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Mathias; Cooper, Steven J.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs). Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  3. A new technique for the assessment of the 3D spatial distribution of the calcium/phosphorus ratio in bone apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipanteli, A; Kourkoumelis, N; Fromme, P; Olivo, A; Huang, J; Speller, R

    2013-11-01

    The value and distribution of calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in bone vary between healthy and osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this study was the development of a technique for the assessment of the 3D spatial distribution of Ca/P ratio in bone apatite, which could eventually be implemented through a conventional computed tomography (CT) system. A three-material mass-fraction decomposition CT dual energy analysis was optimized. The technique was validated using ten bone phantoms of different, known Ca/P ratio. Their measured average Ca/P ratio showed a mean/maximum deviation from the expected Ca/P ratio of 0.24/0.35. Additionally, three healthy and three inflammation-mediated osteoporotic (IMO) collagen-free rabbit tibia bone samples were assessed, providing promising preliminary results on real bone tissue. The average Ca/P ratios in all IMO samples (1.64-1.65) were found to be lower than in healthy samples (1.67-1.68). Osteoporotic regions in IMO samples were located using Ca/P ratio colour maps and Ca/P ratio values as low as 1.40 ± 0.26 were found. The low Ca/P ratio volume proportion in IMO samples (12.8%-13.9%) was found to be higher than in healthy (5.8%-8.3%) samples. A region growing technique showed a higher homogeneity of Ca/P ratio in healthy than in IMO bone samples.

  4. Cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph in pediatric heart disease: How does it correlate with heart volumes at magnetic resonance imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Zhou, Cheng; Isaac, Kathryn V. [The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Tomlinson, George [University of Toronto, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital and Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio by chest radiograph is widely used as a marker of cardiac size. The purpose of this study is to correlate cardiothoracic ratio and cardiac volumes as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) in common structural and myopathic heart disease with increased cardiac size due to volume overload or hypertrophy. A retrospective single center study was performed in all patients between 2007 and 2013 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), aortic regurgitation, isolated left-to-right shunt and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent cardiovascular MR and chest radiograph within 6 months of each other. Cardiothoracic ratios by chest radiograph (frontal and lateral) were compared to cardiac volumes (indexed for body surface area) by cardiovascular MR. One hundred twenty-seven patients (mean age: 11.2 ± 5.5 years) were included in this study (76 with TOF, 23 with isolated left-to-right shunt, 16 with aortic regurgitation and 12 with HCM). Frontal cardiothoracic ratio of all groups correlated with indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDVI) (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) and indexed total heart volume (THVI) (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In TOF patients, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with RVEDVI (r = 0.34, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 27.6%), indexed RV end-systolic volume (ESVI) (r = 0.44, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 33.3%) and THVI (r = 0.35, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 19.6%), although RV volumes and THVI showed widespread variation given the high coefficients of variation. In patients with aortic regurgitation, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with left ventricular (LV) EDVI (r = 0.50, P = 0.047), but not with THVI and aortic regurgitant fraction, and widespread variation for LV EDVI (coefficient of variation = 19.2%), LV ESVI (coefficient of variation = 32.5%) and THVI (coefficient of variation = 13.6%) was also observed. Frontal cardiothoracic ratio was not correlated with cardiac volumes

  5. Regional distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio in patients with interstitial pneumonia using Kr-81m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Kenji; Shimada, Takao

    1983-01-01

    In order to know the pathophysiological change of interstitial pneumonia, it is important to detect the morphological change of vascular and air way systems in the lung. The study group consisted of 12 patients of interstitial pneumonia including IIP, PSS, RA, sarcoidosis, and hypersensitive pneumonia. The Kr-81m bolus inhalation from 3 different lung volumes were analyzed to detect regional ventilation abnormalities. The regional distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) in the lung was obtained from the continuous inhalation and infusion Kr-81 m. In 7 patients, regional distribution of V/Q was also measured at rest and during exercise. In advanced stage of interstitial pneumonia, radioactivity in lower lung fields was decreased in bolus inhalation from TLC-400 ml lung volume, and present in lower lung in bolus inhalation from RV level. These findings are representing air way rigidity especially in lower lung fields. However, in early stage or reversible cases, it is difficult to detect the abnormal distribution of radioactivity in lung, in spite of decreased PO 2 . So it seems impossible to screen early stage or reversible cases of interstitial pneumonia by bolus inhalation method alone. At rest for normal subjects in the upright position, the apical zone had a high V/Q, but in the lower parts two third of V/Q distribution was relatively homogeneous. During exercise at 50W, the distribution became more uniform. In most cases of the disease, weak exercise (less than 40W) produced the same uniform V/Q distribution. It should be noted that in the disease not only was perfusion in upper lung fields increased, but that perfusion of lower lung fields was reduced. So late in the cource of extension of the disease, pulmonary vascular bed in the lower lung fields is restricted.(J.P.N.)

  6. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  7. Evaluation of blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width as inflammatory markers in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktürk, Semra; Büyükavcı, Raikan

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by chronic widespread pain and systemic symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are not yet fully understood. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammatory response. Platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are the determinants of platelet activation and studied as markers in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate levels of NLR,PDW and MPV in patients with fibromyalgia. A total of 197 FMS patients and 53 healthy controls are included in the study. Demographic characteristics, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume levels were recorded. In the patient group, the blood NLR and MPV were significantly higher and the PDW was significantly lower compared to the control group. In the roc curve analysis, blood PDW ≥had 90.4% sensitivity and 90% specificity in predicting fibromyalgia. The results of this study suggest NLR and PDW as promising inflammatory markers indicating fibromyalgia and may be beneficial in facilitating the diagnosis of FMS patients.

  8. Influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monkova Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering is spread technology today. The main advantage of this method is the ability to produce parts which have a very complex geometry and which can be produced only in very complicated way by classical conventional methods. Special category of such components are parts with porous structure, which can give to the product extraordinary combination of properties. The article deals with some aspects that influence the manufacturing of regular porous structures in spite of the fact that input technological parameters at various samples were the same. The main goal of presented research has been to investigate the influence of the volume ratio of solid phase on carrying capacity of regular porous structure. Realized tests have indicated that the unit of regular porous structure with lower volume ratio is able to carry a greater load to failure than the unit with higher volume ratio.

  9. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz; Małek, Łukasz A.; Petryka, Joanna; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz; Miłosz, Barbara; Biernacka, Elżbieta K.; Kowalski, Mirosław; Hoffman, Piotr; Demkow, Marcin; Miśko, Jolanta; Rużyłło, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m 2 ). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC) PRV = 0.770 vs AUC PRF = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m 2 ), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC PRV = 0.770 vs AUC PRF = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  10. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  11. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gergely

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs. Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  12. A spreadsheet to determine the volume ratio for target and breast in partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, T.; Willis, D.; Miller, J.; Hubbard, P.; Oliver, M.; Chua, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The technical feasibility of Partial Breast Irradiation (PBI) using external beam radiotherapy depends on the ratio between the evaluation planning target volume (PTV e val) and the whole breast volume (PBI volume ratio = PVR). We aimed to develop a simple method to determine PVR using measurements performed at the time of the planning CT scan. A PVR calculation tool was developed using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to determine the PTV from three orthogonal dimensions of the seroma cavity and a given margin on the CT scans. The breast volume is estimated from the separation and breast height in five equally spaced CT slices. The PTV e val and whole breast volume were determined for 29 patients from two centres using the spreadsheet calculation tool and compared to volumes delineated on computerised treatment planning systems. Both the PTV e val and whole breast volumes were underestimated by approximately 25% using the spreadsheet. The resulting PVRs were 1.05 +/- 0.35 (mean +/- 1 S D) times larger than the ones determined from planning. Estimations of the PVR using the calculation tool were achievable in around 5 minutes at the time of CT scanning and allow a prompt decision on the suitability of the patients for PBI.

  13. Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Patel, Mohit; Li, Luyuan; Kurpad, Shekar; Mueller, Wade

    2017-02-01

    Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7 +/- 17.7 years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( n = 5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( n = 23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( n = 76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( n = 6), and bilateral pathology ( n = 3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5 mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8 ± 5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2 ± 27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels

  14. Relation between distribution coefficient of radioactive strontium and solid-liquid distribution ratio of background stable strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Toshifumi; Mahara, Yasunori; Okamura, Masaki; Ashikawa, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Distribution coefficients (K d ) of nuclides, which are defined as the ratio of the adsorbed concentration to the solution concentration, are important in predicting nuclide migration in the subsurface environment. This study was undertaken to contrust an effective method of determining the most pertinent K d value for simulating in situ distribution phenomena between the solid and liquid phases, by using background stable isotopes. This paper describes the applicability of this method to Sr by carrying out a batch Sr adsorption experiment where stable Sr coexisted with the radioactive isotope, 85 Sr, and by comparing the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr with the K d value obtained by the batch experiment. The results showed that the K d of 85 Sr (K d85 ) agreed well with the K d of the coexisting stable Sr (K ds ) and that the two values decreased with an increase in the concentration of the stable Sr, when sand was used as an adsorbent. In addition, the K d85 corresponded to the ratio of the exchangeable solid-phase concentration of background stable Sr to the concentration of the background stable Sr in groundwater when the concentration of the coexisting stable Sr approached the background level. On the other hand, when powdered rock samples were used, the K d85 did not agree with the K ds , and the concentration distribution ratio of the background stable Sr was greater than the K d85 . This discrepancy might be due to the disequilibrium resulting from grinding the rock matrices. This suggests that measurement of the background stable Sr distribution ratio between the solid and liquid phases can be an effective method of estimating the K d of radioactive Sr when the groundwater is in satisfactory contact with the adsorption medium. (author)

  15. Can bioimpedance determine the volume of distribution of antibiotics in sepsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, M; Sedivy, J; Waldauf, P; Kolar, M; Smejkalova, V; Pachl, J

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between the volume of distribution, assessed according to the two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model, and extracellular water estimated by bioimpedance was studied in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis and capillary leak. A prospective observational study was performed in a twenty-bed general intensive care unit in the university hospital. Patients received either vancomycin (n = 16) or netilmicin (n = 12) for more than 48 hours. Those with ascites, pleural effusion, on renal replacement therapy or with haemodynamic instability were excluded. Serum concentrations of drugs were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis before, 1 hour and 4 hours after the 30 minute infusion. Bioimpedance measurement was performed at the time of the third sampling. The protocol was repeated after 24 hours. Fluid balance during the 24 hour interval was recorded. Extracellular water was increased and represented 45.6 to 46.6% of total body water Fluid balance correlated with the change of extracellular water (r = 0.82, P body water (r = 0.74, P water/total body ratio (r = 0.70, P water/total body water ratio (r = 0.60, P antibiotics.

  16. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  17. Tumor Volume Changes Assessed by Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Volumetry in Rectal Cancer Patients After Preoperative Chemoradiation: The Impact of the Volume Reduction Ratio on the Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Young Wan; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Jin Soo; Min, Byung Soh; Kim, Hogeun; Lim, Joon Seok; Seong, Jinsil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tumor volume changes assessed by three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) volumetry and the histopathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical surgery were prospectively enrolled in the study. The post-treatment tumor volume and tumor volume reduction ratio (% decrease ratio), as shown by 3D MR volumetry, were compared with the histopathologic response, as shown by T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: There were no significant differences in the post-treatment tumor volume and the volume reduction ratio shown by 3D MR volumetry with respect to T and N downstaging and the tumor regression grade. In a multivariate analysis, the tumor volume reduction ratio was not significantly associated with T and N downstaging. The volume reduction ratio (>75%, p = 0.01) and the pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen level (≤3 ng/ml, p = 0.01), but not the post-treatment volume shown by 3D MR (≤ 5ml), were, however, significantly associated with an increased pathologic complete response rate. Conclusion: More than 75% of the tumor volume reduction ratios were significantly associated with a high pathologic complete response rate. Therefore, limited treatment options such as local excision or simple observation might be considered after preoperative CRT in this patient population.

  18. The Mass-Ratio Distribution of Visual Binary Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The selection effects that govern the observations of Visual Binary Stars are in- vestigated, in order to obtain a realistic statistical distribution of the mass-ratio q = Msec=Mprim. To this end a numerical simulation programme has been developed, which `generates' binary stars and `looks' at

  19. Volume dose ratios relevant for alanine dosimetry in small, 6 MV photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard O.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Behrens, Claus F.

    2012-01-01

    therapy). To this end, we here present the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study with DOSRZnrc that investigated the influence of field and detector size for small 6 MV photon beams. The study focusses on doses averaged over the volume of the detector rather than point doses.The ratio of volume...... averaged doses to water (D¯W) and alanine (D¯det) was found to be approximately 1.025 for most situations studied, and a constant ratio is likely to be representative for many applications in radiation therapy. However, D¯W/D¯det was found to be as low as 0.9908 ± 0.0037 in situations where one might...... expect significant deviations from charged particle equilibrium (i.e. at shallow depths and when the field size was smaller than the range of the secondary electrons). These effects therefore need consideration when finite-size alanine dosimeters are used under such conditions....

  20. A distribution ratio model of strontium by crown ether extraction from simulated HLLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Wang Qiuping; Wang Jianchen; Song Chongli

    1995-01-01

    An experiential distribution ratio model for strontium extraction by dicyclohexano-18-crown-6-n-octanol from simulated high-level waste is established. The experimental points for the model are designed by experimental homogeneous-design method. The regression of distribution ratio model of strontium is carried out by the complex-optimization method. The model is verified with experimental distribution ratio data in different extraction conditions. The results show that the relative deviations are within +-10% and the mean relative divination is 4.4% between the calculated data and the experimental ones. The experiential model together with an iteration program can be used for the strontium extraction process calculation

  1. Quantitative analysis of the myelin g-ratio from electron microscopy images of the macaque corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a detailed morphometric analysis of eight transmission electron micrographs (TEMs obtained from the corpus callosum of one cynomolgus macaque. The raw TEM images are included in the article, along with the distributions of the axon caliber and the myelin g-ratio in each image. The distributions are analyzed to determine the relationship between axon caliber and g-ratio, and compared against the aggregate metrics (myelin volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, and the aggregate g-ratio, as defined in the accompanying research article entitled ‘In vivo histology of the myelin g-ratio with magnetic resonance imaging’ (Stikov et al., NeuroImage, 2015.

  2. Influence of Gravity on Blood Volume and Flow Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D.; Olszowka, A.; Bednarczyk, E.; Shykoff, B.; Farhi, L.

    1999-01-01

    In our previous experiments during NASA Shuttle flights SLS 1 and 2 (9-15 days) and EUROMIR flights (30-90 days) we observed that pulmonary blood flow (cardiac output) was elevated initially, and surprisingly remained elevated for the duration of the flights. Stroke volume increased initially and then decreased, but was still above 1 Gz values. As venous return was constant, the changes in SV were secondary to modulation of heart rate. Mean blood pressure was at or slightly below 1 Gz levels in space, indicating a decrease in total peripheral resistance. It has been suggested that plasma volume is reduced in space, however cardiac output/venous return do not return to 1 Gz levels over the duration of flight. In spite of the increased cardiac output, central venous pressure was not elevated in space. These data suggest that there is a change in the basic relationship between cardiac output and central venous pressure, a persistent "hyperperfusion" and a re-distribution of blood flow and volume during space flight. Increased pulmonary blood flow has been reported to increase diffusing capacity in space, presumably due to the improved homogeneity of ventilation and perfusion. Other studies have suggested that ventilation may be independent of gravity, and perfusion may not be gravity- dependent. No data for the distribution of pulmonary blood volume were available for flight or simulated microgravity. Recent studies have suggested that the pulmonary vascular tree is influenced by sympathetic tone in a manner similar to that of the systemic system. This implies that the pulmonary circulation is dilated during microgravity and that the distribution of blood flow and volume may be influenced more by vascular control than by gravity. The cerebral circulation is influenced by sympathetic tone similarly to that of the systemic and pulmonary circulations; however its effects are modulated by cerebral autoregulation. Thus it is difficult to predict if cerebral perfusion is

  3. Effect of volume ratio of liquid to solid on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Bowen; Cai Changchun; Lu Baiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Volume ratio of liquid to solid affects significantly the interfacial microstructure. → Elemental diffusion activity is increased by increasing volume ratio. → Mechanical property is improved by increasing volume ratio. - Abstract: The high chromium cast iron and medium carbon steel bimetal was fabricated by liquid-solid casting technology. The effect of volume ratios of liquid to solid (6:1, 10:1 and 12:1) on the interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of bimetal was investigated. The interfacial microstructure was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The shear strength and microhardness in as-cast condition were studied at room temperature. The results show that the volume ratios of liquid to solid affect significantly the interfacial microstructure. When liquid-solid volume ratio was 6:1, the unbonded region was detected in interface region because the imported heat energy cannot support effectively the diffusion of element, whereas, when liquid-solid volume ratios reach 10:1 and 12:1, a sound interfacial microstructure was achieved by the diffusion of C, Cr, Mo, Cu and Mn, and metallurgical bonding without unbonded region, void and hole, etc. was detected. With the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the elemental diffusion activity improves, resulting in the increase of width of interface transition region. At the same distance from interface, with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio, the microhardness is degraded in HCCI, but increased in MCS. The shear strength is also improved with the increase of liquid-solid volume ratio.

  4. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  5. The study of alteration in left ventricular volume and pressure to volume ratio during exercise in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhonglin; Pei Zhuguo; Zang Bin

    1994-01-01

    The alterations induced by exercise in left ventricular end diastolic volume index (EDVI), end systolic volume index (ESVI) and systolic blood pressure to end systolic volume ratio (P/ESV) were studied in 15 normal subjects and 42 patients with coronary heart disease using a non-geometric count-based method and supine bicycle exercise test. Normal subjects had an increase in EDVI and a decrease in ESVI, but coronary heart disease patients had an increase in both EDVI and ESVI. The extent of increase induced by exercise in EDVI was greater in angina patients than that in normal and old myocardial infarction subjects. The P/ESV can be used to evaluate left ventricular systolic pressure-volume relationship. For the P/ESV exercise response, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for coronary heart disease were 95%, 93% and 95%, respectively

  6. Molar volume, excess enthalpy, and Prigogine-Defay ratio of some silicate glasses with different (P,T) histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Behrens, Harald

    2007-10-21

    Structural relaxation in silicate glasses with different (p,T) histories was experimentally examined by differential scanning calorimetry and measurements of molar volume under ambient pressure. Temperature and pressure-dependent rates of changes in molar volume and generation of excess enthalpy were determined for sodium trisilicate, soda lime silicate, and sodium borosilicate (NBS) compositions. From the derived data, Prigogine-Defay ratios are calculated and discussed. Changes of excess enthalpy are governed mainly by changes in short-range structure, as is shown for NBS where boron coordination is highly sensitive to pressure. For all three glasses, it is shown how the relaxation functions that underlie volume, enthalpy, and structural relaxation decouple for changes in cooling rates and pressure of freezing, respectively. The magnitude of the divergence between enthalpy and volume may be related to differences in structural sensitivity to changes in the (p,V,T,t) space on different length scales. The findings suggest that the Prigogine-Defay ratio is related to the magnitude of the discussed decoupling effect.

  7. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Experimental equivalent cluster-size distributions in nano-metric volumes of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; De Nardo, L.; Colautti, P.; Pszona, S.; Conte, V.; Tornielli, G.

    2004-01-01

    Ionisation cluster-size distributions in nano-metric volumes of liquid water were determined for alpha particles at 4.6 and 5.4 MeV by measuring cluster-size frequencies in small gaseous volumes of nitrogen or propane at low gas pressure as well as by applying a suitable scaling procedure. This scaling procedure was based on the mean free ionisation lengths of alpha particles in water and in the gases measured. For validation, the measurements of cluster sizes in gaseous volumes and the cluster-size formation in volumes of liquid water of equivalent size were simulated by Monte Carlo methods. The experimental water-equivalent cluster-size distributions in nitrogen and propane are compared with those in liquid water and show that cluster-size formation by alpha particles in nitrogen or propane can directly be related to those in liquid water. (authors)

  9. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  10. Determination of the mass-ratio distribution, I: single-lined spectroscopic binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    For single-lined spectroscopic binary stars (sbi), the mass ratio q = Msec=Mprim is calculated from the mass function f(m), which is determined from observations. For statistical investigations of the mass-ratio distribution, the term sin^3 i, that remains in the cubic equation from which q is

  11. Ice volume distribution and implications on runoff projections in a glacierized catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dense network of helicopter-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements was used to determine the ice-thickness distribution in the Mauvoisin region. The comprehensive set of ice-thickness measurements was combined with an ice-thickness estimation approach for an accurate determination of the bedrock. A total ice volume of 3.69 ± 0.31 km3 and a maximum ice thickness of 290 m were found. The ice-thickness values were then employed as input for a combined glacio-hydrological model forced by most recent regional climate scenarios. This model provided glacier evolution and runoff projections for the period 2010–2100. Runoff projections of the measured initial ice volume distribution show an increase in annual runoff of 4% in the next two decades, followed by a persistent runoff decrease until 2100. Finally, we checked the influence of the ice-thickness distribution on runoff projections. Our analyses revealed that reliable estimates of the ice volume are essential for modelling future glacier and runoff evolution. Wrong estimations of the total ice volume might even lead to deviations of the predicted general runoff trend.

  12. VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION OF ATRACURIUM IN DIFFERENT COHORTS : A COMPARITIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Comparison of volume of distribution of Atracurium in peritonitis versus elective surgeries and establishing a relationship between manifest variables and distributive value index. METHODS: The volume of distribution was derived by a surrogate variable after extrapolating the concentration time decay curve in a graph by plotting TOF values on Y axis and time on X axis. RESULTS: The onset of action , duration of relaxant effect and recovery from anaesthesia was prolonged in peritonitis g roup compared to otherwise healthy group coming up for non - peritonitis surgery. CONCLUSIONS: All these findings can be explained by the assumption of hypothetical compartment attached to central compartment varies in its capacity and equilibration , dependi ng on the prevailing level of hyperemia of the inflamed peritoneal compartment at any given point of time

  13. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  14. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  15. Mean platelet volume, neutrophil to lyphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ünal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: It has been demonstrated that ratio of neutrophil and platelet count systemic inflammation and is associated with prognosis of many cardiovascular diseases, malignates and chronic inflammatory diseases.As far as it is known, there are no studies investigating neutrophil/lymphocyeratio(NLR, platelet/lymphocyte ratio(PLR and mean platelet volume(MPV values together within the context of psoriasis, a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease. Materials and Methods: 320 patients followed up in our polyclinic with psoriasis vulgaris and 200 healthy persons were evaluated in the study. Results: Leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet, MPV, NLR and PLR values in patients with psoriasis were significantly higher, and lymphocyte count, on the other hand, was significantly lower than those of the control group. No significant difference was found between MPV, NLR and PLR values of patients with or without a family history, nail and joint involvement. Conclusions: These parameters may be made use of as cheap and easily applicable methods in predicting which psoriasis patients are under the risk of cardiovascular disease. PLR is a better inflammation marker than MPV and NLR in patients with psoriasis. We did not observe a significant relationship between MPV, NLR and PLR values and such disease characteristics as severity of disease, joint involvement, nail involvement and duration of disease in patients with psoriasis. So, we believe that there is little information on the extent to which MPV,NLR and PLR might be useful regarding these characteristics.

  16. Evaluation of dose-volume metrics for microbeam radiation therapy dose distributions in head phantoms of various sizes using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Danielle; Siegbahn, E. Albert; Fallone, B. Gino; Serduc, Raphael; Warkentin, Brad

    2012-05-01

    This work evaluates four dose-volume metrics applied to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using simulated dosimetric data as input. We seek to improve upon the most frequently used MRT metric, the peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), by analyzing MRT dose distributions from a more volumetric perspective. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate dose distributions in three cubic head phantoms: a 2 cm mouse head, an 8 cm cat head and a 16 cm dog head. The dose distribution was calculated for a 4 × 4 mm2 microbeam array in each phantom, as well as a 16 × 16 mm2 array in the 8 cm cat head, and a 32 × 32 mm2 array in the 16 cm dog head. Microbeam widths of 25, 50 and 75 µm and center-to-center spacings of 100, 200 and 400 µm were considered. The metrics calculated for each simulation were the conventional PVDR, the peak-to-mean valley dose ratio (PMVDR), the mean dose and the percentage volume below a threshold dose. The PVDR ranged between 3 and 230 for the 2 cm mouse phantom, and between 2 and 186 for the 16 cm dog phantom depending on geometry. The corresponding ranges for the PMVDR were much smaller, being 2-49 (mouse) and 2-46 (dog), and showed a slightly weaker dependence on phantom size and array size. The ratio of the PMVDR to the PVDR varied from 0.21 to 0.79 for the different collimation configurations, indicating a difference between the geometric dependence on outcome that would be predicted by these two metrics. For unidirectional irradiation, the mean lesion dose was 102%, 79% and 42% of the mean skin dose for the 2 cm mouse, 8 cm cat and 16 cm dog head phantoms, respectively. However, the mean lesion dose recovered to 83% of the mean skin dose in the 16 cm dog phantom in intersecting cross-firing regions. The percentage volume below a 10% dose threshold was highly dependent on geometry, with ranges for the different collimation configurations of 2-87% and 33-96% for the 2 cm mouse and 16 cm dog heads, respectively. The results of this study

  17. Evaluation of dose-volume metrics for microbeam radiation therapy dose distributions in head phantoms of various sizes using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Danielle; Fallone, B Gino; Warkentin, Brad; Siegbahn, E Albert; Serduc, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates four dose-volume metrics applied to microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using simulated dosimetric data as input. We seek to improve upon the most frequently used MRT metric, the peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), by analyzing MRT dose distributions from a more volumetric perspective. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate dose distributions in three cubic head phantoms: a 2 cm mouse head, an 8 cm cat head and a 16 cm dog head. The dose distribution was calculated for a 4 × 4 mm 2 microbeam array in each phantom, as well as a 16 × 16 mm 2 array in the 8 cm cat head, and a 32 × 32 mm 2 array in the 16 cm dog head. Microbeam widths of 25, 50 and 75 µm and center-to-center spacings of 100, 200 and 400 µm were considered. The metrics calculated for each simulation were the conventional PVDR, the peak-to-mean valley dose ratio (PMVDR), the mean dose and the percentage volume below a threshold dose. The PVDR ranged between 3 and 230 for the 2 cm mouse phantom, and between 2 and 186 for the 16 cm dog phantom depending on geometry. The corresponding ranges for the PMVDR were much smaller, being 2–49 (mouse) and 2–46 (dog), and showed a slightly weaker dependence on phantom size and array size. The ratio of the PMVDR to the PVDR varied from 0.21 to 0.79 for the different collimation configurations, indicating a difference between the geometric dependence on outcome that would be predicted by these two metrics. For unidirectional irradiation, the mean lesion dose was 102%, 79% and 42% of the mean skin dose for the 2 cm mouse, 8 cm cat and 16 cm dog head phantoms, respectively. However, the mean lesion dose recovered to 83% of the mean skin dose in the 16 cm dog phantom in intersecting cross-firing regions. The percentage volume below a 10% dose threshold was highly dependent on geometry, with ranges for the different collimation configurations of 2–87% and 33–96% for the 2 cm mouse and 16 cm dog heads, respectively. The results of this

  18. Sex ratio distribution and fecundity of the claroteid catfish Clarotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex ratio distribution and fecundity of Clarotes laticeps were investigated between January 2010 and December 2012 in the lower River Niger. Samples were collected every two weeks for 36 months from six sampling sites, using a combination of baited longlines, gill nets and cast nets. Sexes of captured specimens were ...

  19. OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Моzolevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo. Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

  20. Intrasubject correlation between static scan and distribution volume images for [11C]flumazenil PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Masahiro; Senda, Michio; Kimura, Yuichi

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 11 C]flumazenil (FMZ) reflects central nervous system benzodiazepine receptor (BZR). We searched for the optimal time for a static PET scan with FMZ as semi-quantitative imaging of BZR distribution. In 10 normal subjects, a dynamic series of decay-corrected PET scans was performed for 60 minutes, and the arterial blood was sampled during the scan to measure radioactivity and labeled metabolites. We generated 13 kinds of ''static scan'' images from the dynamic scan in each subject, and analyzed the pixel correlation for these images versus distribution volume (DV) images. We also analyzed the time for the [ 11 C]FMZ in plasma and tissue to reach the equilibrium. The intra-subject pixel correlation demonstrated that the static scan'' images for the period centering around 30 minutes post-injection had the strongest linear correlation with the DV image. The ratio of radioactivity in the cortex to that in the plasma reached a peak at 40 minutes after injection. Considering the physical decay and patient burden, we conclude that the decay corrected static scan for [ 11 C]FMZ PET as semi-quantitative imaging of BZR distribution is to be optimally acquired from 20 to 40 minutes after injection. (author)

  1. Qubit-qutrit separability-probability ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Paralleling our recent computationally intensive (quasi-Monte Carlo) work for the case N=4 (e-print quant-ph/0308037), we undertake the task for N=6 of computing to high numerical accuracy, the formulas of Sommers and Zyczkowski (e-print quant-ph/0304041) for the (N 2 -1)-dimensional volume and (N 2 -2)-dimensional hyperarea of the (separable and nonseparable) NxN density matrices, based on the Bures (minimal monotone) metric--and also their analogous formulas (e-print quant-ph/0302197) for the (nonmonotone) flat Hilbert-Schmidt metric. With the same seven 10 9 well-distributed ('low-discrepancy') sample points, we estimate the unknown volumes and hyperareas based on five additional (monotone) metrics of interest, including the Kubo-Mori and Wigner-Yanase. Further, we estimate all of these seven volume and seven hyperarea (unknown) quantities when restricted to the separable density matrices. The ratios of separable volumes (hyperareas) to separable plus nonseparable volumes (hyperareas) yield estimates of the separability probabilities of generically rank-6 (rank-5) density matrices. The (rank-6) separability probabilities obtained based on the 35-dimensional volumes appear to be--independently of the metric (each of the seven inducing Haar measure) employed--twice as large as those (rank-5 ones) based on the 34-dimensional hyperareas. (An additional estimate--33.9982--of the ratio of the rank-6 Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability to the rank-4 one is quite clearly close to integral too.) The doubling relationship also appears to hold for the N=4 case for the Hilbert-Schmidt metric, but not the others. We fit simple exact formulas to our estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt separable volumes and hyperareas in both the N=4 and N=6 cases

  2. An ancillary method in urine cytology: Nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio for discrimination between benign and malignant urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Keiko; Hoshiai, Keita; Kumagai, Naoya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kurose, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The essential of urine cytology for the diagnosis and the follow-up of urothelial neoplasia has been widely recognized. However, there are some cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made due to difficulty in discriminating between benign and malignant. This study evaluated the practicality of nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) for the discrimination. Using Papanicolaou-stained slides, 253 benign urothelial cells and 282 malignant urothelial cells were selected and divided into a benign urothelial cell and an urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell groups. Three suspicious cases and four cases in which discrimination between benign and malignant was difficult were prepared for verification test. Subject cells were decolorized and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for detection of the nuclei and the nucleoli. Z-stack method was performed to analyze. When the cutoff point of 1.514% discriminating benign urothelial cells and UC cells from nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) was utilized, the sensitivity was 56.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, the positive predictive value was 84.5%, and the negative predictive value was 64.4%. Nuclear and nucleolar volume, number of the nucleoli, and nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) were significantly higher in the UC cell group than in the benign urothelial cell group (P benign and malignant urothelial cells, providing possible additional information in urine cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:483-491. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Statistical analysis of COMPTEL maximum likelihood-ratio distributions: evidence for a signal from previously undetected AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, O. R.; Bennett, K.; Much, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Blom, J. J.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum likelihood-ratio method is frequently used in COMPTEL analysis to determine the significance of a point source at a given location. In this paper we do not consider whether the likelihood-ratio at a particular location indicates a detection, but rather whether distributions of likelihood-ratios derived from many locations depart from that expected for source free data. We have constructed distributions of likelihood-ratios by reading values from standard COMPTEL maximum-likelihood ratio maps at positions corresponding to the locations of different categories of AGN. Distributions derived from the locations of Seyfert galaxies are indistinguishable, according to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, from those obtained from ''random'' locations, but differ slightly from those obtained from the locations of flat spectrum radio loud quasars, OVVs, and BL Lac objects. This difference is not due to known COMPTEL sources, since regions near these sources are excluded from the analysis. We suggest that it might arise from a number of sources with fluxes below the COMPTEL detection threshold

  4. Technical note: using Distributed Temperature Sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilperoort, B.; Coenders, Miriam; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Jimenez Rodriguez, C.D.; Cisneros Vaca2, C.; Savenije, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology now allows its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by Euser [Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2021–2032 (2014)] is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS),

  5. SU-F-T-31: Shape and Isodose Distributions in Co60 HDR Brachytherapy for Different Utero-Vaginal Time Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G [Faculty of Sciences, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Piriz, G [Hospital Pereyra Rossell, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize the dose in bladder and rectum and show the different shapes of the isodose volumes in Co60-HDR brachytherapy, considering different utero and vaginal sources dwell ratio times (TU:TV). Methods: Besides Ir192-HDR, new Co60-HDR sources are being incorporated. We considered different TU:TV times and computed the dosis in bladder, rectum and at the reference points of the Manchester system. Also, we calculated the isodose volume and shape in each case. We used a EZAG-BEBIG Co0.A86 model with TPS HDRplus3.0.4. and LCT42-7, LCT42-2(R,L) applicators. A reference dose RA= 1.00 Gy was given to the A-right point. We considered the TU:TV dwell time ratios 1:0.25, 1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. Given TU:TV, the stop time at each dwell position is fixed for each applicator. Results: Increasing TU:TV systematically results in a decreasing of the dose in bladder and rectum, e.g. 9% and 27% reduction were found in 1:0.25 with respect to 1:1, while 12% and 34% increase were found in 1:4 with respect to 1:1. Also, the isodose volume parameters height (h), width (w), thickness (t) and volume (hwt) increased from the 1:0.25 case to the 1:4 value: hwt is 25% lower and 31% higher than the 1:1 reference volume in these cases. Also w decreased for higher TU:TV and may compromise the tumoral volume coverage, decreasing 17% in the 1:0.25 case compared to the 1:1 case. The shape of the isodose volume was obtained for the different TU:TV considered. Conclusion: We obtained the shape of isodose volumes for different TU:TV values in gynecological Co60-HDR. We studied the dose reduction in bladder and rectum for different TU:TV ratios. The volume parameters and hwt are strongly dependent on this ratio. This information is useful for a quantitative check of the TPS and as a starting point towards optimization.

  6. Functional distribution of coronary vascular volume in beating goat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, C. P.; Dankelman, J.; Spaan, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    With use of hemoglobin-bound O2 as an endogenous tracer, intramyocardial blood volume distribution between vessels involved in O2 exchange and more distal vessels was estimated. In nine anesthetized open-chest goats, the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused at a constant flow.

  7. Quantile selection procedure and assoiated distribution of ratios of order statistics from a restricted family of probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.S.; Panchapakesan, S.

    1975-01-01

    A quantile selection procedure in reliability problems pertaining to a restricted family of probability distributions is discussed. This family is assumed to be star-ordered with respect to the standard normal distribution folded at the origin. Motivation for this formulation of the problem is described. Both exact and asymptotic results dealing with the distribution of the maximum of ratios of order statistics from such a family are obtained and tables of the appropriate constants, percentiles of this statistic, are given in order to facilitate the use of the selection procedure

  8. Introducing axonal myelination in connectomics: A preliminary analysis of g-ratio distribution in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Matteo; Giulietti, Giovanni; Dowell, Nicholas; Spanò, Barbara; Harrison, Neil; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara

    2017-09-14

    Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI. In two different datasets of healthy subjects, we reconstructed the structural connectome and then used the g-ratio estimated from diffusion and magnetization transfer data to characterize the network structure. Significant characteristics of g-ratio weighted graphs emerged. First, the g-ratio distribution across the edges of the graph did not show the power-law distribution observed using the number of streamlines as a weight. Second, connections involving regions related to motor and sensory functions were the highest in myelin content. We also observed significant differences in terms of the hub structure and the rich-club organization suggesting that connections involving hub regions present higher myelination than peripheral connections. Taken together, these findings offer a characterization of g-ratio distribution across the connectome in healthy subjects and lay the foundations for further investigating plasticity and pathology using a similar approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. THE INTRINSIC EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.

  10. QUASARS ARE NOT LIGHT BULBS: TESTING MODELS OF QUASAR LIFETIMES WITH THE OBSERVED EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of quasar/active galactic nucleus (AGN) lifetimes and light curves. Given the observed (well constrained) AGN luminosity function, a particular model for AGN light curves L(t) or, equivalently, the distribution of AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity t(>L)) translates directly and uniquely (without further assumptions) to a predicted distribution of Eddington ratios at each BH mass. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a self-regulating 'decay' or 'blowout' phase after the AGN reaches some peak luminosity/BH mass and begins to expel gas and shut down accretion, make specific predictions for the light curves/lifetimes, distinct from, e.g., the expected distribution if AGN simply shut down by gas starvation (without feedback) and very different from the prediction of simple phenomenological 'light bulb' scenarios. We show that the present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning nearly 5 orders of magnitude in Eddington ratio, 3 orders of magnitude in BH mass, and redshifts z = 0-1, agree well with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out phenomenological 'light bulb' or pure exponential models, as well as gas starvation models, at high significance (∼5σ). We also compare with observations of the distribution of Eddington ratios at a given AGN luminosity, and find similar good agreement (but show that these observations are much less constraining). We fit the functional form of the quasar lifetime distribution and provide these fits for use, and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place precise, tight limits on the AGN lifetimes at various luminosities, in agreement with model predictions. We compare with independent estimates of episodic lifetimes and use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN light curve, and provide simple analytic fits to these for use in

  11. SU-E-J-249: Correlation of Mean Lung Ventilation Value with Ratio of Total Lung Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, N; Qu, H; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung ventilation function measured from 4D-CT and from breathing correlated CT images is a novel concept to incorporate the lung physiologic function into treatment planning of radiotherapy. The calculated ventilation functions may vary from different breathing patterns, affecting evaluation of the treatment plans. The purpose of this study is to correlate the mean lung ventilation value with the ratio of the total lung volumes obtained from the relevant CTs. Methods: A ventilation map was calculated from the variations of voxel-to-voxel CT densities from two breathing phases from either 4D-CT or breathing correlated CTs. An open source image registration tool of Plastimatch was used to deform the inhale phase images to the exhale phase images. To calculate the ventilation map inside lung, the whole lung was delineated and the tissue outside the lung was masked out. With a software tool developed in house, the 3D ventilation map was then converted in the DICOM format associated with the planning CT images. The ventilation map was analyzed on a clinical workstation. To correlate ventilation map thus calculated with lung volume change, the total lung volume change was compared the mean ventilation from our method. Results: Twenty two patients who underwent stereotactic body irradiation for lung cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For this group of patients, the ratio of lung volumes for the inhale (Vin ) and exhale phase (Vex ) was shown to be linearly related to the mean of the local ventilation (Vent), Vin/Vex=1.+0.49*Vent (R2=0.93, p<0.01). Conclusion: The total lung volume change is highly correlated with the mean of local ventilation. The mean of local ventilation may be useful to assess the patient's lung capacity

  12. Self-adaptive demodulation for polarization extinction ratio in distributed polarization coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Ren, Yaguang; Liu, Tiegen; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Yimo

    2013-06-20

    A self-adaptive method for distributed polarization extinction ratio (PER) demodulation is demonstrated. It is characterized by dynamic PER threshold coupling intensity (TCI) and nonuniform PER iteration step length (ISL). Based on the preset PER calculation accuracy and original distribution coupling intensity, TCI and ISL can be made self-adaptive to determine contributing coupling points inside the polarizing devices. Distributed PER is calculated by accumulating those coupling points automatically and selectively. Two different kinds of polarization-maintaining fibers are tested, and PERs are obtained after merely 3-5 iterations using the proposed method. Comparison experiments with Thorlabs commercial instrument are also conducted, and results show high consistency. In addition, the optimum preset PER calculation accuracy of 0.05 dB is obtained through many repeated experiments.

  13. A Caulobacter MreB mutant with irregular cell shape exhibits compensatory widening to maintain a preferred surface area to volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leigh K.; Dye, Natalie A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate at a uniform width. To investigate the genetic and physiological determinants involved in this process, we studied a mutation in the morphogenetic protein MreB in Caulobacter crescentus that gives rise to cells with a variable-width phenotype, where cells have regions that are both thinner and wider than wild-type. During growth, individual cells develop a balance of wide and thin regions, and mutant MreB dynamically localizes to poles and thin regions. Surprisingly, the surface area to volume ratio of these irregularly-shaped cells is, on average, very similar to wild-type. We propose that, while mutant MreB localizes to thin regions and promotes rod-like growth there, wide regions develop as a compensatory mechanism, allowing cells to maintain a wild-type-like surface area to volume ratio. To support this model, we have shown that cell widening is abrogated in growth conditions that promote higher surface area to volume ratios, and we have observed individual cells with high ratios return to wild-type levels over several hours by developing wide regions, suggesting that compensation can take place at the level of individual cells. PMID:25266768

  14. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  15. Statistics for Ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, and Weibull Distributed Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Č. Pavlović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this brief paper, we present the joint probability density function (PDF and PDF of maximum of ratios μ1=R1/r1 and μ2=R2/r2 for the cases where R1, R2, r1, and r2 are Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, and Weibull distributed random variables. Random variables R1 and R2, as well as random variables r1 and r2, are correlated. Ascertaining on the suitability of the Weibull distribution to describe fading in both indoor and outdoor environments, special attention is dedicated to the case of Weibull random variables. For this case, analytical expressions for the joint PDF, PDF of maximum, PDF of minimum, and product moments of arbitrary number of ratios μi=Ri/ri, i=1,…,L are obtained. Random variables in numerator, Ri, as well as random variables in denominator, ri, are exponentially correlated. To the best of the authors' knowledge, analytical expressions for the PDF of minimum and product moments of {μi}i=1L are novel in the open technical literature. The proposed mathematical analysis is complemented by various numerical results. An application of presented theoretical results is illustrated with respect to performance assessment of wireless systems.

  16. Parton distributions and EMC ratios of the 6Li nucleus in the constituent quark exchange model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Hadian, A.

    2017-10-01

    While the constituent quark model (CQM), in which the quarks are assumed to be the complex objects, is used to calculate the parton distribution functions of the iso-scalar lithium-6 (6Li) nucleus, the u-d constituent quark distribution functions of the 6Li nucleus are evaluated from the valence quark exchange formalism (VQEF) for the A = 6 iso-scalar system. After computing the valence quark, sea quark, and gluon distribution functions in the constituent quark exchange model (CQEM, i.e., CQM +VQEF), the nucleus structure function is calculated for the 6Li nucleus at the leading order (LO) and the next-to-leading-order (NLO) levels to extract the European muon collaboration (EMC) ratio, at different hard scales, using the standard Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGALP) evolution equations. The outcomes are compared with those of our previous works and the available NMC experimental data, and various physical points are discussed. It is observed that the present EMC ratios are considerably improved compared with those of our previous works, in which only the valence quark distributions were considered to calculate the EMC ratio, and are closer to the NMC data. Finally, it is concluded that at a given appropriate hard scale, the LO approximation may be enough for calculating the nucleus EMC ratio.

  17. Analysis and forecast of electrical distribution system materials. Final report. Volume III. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, C G

    1976-08-23

    These appendixes are referenced in Volume II of this report. They contain the detailed electrical distribution equipment requirements and input material requirements forecasts. Forecasts are given for three electric energy usage scenarios. Also included are data on worldwide reserves and demand for 30 raw materials required for the manufacture of electrical distribution equipment.

  18. Mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amira M. Elsayed

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... The aim of this study was to compare the MPV and mean platelet volume/platelet count ... brain stroke, both in the acute phase and long after disease.17 ... males, while the healthy controls comprised 12 females and 8.

  19. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  20. A hidden variable in shear transformation zone volume versus Poisson's ratio relation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.

  1. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  2. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  3. Vertical distributions of particulate plutonium in the western North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2007-01-01

    We examined the vertical distributions of 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratio in particles collected by large volume water in-situ pump in the western North Pacific Ocean (off Rokkasho, Japan). This is the first information of vertical distribution of plutonium activity and Plutonium atom ratio in small particle (1-70 μm) and large particle (>70 μm). (author)

  4. Volume-of-fluid simulations in microfluidic T-junction devices: Influence of viscosity ratio on droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Mehdi; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-03-01

    We used volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of droplet formation of Newtonian fluids in microfluidic T-junction devices. To evaluate the performance of the VOF method we examined the regimes of drop formation and determined droplet size as a function of system parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with four sets of experimental data from the literature showed good agreement, validating the VOF method. Motivated by the lack of adequate studies investigating the influence of viscosity ratio (λ) on the generated droplet size, we mapped the dependence of drop volume on capillary number (0.001 1. In addition, we find that at a given capillary number, the size of droplets does not vary appreciably when λ 1. We develop an analytical model for predicting the droplet size that includes a viscosity-dependent breakup time for the dispersed phase. This improved model successfully predicts the effects of the viscosity ratio observed in simulations. Results from this study are useful for the design of lab-on-chip technologies and manufacture of microfluidic emulsions, where there is a need to know how system parameters influence the droplet size.

  5. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, S.; Paulica, P.; Querze', R.; Viglietta, G.; Trenta, A.

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed

  6. Imaging of ventilation/perfusion ratio by gated regional spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.J.; Jones, J.P.; Price, R.R.; Patton, J.A.; Erickson, J.J.; Rollo, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    Gated 133 Xe images of patients rebreathing into a closed system can provide images of the distribution of lung volumes, ventilation and specific ventilation. These have been shown to be accurate, precise, and do not require unusually sophisticated equipment or skills. A mathematical transformation is used to correct the images for lung movement, which does not alter the total number of counts in the image. Perfusion images are gated to remove motion blurring but not transformed. Ventilation/perfusion images showing the distribution of V/Q ratio are then generated from the individual ventilation and perfusion images. (author)

  7. Relationship between Contrast Enhancement of the Perivascular Space in the Basal Ganglia and Endolymphatic Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshio; Naganawa, Shinji; Katagiri, Toshio; Kuno, Kayao

    2018-01-10

    We routinely obtain the endolymphatic hydrops (EH) image using heavily T 2 -weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR) imaging at 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single-dose of gadolinium-based contrast media (IV-SD-GBCM). While repeating the examination, we speculated that the contrast enhancement of the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia might be related to the degree of EH. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endolymphatic volume ratio (%EL volume ) and the signal intensity of the PVS (SI-PVS). In 20 patients with a suspicion of EH, a heavily T 2 -weighted 3D-turbo spin echo sequence for MR cisternography (MRC) and an hT 2 w-3D-FLAIR as a positive perilymph image (PPI) were obtained at 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM. The %EL volume of the cochlea and the vestibule were measured on the previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 image. The PVS in the basal ganglia was segmented on MRC using a region-growing method. The PVS regions were copied and pasted onto the PPI, and the SI-PVS was measured. The larger value of the right and the left ears was employed as the %EL volume , and the weighted average of both sides was employed as the SI-PVS. The correlation between the %EL volume and the SI-PVS was evaluated. There was a strong negative linear correlation between the %EL volume of the cochlea and the SI-PVS (r = -0.743, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between the %EL volume of the vestibule and the SI-PVS (r = -0.267, P = 0.256). There was a strong negative correlation between the cochlear %EL volume and the SI-PVS. Contrast enhancement of PVS might be a biomarker of EH.

  8. When high-volume PCI operators in high-volume hospitals move to lower volume hospitals-Do they still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Sheng-Tun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Lee, Jo-Chi; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to examine whether high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operators still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes when they moved to lower volume hospitals. Systematic reviews have indicated that high-volume PCI operators and hospitals have higher quality outcomes. However, little is known on whether high PCI volume and high quality outcomes are mainly due to operator characteristics (i.e., skill and experience) and is portable across organizations or whether it is due to hospital characteristics (i.e., equipment, team, and management system) and is less portable. We used Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data 2000-2012 to identify 98 high-volume PCI operators, 10 of whom moved from one hospital to another during the study period. We compared the PCI volume, risk-adjusted mortality ratio, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) ratio before and after moving. Of the 10 high-volume operators who moved, 6 moved from high- to moderate- or low-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 130 (117-165) in prior hospitals and 54 (46-84) in subsequent hospitals (the hospital the operator moved to), and the remaining 4 moved from high to high-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 151 (133-162) in prior hospitals and 193 (178-239) in subsequent hospitals. No significant differences were observed in the risk-adjusted mortality ratios and MACE ratios between high-volume operators and matched controls before and after moving. High-volume operators cannot maintain high volume when they moved from high to moderate or low-volume hospitals; however, the quality of care is maintained. High PCI volume and high-quality outcomes are less portable and more hospital bound. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet–Lymphocyte Ratio and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width–Platelet Ratio for Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Ilhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate whether systemic inflammatory markers (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR and red blood cell distribution width (RDW to platelet ratio (RPR can be used as reliable markers for the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI and to determine if there is a relationship between these markers and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH levels.Materials and methods: Written and electronic medical records were reviewed using searches for diagnoses with the terms of 'premature ovarian failure', 'premature ovarian insufficiency'. Patients younger than the age of 40 were diagnosed to have premature ovarian insufficiency based on their menstrual history and sonographic examination and they were compared with healthy females. Complete blood counts, day-3 hormone profiles, AMH levels of all subjects were analyzed.Results: NLR was statistically higher in POI group compared with controls (p < 0.05. NLR had a positive correlation between FSH (r = 0.23, p = 0.045 and a negative association with AMH (r = - 0.27, p = 0.018. The area under ROC curve for NLR in POI was 0.66, with a threshold value 1.5 and sensitivity = 75.7 % and specificity = 46.0 %.Conclusion: NLR can be a marker for the diagnosis of POI. There is a close relationship between NLR and ovarian reserve markers such as FSH and AMH.

  10. Physical Selectivity of Molecularly Imprinted polymers evaluated through free volume size distributions derived from Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasang, T.; Ranganathaiah, C.

    2015-06-01

    The technique of imprinting molecules of various sizes in a stable structure of polymer matrix has derived multitudes of applications. Once the template molecule is extracted from the polymer matrix, it leaves behind a cavity which is physically (size and shape) and chemically (functional binding site) compatible to the particular template molecule. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a well known technique to measure cavity sizes precisely in the nanoscale and is not being used in the field of MIPs effectively. This method is capable of measuring nanopores and hence suitable to understand the physical selectivity of the MIPs better. With this idea in mind, we have prepared molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with methacrylicacid (MAA) as monomer and EGDMA as cross linker in different molar ratio for three different size template molecules, viz. 4-Chlorophenol (4CP)(2.29 Å), 2-Nephthol (2NP) (3.36 Å) and Phenolphthalein (PP) (4.47Å). FTIR and the dye chemical reactions are used to confirm the complete extraction of the template molecules from the polymer matrix. The free volume size and its distribution have been derived from the measured o-Ps lifetime spectra. Based on the free volume distribution analysis, the percentage of functional cavities for the three template molecules are determined. Percentage of functional binding cavities for 4-CP molecules has been found out to be 70.2% and the rest are native cavities. Similarly for 2NP it is 81.5% and nearly 100% for PP. Therefore, PALS method proves to be very precise and accurate for determining the physical selectivity of MIPs.

  11. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  14. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R

    2003-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio-venous differe......During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio......-venous differences (AV) for O(2), glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy.......0 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mM (P ratio from 6.0 +/- 0.3 to 2.8 +/- 0.2 (P

  15. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...

  16. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined.

  17. Distribution ratios on Dowex 50W resins of metal leached in the caron nickel recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Metsa, J.C.; Mullins, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Pressurized ion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-X12 resins was investigated using elution techniques to determine distribution ratios for copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes contained in ammonium carbonate solution, a mixture which approximates the waste liquor from the Caron nickel recovery process. Results were determined for different feed concentrations, as well as for different concentrations and pH values of the ammonium carbonate eluant. Distribution ratios were compared with those previously obtained from a continuous annular chromatographic system. Separation of copper and nickel was not conclusively observed at any of the conditions examined

  18. Design and Analyses of High Aspect Ratio Nozzles for Distributed Propulsion Acoustic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Vance F., III

    2016-01-01

    A series of three convergent round-to-rectangular high-aspect ratio nozzles were designed for acoustics measurements. The nozzles have exit area aspect ratios of 8:1, 12:1, and 16:1. With septa inserts, these nozzles will mimic an array of distributed propulsion system nozzles, as found on hybrid wing-body aircraft concepts. Analyses were performed for the three nozzle designs and showed that the flow through the nozzles was free of separated flow and shocks. The exit flow was mostly uniform with the exception of a pair of vortices at each span-wise end of the nozzle.

  19. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Veltman, Dick J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-05-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A more powerful test based on ratio distribution for retention noninferiority hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ling; Chen, Gang

    2013-03-11

    Rothmann et al. ( 2003 ) proposed a method for the statistical inference of fraction retention noninferiority (NI) hypothesis. A fraction retention hypothesis is defined as a ratio of the new treatment effect verse the control effect in the context of a time to event endpoint. One of the major concerns using this method in the design of an NI trial is that with a limited sample size, the power of the study is usually very low. This makes an NI trial not applicable particularly when using time to event endpoint. To improve power, Wang et al. ( 2006 ) proposed a ratio test based on asymptotic normality theory. Under a strong assumption (equal variance of the NI test statistic under null and alternative hypotheses), the sample size using Wang's test was much smaller than that using Rothmann's test. However, in practice, the assumption of equal variance is generally questionable for an NI trial design. This assumption is removed in the ratio test proposed in this article, which is derived directly from a Cauchy-like ratio distribution. In addition, using this method, the fundamental assumption used in Rothmann's test, that the observed control effect is always positive, that is, the observed hazard ratio for placebo over the control is greater than 1, is no longer necessary. Without assuming equal variance under null and alternative hypotheses, the sample size required for an NI trial can be significantly reduced if using the proposed ratio test for a fraction retention NI hypothesis.

  1. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratio bi-variate distribution for marble artifacts quarry assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentia, M.

    1995-01-01

    Statistical description, by a Gaussian bi-variate probability distribution of 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O isotopic ratios in the ancient marble quarries has been done and the new method for obtaining the confidence level quarry assignment for marble artifacts has been presented. (author) 8 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  2. Prediction of drug terminal half-life and terminal volume of distribution after intravenous dosing based on drug clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, and physiological parameters of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2013-02-01

    The steady state, V(ss), terminal volume of distribution, V(β), and the terminal half-life, t(1/2), are commonly obtained from the drug plasma concentration-time profile, C(p)(t), following intravenous dosing. Unlike V(ss) that can be calculated based on the physicochemical properties of drugs considering the equilibrium partitioning between plasma and organ tissues, t(1/2) and V(β) cannot be calculated that way because they depend on the rates of drug transfer between blood and tissues. Considering the physiological pharmacokinetic model pertinent to the terminal phase of drug elimination, a novel equation that calculates t(1/2) (and consequently V(β)) was derived. It turns out that V(ss), the total body clearance, Cl, equilibrium blood-plasma concentration ratio, r; and the physiological parameters of the body such as cardiac output, and blood and tissue volumes are sufficient for determination of terminal kinetics. Calculation of t(1/2) by the obtained equation appears to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed vales of this parameter in pharmacokinetic studies in rat, monkey, dog, and human. The equation for the determination of the pre-exponent of the terminal phase of C(p)(t) is also found. The obtained equation allows to predict t(1/2) in human assuming that V(ss) and Cl were either obtained by allometric scaling or, respectively, calculated in silico or based on in vitro drug stability measurements. For compounds that have high clearance, the derived equation may be applied to calculate r just using the routine data on Cl, V(ss), and t(1/2), rather than doing the in vitro assay to measure this parameter. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of CSF Distribution between Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ishikawa, M; Yamamoto, K

    2016-07-01

    CSF volumes in the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure are increased in both idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, though the differences in these volumes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease have not been well-described. Using CSF segmentation and volume quantification, we compared the distribution of CSF in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease. CSF volumes were extracted from T2-weighted 3D spin-echo sequences on 3T MR imaging and quantified semi-automatically. We compared the volumes and ratios of the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces after classification in 30 patients diagnosed with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, 10 with concurrent idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease, 18 with Alzheimer disease, and 26 control subjects 60 years of age or older. Brain to ventricle ratios at the anterior and posterior commissure levels and 3D volumetric convexity cistern to ventricle ratios were useful indices for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus or idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease from Alzheimer disease, similar to the z-Evans index and callosal angle. The most distinctive characteristics of the CSF distribution in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus were small convexity subarachnoid spaces and the large volume of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure. The distribution of the subarachnoid spaces in the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was the most deformed among these 3 groups, though the mean ventricular volume of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with Alzheimer disease group was intermediate between that of the idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease groups. The z-axial expansion of the lateral ventricle and compression of the brain just above the ventricle were the common findings in the parameters for differentiating

  4. Mean Platelet Volume, Red Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Count Ratio, Globulin Platelet Index, and 16 Other Indirect Noninvasive Fibrosis Scores: How Much Do Routine Blood Tests Tell About Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh B; Al Kaabi, Saad; Soofi, Madiha E; Mohiuddin, Syed A; John, Anil K; Al Mohannadi, Muneera; Al Ejji, Khalid; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz F; Wani, Hamidullah; Sharma, Manik; Al Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Mohammed T; Kamel, Yasser M; Sultan, Khaleel; Pasic, Fuad; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-07-01

    Many indirect noninvasive scores to predict liver fibrosis are calculated from routine blood investigations. Only limited studies have compared their efficacy head to head. We aimed to compare these scores with liver biopsy fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis C. From blood investigations of 1602 patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy before initiation of antiviral treatment, 19 simple noninvasive scores were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and diagnostic accuracy of each of these scores were calculated (with reference to the Scheuer staging) and compared. The mean age of the patients was 41.8±9.6 years (1365 men). The most common genotype was genotype 4 (65.6%). Significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis were seen in 65.1%, 25.6, and 6.6% of patients, respectively. All the scores except the aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase ratio, Pohl score, mean platelet volume, fibro-alpha, and red cell distribution width to platelet count ratio index showed high predictive accuracy for the stages of fibrosis. King's score (cutoff, 17.5) showed the highest predictive accuracy for significant and advanced fibrosis. King's score, Göteborg university cirrhosis index, APRI (the AST/platelet count ratio index), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) had the highest predictive accuracy for cirrhosis, with the APRI (cutoff, 2) and FIB-4 (cutoff, 3.25) showing the highest diagnostic accuracy.We derived the study score 8.5 - 0.2(albumin, g/dL) +0.01(AST, IU/L) -0.02(platelet count, 10/L), which at a cutoff of >4.7 had a predictive accuracy of 0.868 (95% confidence interval, 0.833-0.904) for cirrhosis. King's score for significant and advanced fibrosis and the APRI or FIB-4 score for cirrhosis could be the best simple indirect noninvasive scores.

  5. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  6. Binary star statistics: the mass ratio distribution for very wide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of mass ratios for a sample of common proper motion (CPM) binaries is determined and compared with that of 798 visual binaries (VB's) studied earlier, in hopes of answering the question: Can the member stars of these systems have been drawn at random from the normal initial mass function for single stars? The observed distributions peak strongly toward q = 1.0 for both kinds of systems, but less strongly for the CPM's than for the VB's. Due allowance having been made for assorted observational selection effects, it seems quite probable that the CPM's represent the observed part of a population drawn at random from the normal IMF, while the VB's are much more difficult to interpret that way and could, perhaps, result from a formation mechanism that somewhat favors sytems with roughly equal components. (author)

  7. Glass-surface area to solution-volume ratio and its implications to accelerated leach testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, L.R.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; McVay, G.L.; Riddle, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    The value of glass surface area to solution volume ratio (SA/V) can strongly influence the leaching rate of PNL 76-68 glass. The leaching rate is largely governed by silicon solubility constraints. Silicic acid in solution reduced the elemental release of all glass components. No components are leached to depths greater than that of silicon. The presence of the reaction layer had no measurable effect on the rate of leaching. Accelerated leach testing is possible since PNL 76-68 glass leaching is solubility-controlled (except at very low SA/V values). A series of glasses leached with SA/V x time = constant will yield identical elemental release

  8. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  9. RATIO_TOOL - SOFTWARE FOR COMPUTING IMAGE RATIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    Geological studies analyze spectral data in order to gain information on surface materials. RATIO_TOOL is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing large multispectral image data sets that have been created by an imaging spectrometer. While the standard approach to classification of multispectral data is to match the spectrum for each input pixel against a library of known mineral spectra, RATIO_TOOL uses ratios of spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within a multispectral image. Each image band can be viewed iteratively, or a selected image band of the data set can be requested and displayed. When the image ratios are computed, the result is displayed as a gray scale image. At this point a histogram option helps in viewing the distribution of values. A thresholding option can then be used to segment the ratio image result into two to four classes. The segmented image is then color coded to indicate threshold classes and displayed alongside the gray scale image. RATIO_TOOL is written in C language for Sun series computers running SunOS 4.0 and later. It requires the XView toolkit and the OpenWindows window manager (version 2.0 or 3.0). The XView toolkit is distributed with Open Windows. A color monitor is also required. The standard distribution medium for RATIO_TOOL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. An electronic copy of the documentation is included on the program media. RATIO_TOOL was developed in 1992 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Sun, SunOS, and OpenWindows are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  10. Overlapping clusters for distributed computation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrokni, Vahab (Google Research, New York, NY); Andersen, Reid (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA); Gleich, David F.

    2010-11-01

    Scalable, distributed algorithms must address communication problems. We investigate overlapping clusters, or vertex partitions that intersect, for graph computations. This setup stores more of the graph than required but then affords the ease of implementation of vertex partitioned algorithms. Our hope is that this technique allows us to reduce communication in a computation on a distributed graph. The motivation above draws on recent work in communication avoiding algorithms. Mohiyuddin et al. (SC09) design a matrix-powers kernel that gives rise to an overlapping partition. Fritzsche et al. (CSC2009) develop an overlapping clustering for a Schwarz method. Both techniques extend an initial partitioning with overlap. Our procedure generates overlap directly. Indeed, Schwarz methods are commonly used to capitalize on overlap. Elsewhere, overlapping communities (Ahn et al, Nature 2009; Mishra et al. WAW2007) are now a popular model of structure in social networks. These have long been studied in statistics (Cole and Wishart, CompJ 1970). We present two types of results: (i) an estimated swapping probability {rho}{infinity}; and (ii) the communication volume of a parallel PageRank solution (link-following {alpha} = 0.85) using an additive Schwarz method. The volume ratio is the amount of extra storage for the overlap (2 means we store the graph twice). Below, as the ratio increases, the swapping probability and PageRank communication volume decreases.

  11. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-02

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  12. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebaze, Roger Martin Djoumessi; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Maalouf, Ghassan; Wehbe, Joseph; Nehme, Alexandre; Maalouf, Naim; Seeman, Ego

    2004-08-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of 'fracture'. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define 'fracture'. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal stance and gait. As there is no reference standard to distinguish anatomical variation from fracture, approaches to defining a VF use a reference range of VH ratios derived in premenopausal women or derived by trimming, a method that iteratively removes the tails of a distribution of VH ratios to produce a normal distribution. From this, reference ranges of VH ratio means and standard deviations (SDs) are obtained and a nominal deviation of 15% or more, or 3 SD or more is regarded as a 'fracture'. We measured VHs by quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 697 Lebanese women (age 20-89 years) to compare the prevalence of VF ascertained by published methods and a new method that uses the premenopausal range (without trimming) and requires two VH abnormalities. VF prevalence using published methods reached 60% to 70% in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in women with normal or high BMD because VH ratios were not normally distributed and cut-offs used to define VF fracture fell within the observed distribution of the data. The new method resulted in a VF prevalence of 3.3% in younger and 14% in older women, 7% (high), 10% (middle), and 20% (low) BMD tertiles consistent with the notion that the method detected VF due to bone fragility. We suggest that using a fixed trimming method to define reference range and cut-offs or applying fixed cut-offs to identify VFs in populations, where these ratios are not normally distributed, may result in the capture

  13. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Evaluation of stone volume distribution in renal collecting system as a predictor of stone-free rate after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a retrospective single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Canat, Lutfi; Bayraktarlı, Recep; Alkan, Ilter; Can, Osman; Altunrende, Fatih

    2017-06-23

    We analyzed our stone-free rates of PNL with regard to stone burden and its ratio to the renal collecting system volume. Data of 164 patients who underwent PNL were analyzed retrospectively. Volume segmentation of renal collecting system and stones were done using 3D segmentation software with the images obtained from CT data. Analyzed stone volume (ASV) and renal collecting system volume (RCSV) were measured and the ASV-to-RCSV ratio was calculated after the creation of a 3D surface volume rendering of renal stones and the collecting system. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free rates; also we assessed the predictive accuracy of the ASV-to-RCSV ratio using the receiving operating curve (ROC) and AUC. The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 53% (164 procedures).The ASV-to-RCSV ratio and calyx number with stones were the most influential predictors of stone-free status (OR 4.15, 95% CI 2.24-7.24, renal collecting system, which is calculated using the 3D volume segmentation method, is a significant determinant of the stone-free rate before PCNL surgery. It could be used as a single guide variable by the clinician before renal stone surgery to predict extra requirements for stone clearance.

  15. Corrections to the Walker-Thompson estimate of the cascade volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminarayan, S.; Nastasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sigmund [P. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25 (1974) 169] analytically predicted that the ratio of cascade volume to energy distribution volume should follow a universal curve that is sigmoidal in shape. Subsequent Monte Carlo simulations by Walker and Thompson [R.S. Walker, D.A. Thompson, Radiat. Eff. 37 (1978) 113] showed that although this curve is sigmoidal in shape, the curve is different for different materials with large deviations from Sigmund's prediction at high M 2 /M 1 . Our analysis of the Walker and Thompson approach has revealed an error in the analytical equations used. A correct analysis of volume ratios using a different set of equations is presented. Analysis of data produced by SRIM [J.F. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack, U. Littmark, in: The Stopping and Range of Ions in solids, Pergamon, New York, 1985] (Monte Carlo) simulations gives results that are in good agreement with Sigmund's predictions.

  16. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I.

    2006-01-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR 2 + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six 60 Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  17. A contribution to the analysis of the activity distribution of a radioactive source trapped inside a cylindrical volume, using the M.C.N.P.X. code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portugal, L.; Oliveira, C.; Trindade, R.; Paiva, I. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dpto. Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Orphan sources, activated materials or contaminated materials with natural or artificial radionuclides have been detected in scrap metal products destined to recycling. The consequences of the melting of a source during the process could result in economical, environmental and social impacts. From the point of view of the radioactive waste management, a scenario of 100 ton of contaminated steel in one piece is a major problem. So, it is of great importance to develop a methodology that would allow us to predict the activity distribution inside a volume of steel. In previous work we were able to distinguish between the cases where the source is disseminated all over the entire cylinder and the cases where it is concentrated in different volumes. Now the main goal is to distinguish between different radiuses of spherical source geometries trapped inside the cylinder. For this, a methodology was proposed based on the ratio of the counts of two regions of the gamma spectrum, obtained with a sodium iodide detector, using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo simulation code. These calculated ratios allow us to determine a function r = aR{sup 2} + bR + c, where R is the ratio between the counts of the two regions of the gamma spectrum and r is the radius of the source. For simulation purposes six {sup 60}Co sources were used (a point source, four spheres of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm radius and the overall contaminated cylinder) trapped inside two types of matrix, concrete and stainless steel. The methodology applied has shown to predict and distinguish accurately the distribution of a source inside a material roughly independently of the matrix and density considered. (authors)

  18. Distributed technologies in California's energy future: A preliminary report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B.; Simmons, M. (eds.)

    1977-09-01

    The chapters in Volume 2 of Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future are: Environmental Impacts of Alternative Energy Technologies for California; Land Use Configurations and the Utilization of Distributive Energy Technology; Land Use Implications of a Dispersed Energy Path; Belief, Behavior, and Technologies as Driving Forces in Transitional Stages--The People Problem in Dispersed Energy Futures; Development of an Energy Attitude Survey; Interventions to Influence Firms Toward the Adoption of ''Soft'' Energy Technology; The Entry of Small Firms into Distributed Technology Energy Industries; Short-Term Matching of Supply and Demand in Electrical Systems with Renewable Sources; Vulnerability of Renewable Energy Systems; and District Heating for California.

  19. BINARY FORMATION MECHANISMS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE COMPANION MASS RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggiani, Maddalena M.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical comparison of the mass ratio distribution of companions, as observed in different multiplicity surveys, to the most recent estimate of the single-object mass function. The main goal of our analysis is to test whether or not the observed companion mass ratio distribution (CMRD) as a function of primary star mass and star formation environment is consistent with having been drawn from the field star initial mass function (IMF). We consider samples of companions for M dwarfs, solar-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars, both in the field as well as clusters or associations, and compare them with populations of binaries generated by random pairing from the assumed IMF for a fixed primary mass. With regard to the field we can reject the hypothesis that the CMRD was drawn from the IMF for different primary mass ranges: the observed CMRDs show a larger number of equal-mass systems than predicted by the IMF. This is in agreement with fragmentation theories of binary formation. For the open clusters α Persei and the Pleiades we also reject the IMF random-pairing hypothesis. Concerning young star-forming regions, currently we can rule out a connection between the CMRD and the field IMF in Taurus but not in Chamaeleon I. Larger and different samples are needed to better constrain the result as a function of the environment. We also consider other companion mass functions and we compare them with observations. Moreover the CMRD both in the field and clusters or associations appears to be independent of separation in the range covered by the observations. Combining therefore the CMRDs of M (1-2400 AU) and G (28-1590 AU) primaries in the field and intermediate-mass primary binaries in Sco OB2 (29-1612 AU) for mass ratios, q = M 2 /M 1 , from 0.2 to 1, we find that the best chi-square fit follows a power law dN/dq∝q β , with β = -0.50 ± 0.29, consistent with previous results. Finally, we note that the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test gives a ∼1

  20. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  1. Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Dongwoo Jang; Gyewoon Choi

    2017-01-01

    The non-revenue water (NRW) ratio in a water distribution system is the ratio of the loss due to unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses and real losses to the overall system input volume (SIV). The method of estimating the NRW ratio by measurement might not work in an area with no district metered areas (DMAs) or with unclear administrative district. Through multiple regression analyses is a statistical analysis method for calculating the NRW ratio using the main parameters of the w...

  2. DIST: a computer code system for calculation of distribution ratios of solutes in the purex system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachimori, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-05-01

    Purex is a solvent extraction process for reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel using tri n-butylphosphate (TBP). A computer code system DIST has been developed to calculate distribution ratios for the major solutes in the Purex process. The DIST system is composed of database storing experimental distribution data of U(IV), U(VI), Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Np(IV), Np(VI), HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 2}: DISTEX and of Zr(IV), Tc(VII): DISTEXFP and calculation programs to calculate distribution ratios of U(IV), U(VI), Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Np(IV), Np(VI), HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 2}(DIST1), and Zr(IV), Tc(VII)(DITS2). The DIST1 and DIST2 determine, by the best-fit procedures, the most appropriate values of many parameters put on empirical equations by using the DISTEX data which fulfill the assigned conditions and are applied to calculate distribution ratios of the respective solutes. Approximately 5,000 data were stored in the DISTEX and DISTEXFP. In the present report, the following items are described, 1) specific features of DIST1 and DIST2 codes and the examples of calculation 2) explanation of databases, DISTEX, DISTEXFP and a program DISTIN, which manages the data in the DISTEX and DISTEXFP by functions as input, search, correction and delete. and at the annex, 3) programs of DIST1, DIST2, and figure-drawing programs DIST1G and DIST2G 4) user manual for DISTIN. 5) source programs of DIST1 and DIST2. 6) the experimental data stored in the DISTEX and DISTEXFP. (author). 122 refs.

  3. Isobio software: biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram from physical dose conversion using linear-quadratic-linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit

    2017-02-01

    To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD 2 ) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD 2 verification with pair t -test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D 90% , 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D 2cc , and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD 2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p -values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  4. Vivaldi: A Domain-Specific Language for Volume Processing and Visualization on Distributed Heterogeneous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsuk; Choi, Woohyuk; Quan, Tran Minh; Hildebrand, David G C; Pfister, Hanspeter; Jeong, Won-Ki

    2014-12-01

    As the size of image data from microscopes and telescopes increases, the need for high-throughput processing and visualization of large volumetric data has become more pressing. At the same time, many-core processors and GPU accelerators are commonplace, making high-performance distributed heterogeneous computing systems affordable. However, effectively utilizing GPU clusters is difficult for novice programmers, and even experienced programmers often fail to fully leverage the computing power of new parallel architectures due to their steep learning curve and programming complexity. In this paper, we propose Vivaldi, a new domain-specific language for volume processing and visualization on distributed heterogeneous computing systems. Vivaldi's Python-like grammar and parallel processing abstractions provide flexible programming tools for non-experts to easily write high-performance parallel computing code. Vivaldi provides commonly used functions and numerical operators for customized visualization and high-throughput image processing applications. We demonstrate the performance and usability of Vivaldi on several examples ranging from volume rendering to image segmentation.

  5. Modeling the spatial distribution of the parameters of the coolant in the reactor volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the approach to the question about the spatial distribution of the parameters of the coolant in-reactor volume. To describe the in-core space is used specially developed preprocessor. When the work of the preprocessor in the first place, is recreated on the basis of available information (mostly-the original drawings) with high accuracy three-dimensional description of the structures of the reactor volume and, secondly, are prepared on this basis blocks input to the nodal system code improved estimate ATHLET, allows to take into account the hydrodynamic interaction between the spatial control volumes. As an example the special case of solutions of international standard problem on the reconstruction of the transition process in the third unit of the Kalinin nuclear power plant, due to the shutdown of one of the four Main Coolant Pumps in operation at the rated capacity (first download). Model-core area consists of approximately 58 000 control volumes and spatial relationships. It shows the influence of certain structural units of the core to the distribution of the mass floe rate of its height. It is detected a strong cross-flow coolant in the area over the baffle. Moreover, we study the distribution of the coolant temperature at the assembly head of WWER-1000 reactor. It is shown that in the region of the top of the assembly head, where we have installation of thermocouples, the flow coolant for internal assemblies core is formed by only from guide channel Reactor control and protected system Control rod flow, or a mixture of the guide channel flow and flow from the area in front of top grid head assembly (the peripheral assemblies). It is shown that the magnitude of the flow guide channels affects not only the position of control rods, but also the presence of a particular type of measuring channels (Self powered neutron detector sensors or Temperature control sensors) in the cassette. (Author)

  6. Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces imaging using a pulse-triggered three-dimensional turbo spin echo MR sequence with variable flip-angle distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodel, Jerome; Silvera, Jonathan; Bekaert, Olivier; Decq, Philippe; Rahmouni, Alain; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Vignaud, Alexandre; Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    To assess the three-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip-angle distribution magnetic resonance sequence (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution) for the imaging of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We prospectively investigated 18 healthy volunteers and 25 patients, 20 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH), five with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), using the SPACE sequence at 1.5T. Volume rendering views of both intracranial and ventricular CSF were obtained for all patients and volunteers. The subarachnoid CSF distribution was qualitatively evaluated on volume rendering views using a four-point scale. The CSF volumes within total, ventricular and subarachnoid spaces were calculated as well as the ratio between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes. Three different patterns of subarachnoid CSF distribution were observed. In healthy volunteers we found narrowed CSF spaces within the occipital aera. A diffuse narrowing of the subarachnoid CSF spaces was observed in patients with NCH whereas patients with CH exhibited narrowed CSF spaces within the high midline convexity. The ratios between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes were significantly different among the volunteers, patients with CH and patients with NCH. The assessment of CSF spaces volume and distribution may help to characterise hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  7. Intracranial cerebrospinal fluid spaces imaging using a pulse-triggered three-dimensional turbo spin echo MR sequence with variable flip-angle distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France); Silvera, Jonathan [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Bekaert, Olivier; Decq, Philippe [Unite Analyse et Restauration du Mouvement, UMR-CNRS, 8005 LBM ParisTech Ensam, Paris (France); University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France); Rahmouni, Alain [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie [University Paris Est Creteil (UPEC), Creteil (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Public Health, Creteil (France); Vignaud, Alexandre [Siemens Healthcare, Saint Denis (France); Petit, Eric; Durning, Bruno [Laboratoire Images Signaux et Systemes Intelligents, UPEC, Creteil (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the three-dimensional turbo spin echo with variable flip-angle distribution magnetic resonance sequence (SPACE: Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution) for the imaging of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. We prospectively investigated 18 healthy volunteers and 25 patients, 20 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH), five with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), using the SPACE sequence at 1.5T. Volume rendering views of both intracranial and ventricular CSF were obtained for all patients and volunteers. The subarachnoid CSF distribution was qualitatively evaluated on volume rendering views using a four-point scale. The CSF volumes within total, ventricular and subarachnoid spaces were calculated as well as the ratio between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes. Three different patterns of subarachnoid CSF distribution were observed. In healthy volunteers we found narrowed CSF spaces within the occipital aera. A diffuse narrowing of the subarachnoid CSF spaces was observed in patients with NCH whereas patients with CH exhibited narrowed CSF spaces within the high midline convexity. The ratios between ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volumes were significantly different among the volunteers, patients with CH and patients with NCH. The assessment of CSF spaces volume and distribution may help to characterise hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  8. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  9. Can mean platelet volume and mean platelet volume/platelet count ratio be used as a diagnostic marker for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Selma; Oksuz, Hafıze; Dogu, Bırsen; Bozkus, Fulsen; Ucmak, Hasan; Yanıt, Fadime

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the mean platelet volume (MPV) and MPV/platelet (PLT) values can be used in the study of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Methods: In this retrospective case-controlled study, 69 sepsis, 69 SIRS patients, and 72 control group who were treated in the years 2012-2013 were reviewed, and both the MPV and MPV/PLT rates were evaluated in all groups at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Intensive Care Unit, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between sepsis, SIRS, and control groups when comparing the MPV and MPV/PLT ratio (p0.05). Mean platelet volume values for sepsis and control groups was 10.07/8.731 femtoliter (fL) (p=0.000), and 9.45/8.731 fL (p=0.000) for SIRS and control groups. In the group of sepsis patients, the MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.915, sensitivity 71%, and specificity 63.9%. In the group of patients with SIRS, MPV was found to be at cut-off 8.85, sensitivity 69.6%, and specificity 62.5%. For the MPV/PLT values, the specificity and sensitivity were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: This study shows that although there was no significant reduction in the PLT values between the sepsis and SIRS patients, the MPV and MPV/PLT ratio values were found to have significant differences. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the values were not reliable standard to be used as a test. PMID:26446329

  10. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  11. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs

  12. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  14. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P 2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  16. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  17. Model for the evolution of the quality and ratio of the void volume for local boiling and in the transition zone (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, P.

    1963-01-01

    A simple model giving the quality and void volume ratio valid from local boiling to bulk boiling is reported. It is based on simple hypotheses taking in account the formation and condensation of vapor. This model is especially practical for the numerical computation of designs. (author) [fr

  18. The trend distribution ratio, a new tool for evaluating renal perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittner, C.; Esther, G.; Finck, W.; Bast, R.; Templin, R.; Nizze, H.; Brockmoeller, S.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a new quantitative concept in dynamic renal transplant imaging, the Trend Distribution Ratio, and tested its diagnostic usefulness in 137 examinations. This ratio is an expression of the distribution of blood flow velocity in different areas of the kidney. With regard to the differential diagnosis between acute tubular necrosis and the various forms of rejection we arrived at a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.54. A differentiation between the various histological types of rejection has not yet been possible. (orig.) [de

  19. Impedance ratio method for urine conductivity-invariant estimation of bladder volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schlebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.

  20. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  1. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  2. Frequency Distribution of Second Solid Cancer Locations in Relation to the Irradiated Volume Among 115 Patients Treated for Childhood Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Samand, Akhtar; Quiniou, Eric; Chavaudra, Jean; Alziar, Iannis; Perret, Nathalie; Guerin, Sylvie; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Vathaire, Florent de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide better estimates of the frequency distribution of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) sites in relation to previous irradiated volumes, and better estimates of the doses delivered to these sites during radiotherapy (RT) of the first malignant neoplasm (FMN). Methods and Materials: The study focused on 115 patients who developed a solid SMN among a cohort of 4581 individuals. The homemade software package Dos E G was used to estimate the radiation doses delivered to SMN sites during RT of the FMN. Three-dimensional geometry was used to evaluate the distances between the irradiated volume, for RT delivered to each FMN, and the site of the subsequent SMN. Results: The spatial distribution of SMN relative to the irradiated volumes in our cohort was as follows: 12% in the central area of the irradiated volume, which corresponds to the planning target volume (PTV), 66% in the beam-bordering region (i.e., the area surrounding the PTV), and 22% in regions located more than 5 cm from the irradiated volume. At the SMN site, all dose levels ranging from almost zero to >75 Gy were represented. A peak SMN frequency of approximately 31% was identified in volumes that received <2.5 Gy. Conclusion: A greater volume of tissues receives low or intermediate doses in regions bordering the irradiated volume with modern multiple-beam RT arrangements. These results should be considered for risk-benefit evaluations of RT.

  3. Noncentral Chi-Square versus Normal Distributions in Describing the Likelihood Ratio Statistic: The Univariate Case and Its Multivariate Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2008-01-01

    In the literature of mean and covariance structure analysis, noncentral chi-square distribution is commonly used to describe the behavior of the likelihood ratio (LR) statistic under alternative hypothesis. Due to the inaccessibility of the rather technical literature for the distribution of the LR statistic, it is widely believed that the…

  4. Predicting volume of distribution with decision tree-based regression methods using predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.

  5. Distributed terascale volume visualization using distributed shared virtual memory

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Table 1 illustrates the impact of different distribution unit sizes, different screen resolutions, and numbers of GPU nodes. We use two and four GPUs (NVIDIA Quadro 5000 with 2.5 GB memory) and a mouse cortex EM dataset (see Figure 2) of resolution 21,494 x 25,790 x 1,850 = 955GB. The size of the virtual distribution units significantly influences the data distribution between nodes. Small distribution units result in a high depth complexity for compositing. Large distribution units lead to a low utilization of GPUs, because in the worst case only a single distribution unit will be in view, which is rendered by only a single node. The choice of an optimal distribution unit size depends on three major factors: the output screen resolution, the block cache size on each node, and the number of nodes. Currently, we are working on optimizing the compositing step and network communication between nodes. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. The Effect of Tumor-Prostate Ratio on Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prostate tumor volume calculated after surgery using pathologic tissue has been shown to be an independent risk factor for biochemical recurrence. Nonetheless, prostate size varies among individuals, regardless of the presence or absence of cancer. We assumed to be lower margin positive rate in the surgical operation, when the prostate volume is larger and the tumor lesion is same. Thus, we defined the tumor-prostate ratio in the ratio of tumor volume to prostate volume. In order to compensate the prostate tumor volume, the effect of tumor-prostate ratio on biochemical recurrence was examined. Materials and Methods: This study included 251 patients who underwent open retropubic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer in a single hospital. We analyzed the effects of tumor volume and tumor-prostate ratio, as well as the effects of known risk factors for biochemical recurrence, on the duration of disease-free survival. Results: In the univariate analysis, the risk factors that significantly impacted disease-free survival time were found to be a prostate-specific antigen level ≥10 ng/mL, a tumor volume ≥5 mL, tumor-prostate ratio ≥10%, tumor capsular invasion, lymph node invasion, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. In the multivariate analysis performed to evaluate the risk factors found to be significant in the univariate analysis, positive surgical margins (hazard ratio=3.066 and a tumor density ≥10% (hazard ratio=1.991 were shown to be significant risk factors for biochemical recurrence. Conclusions: Tumor-prostate ratio, rather than tumor volume, should be regarded as a significant risk factor for biochemical recurrence.

  7. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate "1"9"2Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hualin; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Qi, Yujin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0)"4 to (13.4)"4 for

  8. 'Finite' non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, (arXiv: 0707.0105)] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, (arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th])] and using the formalisms of [S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar slow-roll inflation, (arXiv: 0705.3178 [astro-ph]); S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar inflation, Phys. Rev. D 77 (2008) 083511, (arXiv: 0711.2920 [astro-ph])], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-)instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of getting finite values for the non-linear parameter f NL while looking for non-Gaussianities in type IIB compactifications on orientifolds of the Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] in the L(arge) V(olume) S(cenarios) limit. We show the same in two contexts. First is multi-field slow-roll inflation with D3-instanton contribution coming from a large number of multiple wrappings of a single (Euclidean) D3-brane around the 'small' divisor yielding f NL ∼O(1). The second is when the slow-roll conditions are violated and for the number of the aforementioned D3-instanton wrappings being of O(1) but more than one, yielding f NL ∼O(1). Based on general arguments not specific to our (string-theory) set-up, we argue that requiring curvature perturbations not to grow at horizon crossing and at super-horizon scales, automatically picks out hybrid inflationary scenarios which in our set up can yield f NL ∼O(1) and tensor-scalar ratio of O(10 -2 ). For all our calculations, the world-sheet instanton contributions to the Kaehler potential coming from the non-perturbative α ' corrections

  9. Photodissociation dynamics of propene at 157.6 nm: Kinetic energy distributions and branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-H.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Lee, Yuan T.; Yang Xueming

    2003-01-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of propene at 157.6 nm has been investigated in a molecular beam apparatus using the photofragment translational spectroscopic technique combined with the vacuum ultraviolet ionization method. Eleven photofragments have been successfully detected and ascribed to eight (five binary and three triple) dissociation channels: namely, C 3 H 5 +H, C 3 H 4 +H+H, C 3 H 4 +H 2 , C 3 H 3 +H 2 +H, C 2 H 4 +CH 2 , C 2 H 3 +CH 3 , C 2 H 2 +CH 4 , and C 2 H 2 +CH 3 +H. Their branching ratios have been determined to be 1%, 7%, 2 H 2 +CH 3 +H channel. In addition, the averaged kinetic energy releases and the fractions in translational energy have also been determined from the measured kinetic energy distributions. For the binary dissociation channels, the fractions in translational energy are less than 18% except the C 3 H 5 +H channel, whereas they are more than 42% for the triple dissociation channels. An intriguing finding indicates that the C 2 H 4 +CH 2 channel has a nearly identical kinetic energy distribution and a similar branching ratio to the C 2 H 3 +CH 3 channel, although the former undergoes a three-center elimination process different from the C-C bond rupture occurring in the latter

  10. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  11. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  12. Estimation of the volume of distribution of some pharmacologically important compounds from their structural descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD H. FATEMI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR approaches were used to estimate the volume of distribution (Vd using an artificial neural network (ANN. The data set consisted of the volume of distribution of 129 pharmacologically important compounds, i.e., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, tricyclic anti-depressants and some antibiotics, such as betalactams, tetracyclines and quinolones. The descriptors, which were selected by stepwise variable selection methods, were: the Moriguchi octanol–water partition coefficient; the 3D-MoRSE-signal 30, weighted by atomic van der Waals volumes; the fragment-based polar surface area; the d COMMA2 value, weighted by atomic masses; the Geary autocorrelation, weighted by the atomic Sanderson electronegativities; the 3D-MoRSE – signal 02, weighted by atomic masses, and the Geary autocorrelation – lag 5, weighted by the atomic van der Waals volumes. These descriptors were used as inputs for developing multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network models as linear and non-linear feature mapping techniques, respectively. The standard errors in the estimation of Vd by the MLR model were: 0.104, 0.103 and 0.076 and for the ANN model: 0.029, 0.087 and 0.082 for the training, internal and external validation test, respectively. The robustness of these models were also evaluated by the leave-5-out cross validation procedure, that gives the statistics Q2 = 0.72 for the MLR model and Q2 = 0.82 for the ANN model. Moreover, the results of the Y-randomization test revealed that there were no chance correlations among the data matrix. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the applicability of the estimation of the Vd value of drugs from their structural molecular descriptors. Furthermore, the statistics of the developed models indicate the superiority of the ANN over the MLR model.

  13. Estimating the ratios of the stationary distribution values for Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitavskiy, Boris; Cannings, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When the mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling of an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution. Rather little is known about the stationary distribution. In fact, the only quantitative facts established so far tell us that the stationary distributions of Markov chains modeling evolutionary algorithms concentrate on uniform populations (i.e., those populations consisting of a repeated copy of the same individual). At the same time, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information about the expected time it takes for the algorithm to reach a certain solution, assessment of the biases due to recombination and selection, and is of importance in population genetics to assess what is called a "genetic load" (see the introduction for more details). In the recent joint works of the first author, some bounds have been established on the rates at which the stationary distribution concentrates on the uniform populations. The primary tool used in these papers is the "quotient construction" method. It turns out that the quotient construction method can be exploited to derive much more informative bounds on ratios of the stationary distribution values of various subsets of the state space. In fact, some of the bounds obtained in the current work are expressed in terms of the parameters involved in all the three main stages of an evolutionary algorithm: namely, selection, recombination, and mutation.

  14. FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paţiuc V.I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a new approach to finite volume method which is used to calculate the electric field spatially homogeneous three-dimensional environment. It is formulated the problem Dirihle with building of the computational grid on base of space partition, which is known as Delone triangulation with the use of Voronoi cells. It is proposed numerical algorithm for calculating the potential and electric field strength in the space formed by a cylinder placed in the air. It is developed algorithm and software which were for the case, when the potential on the inner surface of the cylinder has been assigned and on the outer surface and the bottom of cylinder it was assigned zero potential. There are presented results of calculations of distribution in the potential space and electric field strength.

  15. Assessment of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in pediatric familial Mediterranean fever patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Basaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV both have been used as a simple marker of inflammation in many disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship between NLR, MPV, and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the files of FMF patients in pediatric rheumatology outpatient clinic were reviewed. There were 160 participants (68.4% in the FMF patient group and 74 participants (31.6% in the control group. Ninety of patients were in attack-free period, and 70 were in attack period. Results: The highest values of NLR were found in the patients at attack period. Patients in attack-free period and the participants in control group had similar levels of NLR (1.71 ± 0.83 and 1.91 ± 1.86 respectively (P = 0.457, and they had lower ratios than the patients did at attack period (4.10 ± 3.11 (P < 0.001 for both. There was no significant difference between MPV values of attack patients (8.35 ± 4.91 and attack-free patients (8.43 ± 1.15 (P = 0.074. MPV values of attack patients and attack-free patients were significantly higher than control group (7.99 ± 0.81 (P < 0.001 for both. Conclusion: NLR ratio may indicate FMF attack period. Since there was no significant difference between attack-free patients and control groups, NLR ratio cannot be used as a subclinical inflammation marker. However, NLR could be a useful predictor of inflammation in FMF patients. On the other hand, since our attack and attack-free patients have similar MPV values and both had greater MPV values than control group, we suggest that MPV may be used to show subclinical inflammation.

  16. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues

  17. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  18. Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, J F; Body, S; Zhang, Z; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2009-01-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between reinforcer magnitude and quantitative measures of performance on progressive-ratio schedules. Fifteen rats were trained under a progressive-ratio schedule in seven phases of the experiment in which the volume of a 0.6-M sucrose solution reinforcer was varied within the range 6-300 microl. Overall response rates in successive ratios conformed to a bitonic equation derived from Killeen's (1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. The "specific activation" parameter, a, which is presumed to reflect the incentive value of the reinforcer, was a monotonically increasing function of reinforcer volume; the "response time" parameter, delta, which defines the minimum response time, increased as a function of reinforcer volume; the "currency" parameter, beta, which is presumed to reflect the coupling of responses to the reinforcer, declined as a function of volume. Running response rate (response rate calculated after exclusion of the postreinforcement pause) decayed monotonically as a function of ratio size; the index of curvature of this function increased as a function of reinforcer volume. Postreinforcement pause increased as a function of ratio size. Estimates of a derived from overall response rates and postreinforcement pauses showed a modest positive correlation across conditions and between animals. Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed.

  19. Tritium distribution ratios between the 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD) organic phase and uranyl nitrate-nitric acid aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzou; Sugikawa, Susumu; Maeda, Mitsuru; Tsujino, Takeshi.

    1989-10-01

    Tritium distribution ratios between the organic and aqueous phases were measured for the system of 30 % tributyl phosphate(TBP)-normal dodecane(nDD)/uranyl nitrate-nitric acid water. It was confirmed that tritium is extracted by TBP into the organic phase in both chemical forms of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated nitric acid (TNO 3 ). The value of tritium distribution ratio ranged from 0.002 to 0.005 for the conditions of 0-6 mol/L nitric acid, 0.5-800 mCi/L tritium in aqueous phase, and 0-125 g-U/L uranium in organic phase. Isotopic distribution coefficient of tritium between the organic and aqueous phases was observed to be about 0.95. (author)

  20. Value of prostate specific antigen and prostatic volume ratio (PSA/V) as the selection criterion for US-guided prostatic biopsy. Importanza del rapporto tra antigene prostatico specifico e volume prostatico nella selezione dei pazienti da sottoporre a biopsia ecoguidata della prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneziano, S; Paulica, P; Querze' , R; Viglietta, G; Trenta, A [Ospedale Melpighi, Bologna (Italy). Serv. di Radiologia

    1991-01-01

    US-guided biopsy was performed in 94 patients with suspected lesions at transerectal US. Histology demonstrated carcinoma in 43 cases, benign hyperplasia in 44, and prostatis in 7. In all cases the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was calculated, by means of US, together with prostatic volume (v). PSA was related to the corresponding gland volume, which resulted in PSA/V ratio. Our study showed PSA/V ration to have higher sensitivity and specificity than absolulute PSA value in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. The authors believe prostate US-guided biopsy to be: a) necessary when the suspected area has PSA/V ratio >0.15, and especially when PSA/V >0.30; b) not indicated when echo-structural alterations are associated with PSA/V <0.15, because they are most frequently due to benign lesions. The combined use of PSA/V ratio and US is therefore suggested to select the patients in whom biopsy is to be performed. 20 refs.

  1. Assessing the Suitability of Future Multi- and Hyperspectral Satellite Systems for Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Norway Spruce Timber Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Nink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accurate and timely information on timber volume is important for supporting operational forest management. One option is to combine statistical concepts (e.g., small area estimates with specifically designed terrestrial sampling strategies to provide estimations also on the level of administrative units such as forest districts. This may suffice for economic assessments, but still fails to provide spatially explicit information on the distribution of timber volume within these management units. This type of information, however, is needed for decision-makers to design and implement appropriate management operations. The German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate is currently implementing an object-oriented database that will also allow the direct integration of Earth observation data products. This work analyzes the suitability of forthcoming multi- and hyperspectral satellite imaging systems for producing local distribution maps for timber volume of Norway spruce, one of the most economically important tree species. In combination with site-specific inventory data, fully processed hyperspectral data sets (HyMap were used to simulate datasets of the forthcoming EnMAP and Sentinel-2 systems to establish adequate models for estimating timber volume maps. The analysis included PLS regression and the k-NN method. Root Mean Square Errors between 21.6% and 26.5% were obtained, where k-NN performed slightly better than PLSR. It was concluded that the datasets of both simulated sensor systems fulfill accuracy requirements to support local forest management operations and could be used in synergy. Sentinel-2 can provide meaningful volume distribution maps in higher geometric resolution, while EnMAP, due to its hyperspectral coverage, can contribute complementary information, e.g., on biophysical conditions.

  2. Enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser integrated with an electro-absorption modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chun-Hyung; Kim, Jongseong; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2016-09-01

    We report on the enhancement of the static extinction ratio by using a dual-section distributed feedback laser diode integrated with an electro-absorption modulator. A directly- modulated dual-section laser can provide improved modulation performance under a low bias level ( i.e., below the threshold level) compared with a standard directly-modulated laser. By combining the extinction ratio from a dual-section laser with that from an electro-absorption modulator section, a total extinction ratio of 49.6. dB are successfully achieved.

  3. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  4. A 3-D method for delineation of activity distributions and assessment of functional organ volumes with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Karolinska Hospital and Karolinska Inst., Stockholm; Jacobsson, H.; Jacobson, S.H.; Kimiaei, S.; Larsson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The distrubution volume of an organ may have a clinical impact in many cases and various methods have been designed to make volume assessments. In this paper, we describe a new method for delineation of the distribution outline and volume determination. The method is based on smoothing, differentiation, image relaxation and voxel counting of single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) image sets with 3-D operators. A special routine corrects for the inherent thickness of the voxel-based outline. Phantom experiments, using a SPECT system with LEGP-collimator and a 64x64 acquisition matrix with 6.3x6.3 mm 2 pixel size, demonstrated good correlation between the measured and the true volumes. For volumes larger than 120 cc the correlation coefficient was 0.9999 with SE 1.0 cc and an average relative deviation of 0.49%. For volumes below 120 cc, the accuracy was impaired due to low resolution power. By improving the system spatial resolution with an LEHR-collimator and a smaller pixel-size (4.1x4.1 mm 2 ), good accuracy was achieved also for volumes in the range from 3 to 120 cc. Measurements of 15 differently shaped phantoms of volumes between 3 and 104 cc demonstrated high correlation between measured and true volumes: R=0.9921 and SE=0.74 cc (5.3%). For volumes as small as 3 and 5 cc, the difference between the true and the assessed volume was 0.6 cc. The reproducibility of the method was within 3% for volumes above 120 cc and within 7% for volumes below. Due to this accuracy, we conclude that the method can be applied for various clinical routine and research applications using SPECT. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of neutron flux distribution in Isotope Production Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to optimize the thermal neutrons flux distribution in a Radioisotope Production and Research Reactor, the influence of two reactor parameters was studied, namely the Vmod / Vcomb ratio and the core volume. The reactor core is built with uranium oxide pellets (UO 2 ) mounted in rod clusters, with an enrichment level of ∼3 %, similar to LIGHT WATER POWER REATOR (LWR) fuel elements. (author) [pt

  6. Revealing the influence of water-cement ratio on the pore size distribution in hydrated cement paste by using cyclohexane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Andrea; Ardelean, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    Varying the amount of water in a concrete mix will influence its final properties considerably due to the changes in the capillary porosity. That is why a non-destructive technique is necessary for revealing the capillary pore distribution inside hydrated cement based materials and linking the capillary porosity with the macroscopic properties of these materials. In the present work, we demonstrate a simple approach for revealing the differences in capillary pore size distributions introduced by the preparation of cement paste with different water-to-cement ratios. The approach relies on monitoring the nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation distribution of cyclohexane molecules confined inside the cement paste pores. The technique reveals the whole spectrum of pores inside the hydrated cement pastes, allowing a qualitative and quantitative analysis of different pore sizes. The cement pastes with higher water-to-cement ratios show an increase in capillary porosity, while for all the samples the intra-C-S-H and inter-C-S-H pores (also known as gel pores) remain unchanged. The technique can be applied to various porous materials with internal mineral surfaces.

  7. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  8. Accurate measurement of volume and shape of resting and activated blood platelets from light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalensky, Alexander E; Yurkin, Maxim A; Konokhova, Anastasiya I; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Tsvetovskaya, Galina A; Chikova, Elena D; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for determination of volume and shape of individual blood platelets modeled as an oblate spheroid from angle-resolved light scattering with flow-cytometric technique. The light-scattering profiles (LSPs) of individual platelets were measured with the scanning flow cytometer and the platelet characteristics were determined from the solution of the inverse light-scattering problem using the precomputed database of theoretical LSPs. We revealed a phenomenon of parameter compensation, which is partly explained in the framework of anomalous diffraction approximation. To overcome this problem, additional a priori information on the platelet refractive index was used. It allowed us to determine the size of each platelet with subdiffraction precision and independent of the particular value of the platelet aspect ratio. The shape (spheroidal aspect ratio) distributions of platelets showed substantial differences between native and activated by 10 μM adenosine diphosphate samples. We expect that the new approach may find use in hematological analyzers for accurate measurement of platelet volume distribution and for determination of the platelet activation efficiency.

  9. Usefulness of left ventricular wall thickness-to-diameter ratio in thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, B.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular wall thickness to the cavity dimension, as seen on thallium-201 images, was used in this study to predict left ventricular ejection fraction and volume. We obtained rest thallium-201 images in 50 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. The thickness of a normal-appearing segment of the left ventricular wall and the transverse diameter of the cavity were measured in the left anterior oblique projection. The left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in these patients were determined by radionuclide ventriculography. There was a good correlation between thickness-to-diameter ratio and ejection fraction and end-systolic volume. In 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the ejection fraction was lower than in the 16 patients with thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0. Similarly, in patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70, the end-diastolic and end-systolic volume were higher than in the remaining patients with higher thickness-to-diameter ratios. All 18 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio less than 0.70 had ejection fractions less than 40%; 14 of 15 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio greater than or equal to 1.0 had an ejection fraction greater than 40%. The remaining 16 patients with a thickness-to-diameter ratio of 0.7-0.99 had intermediate ejection fractions and volumes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  11. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Alan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and mean platelet volume (MPV in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p  0.05. In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively. We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies.

  12. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  13. Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-revenue water (NRW ratio in a water distribution system is the ratio of the loss due to unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses and real losses to the overall system input volume (SIV. The method of estimating the NRW ratio by measurement might not work in an area with no district metered areas (DMAs or with unclear administrative district. Through multiple regression analyses is a statistical analysis method for calculating the NRW ratio using the main parameters of the water distribution system, although its disadvantage is lower accuracy than that of the measured NRW ratio. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN was used to estimate the NRW ratio. The results of the study proved that the accuracy of NRW ratio calculated by the ANN model was higher than by multiple regression analysis. The developed ANN model was shown to have an accuracy that varies depending on the number of neurons in the hidden layer. Therefore, when using the ANN model, the optimal number of neurons must be determined. In addition, the accuracy of the outlier removal condition was higher than that of the original data used condition.

  14. Dose volume assessment of high dose rate 192IR endobronchial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B. Saw; Korb, Leroy J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Wu, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the dose distributions of high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR) and three volumetric irradiation indices. Methods and Materials: Multiple implants were configured by allowing a single HDR 192 Ir source to step through a length of 6 cm along an endobronchial catheter. Dwell times were computed to deliver a dose of 5 Gy to points 1 cm away from the catheter axis. Five sets of source configurations, each with different dwell position spacings from 0.5 to 3.0 cm, were evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions were then generated for each source configuration. Differential and cumulative dose-volume curves were generated to quantify the degree of target volume coverage, dose nonuniformity within the target volume, and irradiation of tissues outside the target volume. Evaluation of the implants were made using the DNR and three volumetric irradiation indices. Results: The observed isodose distributions were not able to satisfy all the dose constraints. The ability to optimally satisfy the dose constraints depended on the choice of dwell position spacing and the specification of the dose constraint points. The DNR and irradiation indices suggest that small dwell position spacing does not result in a more homogeneous dose distribution for the implant. This study supports the existence of a relationship between the dwell position spacing and the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points. Better dose homogeneity for an implant can be obtained if the spacing of the dwell positions are about twice the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points

  15. Branching ratio and angular distribution of ejected electrons from Eu 4f76p1/2 n d auto-ionizing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiao-Rui; Shen Li; Zhang Kai; Dai Chang-Jian; Yang Yu-Na

    2016-01-01

    The branching ratios of ions and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d auto-ionizing states are investigated with the velocity-map-imaging technique. To populate the above auto-ionizing states, the relevant bound Rydberg states have to be detected first. Two new bound Rydberg states are identified in the region between 41150 cm −1 and 44580 cm −1 , from which auto-ionization spectra of the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d states are observed with isolated core excitation method. With all preparations above, the branching ratios from the above auto-ionizing states to different final ionic states and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from these processes are measured systematically. Energy dependence of branching ratios and anisotropy parameters within the auto-ionization spectra are carefully analyzed, followed by a qualitative interpretation. (paper)

  16. Distribution of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.R.L.; Rao, M.V.; Prasad, P.H.; Reddy, K.G.

    The monthly averages of Bowen ratio over the north Indian Ocean have been computed Three typical situations in the months of January May and September are taken for the present study Month to month differences in the Bowen ratio over the study...

  17. Ionic Size Effects: Generalized Boltzmann Distributions, Counterion Stratification, and Modified Debye Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Pei; Xu, Zhenli; Zhou, Shenggao

    2013-10-01

    Near a charged surface, counterions of different valences and sizes cluster; and their concentration profiles stratify. At a distance from such a surface larger than the Debye length, the electric field is screened by counterions. Recent studies by a variational mean-field approach that includes ionic size effects and by Monte Carlo simulations both suggest that the counterion stratification is determined by the ionic valence-to-volume ratios. Central in the mean-field approach is a free-energy functional of ionic concentrations in which the ionic size effects are included through the entropic effect of solvent molecules. The corresponding equilibrium conditions define the generalized Boltzmann distributions relating the ionic concentrations to the electrostatic potential. This paper presents a detailed analysis and numerical calculations of such a free-energy functional to understand the dependence of the ionic charge density on the electrostatic potential through the generalized Boltzmann distributions, the role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the counterion stratification, and the modification of Debye length due to the effect of ionic sizes.

  18. Reaction Rate Distributions and Ratios in FR0 Assemblies 1, 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T L

    1966-06-15

    The spatial distribution of different reaction rates and reaction ratios in Assemblies 1, 2 and 3 of the fast reactor FR0 was measured by fission chamber scans and foil activation technique. Assemblies 1 and 2 had cores of undiluted fuel (uranium metal enriched to 20 % U{sup 235}) while the core of Assembly 3 was diluted with about 30 vol. % graphite. All the systems had a thick copper reflector, The experimental results were compared with calculated values obtained from DSN and TDC multigroup spectra and group cross-section sets for the reactions. Good agreement between experiment and calculations is generally obtained in the core region but in the reflector the neutron spectrum is calculated too hard.

  19. Probability distributions with truncated, log and bivariate extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Thomopoulos, Nick T

    2018-01-01

    This volume presents a concise and practical overview of statistical methods and tables not readily available in other publications. It begins with a review of the commonly used continuous and discrete probability distributions. Several useful distributions that are not so common and less understood are described with examples and applications in full detail: discrete normal, left-partial, right-partial, left-truncated normal, right-truncated normal, lognormal, bivariate normal, and bivariate lognormal. Table values are provided with examples that enable researchers to easily apply the distributions to real applications and sample data. The left- and right-truncated normal distributions offer a wide variety of shapes in contrast to the symmetrically shaped normal distribution, and a newly developed spread ratio enables analysts to determine which of the three distributions best fits a particular set of sample data. The book will be highly useful to anyone who does statistical and probability analysis. This in...

  20. Relationship between the Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite thin films and the spatial energy distribution of the ablation laser in pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishikawa, H.; Hasegawa, T; Miyake, A.; Tashiro, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Variation of the Ca/P ratio in hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) thin films was studied in relation to the spot size of the ablation laser for two different spatial energy distributions in pulsed laser deposition. One energy distribution is the defocus method with a raw distribution and the other is

  1. Optimization of gear ratio and power distribution for a multimotor powertrain of an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina Coronado, Pedro Daniel; Orta Castañón, Pedro; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio

    2018-02-01

    The architecture and design of the propulsion system of electric vehicles are highly important for the reduction of energy losses. This work presents a powertrain composed of four electric motors in which each motor is connected with a different gear ratio to the differential of the rear axle. A strategy to reduce energy losses is proposed, in which two phases are applied. Phase 1 uses a divide-and-conquer approach to increase the overall output efficiency by obtaining the optimal torque distribution for the electric motors. Phase 2 applies a genetic algorithm to find the optimal value of the gear ratios, in which each individual of each generation applies Phase 1. The results show an optimized efficiency map for the output torque and speed of the powertrain. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of energy losses are validated by the use of numerical experiments in various driving cycles.

  2. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  3. Speed-volume relationship and headway distribution analysis of motorcycle (case study: Teuku Nyak Arief Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, E.; Prasetya, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    In many developing countries, transportation modes are more varied than the other country. For example, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in some roadway, motorcycle is the most dominant vehicle, with total volume is four times higher than a passenger car. Thus, the traffic characteristic in motorcycle-dominated traffic differs from a common traffic situation. The purpose of this study is to apply the concept and theory developed to analyze motorcycle behaviour under motorcycle-dominated traffic condition. The survey is applied by recording the traffic flow movement of research location at specified time period. The macroscopic characteristic analyzed in this research is a speed-flow relationship based on motorcycle equivalent unit (MCU). Furthermore, a detail microscopic characteristic analyzed that is motorcycle time headway regarding traffic flow. MCU values computed were consists of motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). Those values were calculated 1.00, 6.13 and 10.71 respectively. The speed and volume relationship result is showing a linear regression model with R2 value is 0.58, it can be explained that the correlation between two variables is intermediate. The headway distribution of motorcycle is compatible with the negative exponential distribution which fitted with the proposed theory for a small vehicle such as a motorcycle.

  4. Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Bezgin, Selin; Çakabay, Taliye; Odaman Al, Işık

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children. Between January 2015 and July 2016, 105 children who were referred to our clinic with epistaxis and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were determined in both groups. RDW values were found significantly (P epistaxis than in the control group (11.95 ± 1.31 vs. 12.74 ± 1.21). MPV was 7.49 ± 1.33 in the group with epistaxis and 7.23 ± 1.06 in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We found no difference between MPV values of both groups and significantly lower RDW values in children with epistaxis. Decreased RDW values were considered as an accompanying marker rather than a result of epistaxis. In addition, it may be thought that low RDW values may increase the bleeding tendency by disrupting the thrombotic activities. Further studies are needed to validate the relation of these parameters with epistaxis and its mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  6. Cumulative Distributions and Flow Structure of Two-Passage Shear Coaxial Injector with Various Gas Injection Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inchul; Kim, Dohun; Koo, Jaye [Korea Aerospace Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    To verify the effect of inner- and outer-stage gas jets, a shear coaxial injector was designed to analyze the axial velocity profile and breakup phenomenon with an increase in the measurement distance. When the measurement position was increased to Z/d=100, the axial flow showed a fully developed shape due to the momentum transfer, aerodynamic drag effect, and viscous mixing. An inner gas injection, which induces a higher momentum flux ratio near the nozzle, produces the greater shear force on atomization than an outer gas injection. Inner- and Outer-stage gas injection do not affect the mixing between the inner and outer gas flow below Z/d=5. The experiment results showed that the main effect of liquid jet breakup was governed by the gas jet of an inner stage. As the nozzle exit of the outer-stage was located far from the liquid column, shear force and turbulence breaking up of the liquid jets do not fully affect the liquid column. In the case of an inner-stage gas injection momentum flux ratio within 0.84, with the increase in the outer gas momentum flux ratio, the Smd decreases. However, at an inner-stage gas jet momentum flux ratio over 1.38, the Smd shows the similar distribution.

  7. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  8. On the decision threshold of eigenvalue ratio detector based on moments of joint and marginal distributions of extreme eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2013-03-01

    Eigenvalue Ratio (ER) detector based on the two extreme eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix is currently one of the most effective solution for spectrum sensing. However, the analytical results of such scheme often depend on asymptotic assumptions since the distribution of the ratio of two extreme eigenvalues is exceptionally complex to compute. In this paper, a non-asymptotic spectrum sensing approach for ER detector is introduced to approximate the marginal and joint distributions of the two extreme eigenvalues. The two extreme eigenvalues are considered as dependent Gaussian random variables such that their joint probability density function (PDF) is approximated by a bivariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The PDF approximation approach is based on the moment matching method where we calculate the exact analytical moments of joint and marginal distributions of the two extreme eigenvalues. The decision threshold is calculated by exploiting the statistical mean and the variance of each of the two extreme eigenvalues and the correlation coefficient between them. The performance analysis of our newly proposed approximation approach is compared with the already published asymptotic Tracy-Widom approximation approach. It has been shown that our results are in perfect agreement with the simulation results for any number of secondary users and received samples. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  9. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy after pneumonectomy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouette, R; Causse, N; Elkhadri, M; Caudry, M; Maire, J P; Houlard, J P; Racaldini, L; Demeaux, H

    1995-12-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy would allow to decrease the normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target dose as standard treatment. To evaluate the feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction for ten patients with pneumonectomy for lung cancer, we determined the dose distribution to the normal tissue with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-DCRT) and conventional treatment planning (CTP). Dose-volume histograms for target and normal tissue (lung, heart) were used for comparison of the different treatment planning. The mean percentages of lung and heart volumes which received 40 Gy with 3-DCRT were respectively 63% and 37% of the mean percentage of lung and volumes which received the same dose with CTP. These preliminary results suggest that conformal therapy may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing risk to normal tissue.

  10. Simulation of equilibrium distribution data in a solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Giriyalkar, A.B.; Singh, A.K.; Singh, D.K.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrometallurgy, solvent extraction has been proved to be the purification method to recover metal in high-pure form from impure solution. Any solvent extraction process is complex and based on some operating parameters which always lure the scientists to model them. Operating parameters like aqueous to organic volume ratio and concentration of feed are related to required number of stages for a product with specific recovery. So to determine final feed concentration or aqueous to organic volume ratio for a specific extractant concentration, one needs to carry out a number of extraction experiments tediously supported by analysis. Here an attempt is being made to model the distribution of solute between organic and aqueous phases with minimum analytical and experimental support for any system. The model can predict the effect on solvent extraction for a change in the aqueous to organic volume ratio i.e. slope of operating line, percentage loading of solvent, feed concentration, solvent concentration, number of stages and in the process it can help in optimizing conditions for the best result from a solvent extraction system. Uranium-7% TBP in dodecane system was taken up to validate the model. The predicted values of the model was tallied against uranium distribution between aqueous and organic phases in a running mixer settler. The equation for operating line i.e. straight line is derived from O/A=1.5 and considering barren organic contains 2 ppm uranium: y 1 = 0.667x 0 - .002. The extraction isotherm i.e. parabola equation came as : x 1 = 0.003y 0 2 + 0.723y 0 considering three points i.e. (0,0), (13,16.7) (uranium analysis for first stage of mixer-settler) and (25, 30.69) (feed concentration, loading capacity of solvent). Using these two equations the results that were obtained, predicted the solute distribution across different stages exactly as it is in the running mixer settler. Individual isotherms could also be drawn with the predicted results from the

  11. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  12. Emphysema distribution and annual changes in pulmonary function in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Naoya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD considerably varies among patients. Those with emphysema identified by quantitative computed tomography (CT are associated with the rapid progression assessed by forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. However, whether the rate of the decline in lung function is independently affected by the regional distribution or the severity of emphysema in the whole lung is unclear. Methods We followed up 131 male patients with COPD for a median of 3.7 years. We measured wall area percent (WA% in right apical segmental bronchus, total lung volume, percent low attenuation volume (LAV%, and the standard deviation (SD of LAV% values from CT images of 10 isovolumetric partitions (SD-LAV as an index of cranial-caudal emphysema heterogeneity. Annual changes in FEV1 were then determined using a random coefficient model and relative contribution of baseline clinical parameters, pulmonary function, and CT indexes including LAV%, SD-LAV, and WA% to annual changes in FEV1 were examined. Results The mean (SD annual change in FEV1 was −44.4 (10.8 mL. Multivariate random coefficient model showed that higher baseline FEV1, higher LAV%, current smoking, and lower SD-LAV independently contributed to an excessive decline in FEV1, whereas ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, ratio of diffusing capacity to alveolar ventilation, and WA% did not, after adjusting for age, height, weight, and ratio of CT-measured total lung volume to physiologically-measured total lung capacity. Conclusions A more homogeneous distribution of emphysema contributed to an accelerated decline in FEV1 independently of baseline pulmonary function, whole-lung emphysema severity, and smoking status. In addition to whole-lung analysis of emphysema, CT assessment of the cranial-caudal distribution of emphysema might be useful for predicting rapid, progressive disease and for developing a targeted

  13. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Kim, Seok Yeon; Lee, Soo Jeong; Kim, Jae Kyun; Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 ± 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV V /LV V ) were calculated. RV V /LV V was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 ± 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV V /LV V and PASP (R = 0.82, p V /LV V were 0.990 and 0.892. RV V /LV V was 1.01 ± 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 ± 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P V /LV V , sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  14. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  15. An Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Approach Analysing Distribution of Food Products to Assist the Investigation of Foodborne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Madelaine; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Görlach, Franziska Sophie; Nygård, Karin; Hopp, Petter

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate foodborne outbreak investigations there is a need to improve the methods for identifying the food products that should be sampled for laboratory analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a likelihood ratio approach previously developed on simulated data, to real outbreak data. We used human case and food product distribution data from the Norwegian enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli outbreak in 2006. The approach was adjusted to include time, space smoothing and to handle missing or misclassified information. The performance of the adjusted likelihood ratio approach on the data originating from the HUS outbreak and control data indicates that the adjusted approach is promising and indicates that the adjusted approach could be a useful tool to assist and facilitate the investigation of food borne outbreaks in the future if good traceability are available and implemented in the distribution chain. However, the approach needs to be further validated on other outbreak data and also including other food products than meat products in order to make a more general conclusion of the applicability of the developed approach. PMID:26237468

  16. Role of hybrid ratio in microstructural, mechanical and sliding wear properties of the Al5083/Graphitep/Al2O3p a surface hybrid nanocomposite fabricated via friction stir processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafapour Asl, A.; Khandani, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid ratio of each reinforcement phase in hybrid composite can be defined as proportion of its volume to total reinforcement volume of the composite. The hybrid ratio is an important factor which controls the participation extent of each reinforcement phase in overall properties of hybrid composites. Hence, in the present work, surface hybrid nanocomposites of Al5083/Graphite p /Al 2 O 3p with different hybrid ratios were fabricated by friction stir processing method. Subsequently, effect of hybrid ratio on microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to perform microstructural observation on the samples. Hardness value measurements, tensile and pin on disk dry sliding wear tests were carried out to investigate effect of hybrid ratio on mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites. Microstructural investigations displayed better distribution with less agglomeration of reinforcement for lower volume fraction of reinforcement for both alumina and graphite particles. Hardness value, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and wear rate of the nanocomposites revealed a two stage form along with hybrid ratio variation. The results are discussed based on microstructural observations of the nanocomposites and worn surface analyses.

  17. Spatial distribution of residence time, microbe and storage volume of groundwater in headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Maki; Ogawa, Mahiro; Yamamoto, Chisato; Sakakibara, Koichi; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Kato, Kenji; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Yano, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    Headwater catchments in mountainous region are the most important recharge area for surface and subsurface waters, and time and stock information of the water is principal to understand hydrological processes in the catchments. Also, a variety of microbes are included in the groundwater and spring water, and those varies in time and space, suggesting that information of microbe could be used as tracer for groundwater flow system. However, there have been few researches to evaluate the relationship among the residence time, microbe and storage volume of the groundwater in headwater catchments. We performed an investigation on age dating using SF6 and CFCs, microbe counting in the spring water, and evaluation of groundwater storage volume based on water budget analysis in 8 regions underlain by different lithology, those are granite, dacite, sedimentary rocks, serpentinite, basalt and volcanic lava all over Japan. We conducted hydrometric measurements and sampling of spring water in base flow conditions during the rainless periods 2015 and 2016 in those regions, and SF6, CFCs, stable isotopic ratios of oxygen-18 and deuterium, inorganic solute concentrations and total number of prokaryotes were determined on all water samples. Residence time of spring water ranged from 0 to 16 years in all regions, and storage volume of the groundwater within topographical watershed was estimated to be 0.1 m to 222 m in water height. The spring with the longer residence time tends to have larger storage volume in the watershed, and the spring underlain by dacite tends to have larger storage volume as compared with that underlain by sand stone and chert. Also, total number of prokaryotes in the spring water ranged from 103 to 105 cells/mL, and the spring tends to show clear increasing of total number of prokaryotes with decreasing of residence time. Thus, we observed a certain relationship among residence time, storage volume and total number of prokaryotes in the spring water, and

  18. Higher visceral fat is associated with lower cerebral N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sonya; Birdsill, Alex C; Steward, Kayla; Pasha, Evan; Kruzliak, Peter; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2017-06-01

    Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a central distribution, consists of visceral fat, which is metabolically active and could impinge upon central nervous system functioning. The aim of the current study was to examine levels of visceral adiposity in relation to key cerebral metabolite ratios localized in the occipitoparietal grey matter. Seventy-three adults, aged between 40 and 60 years, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and single voxel 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). Visceral fat was assessed using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Individuals with higher visceral fat mass and volume had significantly lower ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate to total creatine (phosphocreatine + creatine, PCr + Cr) (NAA/PCr + Cr) (β = -0.29, p = 0.03, β = -0.28, p = 0.04). They also had significantly higher ratios of myo-inositol to total creatine (mI/PCr + Cr ) (β = 0.36, p = 0.01, β = 0.36, p = 0.01). Visceral fat mass and volume were not significantly related to ratios of glutamate to total creatine (Glu/PCr + Cr). While future studies are necessary, these results indicate central adiposity is associated with metabolic changes that could impinge upon the central nervous system in middle age.

  19. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  20. Estimation of equivalence ratio distribution in diesel spray using a computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasumasa; Tsujimura, Taku; Kusaka, Jin

    2014-08-01

    It is important to understand the mechanism of mixing and atomization of the diesel spray. In addition, the computational prediction of mixing behavior and internal structure of a diesel spray is expected to promote the further understanding about a diesel spray and development of the diesel engine including devices for fuel injection. In this study, we predicted the formation of diesel fuel spray with 3D-CFD code and validated the application by comparing experimental results of the fuel spray behavior and the equivalence ratio visualized by Layleigh-scatter imaging under some ambient, injection and fuel conditions. Using the applicable constants of KH-RT model, we can predict the liquid length spray on a quantitative level. under various fuel injection, ambient and fuel conditions. On the other hand, the change of the vapor penetration and the fuel mass fraction and equivalence ratio distribution with change of fuel injection and ambient conditions quantitatively. The 3D-CFD code used in this study predicts the spray cone angle and entrainment of ambient gas are predicted excessively, therefore there is the possibility of the improvement in the prediction accuracy by the refinement of fuel droplets breakup and evaporation model and the quantitative prediction of spray cone angle.

  1. Thyroid volume in hypothyroidism due to autoimmune disease follows a unimodal distribution: evidence against primary thyroid atrophy and autoimmune thyroiditis being distinct diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Primary overt autoimmune hypothyroidism is often divided into primary idiopathic hypothyroidism with thyroid atrophy (Ord's disease) and hypothyroidism with goitre (Hashimoto's disease). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the two subtypes of disease. DESIGN...... program including thyroid ultrasonography and measurements of thyroid autoantibodies. Of the 144 patients investigated (58% of all invited), 139 were compared with 556 sex-, age-, and region-matched controls from the cohort. RESULTS: Patients had lower median (11.6 ml vs. 13.5 ml, P = 0.001) and a more...... dispersed distribution of thyroid volumes compared with controls (P thyroid volume showed a Gaussian distribution in both males and females with no bimodal pattern. Nearly all patients had measurable thyroid autoantibodies, but with increasing thyroid volume (quartile I, II, III, and IV...

  2. The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block: volume-dependent injectate distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovska M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marija Damjanovska,1 Tatjana Stopar Pintaric,1,2 Erika Cvetko,2 Kamen Vlassakov3 1Clinical Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block is one of the newer and simpler alternatives to the traditional, often technically challenging, paravertebral (PV block. Its feasibility, safety, and efficacy have already been clinically demonstrated in patients with multiple rib fractures using higher volumes of local anesthetic, when compared with the traditional approach. The primary aim of this observational anatomical study was to assess the spread of local anesthetic from the retrolaminar injection point to the PV space and its volume dependence. Second, we assessed the incidence of epidural and contralateral PV spread in the both groups.Methods: Ten fresh porcine cadavers were randomized into 2 groups (n=5 each to receive ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections at Th4-Th5 level with either 10 mL (low-volume group or 30 mL (high-volume group of 2% lidocaine and methylene blue mixture. After the procedure, the cadavers were dissected and frozen. Cross-section cuts (~1 cm thick were performed to evaluate the injectate spread.Results: In the high-volume group, injectate spread from the retrolaminar to the PV space was observed in all specimens (5 out of 5; 100%, while in the low-volume group, no apparent spread to the PV space was found (0 out of 5; 0%. No epidural or contralateral PV spread was observed in any of the specimens.Conclusion: Following ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections in fresh porcine cadavers, injectate spread from the retrolaminar tissue plane to the PV space is strongly volume dependent

  3. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  4. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  5. The nucleon-nucleon correlations and the integral characteristics of the potential distributions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyaz'kov, O.M.; Kukhtina, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    The integral characteristics of the potential distribution in nuclei, namely the volume integrals, moments and mean square radii are studied in the framework of the semimicroscopic approach to the interaction of low energy nucleons with nuclei on the base of the exchange nucleon-nucleon correlations and the density dependence of effective forces. The ratio of the normalized multipole moments of potential and matter distributions is investigated. The energy dependence of the integral characteristics is analyzed. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  7. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m"2, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  8. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A., E-mail: albert.garcia.hp@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Dies, J. [Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m{sup 2}, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  9. Fluctuations of trading volume in a stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Hwang, Jun Kyung; Lee, Jae Woo

    2009-03-01

    We consider the probability distribution function of the trading volume and the volume changes in the Korean stock market. The probability distribution function of the trading volume shows double peaks and follows a power law, P(V/)∼( at the tail part of the distribution with α=4.15(4) for the KOSPI (Korea composite Stock Price Index) and α=4.22(2) for the KOSDAQ (Korea Securities Dealers Automated Quotations), where V is the trading volume and is the monthly average value of the trading volume. The second peaks originate from the increasing trends of the average volume. The probability distribution function of the volume changes also follows a power law, P(Vr)∼Vr-β, where Vr=V(t)-V(t-T) and T is a time lag. The exponents β depend on the time lag T. We observe that the exponents β for the KOSDAQ are larger than those for the KOSPI.

  10. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    To assess the biological significance of Leydig cell 'hyperplasia' in man, Leydig cell distribution, volume, and function were studied in patients with infertility or testicular cancer and in suddenly deceased controls. A total of 156 biopsies from 95 patients and 18 necropsies from 13 controls......), and were rare in testes from controls (median = 0, p = 0.02). The proportion of testicular tissue occupied by Leydig cells increased with decreasing spermatogenic capacity. In contrast, the total volume of Leydig cells per testis was roughly comparable irrespective of the histological pattern...... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  11. Effects of short-term pressure-controlled ventilation on gas exchange, airway pressures, and gas distribution in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS: comparison with volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prella, Maura; Feihl, François; Domenighetti, Guido

    2002-10-01

    The potential clinical benefits of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) over volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS still remain debated. We compared PCV with VCV in patients with ALI/ARDS with respect to the following physiologic end points: (1) gas exchange and airway pressures, and (2) CT scan intrapulmonary gas distribution at end-expiration. Prospective, observational study. A multidisciplinary ICU in a nonuniversity, acute-care hospital. Ten patients with ALI or ARDS (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 17 to 80 years). Sequential ventilation in PCV and VCV with a constant inspiratory/expiratory ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, and total positive end-expiratory pressure; measurement of gas exchange and airway pressures; and achievement of CT sections at lung base, hilum, and apex for the quantitative analysis of lung densities and of aerated vs nonaerated zones. PaO(2), PaCO(2), and PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio levels did not differ between PCV and VCV. Peak airway pressure (Ppeak) was significantly lower in PCV compared with VCV (26 +/- 2 cm H(2)O vs 31 +/- 2 cm H(2)O; p mean +/- SEM). The surface areas of the nonaerated zones as well as the total areas at each section level were unchanged in PCV compared with VCV, except at the apex level, where there was a significantly greater nonaerated area in VCV (11 +/- 2 cm(2) vs 9 +/- 2 cm(2); p mean CT number of each lung (20 lungs from 10 patients) was similar in the two modes, as were the density values at the basal and apical levels; the hilum mean CT number was - 442 +/- 28 Hounsfield units (HU) in VCV and - 430 +/- 26 HU in PCV (p lower Ppeaks through the precise titration of the lung distending pressure, and might be applied to avoid regional overdistension by means of a more homogeneous gas distribution.

  12. Measurable inhomogeneities in stock trading volume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortines, A. A. G.; Riera, R.; Anteneodo, C.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the statistics of volumes of shares traded in stock markets. We show that the stochastic process of trading volumes can be understood on the basis of a mixed Poisson process at the microscopic time level. The beta distribution of the second kind (also known as q-gamma distribution), that has been proposed to describe empirical volume histograms, naturally results from our analysis. In particular, the shape of the distribution at small volumes is governed by the degree of granularity in the trading process, while the exponent controlling the tail is a measure of the inhomogeneities in market activity. Furthermore, the present case furnishes empirical evidence of how power law probability distributions can arise as a consequence of a fluctuating intrinsic parameter.

  13. Automated digital volume measurement of melanoma metastases in sentinel nodes predicts disease recurrence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    statistics (categorical data). In addition, disease-free and melanoma-specific survivals were calculated. Mean metastatic volume per patient was 10.6 mm(3) (median 0.05 mm(3); range 0.0001-621.3 mm(3)) and 9.62 mm(3) (median 0.05 mm(3); range 0.00001-564.3 mm(3)) with manual and digital measurement......, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed an even distribution of the differences, and the kappa statistic was 0.84. In multivariate analysis, both manual and digital metastasis volume measurements were independent progression markers when corrected for primary tumour thickness [manual: hazard ratio (HR): 1...

  14. APPROXIMATION OF VOLUME AND BRANCH SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TREES FROM LASER SCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raumonen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for automatically approximating the above-ground volume and branch size distribution of trees from dense terrestrial laser scanner produced point clouds. The approach is based on the assumption that the point cloud is a sample of a surface in 3D space and the surface is locally like a cylinder. The point cloud is covered with small neighborhoods which conform to the surface. Then the neighborhoods are characterized geometrically and these characterizations are used to classify the points into trunk, branch, and other points. Finally, proper subsets are determined for cylinder fitting using geometric characterizations of the subsets.

  15. Distributed Control Architecture for Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of engine control systems from centralized to distributed architecture is both necessary and enabling for future aeropropulsion applications. The continued growth of adaptive control applications and the trend to smaller, light weight cores is a counter influence on the weight and volume of control system hardware. A distributed engine control system using high temperature electronics and open systems communications will reverse the growing trend of control system weight ratio to total engine weight and also be a major factor in decreasing overall cost of ownership for aeropropulsion systems. The implementation of distributed engine control is not without significant challenges. There are the needs for high temperature electronics, development of simple, robust communications, and power supply for the on-board electronics.

  16. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra I Djomehri

    Full Text Available Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca to phosphorus (P and Ca to zinc (Zn elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc. A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49, hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46, cementum (1.51, and bone (1.68 were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765 and in cementum (595-990, highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  17. Mineral Density Volume Gradients in Normal and Diseased Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  18. Technical note: Using distributed temperature sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoort, Bart; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Willem; Jiménez Rodríguez, César; Cisneros Vaca, César; Savenije, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology now allow its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by ) is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS), to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Bowen ratio is derived from DTS-measured vertical profiles of the air temperature and wet-bulb temperature. However, in previous research the measured temperatures were not validated, and the cables were not shielded from solar radiation. Additionally, the BR-DTS method has not been tested above a forest before, where temperature gradients are small and energy storage in the air column becomes important. In this paper the accuracy of the wet-bulb and air temperature measurements of the DTS are verified, and the resulting Bowen ratio and heat fluxes are compared to eddy covariance data. The performance of BR-DTS was tested on a 46 m high tower in a mixed forest in the centre of the Netherlands in August 2016. The average tree height is 26 to 30 m, and the temperatures are measured below, in, and above the canopy. Using the vertical temperature profiles the storage of latent and sensible heat in the air column was calculated. We found a significant effect of solar radiation on the temperature measurements, leading to a deviation of up to 3 K. By installing screens, the error caused by sunlight is reduced to under 1 K. Wind speed seems to have a minimal effect on the measured wet-bulb temperature, both below and above the canopy. After a simple quality control, the Bowen ratio measured by DTS correlates well with eddy covariance (EC) estimates (r2 = 0.59). The average energy balance closure between BR-DTS and EC is good, with a mean underestimation of 3.4 W m-2 by the BR-DTS method. However, during daytime the BR-DTS method overestimates the available energy, and during night-time the BR-DTS method estimates the available energy to be more negative. This difference could be

  19. Weathering reactions and isometric log-ratio coordinates: Do they speak to each other?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccianti, Antonella; Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to explore the relationship among some concepts, often considered to be unrelated, such as weathering reactions, compositional data and fractals by means of distribution analysis. Weathering reactions represent the necessary transfer of heat and entropy to the environment in geochemical cycles. Compositional data express the relative abundance of chemical elements/species in a given total (i.e. volume or weight). Fractals are temporal or spatial objects with self-similarity and scale-invariance, so that internal structures repeat themselves over multiple levels of magnification or scales of measurement. Gibbs's free energy and the application of the Law Mass Action can be used to model weathering reactions, under the hypothesis of chemical equilibrium. Compositional data are obtained in the analytical phase after the determination of the concentrations of chemicals in sampled solid, liquid or gaseous materials. Fractals can be measured by using their fractal dimensions. In this paper, the presence of fractal structures is observed when the frequency distribution of isometric log-ratio coordinates is investigated, showing the logarithm of the cumulative number of samples exceeding a certain coordinate value plotted against the coordinate value itself. Isometric log-ratio coordinates (or balances) were constructed by using the sequential binary partition (SBP) method. The balances were identified to maintain, as far as possible, the similarity with a corresponding weathering reaction affecting the Arno river catchment (Tuscany, central Italy) as described by the Law of Mass Action. The emergence of fractal structures indicates the presence of dissipative systems, which require complexity, large numbers of inter-connected elements and stochasticity. - Highlights: • Frequency distribution analysis links compositional data and fractals. • Isometric log-ratio coordinates simulate chemical reactions in weathering processes. • Fractal

  20. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  1. Determination of isotope ratio of elements by mass distribution in molecules of varied chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, I.S.; Babichev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure and program for calculation of isotope ratio of elements involving in the compound being studied using data of mass spectrometry were elaborated. The methods developed for the O 2 , SiH 4 , Cd(CH 3 ) 2 molecules were demonstrated for the illustration. The results of calculation provide support for the efficiency of the program and satisfactory reliability of the results during calculation of the isotope and complex compound concentrations. The program may be used for the estimation of the degree of nonequilibrium isotope distributions, it may indicate on the errors of the mass spectroscopy results [ru

  2. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  3. Association of Adiposity Indices with Platelet Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume in Chinese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of inflammatory tissue lesions. It can affect platelet function. While mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW are sample platelet indices, they may reflect subcinical platelet activation. To investigated associations between adiposity indices and platelet indices, 17327 eligible individuals (7677 males and 9650 females from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study (DFTJ-Cohort Study, n=27009 were included in this study, except for 9682 individuals with missing data on demographical, lifestyle, physical indicators and diseases relative to PDW and MPV. Associations between adiposity indices including waist circumstance (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, body mass index (BMI, and MPV or PDW in the participants were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. There were significantly negative associations between abnormal PDW and WC or WHtR for both sexes (ptrend<0.001 for all, as well as abnormal MPV and WC or WHtR among female participants (ptrend<0.05 for all. In the highest BMI groups, only females with low MPV or PDW were at greater risk for having low MPV (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.10, 1.62 ptrend<0.001 or PDW (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.14, 1.58, ptrend<0.001 than those who had low MPV or PDW in the corresponding lowest BMI group. The change of PDW seems more sensitive than MPV to oxidative stress and hypoxia. Associations between reduced PDW and MPV values and WC, WHtR and BMI values in Chinese female adults may help us to further investigate early changes in human body.

  4. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  5. Measurement of right ventricular volumes using 131I-MAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, T.; Grover, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the right ventricular residual ratio, that is, the ratio of the end-systolic volume to the end-diastolic volume during each cardiac cycle. 131 I-MAA was injected as a bolus into the right ventricle, and the ratio of isotope remaining in the chamber during the succeeding cardiac cycles was determined with a collimated scintillation counter placed over the right ventricle. Since the counter detected the radioactivity from the entire right ventricular cavity, potential errors from incomplete mixing were minimized. The washout curve from the ventricle was distorted somewhat by the accumulation of isotope in intervening lung tissue. This distortion was eliminated by subtracting the build-up curve of radioactivity in the lung recorded simultaneously with a second scintillation counter positioned over the lateral chest wall. In 14 dogs anesthetized with chloralose, the right ventricular residual ratio was relatively constant at 40.4 +- 3.1 per cent. Duplicate measurements differed by less than 3 percent indicating the good reproducibility of the method. Right ventricular stroke volume was determined from cardiac output (dye dilution) and heart rate. With this and the simultaneously determined residual ratio ( 131 I-MAA), end-diastolic volume could be calculated. Stroke volume and stroke work were highly correlated with end-diastolic volume, in keeping with the Frank-Starling mechanism. (U.S.)

  6. Nanocomposites with increased energy density through high aspect ratio PZT nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haixiong; Lin, Yirong; Andrews, Clark; Sodano, Henry A

    2011-01-07

    High energy storage plays an important role in the modern electric industry. Herein, we investigated the role of filler aspect ratio in nanocomposites for energy storage. Nanocomposites were synthesized using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with two different aspect ratio (nanowires, nanorods) fillers at various volume fractions dispersed in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The permittivity constants of composites containing nanowires (NWs) were higher than those with nanorods (NRs) at the same inclusion volume fraction. It was also indicated that the high frequency loss tangent of samples with PZT nanowires was smaller than for those with nanorods, demonstrating the high electrical energy storage efficiency of the PZT NW nanocomposite. The high aspect ratio PZT NWs showed a 77.8% increase in energy density over the lower aspect ratio PZT NRs, under an electric field of 15 kV mm(-1) and 50% volume fraction. The breakdown strength was found to decrease with the increasing volume fraction of PZT NWs, but to only change slightly from a volume fraction of around 20%-50%. The maximum calculated energy density of nanocomposites is as high as 1.158 J cm(-3) at 50% PZT NWs in PVDF. Since the breakdown strength is lower compared to a PVDF copolymer such as poly(vinylidene fluoride-tertrifluoroethylene-terchlorotrifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TreEE-CTFE) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP), the energy density of the nanocomposite could be significantly increased through the use of PZT NWs and a polymer with greater breakdown strength. These results indicate that higher aspect ratio fillers show promising potential to improve the energy density of nanocomposites, leading to the development of advanced capacitors with high energy density.

  7. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  8. Model studies of bubble size distribution and sound propagation at microleaks in sodium-heated steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction zone of a small water leak in a sodium-heated steam generator (microleak) has been simulated by jet gassing or argon in water. The bubble diameter distribution in the bubble flow has been measured using a photoelectric method. The bubble size distribution obtained can be approached by an exponential distribution. For this case, phase velocity and sound damping have been calculated in the two-phase mixture. In the case of small ratios of sound frequency to the expected value of bubble resonance frequency, the frequency-independent sound velocity of the homogeneous mixture is obtained as a function of the gas volume fraction. In the case of very high frequencies, the sound velocity of the pure liquid is obtained for any gas volume fractions. In the whole range investigated damping is strongly dependent on the frequency. (author)

  9. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  10. Retrieval of size distribution for urban aerosols using multispectral optical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, M; Horvath, H

    2005-01-01

    We are dealing with retrieval of aerosol size distribution using multispectral extinction data collected in highly industrialized urban region. Especially, a role of the particle morphology is in the focus of this work. As well known, at present, still many retrieval algorithms are based on simple Lorenz-Mie's theory applicable for perfectly spherical and homogeneous particles, because that approach is fast and can handle the whole size distribution of particles. However, the solid-phase aerosols never render simple geometries, and rather than being spherical or spheroidal they are quite irregular. It is shown, that identification of the modal radius a M of both, the size distribution f(a) and the distribution of geometrical cross section s(a) of aerosol particles is not significantly influenced by the particle's morphology in case the aspect ratio is smaller than 2 and the particles are randomly oriented in the atmospheric environment. On the other hand, the amount of medium-sized particles (radius of which is larger than the modal radius) can be underestimated if distribution of non-spherical grains is substituted by system of volume equivalent spheres. Retrieved volume content of fine aerosols (as characterized by PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 ) can be potentially affected by inappropriate assumption on the particle shape

  11. Determination of the blood volume of rabbits (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Y.; Pierotti, Th.; Rinaldi, R.

    1963-01-01

    The knowledge of the ratio of the blood volume to the weight of an animal is of a great deal in various experiments. Therefore authors have decided to determine this ratio for rabbits by using chromium 51. Results show that the blood volume represents about 54.4 g per kilogram of body weight. (authors) [fr

  12. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bxmarket hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  13. GOLD and the fixed ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestbo J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jørgen VestboUniversity of Manchester, Manchester, UKI read with interest the paper entitled "Diagnosis of airway obstruction in the elderly: contribution of the SARA study" by Sorino et al in a recent issue of this journal.1 Being involved in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD, it is nice to see the interest sparked by the GOLD strategy document. However, in the paper by Sorino et al, there are a few misunderstandings around GOLD and the fixed ratio (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced volume vital capacity < 0.70 that need clarification.View original paper by Sorino and colleagues.

  14. Study on the detection of three-dimensional soot temperature and volume fraction fields of a laminar flame by multispectral imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Mingjiang; Zhang, Haidan; Wang, Fei; Xie, Zhengchao; Huang, Qunxing; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multispectral flame images were used to reconstruct the soot temperature and volume fraction. • The proposed multi-wavelength method and the original two-color method were compared. • The effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) was discussed. • The best number of selected wavelengths was determined to be 6–11. - Abstract: Charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF) were introduced to capture the multispectral flame images for obtaining the line-of-sight radiation intensities. A least square QR decomposition method was applied to solve the reconstruction matrix equation and obtain the multi-wavelength local emission distributions from which temperature and volume fraction profiles can be retrieved. Compared with the original two-color method, the use of a wide range of spectral data was proved to be capable of reducing the reconstruction error. Reconstruction results of the two methods with different signal to noise ratio (SNR) were discussed. The effect of selected wavelength number is analyzed and the best number is determined to be in the range of 6–11. The proposed multispectral imaging system was verified to be feasible for the reconstruction of temperature and soot volume fraction distributions according to the experimental measurement results.

  15. Volume distribution for particles between 3.5 to 2000 μm in the upper 200 m region of the South Pacific Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stemmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The French JGOFS BIOSOPE cruise crossed the South Pacific Gyre (SPG on a transect between the Marquesas Islands and the Chilean coast on a 7500 km transect (8° S–34° S and 8° W–72° W. The number and volume distributions of small (3.5<d<30 μm and large particles (d>100 μm were analysed combining two instruments, the HIAC/Royco Counter (for the small particles and the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP, for the large particles. For the HIAC analysis, samples were collected from 12 L CTD Rosette bottles and immediately analysed on board while the UVP provided an estimate of in situ particle concentrations and size in a continuous profile. Out of 76 continuous UVP and 117 discrete HIAC vertical profiles, 25 had both sets of measurements, mostly at a site close to the Marquesas Islands (site MAR and one in the center of the gyre (site GYR. At GYR, the particle number spectra from few μm to few mm were fit with power relationships having slopes close to −4. At MAR, the high abundance of large objects, probably living organisms, created a shift in the full size spectra of particles such that a single slope was not appropriate. The small particle pool at both sites showed a diel pattern while the large did not, implying that the movement of mass toward the large particles does not take place at daily scale in the SPG area. Despite the relatively simple nature of the number spectra, the volume spectra were more variable because what were small deviations from the straight line in a log-log plot were large variations in the volume estimates. In addition, the mass estimates from the size spectra are very sensitive to crucial parameters such as the fractal dimension and the POC/Dry Weight ratio. Using consistent values for these parameters, we show that the volume of large particles can equal the volume of the smaller particles. However the proportion of material in large particles decreased from the mesotrophic conditions at the

  16. Near-exact distributions for the block equicorrelation and equivariance likelihood ratio test statistic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlos A.; Marques, Filipe J.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the authors combine the equicorrelation and equivariance test introduced by Wilks [13] with the likelihood ratio test (l.r.t.) for independence of groups of variables to obtain the l.r.t. of block equicorrelation and equivariance. This test or its single block version may find applications in many areas as in psychology, education, medicine, genetics and they are important "in many tests of multivariate analysis, e.g. in MANOVA, Profile Analysis, Growth Curve analysis, etc" [12, 9]. By decomposing the overall hypothesis into the hypotheses of independence of groups of variables and the hypothesis of equicorrelation and equivariance we are able to obtain the expressions for the overall l.r.t. statistic and its moments. From these we obtain a suitable factorization of the characteristic function (c.f.) of the logarithm of the l.r.t. statistic, which enables us to develop highly manageable and precise near-exact distributions for the test statistic.

  17. Comparing computing formulas for estimating concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    This paper provides guidance on the choice of computing formulas (estimators) for estimating concentration ratios and other ratio-type measures of radionuclides and other environmental contaminant transfers between ecosystem components. Mathematical expressions for the expected value of three commonly used estimators (arithmetic mean of ratios, geometric mean of ratios, and the ratio of means) are obtained when the multivariate lognormal distribution is assumed. These expressions are used to explain why these estimators will not in general give the same estimate of the average concentration ratio. They illustrate that the magnitude of the discrepancies depends on the magnitude of measurement biases, and on the variances and correlations associated with spatial heterogeneity and measurement errors. This paper also reports on a computer simulation study that compares the accuracy of eight computing formulas for estimating a ratio relationship that is constant over time and/or space. Statistical models appropriate for both controlled spiking experiments and observational field studies for either normal or lognormal distributions are considered. 24 references, 15 figures, 7 tables

  18. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  19. Study of free volume hole distributions in xTiO2(1-x)SiO2 by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misheva, M.A.; Djourelov, N.; Margaca, M.A.; Salvado, F.I.; Passage, G.

    1999-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been used to get information about the small pore structure of the system xTiO 2 .(1-x)SiO 2 (x=10,30 mol.%). The pore radius and volume probability distribution functions have been received from the ortho-Positronium lifetime probability distribution function, obtained by the lifetime spectra processing with CONTIN (PALS-2) program. The linearity of the S versus W-parameters has been used to check the similarity (or not) of the defect structure of the samples prepared under different experimental conditions. (author)

  20. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion

  1. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer's disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soricelli, A; Postiglione, A; Grivet-Fojaja, M R

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABAA receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (Vd) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminat...... simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex Vd was significantly (P...

  2. Distributed terascale volume visualization using distributed shared virtual memory

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Schneider, Jens; Jeong, Wonki; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2011-01-01

    Table 1 illustrates the impact of different distribution unit sizes, different screen resolutions, and numbers of GPU nodes. We use two and four GPUs (NVIDIA Quadro 5000 with 2.5 GB memory) and a mouse cortex EM dataset (see Figure 2) of resolution

  3. Quantitative differentiation of breast lesions at 3T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using the ratio of distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan; Onaygil, Can; Akin, Yasin; Kaya, Handan; Aribal, Erkin

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the accuracy of diffusion coefficients and diffusion coefficient ratios of breast lesions and of glandular breast tissue from mono- and stretched-exponential models for quantitative diagnosis in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We analyzed pathologically confirmed 170 lesions (85 benign and 85 malignant) imaged using a 3.0T MR scanner. Small regions of interest (ROIs) focusing on the highest signal intensity for lesions and also for glandular tissue of contralateral breast were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were estimated by performing nonlinear fittings using mono- and stretched-exponential models, respectively. Coefficient ratios were calculated by dividing the lesion coefficient by the glandular tissue coefficient. A stretched exponential model provides significantly better fits then the monoexponential model (P DDC ratio (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.93) when compared with lesion DDC, ADC ratio, and lesion ADC (AUC = 0.91, 0.90, 0.90) but with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At optimal thresholds, the DDC ratio achieves 93% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 87% overall diagnostic accuracy, while ADC ratio leads to 89% sensitivity, 78% specificity, and 83% overall diagnostic accuracy. The stretched exponential model fits better with signal intensity measurements from both lesion and glandular tissue ROIs. Although the DDC ratio estimated by using the model shows a higher diagnostic accuracy than the ADC ratio, lesion DDC, and ADC, it is not statistically significant. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1633-1641. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  5. MODEL PERUBAHAN VOLUME KERIPIK BUAH SELAMA PROSES PENGGORENGAN SECARA VAKUM [Model for Volume Changes in Fruit Chips during Vacuum Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin1*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion and puffing are specific characteristics of fried products critical for consumer preferences. To obtain expanded and puffed dried products that fit well with consumer acceptance criteria, it is necessary to pay attention to the process conditions which change the raw material characteristics during frying. The important changes include volume and density ratio of the products during frying. Hypothetically, these changes are due to water vaporization and the decrease dry matter in the products. The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical model of volume and density ratio changes for jack fruit during vacuum frying as a function of water and starch content reductions. Samples were vacuum fried at 70–100OC and pressure of 80-90 kPa for 15–60 min. The parameters observed were volume and density as well as water and starch contents of samples before and after vacuum frying. The results showed that the developed model can be used to predict changes in volume and density ratio of jack fruit during vacuum frying.

  6. Radial distributions of surface mass density and mass-to-luminosity ratio in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2018-03-01

    We present radial profiles of the surface mass density (SMD) in spiral galaxies directly calculated using rotation curves of two approximations of flat-disk (SMD-F) and spherical mass distribution (SMD-S). The SMDs are combined with surface brightness using photometric data to derive radial variations of the mass-to-luminosity ratio (ML). It is found that the ML generally has a central peak or a plateau, and decreases to a local minimum at R ˜ 0.1-0.2 h, where R is the radius and h is the scale radius of optical disk. The ML, then, increases rapidly until ˜0.5 h, and is followed by gradual rise till ˜2 h, remaining at around ˜2 [M_{⊙} L^{-1}_{⊙}] in the w1 band (infrared λ3.4 μm) and ˜ 10 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band (λ6200-7500 Å). Beyond this radius, the ML increases steeply with approaching the observed edges at R ˜ 5 h, attaining to as high values as ˜20 in w1 and ˜ 10^2 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band, which are indicative of dominant dark matter. The general properties of the ML distributions will be useful for constraining cosmological formation models of spiral galaxies.

  7. Neutron multicounter detector for investigation of content and spatial distribution of fission materials in large volume samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Starosta, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experimental device is a neutron coincidence well counter. It can be applied for passive assay of fissile - especially for plutonium bearing - materials. It consist of a set of 3 He tubes placed inside a polyethylene moderator; outputs from the tubes, first processed by preamplifier/amplifier/discriminator circuits, are then analysed using neutron correlator connected with a PC, and correlation techniques implemented in software. Such a neutron counter allows for determination of plutonium mass ( 240 Pu effective mass) in nonmultiplying samples having fairly big volume (up to 0.14 m 3 ). For determination of neutron sources distribution inside the sample, the heuristic methods based on hierarchical cluster analysis are applied. As an input parameters, amplitudes and phases of two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the count profiles matrices for known point sources distributions and for the examined samples, are taken. Such matrices are collected by means of sample scanning by detection head. During clustering process, counts profiles for unknown samples fitted into dendrograms using the 'proximity' criterion of the examined sample profile to standard samples profiles. Distribution of neutron sources in an examined sample is then evaluated on the basis of comparison with standard sources distributions. (author)

  8. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J.C. Randall (Joshua); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); L. Qi (Lu); V. Ssteinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); G. Tthorleifsson (Ggudmar); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.K. Sspeliotes (Eelizabeth); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); C.C. White (Charles); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.J. Willer (Cristen); J. Luan; S. Vedantam (Sailaja); T. Eesko (Tõnu); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Li (Shengxu); K.L. Monda (Keri); A.L. Dixon (Anna); C. Holmes (Christopher); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); L. Liang (Liming); J. Min (Josine); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); C. Molony (Cliona); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); E.E. Sschadt (Eeric); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Ferreira (Teresa); H.L. Allen; R.J. Weyant (Robert); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); A.R. Wood (Andrew); K. Eestrada (Karol); M.E. Goddard (Michael); G. Lettre (Guillaume); M. Mangino (Massimo); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); S. Purcell (Shaun); A.V. Ssmith; P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); S.A. McCcarroll (Ssteven); J. Nemesh (James); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); L. Coin (Lachlan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); N. Heard-Ccosta (Nancy); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A. Johansson (Åsa); T. Johnson (Toby); M. Kaakinen (Marika); K. Kapur (Karen); S. Ketkar (Shamika); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); C. Lamina (Claudia); M.F. Leitzmann (Michael); B. McKknight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); K. Oong (Ken); J.R.B. Perry (John); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); S. Ripatti (Samuli); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N.R. Robertson (Neil); S. Sanna (Serena); U. Sovio (Ulla); I. Surakka (Ida); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. van Wingerden (Sophie); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); P.S. Chines (Peter); E. Fisher (Eeva); J.R. Kulzer (Jennifer); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); N. Narisu (Narisu); C. Sandholt (Camilla); L.J. Scott (Laura); K. Silander (Kaisa); K. Stark (Klaus); M.L. Tammesoo; T.M. Teslovich (Tanya); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); R.P. Welch (Ryan); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); J.O. Jansson; J. Kettunen (Johannes); R. Wlawrence (Robert); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); H. Alavere (Helene); P. Almgren (Peter); L.D. Atwood (Larry); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R. Biffar (Reiner); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); H. Campbell (Harry); I.N.M. Day (Ian); M. Dei (Mariano); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Eelliott (Paul); M.R. Eerdos (Micheal); J.G. Eeriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); M. Fu (Mao); S. Gaget (Stefan); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A.P. Gjesing (Anette); H. Grallert (Harald); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); A.L. Hartikainen; N. Hassanali (Neelam); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); K.H. Herzig; A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Kinnunen (Leena); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); V. Krzelj (Vjekoslav); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); K. Kvaløy (Kirsti); J. Laitinen (Jaana); O. Lantieri (Olivier); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); M.L. Lokki; R.N. Luben (Robert); B. Ludwig (Barbara); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); A. McCcarthy (Anne); M.A. Morken (Mario); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Neville (Matthew); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); C.P. Platou (Carl); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); H.M. Stringham (Heather); A.J. Swift (Amy); M. Teder-Llaving (Maris); B. Thomson (Brian); G. Usala; J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); V. Vatin (Vincent); C.B. Volpato; H. Wallaschofski (Henri); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); D.R. Witte (Deniel); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); J.P. Beilby (John); A. James (Alan); M. Kähönen (Mika); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C. Ohlsson (Claes); C. Palmer (Cameron); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Viikari (Jorma); B. Balkau (Beverley); Y. Ben-Shlomo; R.N. Bergman (Richard); H. Boeing (Heiner); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S. Eebrahim (Shah); P. Froguel (Philippe); T. Hansen (Torben); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); K. Hveem (Kristian); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); F. Karpe (Fredrik); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M. Laakso (Markku); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); M. Marre (Michel); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Metspalu (Andres); K. Midthjell (Kristian); O. Pedersen (Oluf); V. Salomaa (Veikko); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); N.J. Wareham (Nick); A.M. Arnold (Alice); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); F.S. Collins (Francis); G. Eeiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A. Hamsten (Anders); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); A. Hofman (Albert); F.B. Hu (Frank); T. Illig (Thomas); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M.R. Järvelin; W.H.L. Kao (Wen); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); L.J. Launer (Lenore); P. Munroe (Patricia); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Quertermous (Thomas); A. Rissanen (Aila); I. Rudan (Igor); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.C. Syvanen; M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.F. Wright (Alan); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); D.J. Hunter (David); K.E. North (Kari); J.R. O'Cconnell (Jeffrey); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger; D.P. Strachan (David); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Stefansson (Kari); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); I.E. Barroso (Inês); C.S. Fox (Caroline); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWaist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association

  9. Measurement of synovial fluid volume using urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Stabler, T V; Kong, S Y; Varju, G; McDaniel, G

    2007-10-01

    To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints. Knee joint SF was aspirated from 159 human study participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis of at least one knee either directly (165 knees) or by lavage (110 knees). Serum was obtained immediately prior to SF aspiration. Participants were asked to rate individual knee pain, aching or stiffness. SF and serum urea levels were determined using a specific enzymatic method run on an automated CMA600 analyzer. Cell counts were performed on direct SF aspirates when volume permitted. The formula for calculating SF joint volume was as follows: V(j)=C(D)(V(I))/(C-C(D)) with V(j)=volume of SF in entire joint, C(D)=concentration of urea in diluted (lavage) SF, V(I)=volume of saline injected into joint, and C=concentration of urea in undiluted (neat) SF derived below where C=0.897(C(S)) and C(s)=concentration of urea in serum. There was an excellent correlation (r(2)=0.8588) between SF and serum urea in the direct aspirates with a ratio of 0.897 (SF/serum). Neither urea levels nor the SF/serum ratio showed any correlation with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade, or cell count. While urea levels increased with age there was no change in the ratio. Intraarticular SF volumes calculated for the lavaged knees ranged from 0.555 to 71.71ml with a median volume of 3.048ml. There was no correlation of SF volume to KL grade but there was a positive correlation (P=0.001) between SF volume and self-reported individual knee pain. Our urea results for direct aspirates indicate an equilibrium state between serum and SF with regard to the water fraction. This equilibrium exists regardless of disease status (KL grade), inflammation (cell count), or age, making it possible to calculate intraarticular volume of lavaged joints based upon this urea method. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5-4.0ml

  10. The predictive value of the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrui; Ma, Shuai; Deng, Bo; Lu, Jianxin; Shen, Wei; Jin, Bo; Shi, Haiming; Ding, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Preexisting renal impairment and the amount of contrast media are the most important risk factors for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We aimed to investigate whether the product of contrast medium volume and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (CMV × UACR) would be a better predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions. This was a prospective single-center observational study, and 912 consecutive patients who were exposed to contrast media during coronary interventions were investigated prospectively. CI-AKI is defined as a 44.2 μmol/L rise in serum creatinine or a 25% increase, assessed within 48 h after administration of contrast media in the absence of other causes. Fifty patients (5.48%) developed CI-AKI. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.000-1.003, p = .012) and contrast medium volume (CMV) (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.001-1.014, p = .017) were independent risk factors for the development of CI-AKI. The area under the ROC curve of CMV, UACR and CMV × UACR were 0.662 (95% CI = 0.584-0.741, p < .001), 0.761 (95% CI = 0.674-0.847, p < .001) and 0.808 (95% CI = 0.747-0.896, p < .001), respectively. The cutoff value of CMV × UACR to predict CI-AKI was 1186.2, with 80.0% sensitivity and 62.2% specificity. The product of CMV and UACR (CMV × UACR) might be a predictor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing nonemergency coronary interventions, which was superior to CMV or UACR alone.

  11. Inference for the Sharpe Ratio Using a Likelihood-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe ratio is the prominent risk-adjusted performance measure used by practitioners. Statistical testing of this ratio using its asymptotic distribution has lagged behind its use. In this paper, highly accurate likelihood analysis is applied for inference on the Sharpe ratio. Both the one- and two-sample problems are considered. The methodology has O(n−3/2 distributional accuracy and can be implemented using any parametric return distribution structure. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the method's superior accuracy over existing methods used for testing in the literature.

  12. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  13. “Finite” non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-03-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, arXiv: 0707.0105] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th

  14. Neutrophil: Lymphocyte Ratio and Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Balkarli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gout is a clinical syndrome with increased uric acid concentration, which is caused by inflammatory response against monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In gout, neutrophils are involved in inflammatory response and neutrophil activation is dependent on local cytokine production. Mean platelet volume (MPV and neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR are considered as inflammatory markers in several diseases and it is reported that they may have prognostic significance. Inthe current literature, there is no study evaluating MPV and NLR in gout. In this retrospective study, we investigated the role of MPV and NLR in determining inflammation in gout disease. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, 106 patients with gout (91 men and 15 women meeting the inclusion criteria based on patient records and 148 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (128 men and 20 women were included. Laboratory data during attacks (group I and intercritical period (group II were collected for the patient group. Results: Mean age was 59.46±12.93 years in the patient group and 59.00±11.33 years in the control group. Age at first attack was 52.00±12.77 years and mean time interval between first 2 attacks was 6.00±5.52 months. There was tophus in 9 patients (8.5% and family history of gout in 17 patients (16.0%. Compared to groupII (intercritical period and the control, no significant difference in MPV levels was found in groupI (during attack. MPV was similar among the three groups. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR were found to be significantly higher in group I compared to group II. There was significant difference in NLR among three groups. When classified according to the presence of tophus, it was seen that MPV and NLR were similar in both groups. Discussion: The finding of increased NLR during attacks and intercritical period show that patients with gout are subjected to chronic inflammation. Thus, NLR can be a simple, inexpensive

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of liver fibrosis based on red cell distribution width (RDW) to platelet ratio with fibroscan in chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, J.; Jones, F.

    2018-03-01

    Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) and platelet ratio (RPR) can predict liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B with relatively high accuracy. RPR was superior to other non-invasive methods to predict liver fibrosis, such as AST and ALT ratio, AST and platelet ratio Index and FIB-4. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy liver fibrosis by using RDW and platelets ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients based on compared with Fibroscan. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Adam Malik Hospital from January-June 2015. We examine 34 patients hepatitis B chronic, screen RDW, platelet, and fibroscan. Data were statistically analyzed. The result RPR with ROC procedure has an accuracy of 72.3% (95% CI: 84.1% - 97%). In this study, the RPR had a moderate ability to predict fibrosis degree (p = 0.029 with AUC> 70%). The cutoff value RPR was 0.0591, sensitivity and spesificity were 71.4% and 60%, Positive Prediction Value (PPV) was 55.6% and Negative Predictions Value (NPV) was 75%, positive likelihood ratio was 1.79 and negative likelihood ratio was 0.48. RPR have the ability to predict the degree of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients with moderate accuracy.

  16. The Laplace Likelihood Ratio Test for Heteroscedasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the likelihood ratio test for heteroscedasticity, assuming the Laplace distribution, gives good results for Gaussian and fat-tailed data. The likelihood ratio test, assuming normality, is very sensitive to any deviation from normality, especially when the observations are from a distribution with fat tails. Such a likelihood test can also be used as a robust test for a constant variance in residuals or a time series if the data is partitioned into groups.

  17. Ion energy distributions in a pulsed dual frequency inductively coupled discharge of Ar/CF4 and effect of duty ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Anurag; Seo, Jin Seok; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young

    2015-01-01

    Controlling time averaged ion energy distribution (IED) is becoming increasingly important in many plasma material processing applications for plasma etching and deposition. The present study reports the evolution of ion energy distributions with radio frequency (RF) powers in a pulsed dual frequency inductively discharge and also investigates the effect of duty ratio. The discharge has been sustained using two radio frequency, low (P 2 MHz  = 2 MHz) and high (P 13.56 MHz  = 13.56 MHz) at a pressure of 10 mTorr in argon (90%) and CF 4 (10%) environment. The low frequency RF powers have been varied from 100 to 600 W, whereas the high frequency powers from 200 to 1200 W. Typically, IEDs show bimodal structure and energy width (energy separation between the high and low energy peaks) increases with increasing P 13.56 MHz ; however, it shows opposite trends with P 2 MHz . It has been observed that IEDs bimodal structure tends to mono-modal structure and energy peaks shift towards low energy side as duty ratio increases, keeping pulse power owing to mode transition (capacitive to inductive) constant

  18. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  19. WE-EF-207-06: Dedicated Cone-Beam Breast CT with Laterally-Shifted Detector: Monte Carlo Evaluation of X-Ray Scatter Distribution and Scatter-To-Primary Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L; Vedantham, S; Karellas, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the spatial distribution of x-ray scatter and scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) in projections during cone-beam breast CT (CBBCT) with laterally-shifted detector that results in coronal (fan-angle) truncation. Methods: We hypothesized that CBBCT with coronal truncation would lower SPR due to reduction in irradiated breast volume, and that the location of maximum x-ray scatter fluence (scatter-peak) in the detector plane can be determined from the ratio of irradiated-to-total breast volume, breast dimensions and system geometry. Monte Carlo simulations (GEANT4) reflecting a prototype CBBCT system were used to record the position-dependent primary and scatter x-ray photon fluence incident on the detector without coronal truncation (full fan-angle, 2f=24-degrees) and with coronal truncation (fan-angle, f+ f=12+2.7-degrees). Semi-ellipsoidal breasts (10/14/18-cm diameter, chest-wall to nipple length: 0.75xdiameter, 2%/14%/100% fibroglandular content) aligned with the axis-of-rotation (AOR) were modeled. Mono-energy photons were simulated and weighted for 2 spectra (49kVp, 1.4-mm Al HVL; 60kVp, 3.76-mm Al HVL). In addition to SPR, the scatter maps were analyzed to identify the location of the scatter-peak. Results: For CBBCT without fan-angle truncation, the scatter-peaks were aligned with the projection of the AOR onto the detector for all breasts. With truncated fan-beam, the scatter-peaks were laterally-shifted from the projection of the AOR along the fan-angle direction by 14/38/70-pixels for 10/14/18-cm diameter breasts. The corresponding theoretical shifts were 14.8/39.7/68-pixels (p=0.47, 2-tailed paired-ratio t-test). Along the cone-angle, the shift in scatter-peaks between truncated and full-fan angle CBBCT were 2/2/4 -pixels for 10/14/18-cm diameter breasts. CBBCT with fan-angle truncation reduced SPR by 14/22/28% for 10/14/18-cm diameter breasts. 60kVp reduced SPR by 21–25% compared to 49kVp. Peak SPR for CBBCT with fan-angle truncation

  20. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios based on toxic ratios-effects curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposed a QSAR model to predict joint effects at non-equitoxic ratios for binary mixtures containing reactive toxicants, cyanogenic compounds and aldehydes. Toxicity of single and binary mixtures was measured by quantifying the decrease in light emission from the Photobacterium phosphoreum for 15 min. The joint effects of binary mixtures (TU sum) can thus be obtained. The results showed that the relationships between toxic ratios of the individual chemicals and their joint effects can be described by normal distribution function. Based on normal distribution equations, the joint effects of binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]) can be predicted quantitatively using the joint effects at equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). Combined with a QSAR model of [Formula: see text]in our previous work, a novel QSAR model can be proposed to predict the joint effects of mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios ( [Formula: see text]). The proposed model has been validated using additional mixtures other than the one used for the development of the model. Predicted and observed results were similar (p>0.05). This study provides an approach to the prediction of joint effects for binary mixtures at non-equitoxic ratios.

  1. Vertical distributions of (99)Tc and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in the coastal water off Aomori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    Using a sector-field ICP-MS the vertical distributions of the (99)Tc concentration and (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio were measured in the coastal waters off Aomori Prefecture, Japan, where a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant has begun test operation. The (99)Tc concentrations in surface water ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 mBq/m(3), no greater than the estimated background level. Relatively high (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratios (10-12 × 10(-4)) would be caused by the inflow of the high-(99)Tc/(137)Cs water mass from the Japan Sea. There is no observable contamination from the reprocessing plant in the investigated area. The (99)Tc concentration and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in water column showed gradual decreases with depth. Our results implied that (99)Tc behaves in a more conservative manner than (137)Cs in marine environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose distribution assessment (comparison) in the target volume treated with VMAT given by the planning system and evaluated by TL dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravim, A.; Sakuraba, R.K.; Campos, L.L., E-mail: ambravim@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2015-07-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a relatively new therapy technique in which treatment is delivered using a cone beam that rotates around the patient. The radiation is delivered in a continuous gantry rotation while the cone beam is modulated by the intertwining of dynamic multileaf collimators (MLCs). Studies of VMAT plans have shown reduction in the treatment delivery time and monitor units (MU) comparable to IMRT plans improving major comfort to the patient and reducing uncertainties associated with patient movement during treatment. The treatment using VMAT minimizes the biological effects of radiation to critical structures near to the target volumes and produces excellent dose distributions. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation is essential for the radiological protection programs for quality assurance and licensing of equipment. For radiation oncology a quality assurance program is essentially to maintain the quality of patient care. As the VMAT is a new technique of radiation therapy it is important to optimize quality assurance mechanisms to ensure that tests are performed in order to preserve the patient and the equipment. This paper aims to determinate the dose distribution in the target volume (tumor to be treated) and the scattered dose distribution in the risk organs for VMAT technique comparing data given by the planning system and thermoluminescent (TL) response. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the dose uniformity for double-plane high dose rate interstitial breast implants with the use of dose reference points and dose non-uniformity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAjor, T.; Polgar, C.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2000-01-01

    also the high dose volume. The optimization on dose points and geometry provides the most uniform dose distribution. The dose non-uniformity ratio can be minimized by selecting the isodose line of the midpoints between the catheters in the whole volume for the dose prescription, but the dose coverage may not be adequate. For a clinically acceptable plan, a compromise should be made between dose non-uniformity and coverage. (author)

  4. Drop size distribution measured by imaging: determination of the measurement volume by the calibration of the point spread function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fdida, Nicolas; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of drop size distributions in a spray depends on the definition of the control volume for drop counting. For image-based techniques, this implies the definition of a depth-of-field (DOF) criterion. A sizing procedure based on an imaging model and associated with a calibration procedure is presented. Relations between image parameters and object properties are used to provide a measure of the size of the droplets, whatever the distance from the in-focus plane. A DOF criterion independent of the size of the drops and based on the determination of the width of the point spread function (PSF) is proposed. It allows to extend the measurement volume to defocused droplets and, due to the calibration of the PSF, to clearly define the depth of the measurement volume. Calibrated opaque discs, calibrated pinholes and an optical edge are used for this calibration. A comparison of the technique with a phase Doppler particle analyser and a laser diffraction granulometer is performed on an application to an industrial spray. Good agreement is found between the techniques when particular care is given to the sampling of droplets. The determination of the measurement volume is used to determine the drop concentration in the spray and the maximum drop concentration that imaging can support

  5. Dependence of the Internal Structure on Water/Particle Volume Ratio in an Amphiphilic Janus Particle-Water-Oil Ternary System: From Micelle-like Clusters to Emulsions of Spherical Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tomohiro G; Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-31

    Amphiphilic Janus particles (AJP), composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hemispheres, are one of the simplest anisotropic colloids, and they exhibit higher surface activities than particles with homogeneous surface properties. Consequently, a ternary system of AJP, water, and oil can form extremely stable Pickering emulsions, with internal structures that depend on the Janus structure of the particles and the system composition. However, the detail of these structures has not been fully explored, especially for the composition range where the amount of the minority liquid phase and AJP are comparable, where one would expect the Janus characteristics to be directly reflected. In this study, we varied the volume ratio of the particles and the minority liquid phase, water, by 2 orders of magnitude around the comparable composition range, and observed the resultant structures at the resolution of the individual particle dimensions by optical microscopy. When the volume ratio of water is smaller than that of the Janus particles, capillary interactions between the hydrophilic hemispheres of the particles induce micelle-like clusters in which the hydrophilic sides of the particles face inward. With increasing water content, these clusters grow into a rodlike morphology. When the water volume exceeds that of the particles, the structure transforms into an emulsion state composed of spherical droplets, colloidosomes, because of the surface activity of particles at the liquid-liquid interface. Thus, we found that a change in volume fraction alters the mechanism of structure formation in the ternary system, and large resulting morphological changes in the self-assembled structures reflect the anisotropy of the particles. The self-assembly shows essential commonalities with that in microemulsions of surfactant molecules, however the AJP system is stabilized only kinetically. Analysis of the dependence of the emulsion droplet size on composition shows that almost all the

  6. A void ratio dependent water retention curve model including hydraulic hysteresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasha Amin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Past experimental evidence has shown that Water Retention Curve (WRC evolves with mechanical stress and structural changes in soil matrix. Models currently available in the literature for capturing the volume change dependency of WRC are mainly empirical in nature requiring an extensive experimental programme for parameter identification which renders them unsuitable for practical applications. In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the void ratio dependency of WRC in deformable porous media is presented. The approach proposed enables quantification of the dependency of WRC on void ratio solely based on the form of WRC at the reference void ratio and requires no additional parameters. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the evolution process is also incorporated in the model, an aspect rarely addressed in the literature. Expressions are presented for the evolution of main and scanning curves due to loading and change in the hydraulic path from scanning to main wetting/drying and vice versa as well as the WRC parameters such as air entry value, air expulsion value, pore size distribution index and slope of the scanning curve. The model is validated using experimental data on compacted and reconstituted soils subjected to various hydro-mechanical paths. Good agreement is obtained between model predictions and experimental data in all the cases considered.

  7. Cell volumes of marine phytoplankton from globally distributed coastal data sets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harrison, P.J; Zingone, A.; Mickelson, M.J; Lehtinen, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Kraberg, A.C; Sun, J; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Jakobsen, H.H.

    volumes are the single largest source of uncertainty in community phytoplankton carbon estimates and greatly exceeds the uncertainty associated with the different volume to carbon estimates. Small diatoms have 10 times more carbon density than large...

  8. Topographic distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amis, T.C.; Pascoe, J.R.; Hornof, W.

    1984-01-01

    The regional distribution of ventilation to perfusion ratios (VA/Q) in the lungs of 8 healthy standing Thoroughbred geldings (4.4 +/- 1.5 years, 465.7 +/- 46.6 kg) was studied, using steady-state inhalation and IV infusion of the radioactive gas krypton-81m. The VA/Q was uniformly distributed within a vertical lung strip centered over the 9th rib on the right side. Ventilation per unit of alveolar volume (V/VA) assessed from the clearance of inhaled radioactive gas in 5 horses increased from 0.49 +/- 0.13 (arbitrary units) in nondependent lung zones to 1.45 +/- 0.16 in dependent lung zones. Seemingly, a vertical gradient of pulmonary ventilation exists in the horse that is matched by a similar gradient of perfusion

  9. Topographic distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in the horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amis, T.C.; Pascoe, J.R.; Hornof, W.

    1984-08-01

    The regional distribution of ventilation to perfusion ratios (VA/Q) in the lungs of 8 healthy standing Thoroughbred geldings (4.4 +/- 1.5 years, 465.7 +/- 46.6 kg) was studied, using steady-state inhalation and IV infusion of the radioactive gas krypton-81m. The VA/Q was uniformly distributed within a vertical lung strip centered over the 9th rib on the right side. Ventilation per unit of alveolar volume (V/VA) assessed from the clearance of inhaled radioactive gas in 5 horses increased from 0.49 +/- 0.13 (arbitrary units) in nondependent lung zones to 1.45 +/- 0.16 in dependent lung zones. Seemingly, a vertical gradient of pulmonary ventilation exists in the horse that is matched by a similar gradient of perfusion.

  10. Mean Platelet Volume and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Crimean–Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Koçer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic infection caused by Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and mean platelet volume (MPV which are simple markers of subclinical inflammation and CCHF. We also investigated the relationship of these markers with coagulation parameters.Methods: Thirty-one suspected CCHF patients, who submitted to Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between 2009 and 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. Among thirty-one patients, nineteen were laboratory confirmed CCHF patients diagnosed by RT-PCR or CCHFV-specific IgM positivity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatinin phosphokinase (CK, coagulation parameters, white blood cell counts (WBCs, and platelet counts of patient group were compared with twenty-five healthy individuals.Results: MPV, AST, ALT, LDH, CK and coagulation parameters were significantly higher in patients with CCHF than the controls, whereas WBCs, neutrophil, lymphocyte, hemoglobin, platelet counts and NLR were significantly lower (p<0.05. We found no significant correlation between MPV, NLR and coagulation parameters.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MPV and NLR may be beneficial markers in the diagnosis of CCHF. But these parameters should not be considered stand-alone tests for this use owing to nonspecificity with other diseases.

  11. Determination of the ratio r v = d v u v of the valence quark distributions in the proton from neutrino and antineutrino reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1994-12-01

    Based on a QCD analysis of the parton momentum distributions in the proton, the ratio r v = d v / u v of the d and u valence quark distributions is determined as function of x in the range 0.01< x<0.7. The analysis uses data from neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on hydrogen and deuterium, obtained with BEBC in the (anti)neutrino wideband beam of the CERN SPS. Since v mainly depends on the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of the normalised x-y-Q 2-distributions many systematic effects cancel. It is found that r v decreases with increasing x, and drops below the naive SU(6) expectation of 0.5 for x≳0.3. An extrapolation of r v to x=1 is consistent with the hypothesis r v (1)=0.

  12. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 1. Annotated bibliography and database descriptions for target-species distribution and abundance studies. Section 1, Part 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of the volume is to present an annotated bibliography of unpublished and grey literature related to the distribution and abundance of select species of finfish and shellfish along the coasts of the United States. The volume also includes descriptions of databases that contain information related to target species' distribution and abundance. An index is provided at the end of each section to help the reader locate studies or databases related to a particular species

  13. Potential impacts of OCS oil and gas activities on fisheries. Volume 1. Annotated bibliography and database descriptions for target species distribution and abundance studies. Section 1, Part 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tear, L.M.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of the volume is to present an annotated bibliography of unpublished and grey literature related to the distribution and abundance of select species of finfish and shellfish along the coasts of the United States. The volume also includes descriptions of databases that contain information related to target species' distribution and abundance. An index is provided at the end of each section to help the reader locate studies or databases related to a particular species

  14. On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saralees Nadarajah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.

  15. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for a...

  16. Volume of interest CBCT and tube current modulation for image guidance using dynamic kV collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, David, E-mail: david.parsons@dal.ca, E-mail: james.robar@nshealth.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Robar, James L., E-mail: david.parsons@dal.ca, E-mail: james.robar@nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work is the development of a novel blade collimation system enabling volume of interest (VOI) CBCT with tube current modulation using the kV image guidance source on a linear accelerator. Advantages of the system are assessed, particularly with regard to reduction and localization of dose and improvement of image quality. Methods: A four blade dynamic kV collimator was developed to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current prototype is capable of tracking an arbitrary volume defined by the treatment planner for subsequent CBCT guidance. During gantry rotation, the collimator tracks the VOI with adjustment of position and dimension. CBCT image quality was investigated as a function of collimator dimension, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 22.2 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Dose distributions were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field CBCT distributions to quantify dose reduction and localization to the target volume. A novel method of optimizing x-ray tube current during CBCT acquisition was developed and assessed with regard to contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and imaging dose. Results: Measurements show that the VOI CBCT method using the dynamic blade system yields an increase in contrast-to-noise ratio by a factor of approximately 2.2. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 15%–80% of the full-field CBCT value along the central axis plane and down to less than 1% out of plane. The use of tube current modulation allowed for specification of a desired SNR within projection data. For approximately the same dose to the VOI, CNR was further increased by a factor of 1.2 for modulated VOI CBCT, giving a combined improvement of 2.6 compared to full-field CBCT. Conclusions: The present dynamic blade system provides significant improvements in CNR for the same

  17. Review of criteria for the selection of probability distributions for wind speed data and introduction of the moment and L-moment ratio diagram methods, with a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouarda, T.B.M.J.; Charron, C.; Chebana, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of criteria used to select probability distributions to model wind speed data. • Classical and L-moment ratio diagrams are applied to wind speed data. • The diagrams allow to select the best distribution to model each wind speed sample. • The goodness-of-fit statistics are more consistent with the L-moment ratio diagram. - Abstract: This paper reviews the different criteria used in the field of wind energy to compare the goodness-of-fit of candidate probability density functions (pdfs) to wind speed records, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The moment ratio and L-moment ratio diagram methods are also proposed as alternative methods for the choice of the pdfs. These two methods have the advantage of allowing an easy comparison of the fit of several pdfs for several time series (stations) on a single diagram. Plotting the position of a given wind speed data set in these diagrams is instantaneous and provides more information than a goodness-of-fit criterion since it provides knowledge about such characteristics as the skewness and kurtosis of the station data set. In this paper, it is proposed to study the applicability of these two methods for the selection of pdfs for wind speed data. Both types of diagrams are used to assess the fit of the pdfs for wind speed series in the United Arab Emirates. The analysis of the moment ratio diagrams reveals that the Kappa, Log-Pearson type III and Generalized Gamma are the distributions that fit best all wind speed series. The Weibull represents the best distribution among those with only one shape parameter. Results obtained with the diagrams are compared with those obtained with goodness-of-fit statistics and a good agreement is observed especially in the case of the L-moment ratio diagram. It is concluded that these diagrams can represent a simple and efficient approach to be used as complementary method to goodness-of-fit criteria.

  18. A distributed-memory hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chao [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering; Pouransari, Hadi [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Boman, Erik G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Darve, Eric [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Inst. for Computational and Mathematical Engineering and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-12-20

    We present a parallel hierarchical solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed-memory machines. For large-scale problems, this fully algebraic algorithm is faster and more memory-efficient than sparse direct solvers because it exploits the low-rank structure of fill-in blocks. Depending on the accuracy of low-rank approximations, the hierarchical solver can be used either as a direct solver or as a preconditioner. The parallel algorithm is based on data decomposition and requires only local communication for updating boundary data on every processor. Moreover, the computation-to-communication ratio of the parallel algorithm is approximately the volume-to-surface-area ratio of the subdomain owned by every processor. We also provide various numerical results to demonstrate the versatility and scalability of the parallel algorithm.

  19. Geometrical considerations in dose volume analysis in intracavitary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Pradhan, A.S.; Viswanathan, P.S.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present work was aimed at to study the relationship between the volume enclosed by reference iodose surface and various geometrical parameters of the intracavitary applicator in treatment of carcinoma of cervix. Pearshape volume of the reference isodose derived from the Total Reference Air Kerma (TRAK) and the product of its dimensions, height H, width W and thickness T which is dependent on the applicator geometry, were estimated for 100 intracavitary applications treated by Selectron LDR machine. Orthogonal radiographs taken for each patient were used for measurement of actual geometric dimensions of the applicator and carrying out the dosimetry on TP-11 treatment planning system. The dimensions H, W and T of reference isodose surface (60 Gy) were also noted. Ratio of the product HWT and the pearshape volume was found mainly to be a function of colpostat separation and not of other geometrical parameters like maximum vertical and anterio-posterior dimension of the applicator. The ratio remained almost constant for a particular combination of uterine tandem and colpostat. Variation in the ratios were attributed to the non-standard geometry. The ratio of the volume of reference isodose surface to the product of its dimensions in the applicator depends upon the colpostat separation. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Numerical expression of volume status using the bioimpedance ratio in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume overload results in higher mortality rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. The ratio of bioimpedance (RBI might be a helpful parameter in adjusting dry body weight in CAPD patients. This study examined whether it is possible to distinguish between non-hypervolemic status and hypervolemic status in CAPD patients by using only RBI. Methods: RBI was calculated as follows: RBI = impedance at 50 kHz/impedance at 500 kHz. Based on the experts’ judgements, a total of 64 CAPD patients were divided into two groups, a non-hypervolemic group and a hypervolemic group. The RBI was measured from right wrist to right ankle (rw-raRBI by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM®, Fresenius Medical Care before and after the peritosol was emptied. Other RBIs were measured from the right side of the anterior superior iliac spine to the ipsilateral ankle (rasis-raRBI to control for the electro-physiological effects of peritoneal dialysate. Results: The mean rw-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients in the presence (1.141 ± 0.022 vs. 1.121 ± 0.021, P < 0.001 of a peritosol. Likewise, the mean rasis-raRBI of non-hypervolemic patients was higher than that of hypervolemic patients (presence of peritosol: 1.136 ± 0.026 vs. 1.109 ± 0.022, P < 0.001; absence of peritosol: 1.131 ± 0.022 vs. 1.107 ± 0.022, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The volume status of CAPD patients was able to be simply expressed by RBI. Therefore, this study suggests that when patients cannot be analyzed using BCM, RBI could be an alternative.

  1. Age-related changes in volumes of the ventricles, sulci and periventricular hyperintensity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kenji; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Matsui, Hiroshige; Yamada, Susumu; Hishinuma, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Brain atrophy in 47 subjects without neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 46 to 82 years, was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, the association of the periventricular hyperintensity area (PVH) recognized with MRI, was also investigated. The volume percentages of the brain, the ventricles and sulci to cranial cavity were calculated as indicators of brain atrophy. The brain volume index decreased and the indeces of the ventricles and sulci linearly increased with age, significantly. The volume ratio of the ventricles to sulci significantly increased with increasing age (p < 0.01) and the correlation coefficient was 0.38. This ratio showed negative correlation to the brain volume index. The volume percentage of PVH to the cranial cavity started to increase in the sixties and negatively correlated with the brain volume index. There was positive correlation between the ratio of the ventricles to sulci and the index of PVH. (author)

  2. Vertical distribution of optical and microphysical properties of smog aerosols measured by multi-wavelength polarization lidar in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Huige; Hua, Hangbo; Cui, Yan; Hua, Dengxin; He, Tingyao; Wang, Yufeng; Yan, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-wavelength polarization lidar was developed at the Lidar Center for Atmosphere Remote Sensing, in Xi'an, China to study the vertical distribution of the optical and microphysical properties of smog aerosols. To better understand smog, two events with different haze conditions observed in January 2015 were analyzed in detail. Using these data, we performed a vertical characterization of smog evolution using the lidar range-squared-corrected signal and the aerosol depolarization ratio. Using inversion with regularization, we retrieved the vertical distribution of aerosol microphysical properties, including volume size distribution, volume concentration, number concentration and effective radius. We also used the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to analyze aerosol sources during the two episodes. Our results show that the most polluted area in the lower troposphere during smog episodes is located below a height of 1 km above the ground level; under more severe smog conditions, it can be below 0.5 km. In the case of severe smog, we found a large number of spherical and fine particles concentrated in the very low troposphere, even below 0.5 km. Surprisingly, a dust layer with a slight depolarization ratio was observed above the smog layer.

  3. Normal radiographic heart volume in the neonate. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, A.; Ringertz, H.G.; Sachsska Pediatric Hospital, Stockholm

    1985-01-01

    The diagnostic power of the heart volume and the cardiothoracic ratio in congenital heart disease in neonates has been compared. A consecutive series of 130 children with suspection of heart disease examined radiologically at between 48 h and 15 days of age were followed for 14+-10 months. Of these, 16 (12%) were diagnosed as having congenital heart disease. The number of false positive and negative diagnoses was less for heart volume than for cardiothoracic ratio using +2 SD as limit for pathology. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity was 84, 75, and 85% respectively for heart volume and 73, 57, and 75% for cardiothoracic ratio. Cases that were false positive with both methods were significantly more often examined between 48 and 72 hours of age indicating that the explanation might be a somewhat late closure of the ductus arteriosus. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of White Matter Damage in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis via a Novel In Vivo MR Method for Measuring Myelin, Axons, and G-Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Hori, M; Yokoyama, K; Nakazawa, M; Ueda, R; Horita, M; Andica, C; Abe, O; Aoki, S

    2017-10-01

    Myelin and axon volume fractions can now be estimated via MR imaging in vivo, as can the g-ratio, which equals the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of a nerve fiber. The purpose of this study was to evaluate WM damage in patients with MS via this novel MR imaging technique. Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a combined total of 149 chronic plaques were analyzed. Myelin volume fraction was calculated based on simultaneous tissue relaxometry. Intracellular and CSF compartment volume fractions were quantified via neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. Axon volume fraction and g-ratio were calculated by combining these measurements. Myelin and axon volume fractions and g-ratio were measured in plaques, periplaque WM, and normal-appearing WM. All metrics differed significantly across the 3 groups ( P ratio between periplaque WM and normal-appearing WM). Those in plaques differed most from those in normal-appearing WM. The percentage changes in plaque and periplaque WM metrics relative to normal-appearing WM were significantly larger in absolute value for myelin volume fraction than for axon volume fraction and g-ratio ( P ratio may potentially be useful for evaluating WM damage in patients with MS. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  5. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  6. Long-term tissue distribution and steady state activity ratios of 232Th and its daughters in rats after intravascular injection of thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimura, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Takehiko; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Yamamoto, Hisao; Okajima, Shunzo.

    1989-01-01

    To estimate the absorbed dose in the critical organs of Thorotrast patients, it is necessary to know not only the distribution and concentration of 232 Th but also its daughter nuclides in the body. The present investigation was undertaken in order to clarify the long-term 232 Th tissue distribution and steady state activity ratios between subsequent daughters in the critical tissues, using about 30 Wister male rats, as a basis for estimating absorbed doses. The tissue distribution of thorium was examined by means of an autoradiographty of the whole body and/or the gamma-ray spectrometry at various times during 2 to 24 months following injection. The concentrations of daughter nuclides in tissues were determined by repetitive gamma examination over a period from 1 hr to 35 days after being sacrificed. The data indicate (1) that approximately 90% of injected Thorotrast is retained in the body for a prolonged period, but about 50% of radium and 10% of radon produced from thorium are eliminated from the body, (2) that the mean steady state activity ratios of 224 Ra and 212 Pb to 228 Th for liver are 0.56 and 0.28, and 0.54 and 0.16 for spleen, 0.58 and 0.82 for lungs, respectively, and (3) that the parent 228 Th is translocated to the bone. (author)

  7. The probability distribution of extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. Yu.; Gorshenin, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    On the basis of the negative binomial distribution of the duration of wet periods calculated per day, an asymptotic model is proposed for distributing the maximum daily rainfall volume during the wet period, having the form of a mixture of Frechet distributions and coinciding with the distribution of the positive degree of a random variable having the Fisher-Snedecor distribution. The method of proving the corresponding result is based on limit theorems for extreme order statistics in samples of a random volume with a mixed Poisson distribution. The adequacy of the models proposed and methods of their statistical analysis is demonstrated by the example of estimating the extreme distribution parameters based on real data.

  8. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  9. Ratio of prostate specific antigen to the outer gland volume of prostrate as a predictor for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Min; Yan, Yang; Wang, Fang; Gu, Wen-Yu; Hu, Guang-Hui; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    As a definite diagnosis of prostate cancer, puncture biopsy of the prostate is invasive method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of OPSAD (the ratio of PSA to the outer gland volume of prostate) as a non-invasive screening and diagnosis method for prostate cancer in a select population. The diagnosis data of 490 subjects undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. This included 133 patients with prostate cancer, and 357 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The OPSAD was significantly greater in patients with prostate cancer (1.87 ± 1.26 ng/ml(2)) than those with BPH (0.44 ± 0.21 ng/ml(2)) (P prostate cancer. In the different groups divided according to the Gleason score of prostate cancer, OPSAD is elevated with the rise of the Gleason score. OPSAD may be used as a new indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer, and it can reduce the use of unnecessary puncture biopsy of the prostate.

  10. Diffusion of dilute gas in arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned, high-aspect-ratio cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szmyt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we modelled the diffusive transport of a dilute gas along arrays of randomly distributed, vertically aligned nanocylinders (nanotubes or nanowires as opposed to gas diffusion in long pores, which is described by the well-known Knudsen theory. Analytical expressions for (i the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays, (ii the time between collisions of molecules with the nanocylinder walls (mean time of flight, (iii the surface impingement rate, and (iv the Knudsen number of such a system were rigidly derived based on a random-walk model of a molecule that undergoes memoryless, diffusive reflections from nanocylinder walls assuming the molecular regime of gas transport. It can be specifically shown that the gas diffusion coefficient inside such arrays is inversely proportional to the areal density of cylinders and their mean diameter. An example calculation of a diffusion coefficient is delivered for a system of titanium isopropoxide molecules diffusing between vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Our findings are important for the correct modelling and optimisation of gas-based deposition techniques, such as atomic layer deposition or chemical vapour deposition, frequently used for surface functionalisation of high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays in solar cells and energy storage applications. Furthermore, gas sensing devices with high-aspect-ratio nanocylinder arrays and the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes need the fundamental understanding and precise modelling of gas transport to optimise such processes.

  11. CONSTRAINTS ON BLACK HOLE GROWTH, QUASAR LIFETIMES, AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS FROM THE SDSS BROAD-LINE QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Hernquist, Lars; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan Xiaohui; Hopkins, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of the black hole mass function of broad-line quasars (BLQSOs) that self-consistently corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates, based on a sample of 9886 quasars at 1 1 it is highly incomplete at M BH ∼ 9 M sun and L/L Edd ∼ BL > 150 ± 15 Myr for black holes at z = 1 with a mass of M BH = 10 9 M sun , and we constrain the maximum mass of a black hole in a BLQSO to be ∼3 x 10 10 M sun . Our estimated distribution of BLQSO Eddington ratios peaks at L/L Edd ∼ 0.05 and has a dispersion of ∼0.4 dex, implying that most BLQSOs are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit; however, the location of the peak is subject to considerable uncertainty. The steep increase in number density of BLQSOs toward lower Eddington ratios is expected if the BLQSO accretion rate monotonically decays with time. Furthermore, our estimated lifetime and Eddington ratio distributions imply that the majority of the most massive black holes spend a significant amount of time growing in an earlier obscured phase, a conclusion which is independent of the unknown obscured fraction. These results are consistent with models for self-regulated black hole growth, at least for massive systems at z > 1, where the BLQSO phase occurs at the end of a fueling event when black hole feedback unbinds the accreting gas, halting the accretion flow.

  12. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CT Identification and Fractal Characterization of 3-D Propagation and Distribution of Hydrofracturing Cracks in Low-Permeability Heterogeneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Ju, Yang; Gao, Feng; Ranjith, Pathegama G.; Zhang, Qianbing

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and characterization of the three-dimensional (3-D) propagation and distribution of hydrofracturing cracks in heterogeneous rock are key for enhancing the stimulation of low-permeability petroleum reservoirs. In this study, we investigated the propagation and distribution characteristics of hydrofracturing cracks, by conducting true triaxial hydrofracturing tests and computed tomography on artificial heterogeneous rock specimens. Silica sand, Portland cement, and aedelforsite were mixed to create artificial heterogeneous rock specimens using the data of mineral compositions, coarse gravel distribution, and mechanical properties that were measured from the natural heterogeneous glutenite cores. To probe the effects of material heterogeneity on hydrofracturing cracks, the artificial homogenous specimens were created using the identical matrix compositions of the heterogeneous rock specimens and then fractured for comparison. The effects of horizontal geostress ratio on the 3-D growth and distribution of cracks during hydrofracturing were examined. A fractal-based method was proposed to characterize the complexity of fractures and the efficiency of hydrofracturing stimulation of heterogeneous media. The material heterogeneity and horizontal geostress ratio were found to significantly influence the 3-D morphology, growth, and distribution of hydrofracturing cracks. A horizontal geostress ratio of 1.7 appears to be the upper limit for the occurrence of multiple cracks, and higher ratios cause a single crack perpendicular to the minimum horizontal geostress component. The fracturing efficiency is associated with not only the fractured volume but also the complexity of the crack network.

  14. Phantom study of PET/CT guided delineation of radiation therapy volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Zheng Rong; Wang Yibin; Geng Jianhua; Wu Ning; Zhao Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a model-based method for calculating the threshold in GTV determination by 18 F-FDG PET in a phantom study. Methods: A phantom was constructed of a 9 L cylindrical tank.Glass spheres with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 16 ml (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 ml) were suspended within the tank. The six spheres were filled with an identical concentration of FDG (203.5 MBq/L) and suspended within 3 different background baths of FDG (6.179, 16.021, 0 MBq/L) solutions, creating 3 target-to-background ratios of 32.96 : 1, 12.69 : 1 and target to zero background. A linear regressive function was constructed which represented the relationship between the threshold and the average activity concentration of the target. A 40% of maximum intensity threshold and the linear regressive function method were applied to define the spheres filled with 18 F-FDG. The volume differences between the two methods and the true volumes of the spheres were compared with t-test. Results: The linear regressive function model was derived as:threshold =(mean target concentration + 2.6227)/1.9752. The results indicated that a smaller deviation occurred when the function was utilized to estimate the volumes of the phantoms as compared to the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method, but there were no significant differences between them (t=0.306, P>0.05). The effect of the linear regressive function on volume was such that when the phantom sphere volumes were ≥ 1 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was 1.01%; but when the phantom sphere volume was 0.5 ml, the average deviation was 9.53%. When the 40% of maximum intensity threshold method was applied to define the phantom spheres of volume ≥2 ml, the average deviation between the defined volumes and the true volumes of phantoms was -4.62%; but, the average deviation of that was 19.9% when the volumes of spheres were 0.5 and 1 ml. When the linear regressive function was applied to

  15. The Distribution of Minimum of Ratios of Two Random Variables and Its Application in Analysis of Multi-hop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stankovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of random variables are of interest in many areas of science. In this paper, ascertaining on the importance of multi-hop transmission in contemporary wireless communications systems operating over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference, the probability density functions (PDFs of minimum of arbitrary number of ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull and α-µ random variables are derived. These expressions can be used to study the outage probability as an important multi-hop system performance measure. Various numerical results complement the proposed mathematical analysis.

  16. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  17. Simultaneous equivalence ratio and velocity measurements for non-stationary combustion study in a stratified flow; Mesures couplees de richesse et de vitesse pour la combustion instationnaire en ecoulement stratifie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier-Guilbert, N

    2004-12-15

    Simultaneous knowledge of local velocity and equivalence ratio is very important in numerous combustion applications and especially for direct injection engines where the flame propagates through a heterogeneous concentration distribution of fuel-air mixture. This study reproduce heterogeneities of equivalence ratio with propane and air in a constant volume combustion vessel. The local influence of velocity and equivalence ratio on the propagation of a spark-ignited flame is studied. To create a stratification, a rich axisymmetric pulsed jet is injected in a leaner chamber and the mixing is ignited. Two optical diagnostics are used simultaneously, PIV for velocity and FARLIF for equivalence ratio, with or without combustion. All properties and range of applications of PIV and FARLIF have been verified. These methods were then used to study the characteristics of stratified combustion. (author)

  18. The Relationship of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Red Cell Distribution Width-Platelet Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and red cell distribution widthplatelet ratio (RPR, and the variations in the parameters on vitamin B12 treatment. Methods: One hundred fifty-four patients with untreated vitamin B12 deficiency (56% men, mean age: 50 ± 12.7 years (untreated group, 86 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (62% men, mean age: 42 ± 20.7 years on vitamin B12 treatment (treated group, and 92 age- and sex-matched control group (54% men, mean age: 45 ± 15.1 years were included in the study. Hematological parameters were evaluated by the method of laser-based flow cytometric impedance, using an automated blood cell counter (ABX Pentra 120 Hematology Blood Analyzer. Results: RPR was significantly reduced in treated group compared with untreated group (4.88 ± 1.06; 6.13 ± 1.27; p0.05. Conclusion: We proposed that vitamin B12 deficiency has effects on RPR and supplementation with vitamin B12 corrects the RPR levels. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (3: 211-215

  19. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  20. Selected financial and operating ratios of public power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the American Public Power Association published its fourth report on financial and operating ratios. Based on 1990 data for the largest public power distribution systems, the report examined 21 categories of ratio indicators that can be used by public power distribution systems to assess their performance relative to the utilities of of comparable size and in the same geographic region. The 394 utilities summarized in the report are those that are required to file financial statements with the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Ratios were calculated from financial and operating data reported by utilities to the EIA. Data are presented for the following ratios: (1) revenue per kW/hr; (2) revenue for customer; (3) debt to total assets; (4) operating ratio; (5) current ratio; (6) times interest earned; (7) net income per revenue dollar; (8) uncollectible accounts per revenue dollar; (9) retail MW hr sales per manpower generation employee; (10) retail customers per nonpower generation employee; (11) total operation and maintenane expense per kW hr sold; (12) total operation and maintenance expense per retail customer; (13) total power supply expense kW hr sold; (14) purchased power cost per kW hr; (15) production expense per not kW hr; (16) retail customers for with reader; (17) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per retail customer; (18) distribution operation and maintenance expenses per circuit mile; (19) customer accounting, customer service and sales expenses per retail customers; (20) administration and general expenses per retail customer; (21) labor expense per worker-hour; (22) OSHA incidence rate; and (23) the system average interruptible duration index

  1. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Vector-Host Contact (VHC) Ratios and Ecological Niche Modeling of the West Nile Virus Mosquito Vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, in the City of New Orleans, LA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mohamed F; Michaels, Sarah R; Riegel, Claudia; Pereira, Roberto M; Zipperer, Wayne; Lockaby, B Graeme; Koehler, Philip G

    2017-08-08

    The consistent sporadic transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the city of New Orleans justifies the need for distribution risk maps highlighting human risk of mosquito bites. We modeled the influence of biophysical and socioeconomic metrics on the spatio-temporal distributions of presence/vector-host contact (VHC) ratios of WNV vector, Culex quinquefasciatus , within their flight range . Biophysical and socioeconomic data were extracted within 5-km buffer radii around sampling localities of gravid female Culex quinquefasciatus . The spatio-temporal correlations between VHC data and 33 variables, including climate, land use-land cover (LULC), socioeconomic, and land surface terrain were analyzed using stepwise linear regression models (RM). Using MaxEnt, we developed a distribution model using the correlated predicting variables. Only 12 factors showed significant correlations with spatial distribution of VHC ratios ( R ² = 81.62, p < 0.01). Non-forested wetland (NFWL), tree density (TD) and residential-urban (RU) settings demonstrated the strongest relationship. The VHC ratios showed monthly environmental resilience in terms of number and type of influential factors. The highest prediction power of RU and other urban and built up land (OUBL), was demonstrated during May-August. This association was positively correlated with the onset of the mosquito WNV infection rate during June. These findings were confirmed by the Jackknife analysis in MaxEnt and independently collected field validation points. The spatial and temporal correlations of VHC ratios and their response to the predicting variables are discussed.

  3. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Mean platelet volume in bipolar disorder: the search for an ideal biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert DG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Derya Guliz Mert,1 Hatice Terzi2 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Background: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD remains a mystery. In this context, interest in the role of the immune and inflammatory systems in BD has been increasing. We aimed to compare the routine hemogram values of BD patients with those of the participants in the healthy control group, to assess the inflammation levels of the two groups. Mean platelet volume (MPV can be obtained as routine hemogram parameters and may aid in the detection of systemic inflammation. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted with BD (manic episode inpatients (n=132 and healthy controls (n=135. Abnormally distributed variables (ie, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio [NLR], platelet–lymphocyte ratio [PLR], neutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit [HCT], mean corpuscular volume [MCV], mean corpuscular hemoglobin [MCH], mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration [MCHC], red cell distribution width [RDW], MPV, and plateletcrit [PCT] were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean ages and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts of the patients with BD against those of the participants in the control group. Results: The comparisons revealed that while the mean WBC and the median NLR, PLR, neutrophil, lymphocyte, MPV, and PCT values were significantly higher in the patients with BD (P<0.05, the median hemoglobin, RBC, HCT, and MCHC values were significantly higher in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Comparisons of hemogram values of patients with BD against those of the healthy control group revealed that inflammatory cells (absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, PCT, and MPV and ratios (NLR, PLR seem to be altered during manic episodes. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammatory activation occurs in BD during manic

  5. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  6. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  7. Influence of stapling the intersegmental planes on lung volume and function after segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshida, Kumiko; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Okabe, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Dividing the intersegmental planes with a stapler during pulmonary segmentectomy leads to volume loss in the remnant segment. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of segment division methods on preserved lung volume and pulmonary function after segmentectomy. Using image analysis software on computed tomography (CT) images of 41 patients, the ratio of remnant segment and ipsilateral lung volume to their preoperative values (R-seg and R-ips) was calculated. The ratio of postoperative actual forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) per those predicted values based on three-dimensional volumetry (R-FEV1 and R-FVC) was also calculated. Differences in actual/predicted ratios of lung volume and pulmonary function for each of the division methods were analysed. We also investigated the correlations of the actual/predicted ratio of remnant lung volume with that of postoperative pulmonary function. The intersegmental planes were divided by either electrocautery or with a stapler in 22 patients and with a stapler alone in 19 patients. Mean values of R-seg and R-ips were 82.7 (37.9-140.2) and 104.9 (77.5-129.2)%, respectively. The mean values of R-FEV1 and R-FVC were 103.9 (83.7-135.1) and 103.4 (82.2-125.1)%, respectively. There were no correlations between the actual/predicted ratio of remnant lung volume and pulmonary function based on the division method. Both R-FEV1 and R-FVC were correlated not with R-seg, but with R-ips. Stapling does not lead to less preserved volume or function than electrocautery in the division of the intersegmental planes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of pulmonary volume by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro

    1984-01-01

    The pulmonary volume overlapping the shadows of the mediastinum and the hilus pulmonis in frontal chest films was determined by means of CT. The pulmonary volume, between the levels of the aortic arch and just above the right diaphragm, overlapping the shadows of the mediastinum and the hilus, was one fourth of the entire pulmonary volume between the same levels. When the lungs overlapping the mediastinum and the hilus were divided into a region overlapping the spine and the aorta (region A) and another region (region B), the ratio of the volume of region A to that of region B was 1:3. CT is useful for quantitative roentgenological anatomy of the lungs. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  10. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  11. RECONSTRUCTING THE ACCRETION HISTORY OF THE GALACTIC STELLAR HALO FROM CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10 3–4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time

  12. RECONSTRUCTING THE ACCRETION HISTORY OF THE GALACTIC STELLAR HALO FROM CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duane M. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States); Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will, E-mail: duane@shao.ac.cn [Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10{sup 3–4} mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  13. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  14. Intraarticular volume and clearance in human synovial effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, W.J.; Simkin, P.A.; Nelp, W.B.; Foster, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Intraarticular volumes were measured by radiolabeled albumin (RISA) distribution in chronic knee effusions from 11 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 9 osteoarthritis patients. Volumes of synovial fluid obtained at joint aspiration were substantially less than those found by RISA dilution. Up to 24 hours was needed for full distribution of RISA throughout the intraarticular compartment. Measured 123I and RISA radioactivity over the knee described monoexponential rate constants, lambda (minute-1). The clearance of 123I and RISA from synovial effusions was derived by the formulation volume (ml) X lambda (minute-1) = clearance (ml/minute). RISA clearance in rheumatoid effusions was significantly greater than that found in osteoarthritis effusions. Intraarticular volume and isotope clearance were easily quantified and provide measures for further evaluating the microvascular physiology of synovial effusions

  15. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  16. Trends in laboratory test volumes for Medicare Part B reimbursements, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahangian, Shahram; Alspach, Todd D; Astles, J Rex; Yesupriya, Ajay; Dettwyler, William K

    2014-02-01

    Changes in reimbursements for clinical laboratory testing may help us assess the effect of various variables, such as testing recommendations, market forces, changes in testing technology, and changes in clinical or laboratory practices, and provide information that can influence health care and public health policy decisions. To date, however, there has been no report, to our knowledge, of longitudinal trends in national laboratory test use. To evaluate Medicare Part B-reimbursed volumes of selected laboratory tests per 10,000 enrollees from 2000 through 2010. Laboratory test reimbursement volumes per 10,000 enrollees in Medicare Part B were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (Baltimore, Maryland). The ratio of the most recent (2010) reimbursed test volume per 10,000 Medicare enrollees, divided by the oldest data (usually 2000) during this decade, called the volume ratio, was used to measure trends in test reimbursement. Laboratory tests with a reimbursement claim frequency of at least 10 per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 2010 were selected, provided there was more than a 50% change in test reimbursement volume during the 2000-2010 decade. We combined the reimbursed test volumes for the few tests that were listed under more than one code in the Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois). A 2-sided Poisson regression, adjusted for potential overdispersion, was used to determine P values for the trend; trends were considered significant at P reimbursement volumes were electrolytes, digoxin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lithium, with volume ratios ranging from 0.27 to 0.64 (P reimbursement volumes were meprobamate, opiates, methadone, phencyclidine, amphetamines, cocaine, and vitamin D, with volume ratios ranging from 83 to 1510 (P reimbursement volumes increased for most of the selected tests, other tests exhibited statistically significant downward trends in annual reimbursement volumes. The observed

  17. Application of Performance Ratios in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of modern portfolio theory was established by pioneer work of Harry Markowitz. Based on his mean-variance framework, Sharpe formulated his well-known Sharpe ratio aiming to measure the performance of mutual funds. The contemporary development in computer’s computational power allowed to apply more complex performance ratios, which take into account also higher moments of return probability distribution. Although these ratios were proposed to help the investors to improve the results of portfolio optimization, we empirically demonstrated in our paper that this may not necessarily be true. On the historical dataset of DJIA components we empirically showed that both Sharpe ratio and MAD ratio outperformed Rachev ratio. However, for Rachev ratio we assumed only one level of parameters value. Different set-ups of parameters may provide different results and thus further analysis is certainly required.

  18. Globally distributed software defined storage (proposal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevel, A.; Khoruzhnikov, S.; Grudinin, V.; Sadov, O.; Kairkanov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The volume of the coming data in HEP is growing. The volume of the data to be held for a long time is growing as well. Large volume of data - big data - is distributed around the planet. The methods, approaches how to organize and manage the globally distributed data storage are required. The distributed storage has several examples for personal needs like own-cloud.org, pydio.com, seafile.com, sparkleshare.org. For enterprise-level there is a number of systems: SWIFT - distributed storage systems (part of Openstack), CEPH and the like which are mostly object storage. When several data center’s resources are integrated, the organization of data links becomes very important issue especially if several parallel data links between data centers are used. The situation in data centers and in data links may vary each hour. All that means each part of distributed data storage has to be able to rearrange usage of data links and storage servers in each data center. In addition, for each customer of distributed storage different requirements could appear. The above topics are planned to be discussed in data storage proposal.

  19. Ventilatory protective strategies during thoracic surgery: effects of alveolar recruitment maneuver and low-tidal volume ventilation on lung density distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozian, Alf; Schilling, Thomas; Schütze, Hartmut; Senturk, Mert; Hachenberg, Thomas; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2011-05-01

    The increased tidal volume (V(T)) applied to the ventilated lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) enhances cyclic alveolar recruitment and mechanical stress. It is unknown whether alveolar recruitment maneuvers (ARMs) and reduced V(T) may influence tidal recruitment and lung density. Therefore, the effects of ARM and OLV with different V(T) on pulmonary gas/tissue distribution are examined. Eight anesthetized piglets were mechanically ventilated (V(T) = 10 ml/kg). A defined ARM was applied to the whole lung (40 cm H(2)O for 10 s). Spiral computed tomographic lung scans were acquired before and after ARM. Thereafter, the lungs were separated with an endobronchial blocker. The pigs were randomized to receive OLV in the dependent lung with a V(T) of either 5 or 10 ml/kg. Computed tomography was repeated during and after OLV. The voxels were categorized by density intervals (i.e., atelectasis, poorly aerated, normally aerated, or overaerated). Tidal recruitment was defined as the addition of gas to collapsed lung regions. The dependent lung contained atelectatic (56 ± 10 ml), poorly aerated (183 ± 10 ml), and normally aerated (187 ± 29 ml) regions before ARM. After ARM, lung volume and aeration increased (426 ± 35 vs. 526 ± 69 ml). Respiratory compliance enhanced, and tidal recruitment decreased (95% vs. 79% of the whole end-expiratory lung volume). OLV with 10 ml/kg further increased aeration (atelectasis, 15 ± 2 ml; poorly aerated, 94 ± 24 ml; normally aerated, 580 ± 98 ml) and tidal recruitment (81% of the dependent lung). OLV with 5 ml/kg did not affect tidal recruitment or lung density distribution. (Data are given as mean ± SD.) The ARM improves aeration and respiratory mechanics. In contrast to OLV with high V(T), OLV with reduced V(T) does not reinforce tidal recruitment, indicating decreased mechanical stress.

  20. A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannone, Rosario Q.; Romanini, Daniele; Kassi, Samir; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Kerstel, Erik R. Th.

    A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in situ the water vapor deuterium and oxygen ((17)O and

  1. Erythropoietic bone marrow in the pigeon: Development of its distribution and volume during growth and pneumatization of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepelmann, K.

    1990-01-01

    During postnatal development of the pigeon, a large portion of the skeleton becomes pneumatized, displacing the hemopoietic bone marrow. The consequences of pneumatization on distribution and quantity of bone marrow as well as the availability of other sites for hemopoiesis have been investigated. Hemopoietic marrow of differently aged pigeons divided into five groups from 1 week posthatching (p.h.) up to 6 months p.h. was labeled with Fe-59 and examined by serial whole-body sections. Autoradiography and morphometry as well as scintillation counts of single bones and organs were also carried out. No sign of a reactivation of embryonic sites of erythropoiesis was found. Bone marrow weight and its proportion of whole-body weight increased during the first 4 weeks p.h. from 0.54% to 2.44% and decreased in the following months to about 1.0%. The developing bone marrow showed a progressive distribution during the first months of life, eventually being distributed proportionally over the entire skeleton, except for the skull. At the age of 6 months p.h. bone marrow had been displaced, its volume decreasing in correlation to increasing pneumaticity and conversion to fatty marrow. This generates the characteristic pattern of bone marrow distribution in adult pigeons, which shows hemopoietic bone marrow in ulna, radius, femur, tibiotarsus, scapula, furcula, and the caudal vertebrae

  2. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  3. Optimal models of extreme volume-prices are time-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Paulo; Boto, João Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Lind, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that the best model for empirical volume-price distributions is not always the same and it strongly depends in (i) the region of the volume-price spectrum that one wants to model and (ii) the period in time that is being modelled. To show these two features we analyze stocks of the New York stock market with four different models: Γ, Γ-inverse, log-normal, and Weibull distributions. To evaluate the accuracy of each model we use standard relative deviations as well as the Kullback-Leibler distance and introduce an additional distance particularly suited to evaluate how accurate are the models for the distribution tails (large volume-price). Finally we put our findings in perspective and discuss how they can be extended to other situations in finance engineering

  4. Charge ratio of muons from atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    2003-05-22

    We calculate the intensities and angular distributions of positive and negative muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos. We comment on some sources of uncertainty in the charge ratio. We also draw attention to a potentially interesting signature of neutrino oscillations in the muon charge ratio, and we discuss the prospects for its observation (which are not quite within the reach of currently planned magnetized detectors)

  5. Volume determination of fresh and dried bloodstains by means of optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Nick; Bremmer, Rolf H.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; de Bruin, Karla G.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of bloodstains found on crime scenes may help forensic investigators reconstruct the location and kinematics of bloodletting events, as stain size, volume, and impact velocity are related. Optical coherence tomography was used as a method to determine the volume and volume ratio of dried

  6. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Momose, Toshimitsu; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide was measured by SPECT to evaluate cerebral vasodilatory capacity in eight patients with cerebrovascular disease and five control subjects. Two SPECT measurements were performed serially, and acetazolamide was administered between them. The ratio of increase in hemispheric blood volume was calculated, and it was compared with the results of cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume measurements. A cerebral vasodilatory capacity map, the image after acetazolamide minus the baseline image, was also produced. Acetazolamide increased hemispheric blood volume in all subjects. The ratio of increase was lower in the involved hemispheres of the patients with unilateral carotid disease than in the uninvolved hemispheres of the patients and control subjects. The ratio of concordance with blood flow and blood volume measurements was approximated at 80%. Cerebral vasodilatory capacity mapping revealed three defects compatible with the clinical data. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume after acetazolamide can be performed following baseline SPECT with no additional radiotracer, and may be helpful to assess hemodynamic status. (author)

  7. Tile-based Fisher ratio analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) data using a null distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-04-07

    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a versatile instrumental platform capable of collecting highly informative, yet highly complex, chemical data for a variety of samples. Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis applied to the supervised comparison of sample classes algorithmically reduces complex GC × GC-TOFMS data sets to find class distinguishing chemical features. F-ratio analysis, using a tile-based algorithm, significantly reduces the adverse effects of chromatographic misalignment and spurious covariance of the detected signal, enhancing the discovery of true positives while simultaneously reducing the likelihood of detecting false positives. Herein, we report a study using tile-based F-ratio analysis whereby four non-native analytes were spiked into diesel fuel at several concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ppm. Spike level comparisons were performed in two regimes: comparing the spiked samples to the nonspiked fuel matrix and to each other at relative concentration factors of two. Redundant hits were algorithmically removed by refocusing the tiled results onto the original high resolution pixel level data. To objectively limit the tile-based F-ratio results to only features which are statistically likely to be true positives, we developed a combinatorial technique using null class comparisons, called null distribution analysis, by which we determined a statistically defensible F-ratio cutoff for the analysis of the hit list. After applying null distribution analysis, spiked analytes were reliably discovered at ∼1 to ∼10 ppm (∼5 to ∼50 pg using a 200:1 split), depending upon the degree of mass spectral selectivity and 2D chromatographic resolution, with minimal occurrence of false positives. To place the relevance of this work among other methods in this field, results are compared to those for pixel and peak table-based approaches.

  8. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  9. Global Distributions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and the Ratio of {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Misumi, K.; Yoshida, Y. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The spatial distributions and the temporal variations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations were simulated by using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). These radionuclides are introduced into the ocean by global fallout originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. {sup 137}Cs derived from global fallout is transported into the ocean interior by advection and diffusion, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration is reduced by radioactive decay. In contrast to {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu, which is a particle reactive radionuclide, is a biogeochemical tracer. The global distribution of the {sup 239,240}Pu{sup /137}Cs ratio was investigated in an OGCM with a biogeochemical process model. A half regeneration depth (HRD) of {sup 239,240}Pu was estimated from curve fitting of the vertical profile of the {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratio. Simulated distribution of the HRD is in good agreement with observation, except in the subarctic gyre. The HRD is a good tool to improve the parameters in the biogeochemical process. (author)

  10. Ratio-Based Gradual Aggregation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    cause data management and data storage issues. However, non-flexible and ineffective means of data aggregation not only reduce performance of database queries but also lead to erroneous reporting. This paper presents flexible and effective ratio-based methods for gradual data aggregation in databases....... Gradual data aggregation is a process that reduces data volume by converting the detailed data into multiple levels of summarized data as the data gets older. This paper also describes implementation strategies of the proposed methods based on standard database technology.......Majority of databases contain large amounts of data, gathered over long intervals of time. In most cases, the data is aggregated so that it can be used for analysis and reporting purposes. The other reason of data aggregation is to reduce data volume in order to avoid over-sized databases that may...

  11. Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, B; Callahan, R C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-07-01

    The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described.

  12. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S −1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T gt (s) via growth rate v (m s −1 ): V×S −1  = v gr ×T r . The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m 3 ), minimum and maximum doubling time T dt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S −1  = 4.46⋅10 −11 ×T dt was found, where v gr  = 4.46×10 −11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v gr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v gr >h/2π and T dt ×M×v gr 2 >h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10 −34 J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  13. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  14. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Cutaneous Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahalı, Anıl Gulsel; Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-03-01

    Vasculitis represents a specific pattern of inflammation of the blood vessel wall that can occur in any organ system of the body. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are currently used as markers of inflammation in several diseases. This study analyzed C-reactive protein level (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell (WBC), NLR, and RDW in patients who had cutaneous vasculitis, or cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement, and in healthy controls. A total of 85 individuals were included in our study: 45 with vasculitis and 40 healthy controls. Patients who had complete blood count (CBC) analysis, CRP, and ESR at the time of skin biopsy were included in the study. NLR was calculated from these parameters. NLR, CRP, ESR, and WBC were significantly higher in patients with vasculitis than in healthy controls (p≤0.05), but RDW did not significantly differ between the two groups. This study suggests that blood NLR may be used for predicting vasculitis, especially cutaneous vasculitis with systemic involvement. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  15. Determination of distribution ratio for 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs in loess medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Zhentang Li; Hui Wang; Kamiyama, Hideo.

    1994-06-01

    Distribution ratio R for 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs between loess and ground water was measured by using 16 loess samples taken from the field test site of China Institute for Radiation Protection, in which the field test of radionuclide migration had been performed. The R of each radionuclide was taken nearly constant value among 16 samples. This revealed that the site can be regarded as uniform loess medium from the view point of sorption ability. The sorption ability between the three radionuclides was the order of 134 Cs > 60 Co >> 85 Sr. The 85 Sr was an available nuclide for examining the migration phenomena, because 85 Sr might easily migrate in the loess medium due to its low sorption ability. The results of parametric check suggested that it is necessary to select the valid temperature and pH for determining the R value. The sorption of Sr on the loess was dominated by reversible ion-exchange reaction, while that of Co and Cs was dominated by irreversible one. (author)

  16. Dose-volume considerations in stereotaxic brain radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdek, P.V.; Schwade, J.G.; Pisciotta, V.J.; Medina, A.J.; Lewin, A.A.; Abitbol, A.A.; Serago, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Although brain radiation therapy experience suggests that a gain in the therapeutic ratio may be achieved by optimizing the dose-volume relationship, no practical system for quantitative assessment of dose-volume data has been developed. This presentation describes the rationale for using the integral dose function for this purpose and demonstrates that with the use of a conventional treatment planning computer and a series of computed tomographic scans, first-order optimization of the dose-volume function can be accomplished in two steps: first, high-dose volume is minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment technique and tumor margin, and then dosage is maximized by calculating the brain tolerance dose as a function of the irradiated volume

  17. Measurement and analysis of reaction rate distributions of cores with spectrum shifter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shigekazu; Shiroya, Seiji; Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu; Aizawa, Otohiko; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    A study for the neutronic characteristics of the spectrum-controlled neutron irradiation fields using various reflector materials was performed. Spectrum shifter regions were constructed in the upper reflector region of the solid moderated core (B-Core) of the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA). Beryllium, graphite and aluminum were selected as the loading materials for the spectrum shifter. Two tight-pitch lattice cores with different moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (V m /V f ) of 0.97 and 0.65 have been used. Axial reaction rate distributions of gold, nickel and indium wires were measured, and the spectrum index was defined as the Cd ratio of the gold wire and the ratio of gold reaction rate to nickel reaction rate. Using the conventional design calculation procedure, the experimental and calculated reaction rate and spectrum index show several disagreements. Detailed treatment of the neutron streaming effect, heterogeneous cell structure and depression factor are shown to be necessary for improving the agreement between experimental and calculated values. (author)

  18. Automated estimation of choroidal thickness distribution and volume based on OCT images of posterior visual section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vupparaboina, Kiran Kumar; Nizampatnam, Srinath; Chhablani, Jay; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Jana, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    A variety of vision ailments are indicated by anomalies in the choroid layer of the posterior visual section. Consequently, choroidal thickness and volume measurements, usually performed by experts based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, have assumed diagnostic significance. Now, to save precious expert time, it has become imperative to develop automated methods. To this end, one requires choroid outer boundary (COB) detection as a crucial step, where difficulty arises as the COB divides the choroidal granularity and the scleral uniformity only notionally, without marked brightness variation. In this backdrop, we measure the structural dissimilarity between choroid and sclera by structural similarity (SSIM) index, and hence estimate the COB by thresholding. Subsequently, smooth COB estimates, mimicking manual delineation, are obtained using tensor voting. On five datasets, each consisting of 97 adult OCT B-scans, automated and manual segmentation results agree visually. We also demonstrate close statistical match (greater than 99.6% correlation) between choroidal thickness distributions obtained algorithmically and manually. Further, quantitative superiority of our method is established over existing results by respective factors of 27.67% and 76.04% in two quotient measures defined relative to observer repeatability. Finally, automated choroidal volume estimation, being attempted for the first time, also yields results in close agreement with that of manual methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...... to the larger malignant nuclei. Finally, the variance in the volume distribution of nuclear volume is estimated by shape-independent estimates of the volume-weighted second moment of the nuclear volume, vv2, using both a manual and a computer-assisted approach. The working procedure for the description of 3-D...

  20. Disease volume and distribution as drivers of treatment decisions in metastatic prostate cancer: From chemohormonal therapy to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of oligometastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Ronak; Cheung, Patrick; Zukotynski, Katherine; Emmenegger, Urban

    2016-05-01

    The prognosis of men with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC) depends on both the distribution and extent of metastases, among other things. Patients with low-volume or oligometastatic disease have improved survival compared with those with high-volume metastases. While chemohormonal therapy is the new standard of care for men with high-volume metastatic CSPC, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is emerging as a promising treatment option with low toxicity for the management of oligometastatic CSPC. Our review summarizes the current evidence on the role of SABR in oligometastatic prostate cancer. SABR shows control rates of metastases ranging from 88% to 100% at 6 months to 3 years, and progression-free survival commonly reported as >50% for the first 12 months. In addition, SABR may allow androgen-deprivation therapy to be delayed by more than 2 years in selected patients, minimizing the chronic side effects associated with such therapy. However, much still needs to be learned before SABR can be implemented as standard treatment for oligometastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Performance and Pressure Fluctuation of a Multiphase Pump with Different Gas Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large petroleum resources in deep sea, and huge market demands for petroleum need advanced petroleum extraction technology. The multiphase pump, which can simultaneously transport oil and gas with considerable efficiency, has been a crucial technology in petroleum extraction. A numerical approach with mesh generation and a Navier-Stokes equation solution is employed to evaluate the effects of gas volume fraction on energy performance and pressure fluctuations of a multiphase pump. Good agreement of experimental and calculation results indicates that the numerical approach can accurately simulate the multiphase flow in pumps. The pressure rise of a pump decreases with the increasing of flow rate, and the pump efficiency decreases with the increasing of GVF (the ratio of the gas volume to the whole volume. Results show that the dominant frequencies of pressure fluctuation in the impeller and diffuser are eleven and three times those of the impeller rotational frequency, respectively. Due to the larger density of water and centrifugal forces, the water aggregates to the shroud and the gas gathers to the hub, which renders the distribution of GVF in the pump uneven. A vortex develops at the blade suction side, near the leading edge, induced by the leakage flow, and further affects the pressure fluctuation in the impeller. The obvious vortex in the diffuser indicates that the design of the divergence angle of the diffuser is not optimal, which induces flow separation due to large diffusion ratio. A uniform flow pattern in the impeller indicates good hydraulic performance of the pump.

  2. Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/SABER NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/SABER instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both SABER and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For SABER, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare SABER and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.

  3. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  4. Measurement of CSF volume with 3D-FASE MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Shoichi; Calderon, A.; Makita, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Yukou; Tsunoda, Akira; Sato, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    A noninvasive and fast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume measurement method has been developed using 3D-FASE MRI and a semi-automatic segmentation process. Images with a high CSF/(gray and white matter) ratio (about 10-20) were obtained with a heavily T 2 weighted 3D-FASE sequence. The CSF region was segmented with a region growing method and the volume was calculated from the number of segmented voxels with a signal intensity weighted summation. Total measurement time was about 30 minutes for each study. The errors of the measured volumes were within 10% for the phantom experiments. Intracranial CSF volumes of normal volunteers ranged between about 100 and 200 cc and the ventricle/intracranial CSF ratio was about 10%. 3D display of the segmented intracranial and ventricle CSF regions was also carried out and proved to be useful to understand the anatomy. Increased intracranial and/or ventricle CSF volumes were obtained for a hydrocephalic patient and one patient with probable cerebral atrophy. The results suggest that the developed method could be used for the diagnosis of patients with neurological diseases. (author)

  5. Lead isotope ratios in artists' lead white: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.; Callahan, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The lead isotope ratios in over four hundred samples of lead white have been determined. The samples represent various geographical sources and dates from the thirteenth century to the present. A new method for organizing this large volume of data is described which helps with the visualization of temporal and geographic patterns. A number of interesting relationships between lead isotope ratio and date or source are shown to exist. Some examples of successful applications of this methodology are described. (author)

  6. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Liquid Carryover in T-Junction with Different Diameter Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, William; Sam, Ban; Saieed, Ahmed; Tran, Cong Minh

    2018-03-01

    In offshore Malaysia, T-junction is installed at the production header as a compact separator to tap produced gas from reservoir as fuel gas for power generation. However, excessive liquid carryover in T-junction presents a serious operational issue because it trips the whole production platform. The primary objective of present study is to numerically investigate the liquid carryover due to formation of slug, subsequently its liquid carryover at different diameter ratio. The analyses were carried out on a model with 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and a vertically upward side arm using Volume of Fluid Method. Three different sides to main arm diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3 were investigated with different gas and liquid superficial velocities. The results showed that, while the general trend is true that smaller diameter ratio T-junction has lesser liquid take off capacity, it has a very high frequency of low liquid carryover threshold. In other words, under slug flow, smaller diameter ratio T-junction is constantly transporting liquid even though at a lesser volume in comparison to regular T-junction.

  8. Distribution of E/N and N sub e in a cross-flow electric discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J. W., Jr.; Lancashire, R. B.; Manista, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the ratio of electric field to neutral gas density on a flowing gas, multiple pin-to-plane discharge was measured in a high-power, closed loop laser. The laser was operated at a pressure of 140 torr (1:7:20, CO2, N2, He) with typically a 100 meter/second velocity in the 5 x 8 x 135 centimeter discharge volume. E/N ratios ranged from 2.7 x 10 to the minus 16th power to 1.4 x 10 to the minus 16th power volts/cu cm along the discharge while the electron density ranged from 2.8 x 10 to the 10th power to 1.2 x 10 to the 10th power cm/3.

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  10. Idealized Compression Ratio for a Screw Briquetting Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues in determining the ideal compression ratio for a screw briquetting press. First, the principles of operation and a basic description of the main parts of a screw briquetting press are introduced. The next section describes the pressing space by means of 3D software. The pressing space was created using a Boolean subtract function. The final section of the paper measures the partial volumes of the pressing chamber in CATIA V5 by function of measuring. The measured values are substituted into the formula for the compression ratio, and the resulting evaluations are presented in the diagram in the conclusion of this paper.

  11. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution

  12. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Adequate size and distribution of the circulating medium are important for cardiovascular function, tissue oxygenation, and fluid homoeostasis. Patients with cirrhosis have cardiovascular dysfunction with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, vasodilation...

  13. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  14. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  15. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8, non-binary integer (1:3:5:6, and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4 ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  16. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  17. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  18. Measurement of power distribution in FCA-HCLWR core (Phase-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Akio; Osugi, Toshitaka; Satoh, Kunio

    1991-11-01

    In the report are described experiments with zone-type mock-up cores (FCA XIV) which consisted of uranium fuels and polystilene plates, assembled at FCA (Fast Critical Assembly), to study a series of physical characteristics for high conversion light water reactors. As one example of those characteristics, power distributions were measured by a γ-counting method in the mock-up cores by changing parametrically voidage states of the moderator, volume ratio of moderator to fuel and fuel enrichment. Fine structures of fission rate in a plate-array cell having strong heterogeneities were obtained at the center cell of the core to investigate the validity of the SRAC code for the analysis of the high conversion light water reactor. Furthermore infinite multiplication factors K ∞ which are an important physical parameter were derived from calculated migration areas and bucklings of each direction. This was obtained by fitting the measured power distributions into a cosine function. Calculated power distributions of radial directions overestimate largely the measure ones, while those of axial directions agree well with the measured values. Calculations on fine structure of fission ratio in the cell follow generally the measured values, but it is recognized that the calculation underestimates the measurement in a soft neutron spectrum core. As for infinite multiplication factors K ∞ , calculated values by the SRAC code agree within experimental errors with measured ones. No trend is observed on different voidage state of moderator and fuel enrichment in the limit of this experiment. (author)

  19. Amygdala to hippocampal volume ratio is associated with negative memory bias in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Negative memory bias is thought to be one of the main cognitive risk and maintenance factors for depression, but its neural substrates are largely unknown. Here, we studied whether memory bias is related to amygdala and hippocampal volume, two structures that are critical for emotional

  20. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  1. Positron Annihilation as a Probe of Free Volume Changes in Polyoxymethylene-copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.M.; Abdel-Hady, E.E.; Farid, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been carried out to study the free volume properties of polyoxymethylene-copolymer (POM). The effect of temperature changes on free volume hole sizes and hole size distribution has been investigated over the temperature range (5-100 degree C). All PAL spectra were analyzed with LT program, which is a finite term lifetime analysis and by MELT which is a continuous lifetime analysis. The free volume sites probed by o-Ps increase in size with increasing temperature. PALS measurements revealed the glass transition temperature (Tg) at 15 degree C. Below the glass transition temperature the hole size slowly (linearly) increases with temperatures, while the slope is steeper above Tg. The temperature of this transition as measured by PALS has turned out to be somewhat lower than what is obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). At room temperature the results show a narrow distribution, reflecting that the free volume holes are small and of rather equal size. As the temperature is raised, the distribution broadens. The largest change in distribution width will be discussed on the frame of the free volume model

  2. Influence of alcohol on brain volume in social drinkers: evaluation with MR-based intracranial-parenchymal ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Joo; Lee, Kyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jang; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine, by measuring the intracranial-parenchymal ratio at MR imaging, whether alcohol induces brain damage in social drinkers. One hundred and five male adults aged 20 or over were selected for this study. They inclued 41 non-drinkers, 43 mild to moderate social drinkers, nine heavy social drinkers and 12 alcoholics. Using a workstation, the intracranial-parenchymal ratio was measured at four levels of T1-weighted MR images: the fourth, third and lateral ventricle, and the level of the centrum semiovale. The mean ratios of all four levels (I-IV) were also calculated parenchymal ratios were compared between the four groups, and correlation between the amount of alcohol ingestion and the parenchymal ratio also determined. The parenchymal ratio at levels I-IV was 80.31±3.73% in non-drinkers, 79.38±4.39% in mild to moderate social drinkers, 80.92±3.64% in heavy social drinkers and 73.48±4.42% in alcoholics, The difference between alcoholics and the other three groups was statistically significant, but between non-drinkers and social drinkers was insignificant (ANOVA). Multiple regression analysis with control of the age factor revealed a decreased parenchymal ratio in mild to moderate and heavy social drinkers compared with non-drinkers, but without statistical significance. There was significant negative correlation between parenchymal ratio and amount of alcohol ingestion (pearson correlation). There was significant brain atrophy in alcoholics, but no significant difference between non-drinkers and social drinkers. We thus conclude that social drinking dose non induce significant alcohol-related brain atrophy

  3. Examination of measurement and its method of compensation of the sensitivity distribution using phased array coil for body scan

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, T; Iizuka, A; Taniguchi, Y; Ishikuro, A; Hongo, T; Inoue, H; Ogura, A

    2003-01-01

    The influence on the quality of images by measurement of a sensitivity distribution and the use of a sensitivity compensation filter was considered using an opposite-type phased array coil and volume-type phased array coil. With the opposite-type phased array coil, the relation between coil interval and filter was investigated for the image intensity correction (IIC) filter, surface coil intensity correction (SCIC) filter (GE), and the Normalize filter (SIEMENS). The SCIC filter and Normalize filter showed distance dependability over the coil interval of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity was observed, and the existence of an optimal coil interval was suggested. Moreover, with the IIC filter, distance dependability over a coil interval was small, and the decrease in contrast with use was remarkable. On the other hand, with the volume-type phased array coil, the overlap of an array element was investigated to determine the influence it had on sensitivity distribution. Although the value stabilized in t...

  4. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  5. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  7. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  8. 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio analysis in human breath using a 2 μm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingguo; Cao, Zhensong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong; Yinbo, Huang; Ruizhong, Rao

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium H. pylori is believed to cause peptic ulcer. H. pylori infection in the human stomach can be diagnosed through a CO2 isotope ratio measure in exhaled breath. A laser spectrometer based on a distributed-feedback semiconductor diode laser at 2 μm is developed to measure the changes of 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio in exhaled breath sample with the CO2 concentration of ~4%. It is characterized by a simplified optical layout, in which a single detector and associated electronics are used to probe CO2 spectrum. A new type multi-passes cell with 12 cm long base length , 29 m optical path length in total and 280 cm3 volume is used in this work. The temperature and pressure are well controlled at 301.15 K and 6.66 kPa with fluctuation amplitude of 25 mK and 6.7 Pa, respectively. The best 13δ precision of 0.06o was achieved by using wavelet denoising and Kalman filter. The application of denoising and Kalman filter not only improved the signal to noise ratio, but also shorten the system response time.

  9. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2007-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants - PM 2.5 , NO x and formaldehyde - directly emitted by five DG technologies - natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  10. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants—PM 2.5, NO x and formaldehyde—directly emitted by five DG technologies—natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  11. Systematic study of the π-/π+ ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xiao Zhigang; Zhu Shengjiang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of the π - /π + ratio in heavy-ion collisions with the same neutron/proton ratio but different masses can help single out effects of the nuclear mean field on pion production. Based on simulations using the IBUU04 transport model, it is found that the π - /π + ratio in head-on collisions of 48 Ca+ 48 Ca, 124 Sn+ 124 Sn, and 197 Au+ 197 Au at beam energies from 0.25 to 0.6 GeV/nucleon increases with increasing the system size or decreasing the beam energies. A comprehensive analysis of the dynamical isospin fractionation and the π - /π + ratio as well as their time evolution and spatial distributions demonstrates clearly that the π - /π + ratio is an effective probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  12. A clinical trial design using the concept of proportional time using the generalized gamma ratio distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Milind A; Wetmore, James B; Mayo, Matthew S

    2017-11-20

    Traditional methods of sample size and power calculations in clinical trials with a time-to-event end point are based on the logrank test (and its variations), Cox proportional hazards (PH) assumption, or comparison of means of 2 exponential distributions. Of these, sample size calculation based on PH assumption is likely the most common and allows adjusting for the effect of one or more covariates. However, when designing a trial, there are situations when the assumption of PH may not be appropriate. Additionally, when it is known that there is a rapid decline in the survival curve for a control group, such as from previously conducted observational studies, a design based on the PH assumption may confer only a minor statistical improvement for the treatment group that is neither clinically nor practically meaningful. For such scenarios, a clinical trial design that focuses on improvement in patient longevity is proposed, based on the concept of proportional time using the generalized gamma ratio distribution. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proportional time method and to identify the situations in which such a design will be beneficial as compared to the standard design using a PH assumption, piecewise exponential hazards assumption, and specific cases of a cure rate model. A practical example in which hemorrhagic stroke patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms in a putative clinical trial demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by drastically reducing the number of patients needed for study enrollment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Risk factors influencing the pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yajima, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the factors influencing pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy and to determine criteria for the selection of patients who would benefit from the early removal of chest drains. Clinicopathological characteristics of 155 patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy were prospectively collected, and the daily drainage volume of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. Potential risk factors were compared between the high-output group (n = 39) and low-output group (n = 116), which were dichotomized using the 75th percentile of total pleural drainage volume of the total study population. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. The median duration of drainage was 10 days, with a median total drainage volume of 2258 ml. Of 27 potential risk factors influencing the drainage volume, creatinine clearance (P = 0.04), operative approach (P = 0.03) and thoracic duct removal (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the total pleural drainage volume. The removal of the thoracic duct (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.41) and lower creatinine clearance (P = 0.04; odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.04) was independent risk factors for increased pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy. The early removal of chest drains may be possible in patients without these risk factors.

  14. Inhaled smoke volume and puff indices with cigarettes of different tar and nicotine levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic smokers each smoked a low, low-to-middle and a middle tar cigarette with approximately the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, in a randomised order. The inhaled smoke volume was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. Throughout the study neither the mean inhaled smoke volume per puff nor the total inhaled smoke volume per cigarette changed significantly; however, the mean and total puff volumes were largest with the low tar cigarette and decreased with the higher tar brands. Puff volume was related to puff work (r s =0.83,P s =0.10,P>0.1). It is concluded that when switched between brands with the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, smokers increase their puff volumes with a lower tar cigarette but do not change the volume of smoke inhaled. Puff work and puff resistance were significantly correlated (r s =0.45,P<0.02). (author)

  15. TensorFlow Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Joshua V.; Langmore, Ian; Tran, Dustin; Brevdo, Eugene; Vasudevan, Srinivas; Moore, Dave; Patton, Brian; Alemi, Alex; Hoffman, Matt; Saurous, Rif A.

    2017-01-01

    The TensorFlow Distributions library implements a vision of probability theory adapted to the modern deep-learning paradigm of end-to-end differentiable computation. Building on two basic abstractions, it offers flexible building blocks for probabilistic computation. Distributions provide fast, numerically stable methods for generating samples and computing statistics, e.g., log density. Bijectors provide composable volume-tracking transformations with automatic caching. Together these enable...

  16. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas–water and oil–gas–water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the

  17. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  18. Distribution of α-aminoisobutyric acid in tissues of lean and genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tews, J.K.; Harper, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of tracer amounts of the nonmetabolizable neutral amino acid α-[1- 14 C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) between blood and several tissues was measured in lean and ob/ob mice over an 8-hr period. As AIB was injected on the basis of body weight and as ob/ob mice have a relatively low blood volume, absolute concentrations of AIB in blood and tissues were almost always higher in the obese than the lean mice. However, the ratio of AIB concentration in the tissues to that in the blood was clearly higher in skeletal muscle, diaphragm, and brain, and possibly higher in liver of the lean than of the obese animals. Ratios in heart were similar. The results suggest that lean and genetically obese mice differ in their capacity to transport amino acids between blood and various tissues

  19. Regional sensitivity analysis using revised mean and variance ratio functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pengfei; Lu, Zhenzhou; Ruan, Wenbin; Song, Jingwen

    2014-01-01

    The variance ratio function, derived from the contribution to sample variance (CSV) plot, is a regional sensitivity index for studying how much the output deviates from the original mean of model output when the distribution range of one input is reduced and to measure the contribution of different distribution ranges of each input to the variance of model output. In this paper, the revised mean and variance ratio functions are developed for quantifying the actual change of the model output mean and variance, respectively, when one reduces the range of one input. The connection between the revised variance ratio function and the original one is derived and discussed. It is shown that compared with the classical variance ratio function, the revised one is more suitable to the evaluation of model output variance due to reduced ranges of model inputs. A Monte Carlo procedure, which needs only a set of samples for implementing it, is developed for efficiently computing the revised mean and variance ratio functions. The revised mean and variance ratio functions are compared with the classical ones by using the Ishigami function. At last, they are applied to a planar 10-bar structure

  20. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  1. Trial operation of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Hidekazu; Momma, Toshiyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Hemmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level radioactive solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the volume of stored wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former has cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter has melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since July 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 750 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1.7 to 3.7. The WVRF has been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation of the pretreatment system in the WVRF with radioactive wastes has partly started in FY2005. (author)

  2. Hippocampal and Amygdalar Volumes in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Bremner, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. Method The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Results Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. Conclusions The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects. PMID:16585437

  3. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J; Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects.

  4. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  5. Particle shape accounts for instrumental discrepancy in ice core dust size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folden Simonsen, Marius; Cremonesi, Llorenç; Baccolo, Giovanni; Bosch, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Erhardt, Tobias; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Potenza, Marco; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The Klotz Abakus laser sensor and the Coulter counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the Coulter counter measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent Abakus instrument measurement deviates substantially from the Coulter counter. We show that the difference between the Abakus and the Coulter counter measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples. The irregular shape means that a new calibration routine based on standard spheres is necessary for obtaining fully comparable data. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy to Abakus measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons. We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between Abakus and Coulter counter data. For verification, we measured the aspect ratio of the same samples directly using a single-particle extinction and scattering instrument. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0.3 and 0.4 using only the comparison of Abakus and Coulter counter data.

  6. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolferen, Serge A; van de Veerdonk, Marielle C; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Jacobs, Wouter; Marcus, J Tim; Marques, Koen M J; Bronzwaer, Jean G F; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Postmus, Pieter E; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2011-05-01

    Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory increased heart rate as is the case for cardiac output. For this reason, stroke volume, which can be measured noninvasively, is an important hemodynamic parameter to monitor during treatment. However, the extent of change in stroke volume that constitutes a clinically significant change is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in stroke volume in PH. One hundred eleven patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up with a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and cardiac MRI. Using the anchor-based method with 6MWT as the anchor, and the distribution-based method, the MID of stroke volume change could be determined. After 1 year of treatment, there was, on average, a significant increase in stroke volume and 6MWT. The change in stroke volume was related to the change in 6MWT. Using the anchor-based method, an MID of 10 mL in stroke volume was calculated. The distribution-based method resulted in an MID of 8 to 12 mL. Both methods showed that a 10-mL change in stroke volume during follow-up should be considered as clinically relevant. This value can be used to interpret changes in stroke volume during clinical follow-up in PH.

  7. Adjusted Empirical Likelihood Method in the Presence of Nuisance Parameters with Application to the Sharpe Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejiao Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sharpe ratio is a widely used risk-adjusted performance measurement in economics and finance. Most of the known statistical inferential methods devoted to the Sharpe ratio are based on the assumption that the data are normally distributed. In this article, without making any distributional assumption on the data, we develop the adjusted empirical likelihood method to obtain inference for a parameter of interest in the presence of nuisance parameters. We show that the log adjusted empirical likelihood ratio statistic is asymptotically distributed as the chi-square distribution. The proposed method is applied to obtain inference for the Sharpe ratio. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is comparable to Jobson and Korkie’s method (1981 and outperforms the empirical likelihood method when the data are from a symmetric distribution. In addition, when the data are from a skewed distribution, the proposed method significantly outperforms all other existing methods. A real-data example is analyzed to exemplify the application of the proposed method.

  8. The ATLAS(3D) project - XX. Mass-size and mass-Sigma distributions of early-type galaxies : bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)(JAM) approximate to (M/L)(r = R-e) within a sphere of radius r = R-e centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)(stars) (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected

  9. Electron energy distribution control by fiat: breaking from the conventional flux ratio scaling rules in etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Alok; Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam; Ventzek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer is met by trading off one requirement against another. The problem of trade-offs is especially critical. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Managing process by managing flux ratios and ion energy alone with conventional sources is not adequate because surface chemistry is uncontrollable. At the root of lack of control is that the electron energy distribution function (eedf) has not been controlled. Fortunately the high density surface wave sources control the eedf by fiat. High density surface wave sources are characterized by distinct plasma regions: an active plasma generation region with high electron temperature (Te) and an ionization free but chemistry rich diffusive region (low Te region). Pressure aids is segregating the regions by proving a means for momentum relaxation between the source and downstream region. "Spatial pulsing" allows access to plasma chemistry with reasonably high ion flux, from the active plasma generation region, just above the wafer. Low plasma potential enables precise passivation of surfaces which is critical for atomic layer etch (ALE) or high precision etch where the roles of plasma species can be limited to their purposed roles. High precision etch need not be at the cost of speed and manufacturability. Large ion flux at precisely controlled ion energy with RLSATM realizes fast desorption steps for ALE without compromising process throughput and precision.

  10. System of the advanced volume reduction facilities for LLW at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Hidekazu; Monma, Toshiyuki; Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Kozawa, Kazushige; Touhei, Toshio; Sudou, Tomoyuki; Mitsuda, Motoyuki; Kurosawa, Shigenobu; Henmi, Kou; Ishikawa, Joji; Kato, Mitsugu; Sato, Motoaki

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed the Advanced Volume Reduction Facilities (AVRF), in which volume reduction techniques are applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio, homogenization and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes for low level solid wastes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the AVRF. The AVRF consist of the Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities (WSRSF) and the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF); the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. Cutting installations in the WSRSF have been operating since June 1999. Radioactive wastes treated so far amount to 600 m 3 and the volume reduction ratio is from 1/2 to 1/3. The WVRF have been operating with non-radioactive wastes since February 2003 for the training and the homogeneity investigation in the melting processes. The operation with radioactive wastes will start in FY2005. (author)

  11. Tools for the analysis of dose optimization: I. Effect-volume histogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, M.; Nuesslin, F.

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of dose optimization algorithms, predominantly for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), computer software has progressed beyond the point of being merely a tool at the hands of an expert and has become an active, independent mediator of the dosimetric conflicts between treatment goals and risks. To understand and control the internal decision finding as well as to provide means to influence it, a tool for the analysis of the dose distribution is presented which reveals the decision-making process performed by the algorithm. The internal trade-offs between partial volumes receiving high or low doses are driven by functions which attribute a weight to each volume element. The statistics of the distribution of these weights is cast into an effect-volume histogram (EVH) in analogy to dose-volume histograms. The analysis of the EVH reveals which traits of the optimum dose distribution result from the defined objectives, and which are a random consequence of under- or misspecification of treatment goals. The EVH can further assist in the process of finding suitable objectives and balancing conflicting objectives. If biologically inspired objectives are used, the EVH shows the distribution of local dose effect relative to the prescribed level. (author)

  12. Variation of gross tumor volume and clinical target volume definition for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun; Li Minghui; Chen Dongdu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the variation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) definition for lung cancer between different doctors. Methods: Ten lung cancer patients with PET-CT simulation were selected from January 2008 to December 2009.GTV and CTV of these patients were defined by four professors or associate professors of radiotherapy independently. Results: The mean ratios of largest to smallest GTV and CTV were 1.66 and 1.65, respectively. The mean coefficients of variation for GTV and CTV were 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. System errors of CTV definition in three dimension were less than 5 mm, which was the largest in inferior and superior (0.48 cm, 0.37 cm, 0.32 cm; F=0.40, 0.60, 0.15, P=0.755, 0.618, 0.928). Conclusions: The variation of GTV and CTV definition for lung cancer between different doctors exist. The mean ratios of largest to smallest GTV and CTV were less than 1.7. The variation was in hilar and mediastinum lymphanode regions. System error of CTV definition was the largest (<5 mm) in cranio-caudal direction. (authors)

  13. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. Methods: For this systematic anal...

  14. The calibration of the intramolecular nitrogen isotope distribution in nitrous oxide measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Marian B; Popp, Brian N; Rust, Terri M

    2007-01-01

    Two alternative approaches for the calibration of the intramolecular nitrogen isotope distribution in nitrous oxide using isotope ratio mass spectrometry have yielded a difference in the 15N site preference (defined as the difference between the delta15N of the central and end position nitrogen in NNO) of tropospheric N2O of almost 30 per thousand. One approach is based on adding small amounts of labeled 15N2O to the N2O reference gas and tracking the subsequent changes in m/z 30, 31, 44, 45 and 46, and this yields a 15N site preference of 46.3 +/- 1.4 per thousand for tropospheric N2O. The other involves the synthesis of N2O by thermal decomposition of isotopically characterized ammonium nitrate and yields a 15N site preference of 18.7 +/- 2.2 per thousand for tropospheric N2O. Both approaches neglect to fully account for isotope effects associated with the formation of NO+ fragment ions from the different isotopic species of N2O in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. These effects vary with conditions in the ion source and make it impossible to reproduce a calibration based on the addition of isotopically enriched N2O on mass spectrometers with different ion source configurations. These effects have a much smaller impact on the comparison of a laboratory reference gas with N2O synthesized from isotopically characterized ammonium nitrate. This second approach was successfully replicated and leads us to advocate the acceptance of the site preference value 18.7 +/- 2.2 per thousand for tropospheric N2O as the provisional community standard until further independent calibrations are developed and validated. We present a technique for evaluating the isotope effects associated with fragment ion formation and revised equations for converting ion signal ratios into isotopomer ratios. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Arterial compliance in patients with cirrhosis: stroke volume-pulse pressure ratio as simplified index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, E

    2001-01-01

    Arterial function may be altered in patients with cirrhosis. We determined compliance of the arterial tree (C(1)) in relation to systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic derangement and clinical variables. C(1) and the stroke volume-pulse pressure index (SV/PP) were significantly higher (+62% and +40%...... predictors of SV/PP (P abnormalities in the arterial compliance of these patients....

  16. High conversion ratio plutonium recycle in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Pu light water reactors in such a way as to minimise the depletion of Pu needed for future use, and therefore to reduce projected demands for U ore and U enrichment is envisaged. Fuel utilisation in PWRs could be improved by tightly-packed fuel rod lattices with conversion ratios of 0.8 to 0.9 compared with ratios of about 0.5 in Pu recycle designs using fuel to water volume ratios of currently operating PWRs. A conceptual design for the Babcock and Wilcox Company reactors now in operation is presented and for illustrative purposes thermalhydraulic design considerations and the reactor physics are described. Principle considerations in the mechanical design of the fuel assemblies are the effect of hydraulic forces, thermal expansion, and fission gas release. The impact of high conversion ratio plutionium recycle in separative work and natural U requirements for PWRs likely to be in operation by 1985 are examined. (U.K.)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of high volume fraction Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, B.; Suryanarayana, C.; An, L.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Al-Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composite (MMC) powders with volume fractions of 20, 30, and 50% Al 2 O 3 were synthesized by high-energy milling of the blended component powders. The particle sizes of Al 2 O 3 studied were 50 nm, 150 nm, and 5 μm. A uniform distribution of the Al 2 O 3 reinforcement in the Al matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders for a period of 20 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 10:1 in a SPEX mill. The uniform distribution of Al 2 O 3 in the Al matrix was confirmed by characterizing these nanocomposite powders by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques

  18. Meridional distribution and seasonal variation of stable oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation in the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nakamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen isotope ratio(δ^O in precipitation is known to have important meridional and seasonal variations, but there are almost no measurements of δ^O in precipitation over polar oceans. The present research took advantage of 4 opportunities for in situ observations in summer and winter at high latitudes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, we analyzed samples of precipitation at Syowa Station in 2008 to obtain year-round data. Based on these data, we consider the meridional and seasonal variations of δ^O in precipitation over the Southern Ocean. In general, δ^O decreases with increasing latitude, and is lower in winter than in summer. The latitude gradient is stronger in winter. At 60°S, δ^O is -5.4‰ and -11.3‰ in summer and winter, respectively, while the corresponding figures at 66°S are -10.5‰ and -20.8‰. These results will help us understand the mechanisms of the salinity distribution and its variation in the Antarctic Ocean.

  19. Trace element distribution and 235U/238U ratios in Euphrates waters and in soils and tree barks of Dhi Qar province (southern Iraq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccobono, Francesco; Perra, Guido; Pisani, Anastasia; Protano, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of the environment in southern Iraq after the Gulf War II, a geochemical survey was carried out. The survey provided data on the chemistry of Euphrates waters, as well as the trace element contents, U and Pb isotopic composition, and PAH levels in soil and tree bark samples. The trace element concentrations and the 235 U/ 238 U ratio values in the Euphrates waters were within the usual natural range, except for the high contents of Sr due to a widespread presence of gypsum in soils of this area. The trace element contents in soils agreed with the common geochemistry of soils from floodplain sediments. Some exceptions were the high contents of Co, Cr and Ni, which had a natural origin related to ophiolitic outcrops in the upper sector of the Euphrates basin. The high concentrations of S and Sr were linked to the abundance of gypsum in soils. A marked geochemical homogeneity of soil samples was suggested by the similar distribution pattern of rare earth elements, while the 235 U/ 238 U ratio was also fairly homogeneous and within the natural range. The chemistry of the tree bark samples closely reflected that of the soils, with some notable exceptions. Unlike the soils, some tree bark samples had anomalous values of the 235 U/ 238 U ratio due to mixing of depleted uranium (DU) with the natural uranium pool. Moreover, the distribution of some trace elements (such as REEs, Th and Zr) and the isotopic composition of Pb in barks clearly differed from those of the nearby soils. The overall results suggested that significant external inputs occurred implying that once formed the DU-enriched particles could travel over long distances. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in tree bark samples showed that phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene were the most abundant components, indicating an important role of automotive traffic. - Highlights: → This is a contribution to the knowledge of the Iraqi environment after Gulf War II. → In

  20. Numerical analysis on the ion species ratios in a steady state hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Saeki, Setsuo; Osaki, Katashi; Sakiyama, Satoshi; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1984-07-01

    Ion species ratios in a hydrogen plasma are calculated systematically as a function of plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the electron temperature, the pressure of hydrogen gas and the plasma volume. Furthermore, in the present analysis, the recombination factor for hydrogen atoms at the wall surface of a vacuum vessel is treated as another plasma parameter. The most significant point is that ion species ratios depend strongly not only on plasma parameters, but also on the recombination factor. The proton ratio increases with decreasing value of the recombination factor. Primary electrons also play an important role for ion species ratios, and the presence of primary electrons causes the proton ratio to decrease. (author)

  1. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Paluch, M; Faupel, F

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, [v(h)], and mean dispersion, σ(h), were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural (α) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T(g) or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  2. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlubek, G [ITA Institute for Innovative Technologies, Koethen/Halle, Wiesenring 4, D-06120 Lieskau (Germany); Shaikh, M Q; Raetzke, K; Faupel, F [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Paluch, M, E-mail: guenter.dlubek@gmx.d [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, (v{sub h}), and mean dispersion, {sigma}{sub h}, were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural ({alpha}) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T{sub g} or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  3. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: tetsukaw@arc.sony.co.jp; Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)

    2005-09-15

    We have investigated the activation volume (V{sub ac}) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V{sub phy}) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V{sub phy}/V{sub ac} of advanced metal particles are 6x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M{sub r}.t (M{sub r}=remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced.

  4. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the activation volume (V ac ) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V phy ) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V phy /V ac of advanced metal particles are 6x10 -24 m 3 and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10 -24 m 3 when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M r .t (M r =remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced

  5. A Monte Carlo study of the impact of the choice of rectum volume definition on estimates of equivalent uniform doses and the volume parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Calculations of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values for the rectum are difficult because it is a hollow, non-rigid, organ. Finding the true cumulative dose distribution for a number of treatment fractions requires a CT scan before each treatment fraction. This is labour intensive, and several surrogate distributions have therefore been suggested, such as dose wall histograms, dose surface histograms and histograms for the solid rectum, with and without margins. In this study, a Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the relationships between the cumulative dose distributions based on all treatment fractions and the above-mentioned histograms that are based on one CT scan only, in terms of equivalent uniform dose. Furthermore, the effect of a specific choice of histogram on estimates of the volume parameter of the probit NTCP model was investigated. It was found that the solid rectum and the rectum wall histograms (without margins) gave equivalent uniform doses with an expected value close to the values calculated from the cumulative dose distributions in the rectum wall. With the number of patients available in this study the standard deviations of the estimates of the volume parameter were large, and it was not possible to decide which volume gave the best estimates of the volume parameter, but there were distinct differences in the mean values of the values obtained

  6. The behavior of the likelihood ratio test for testing missingness

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Niel; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    To asses the sensitivity of conclusions to model choices in the context of selection models for non-random dropout, one can oppose the different missing mechanisms to each other; e.g. by the likelihood ratio tests. The finite sample behavior of the null distribution and the power of the likelihood ratio test is studied under a variety of missingness mechanisms. missing data; sensitivity analysis; likelihood ratio test; missing mechanisms

  7. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  8. Provenance of cryoconite deposited on the glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau: new insights from Nd-Sr isotopic composition and size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents the Nd-Sr isotopic compositions and size distributions of cryoconite deposited on the glaciers at different locations on the Tibetan Plateau, in order to trace its source areas and the provenance of long-range transported (LRT) Asian dust on the Tibetan Plateau. The result of SEM-EDS analysis indicated that mineral dust particles were dominant in the cryoconite. Most of the cryoconite samples from the Tibetan Plateau indicated different Sr and Nd isotopic composition compared with sand from large deserts (e.g., the Taklimakan and Qaidam deserts). Some cryoconite samples showed very similar Nd-Sr isotopic ratios compared with those of nearby glacier basins (e.g., at Laohugou Glacier No.12, Dongkemadi Glacier and Shiyi Glacier), indicating the potential input of local crustal dust to cryoconite. The volume-size distribution for the cryoconite particles also indicated bi-modal distribution graphs with volume median diameters ranging from 0.57 to 20 μm and from 20 to 100 μm, demonstrating the contribution of both LRT Asian dust and local dust inputs to cryoconite. Based on the particle size distribution, we calculated a mean number ratio of local dust contribution to cryoconite ranging from 0.7% (Baishui Glacier No.1) to 17.6% (Shiyi Glacier) on the Tibetan Plateau. In general, the marked difference in the Nd-Sr isotopic ratios of cryoconite compared with those of large deserts probably indicates that, materials from the western deserts have not been easily transported to the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau by the Westerlies under the current climatic conditions, and the arid deserts on the Tibetan Plateau are the most likely sources for cryoconite deposition. The resistance of the Tibetan Plateau to the Westerlies may have caused such phenomena, especially for LRT eolian dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau. Thus, this work is of great importance in understanding the large scale eolian dust transport and climate over the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  10. Fluid Distribution Pattern in Adult-Onset Congenital, Idiopathic, and Secondary Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus: Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    In spite of growing evidence of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), a viewpoint about clinical care for idiopathic NPH is still controversial. A continuous divergence of viewpoints might be due to confusing classifications of idiopathic and adult-onset congenital NPH. To elucidate the classification of NPH, we propose that adult-onset congenital NPH should be explicitly distinguished from idiopathic and secondary NPH. On the basis of conventional CT scan or MRI, idiopathic NPH was defined as narrow sulci at the high convexity in concurrent with enlargement of the ventricles, basal cistern and Sylvian fissure, whereas adult-onset congenital NPH was defined as huge ventricles without high-convexity tightness. We compared clinical characteristics and cerebrospinal fluid distribution among 85 patients diagnosed with idiopathic NPH, 17 patients with secondary NPH, and 7 patients with adult-onset congenital NPH. All patients underwent 3-T MRI examinations and tap-tests. The volumes of ventricles and subarachnoid spaces were measured using a 3D workstation based on T2-weighted 3D sequences. The mean intracranial volume for the patients with adult-onset congenital NPH was almost 100 mL larger than the volumes for patients with idiopathic and secondary NPH. Compared with the patients with idiopathic or secondary NPH, patients with adult-onset congenital NPH exhibited larger ventricles but normal sized subarachnoid spaces. The mean volume ratio of the high-convexity subarachnoid space was significantly less in idiopathic NPH than in adult-onset congenital NPH, whereas the mean volume ratio of the basal cistern and Sylvian fissure in idiopathic NPH was >2 times larger than that in adult-onset congenital NPH. The symptoms of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence in patients with adult-onset congenital NPH tended to progress more slowly compared to their progress in patients with idiopathic NPH. Cerebrospinal fluid distributions and

  11. Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – An odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents’ socio-economic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenfeldt, Johanna; Pettersson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which geo-referenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power. - Highlights: • The distributional justice of windmill siting in Sweden is statistically evaluated. • Windmill siting decisions are related to people's socio-economic characteristics. • The results indicate some distributional skewness for wind power development. • The study gives statistical rigour and generalisability to energy justice findings. • The results warrant follow-ups and policy guides for how to handle benefit-sharing.

  12. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  13. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  14. Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the water and its sodium content relative to calcium and magnesium content. ... calcium and magnesium is the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). It is a measure of the ..... comparison of ANN and geo statistics methods for estimating spatial distribution of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci.

  15. Effect Of Compression Ratio On The Performance Of Diesel Engine At Different Loads.

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Reddy G; Nirmal Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Variable compression ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. The main feature of the VCR engine is to operate at different compression ratio, by changing the combustion chamber volume, depending on the vehicle performance needs .The need to improve the performance characteristics of the IC Engine has necessitated the present research. Increasing the compression rati...

  16. The distribution coefficient concept and aspects on experimental distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Aspects on the distribution coefficient concept, sorption mechanisms and measurements of sorption phenomena are given. The distribution constant was shown to be pH-dependent. The temperature dependence of the sorption has been studied. The influence of the liquid/solid ratio has been studied for Cs and Sr. (G.B.)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Signal Intensity Ratio Measurement Before Uterine Artery Embolization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvnjak, Stevo; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , 52 patients were included in this prospective study. The SI ratio before UFE was calculated using circular region of interests placed on the dominant fibroid and the iliac muscle. The SI fibroid-to-iliac muscle ratio was calculated as SI of the dominant fibroid/SI of the iliac muscle on T1-, T2......-, and T1 post-contrast-weighted sequences. The dominant fibroid volume was measured and analyzed before and after UFE. RESULTS: In all, 46 patients who completed the three-month follow-up MRI were available for analysis. The correlation between SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio at the T2-weighted sequence...... positive correlation (r = 0.439, p T2-weighted sequence. The area under curve (AUC) for SI fibroid-to-muscle ratio on T2-weighted sequence was 0.776. For the other parameters, the AUC values were 0.512, 0.671, and 0.578, respectively. CONCLUSION: SI...

  18. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  19. Prediction of resource volumes at untested locations using simple local prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Coburn, T.C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows how local spatial nonparametric prediction models can be applied to estimate volumes of recoverable gas resources at individual undrilled sites, at multiple sites on a regional scale, and to compute confidence bounds for regional volumes based on the distribution of those estimates. An approach that combines cross-validation, the jackknife, and bootstrap procedures is used to accomplish this task. Simulation experiments show that cross-validation can be applied beneficially to select an appropriate prediction model. The cross-validation procedure worked well for a wide range of different states of nature and levels of information. Jackknife procedures are used to compute individual prediction estimation errors at undrilled locations. The jackknife replicates also are used with a bootstrap resampling procedure to compute confidence bounds for the total volume. The method was applied to data (partitioned into a training set and target set) from the Devonian Antrim Shale continuous-type gas play in the Michigan Basin in Otsego County, Michigan. The analysis showed that the model estimate of total recoverable volumes at prediction sites is within 4 percent of the total observed volume. The model predictions also provide frequency distributions of the cell volumes at the production unit scale. Such distributions are the basis for subsequent economic analyses. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  20. Effect of thermohydraulic parameter on the flux distribution and the effective multiplication factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, J.C.; Valladares, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of two thermohydraulics parameters; the coolant flow velocity along the reactor channels and the increase of the average water temperature through the core, on the thermal flux distribution and on the effective multiplication factor, was studied in a radioisotopes production reactor. The results show that, for a fixed values of the thermohydraulics parameters reffered above, there are limits for the reactor core volume reduction for each value of the V sub(mod)/V sub(comb) ratio. These thermohydraulics conditions determine the higher termal flux value in the flux-trap and the lower value of the reactor effective multiplication factor. It is also show that there is a V sub(mod)/V sub(comb) ratio value that correspond to the higher value of the lower effective multiplication factor. These results was interpreted and comment using fundamentals concepts and relations of reactor physics. (author)

  1. Intensity ratio to improve black hole assessment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adusumilli, Gautam; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Sun, Peng; Lancia, Samantha; Viox, Jeffrey D; Wen, Jie; Naismith, Robert T; Cross, Anne H

    2018-01-01

    Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions. Develop a method to differentiate black and gray holes and estimate the severity of individual multiple sclerosis lesions using standard magnetic resonance imaging. 38 multiple sclerosis patients contributed images. Intensities of lesions on T1-weighted scans were assessed relative to cerebrospinal fluid intensity using commercial software. Magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and clinical testing were performed to assess associations with T1w intensity-based measures. Intensity-based assessments of T1w hypointensities were reproducible and achieved > 90% concordance with expert rater determinations of "black" and "gray" holes. Intensity ratio values correlated with magnetization transfer ratios (R = 0.473) and diffusion tensor imaging metrics (R values ranging from 0.283 to -0.531) that have been associated with demyelination and axon loss. Intensity ratio values incorporated into T1w hypointensity volumes correlated with clinical measures of cognition. This method of determining the degree of hypointensity within multiple sclerosis lesions can add information to conventional imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrospective Reconstructions of Active Bone Marrow Dose-Volume Histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, Cristina; Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Llanas, Damien; Vu Bezin, Jérémi; Chavaudra, Jean; Mège, Jean Pierre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Quiniou, Eric; Deutsh, Eric; Vathaire, Florent de; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating dose-volume histograms (DVH's) to the active bone marrow (ABM) of patients who had undergone radiation therapy (RT) and subsequently developed leukemia. Methods and Materials: The study focuses on 15 patients treated between 1961 and 1996. Whole-body RT planning computed tomographic (CT) data were not available. We therefore generated representative whole-body CTs similar to patient anatomy. In addition, we developed a method enabling us to obtain information on the density distribution of ABM all over the skeleton. Dose could then be calculated in a series of points distributed all over the skeleton in such a way that their local density reflected age-specific data for ABM distribution. Dose to particular regions and dose-volume histograms of the entire ABM were estimated for all patients. Results: Depending on patient age, the total number of dose calculation points generated ranged from 1,190,970 to 4,108,524. The average dose to ABM ranged from 0.3 to 16.4 Gy. Dose-volume histograms analysis showed that the median doses (D 50% ) ranged from 0.06 to 12.8 Gy. We also evaluated the inhomogeneity of individual patient ABM dose distribution according to clinical situation. It was evident that the coefficient of variation of the dose for the whole ABM ranged from 1.0 to 5.7, which means that the standard deviation could be more than 5 times higher than the mean. Conclusions: For patients with available long-term follow-up data, our method provides reconstruction of dose-volume data comparable to detailed dose calculations, which have become standard in modern CT-based 3-dimensional RT planning. Our strategy of using dose-volume histograms offers new perspectives to retrospective epidemiological studies

  3. Newton/Poisson-Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    NEWTPOIS, one of two computer programs making calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715) and CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) used independently of one another. NEWTPOIS determines Poisson parameter for given cumulative probability, from which one obtains percentiles for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and percentiles for X(sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Program written in C.

  4. [State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, M; Hulde, N; Kammerer, T; Meidert, A S; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2017-03-01

    Adequate fluid therapy is highly important for the perioperative outcome of our patients. Both, hypovolemia and hypervolemia can lead to an increase in perioperative complications and can impair the outcome. Therefore, perioperative infusion therapy should be target-oriented. The main target is to maintain the patient's preoperative normovolemia by using a sophisticated, rational infusion strategy.Perioperative fluid losses should be discriminated from volume losses (surgical blood loss or interstitial volume losses containing protein). Fluid losses as urine or perspiratio insensibilis (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy step 1: Blood loss up to a maximum value of 20% of the patient's blood volume should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4(-5):1. Volume therapy step 2: Higher blood losses should be treated by using iso-oncotic, preferential balanced colloids in a ratio of 1:1. For this purpose hydroxyethyl starch can also be used perioperatively if there is no respective contraindication, such as sepsis, burn injuries, critically ill patients, renal impairment or renal replacement therapy, and severe coagulopathy. Volume therapy step 3: If there is an indication for red cell concentrates or coagulation factors, a differentiated application of blood and blood products should be performed.

  5. VIPRE-01. a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for reactor cores. Volume 1. Mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Cuta, J.M.; Koontz, A.S.; Kelly, J.M.; Basehore, K.L.; George, T.L.; Rowe, D.S.

    1983-04-01

    VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors; EPRI) has been developed for nuclear power utility thermal-hydraulic analysis applications. It is designed to help evaluate nuclear reactor core safety limits including minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), critical power ratio (CPR), fuel and clad temperatures, and coolant state in normal operation and assumed accident conditions. This volume (Volume 1: Mathematical Modeling) explains the major thermal hydraulic models and supporting correlations in detail

  6. The effects of axis ratio on laminar fluid flow around an elliptical cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruquee, Zakir; Ting, David S-K.; Fartaj, Amir; Barron, Ronald M.; Carriveau, Rupp

    2007-01-01

    An elliptical cylinder is a generic shape which represents a flat plate at its minor to major axis ratio (AR) limits of zero and infinity, and a circular cylinder at AR of unity. While incompressible flows over a streamwise flat plate (AR = 0), a cross-stream flat plate (AR = ∞), and a circular cylinder have been studied extensively, the role of AR on the detailed flow structure is still not well understood. Therefore, a numerical study was conducted to examine the flow field around an elliptical cylinder over a range of ARs from 0.3 to 1, with the major axis parallel to the free-stream, at a Reynolds number of 40 based on the hydraulic diameter. The control volume approach of FLUENT was used to solve the fluid flow equations, assuming the flow over the cylinder is unbounded, steady, incompressible and two-dimensional. It has been found that a pair of steady vortices forms when AR reaches a critical value of 0.34; below this value no vortices are formed behind the elliptical cylinder. Various wake parameters, drag coefficient, pressure and velocity distributions, have been characterized as functions of AR. The wake size and the drag coefficient are found to increase with the increase of AR. Quadratic correlations have been obtained to describe the relations of wake length and drag coefficient with axis ratio

  7. Ratio asymptotics of Hermite-Pade polynomials for Nikishin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekarev, A I; Lopez, Guillermo L; Rocha, I A

    2005-01-01

    The existence of ratio asymptotics is proved for a sequence of multiple orthogonal polynomials with orthogonality relations distributed among a system of m finite Borel measures with support on a bounded interval of the real line which form a so-called Nikishin system. For m=1 this result reduces to Rakhmanov's celebrated theorem on the ratio asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials on the real line.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Shear Strengthening Capacity of High Volume Fly Ash-Cementitious Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aswin K.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses development of Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibre reinforced cementitious composites taking into account environmental sustainability. Composites with fly ash to cement ratios from 0 to 3 are investigated in this study. The mechanical properties of HVFA-cement composite are discussed in this paper at PVA fiber volume fraction maintained at 1% of total volume of composite. The optimum replacement of cement with fly ash was found to be 75%, i.e. fly ash to cement ratio (FA/C) of 3. The increase in fiber content from 1% to 2% showed better mechanical performance. A strain capacity of 2.38% was obtained for FA/C ratio of 3 with 2% volume fraction of fiber. With the objective of evaluating the performance of cementitious composites as a strengthening material in reinforced concrete beams, the beams deficient in shear capacity were strengthened with optimal mix having 2% volume fraction of fiber as the strengthening material and tested under four-point load. The reinforced concrete beams designed as shear deficient were loaded to failure and retrofitted with the composite in order to assess the efficiency as a repair material under shear.

  9. Multiple Improvements of Multiple Imputation Likelihood Ratio Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kin Wai; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Multiple imputation (MI) inference handles missing data by first properly imputing the missing values $m$ times, and then combining the $m$ analysis results from applying a complete-data procedure to each of the completed datasets. However, the existing method for combining likelihood ratio tests has multiple defects: (i) the combined test statistic can be negative in practice when the reference null distribution is a standard $F$ distribution; (ii) it is not invariant to re-parametrization; ...

  10. An estimate of the glacier ice volume in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Huss, Matthias; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Changes in glacier volume are important for questions linked to sea-level rise, water resource management, and tourism industry. With the ongoing climate warming, the retreat of mountain glaciers is a major concern. Predictions of glacier changes, necessarily need the present ice volume as initial condition, and for transient modelling, the ice thickness distribution has to be known. In this paper, a method based on mass conservation and principles of ice flow dynamics is applied to 62 glaciers located in the Swiss Alps for estimating their ice thickness distribution. All available direct ice thickness measurements are integrated. The ice volumes are referenced to the year 1999 by means of a mass balance time series. The results are used to calibrate a volume-area scaling relation, and the coefficients obtained show good agreement with values reported in the literature. We estimate the total ice volume present in the Swiss Alps in the year 1999 to be 74 ± 9 km 3. About 12% of this volume was lost between 1999 and 2008, whereas the extraordinarily warm summer 2003 caused a volume loss of about 3.5%.

  11. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems : the 12th International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Young-Jo

    2016-01-01

    This volume of proceedings includes 32 original contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS 2014), held in November 2014. The selected papers in this volume are authored by leading researchers from Asia, Europe, and the Americas, thereby providing a broad coverage and perspective of the state-of-the-art technologies, algorithms, system architectures, and applications in distributed robotic systems. .

  12. Business ratio report: oil and gas exploration, refining and distribution. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The value of this publication is that it not only complies and assimilates a vast wealth of information, but it also presents it in an easily digestible form. Relative company performance is ranked in a series of tables and compared with an overall average for the industry. Performance is measured using a series of business ratios, a simple and familiar method of permitting otherwise unlike data to be compared. A number of complementary growth rates add a further dimension to the analysis. The Report analyses a fixed sample of companies over a three year period. As an indication of the longer-term trend a graphical representation of the return on capital, profit margin, stock to sales, credit period, profit per employee and sales per employee ratios are featured for a period of up to seven years. (author)

  13. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of 90Sr and 137Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River

    OpenAIRE

    Shishkina, Elena A.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.; Popova, Irina Ya.; Osipov, Denis I.; Tikhova, Yu.; Andreyev, S.S.; Shaposhnikova, I.A.; Egoreichenkov, E.A.; Styazhkina, E.V.; Deryabina, Larisa V.; Tryapitsina, Galina A.; Melnikov, Viktor S.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Teien, Hans-Christian; Sneve, Malgorzata Karpov

    2016-01-01

    Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X16300959 Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for 90Sr and 137Cs were not in full agreement w...

  14. Assessment of glioma response to radiotherapy using 3D pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling and 3D segmented volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Jianrui; Diao, Qiang; Lin, YuanKai; Zhang, Jun; Li, Lin; Yang, Gang; Fang, Xiaokun; Li, Xie; Chen, YingQi; Zheng, Ling, E-mail: lingzheng1989@yeah.net; Lu, Guangming, E-mail: guangminglu1905@163.com

    2016-11-15

    Background: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, in some cases, radiotherapy may be the preferred treatment option especially for elderly people who cannot endure surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on glioma. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR imaging technique that allows for a quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Tumor volume is still an important determinant for evaluating treatment response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the tumor perfusion parameters and tumor volume and assess the effects of radiotherapy on glioma using pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) technique. Methods: 35 patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade group (n = 16) and high-grade group (n = 19), treated with radiotherapy only or before using other therapies were included in this study. MR examinations, including T1 weighted image and pcASL, were performed before and 4, 8, 12, 16 weeks after radiotherapy. Regional CBF of normal tissue, mean tumor blood flow (TBF{sub mean}), maximum tumor blood flow (TBF{sub max}), and tumor volume were evaluated at each time point. Both the percentage change in CBF (CBF ratio), TBF{sub mean} (TBF{sub mean} ratio), TBF{sub max} (TBF{sub max} ratio) and the percentage change in tumor volume (volume ratio) were calculated using values obtained before and after radiotherapy. The correlation between the volume ratio and CBF ratio, TBF{sub mean} ratio, TBF{sub max} ratio was assessed using linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Results: The TBF{sub mean} and TBF{sub max} of high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than that of low-grade group. In high-grade group, a strong correlation was demonstrated between the tumor volume and the TBF{sub max} before radiotherapy (R{sup 2} = 0.35, r{sub s} = 0.59, p < 0.05). There was also a significant correlation between the TBF

  15. Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear multifragmentation in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions has long been associated with liquid-gas phase transition. We calculate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s for an equilibrated system of nucleons and fragments produced in multifragmentation within an extended statistical multifragmentation model. The temperature dependence of η/s exhibits behavior surprisingly similar to that of H 2 O. In the coexistence phase of fragments and light particles, the ratio η/s reaches a minimum of depth comparable to that for water in the vicinity of the critical temperature for liquid-gas phase transition. The effects of freeze-out volume and surface symmetry energy on η/s in multifragmentation are studied.

  16. Studies on the liquid-liquid phase distribution equilibria of selenium and its measurement in water using extraction plant with a pulsation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskanderani, F.; Sobhi, K.M.; Ejaz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Normal heptane, xylene and a 0.01 molar solution of 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine in toluene were investigated as extractants for selenium(IV) from nitric acid media in potassium iodide. Various parameters affecting the distribution of the element are investigated. Extraction at high aqueous to organic phase volume ratio was studied, using a liquid-liquid extraction plant with a pulsation column. The results were employed to measure selenium in spiked water samples. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs

  17. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Calcul statistique du volume des blocs matriciels d'un gisement fissuré The Statistical Computing of Matrix Block Volume in a Fissured Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La recherche des conditions optimales d'exploitation d'un gisement fissuré repose sur une bonne description de la fissuration. En conséquence il est nécessaire de définir les dimensions et volumes des blocs matriciels en chaque point d'une structure. Or la géométrie du milieu (juxtaposition et formes des blocs est généralement trop complexe pour se prêter au calcul. Aussi, dans une précédente communication, avons-nous dû tourner cette difficulté par un raisonnement sur des moyennes (pendages, azimuts, espacement des fissures qui nous a conduits à un ordre de grandeur des volumes. Cependant un volume moyen ne peut pas rendre compte d'une loi de répartition des volumes des blocs. Or c'est cette répartition qui conditionne le choix d'une ou plusieurs méthodes successives de récupération. Aussi présentons-nous ici une méthode originale de calcul statistique de la loi de distribution des volumes des blocs matriciels, applicable en tout point d'un gisement. La part de gisement concernée par les blocs de volume donné en est déduite. La connaissance générale du phénomène de la fracturation sert de base au modèle. Les observations de subsurface sur la fracturation du gisement en fournissent les données (histogramme d'orientation et d'espacement des fissures.Une application au gisement d'Eschau (Alsace, France est rapportée ici pour illustrer la méthode. The search for optimum production conditions for a fissured reservoir depends on having a good description of the fissure pattern. Hence the sizes and volumes of the matrix blocks must be defined at all points in a structure. However, the geometry of the medium (juxtaposition and shapes of blocks in usually too complex for such computation. This is why, in a previous paper, we got around this problem by reasoning on the bases of averages (clips, azimuths, fissure spacing, and thot led us to an order of magnitude of the volumes. Yet a mean volume cannot be used to explain

  19. The importance of the mean platelet volume in the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... The importance of the mean platelet volume in the diagnosis of ... terms of the focus of the study, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, mean cell volume (MCV), red cell distribution .... hormone replacement therapy and some drugs,.

  20. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Estimating isotopic ratios, spatial distribution and inventory of radionuclides at Nuclear Sites 201, 219 and 221

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Engel, D.W.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1984-03-01

    For NS201 the estimated average 239 240 Pu to 241 Am ratios for vegetation and soil are 7.3 and 11.5, respectively, where the 241 Am data were obtained using wet chemistry. The geometric mean 90 Sr to 137 Cs ratios for vegetation and soil at NS201 are estimated to be 1.1 and 1.9. These results suggest that the true (population) median 239 240 Pu to 241 Am and 90 Sr to 137 Cs ratios are smaller for vegetation than for soil at NS201. For NS219 and NS221 the estimated average 239 240 Pu to 241 Am ratios for surface soil at NS219 and NS221 are 2.8 and 0.78, respectively. There is an obvious statistical difference in the average 239 240 Pu to 241 Am ratios at these sites. The geometric mean 239 240 Pu to 241 Am ratios for vegetation samples at NS219 and NS221 are estimated to be 3.2 and 0.82, respectively. The data suggest there may be a difference in the 239 240 Pu to 241 Am ratios for soil and vegetation at NS219, but not at NS221. The geometric mean 90 Sr to 137 Cs ratio for surface soil at NS219 and NS221 combined is 0.93. The geometric mean 90 Sr to 137 Cs ratio for vegetation for the two sites (pooled data) is estimated to be 1.8. 43 references, 42 figures, 7 tables

  2. Enterprise Management Network Architecture Distributed Knowledge Base Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    schemata be distributed? To solve this problem, we defined a user- callable function: distribution-function. This function identifies who the "potential...Artificial Intelligence, Volume 4. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts, 1989. [4] Bond , A.H., and Gasser, L. Readings in Distributed

  3. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konings Maurits K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo. These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds. The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling

  4. Asymmetric Lévy flight in financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Valentinčič, Aljoša; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Because financial crises are characterized by dangerous rare events that occur more frequently than those predicted by models with finite variances, we investigate the underlying stochastic process generating these events. In the 1960s Mandelbrot [Mandelbrot B (1963) J Bus 36:394-419] and Fama [Fama EF (1965) J Bus 38:34-105] proposed a symmetric Lévy probability distribution function (PDF) to describe the stochastic properties of commodity changes and price changes. We find that an asymmetric Lévy PDF, L, characterized by infinite variance, models several multiple credit ratios used in financial accounting to quantify a firm's financial health, such as the Altman [Altman EI (1968) J Financ 23:589-609] Z score and the Zmijewski [Zmijewski ME (1984) J Accounting Res 22:59-82] score, and models changes of individual financial ratios, ΔX(i). We thus find that Lévy PDFs describe both the static and dynamics of credit ratings. We find that for the majority of ratios, ΔX(i) scales with the Lévy parameter α ≈ 1, even though only a few of the individual ratios are characterized by a PDF with power-law tails X(i)(-1-α) with infinite variance. We also find that α exhibits a striking stability over time. A key element in estimating credit losses is the distribution of credit rating changes, the functional form of which is unknown for alphabetical ratings. For continuous credit ratings, the Altman Z score, we find that P(ΔZ) follows a Lévy PDF with power-law exponent α ≈ 1, consistent with changes of individual financial ratios. Estimating the conditional P(ΔZ|Z) versus Z, we demonstrate how this continuous credit rating approach and its dynamics can be used to evaluate credit risk.

  5. Consequences of additional use of PET information for target volume delineation and radiotherapy dose distribution for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muijs, Christina T.; Schreurs, Liesbeth M.; Busz, Dianne M.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Borden, Arnout J. van der; Pruim, Jan; Van der Jagt, Eric J.; Plukker, John Th.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the consequences of target volume (TV) modifications, based on the additional use of PET information, on radiation planning, assuming PET/CT-imaging represents the true extent of the tumour. Materials and methods: For 21 patients with esophageal cancer, two separate TV's were retrospectively defined based on CT (CT-TV) and co-registered PET/CT images (PET/CT-TV). Two 3D-CRT plans (prescribed dose 50.4 Gy) were constructed to cover the corresponding TV's. Subsequently, these plans were compared for target coverage, normal tissue dose-volume histograms and the corresponding normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) values. Results: The addition of PET led to the modification of CT-TV with at least 10% in 12 of 21 patients (57%) (reduction in 9, enlargement in 3). PET/CT-TV was inadequately covered by the CT-based treatment plan in 8 patients (36%). Treatment plan modifications resulted in significant changes (p < 0.05) in dose distributions to heart and lungs. Corresponding changes in NTCP values ranged from -3% to +2% for radiation pneumonitis and from -0.2% to +1.2% for cardiac mortality. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that TV's based on CT might exclude PET-avid disease. Consequences are under dosing and thereby possibly ineffective treatment. Moreover, the addition of PET in radiation planning might result in clinical important changes in NTCP.

  6. Effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on blood volume distribution in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Troels M; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2017-01-01

    increased (+22%, prestores central hypovolaemia......BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is accompanied by portal hypertension with splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, and central hypovolaemia. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) alleviates portal hypertension, but also causes major haemodynamic changes. AIMS: To investigate effects...... catheterization. Central and arterial blood volume (CBV) and cardiac output (CO) were determined with indicator dilution technique. RESULTS: After TIPS, the thoracic blood volume increased (+10.4% of total blood volume (TBV), p

  7. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  8. Mean platelet volume and red cell distribution width levels in initial evaluation of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoglu M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Asoglu,1 Mehmet Aslan,2 Okan Imre,1 Yuksel Kivrak,3 Oznur Akil,1 Emin Savik,4 Hasan Buyukaslan,5 Ulker Fedai,1 Abdurrahman Altındag6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey Background: As the relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied in recent years, activated platelets lead to certain biochemical changes, which occur in the brain in patients with mental disorders. However, data relating to the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with panic disorder (PD are both limited and controversial. Herein, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the red cell distribution width (RDW levels combined with MPV levels in patients with PD.Patients and methods: Between January 2012 and June 2015, data of 30 treatment-naïve patients (16 females, 14 males; mean age: 37±10 years; range: 18–59 years who were diagnosed with PD and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (10 females, 15 males; mean age: 36±13 years; range: 18–59 years (control group were retrospectively analyzed. The white blood cell count (WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were measured in both groups.Results: The mean WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were 9,173.03±2,400.31/mm3, 8.19±1.13 fl, and 12.47±1.14%, respectively, in the PD group. These values were found to be 7,090.24±1,032.61, 6.85±0.67, and 11.63±0.85, respectively, in the healthy controls. The WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were significantly higher in the patients with PD compared to the healthy controls (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0

  9. Software Quality Measurement for Distributed Systems. Volume 3. Distributed Computing Systems: Impact on Software Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Distributed Computing Systems impact DrnwrR - aehR on Sotwar Quaity. PERFORMING 010. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOW) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT "UMBER(*)IS ThomasY...C31 Application", "Space Systems Network", "Need for Distributed Database Management", and "Adaptive Routing". This is discussed in the last para ...data reduction, buffering, encryption, and error detection and correction functions. Examples of such data streams include imagery data, video

  10. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  11. DemQSAR: predicting human volume of distribution and clearance of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Kavuk, Ozgur; Bentzien, Jörg; Muegge, Ingo; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2011-12-01

    In silico methods characterizing molecular compounds with respect to pharmacologically relevant properties can accelerate the identification of new drugs and reduce their development costs. Quantitative structure-activity/-property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) correlate structure and physico-chemical properties of molecular compounds with a specific functional activity/property under study. Typically a large number of molecular features are generated for the compounds. In many cases the number of generated features exceeds the number of molecular compounds with known property values that are available for learning. Machine learning methods tend to overfit the training data in such situations, i.e. the method adjusts to very specific features of the training data, which are not characteristic for the considered property. This problem can be alleviated by diminishing the influence of unimportant, redundant or even misleading features. A better strategy is to eliminate such features completely. Ideally, a molecular property can be described by a small number of features that are chemically interpretable. The purpose of the present contribution is to provide a predictive modeling approach, which combines feature generation, feature selection, model building and control of overtraining into a single application called DemQSAR. DemQSAR is used to predict human volume of distribution (VD(ss)) and human clearance (CL). To control overtraining, quadratic and linear regularization terms were employed. A recursive feature selection approach is used to reduce the number of descriptors. The prediction performance is as good as the best predictions reported in the recent literature. The example presented here demonstrates that DemQSAR can generate a model that uses very few features while maintaining high predictive power. A standalone DemQSAR Java application for model building of any user defined property as well as a web interface for the prediction of human VD(ss) and CL is

  12. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as predictors of wound healing failure in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yoko; Inoue, Keita; Mori, Keita; Gorai, Katsuya; Shimamoto, Ryo; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In microsurgical head and neck reconstruction, a higher rate of post-operative wound complication could be predicted by a lower pre-operative neutrophil ratio (wound complications in microsurgical head and neck reconstruction. Patients who were undergoing tumor ablation and microsurgical reconstruction from April 2011 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The pre-operative hematological data, age, sex, co-morbidities, body mass index (BMI), adjuvant therapies, smoking, operation time, blood loss, total protein, T-stage, and Anesthesiologists Performance Status (ASA-PS) score were collected. Cases of post-operative wound healing failure were reviewed. One hundred and three consecutive patients were enrolled. Among these, the results of 77 patients who were younger than 70 years of age were analyzed. The distributions of the neutrophil ratio (p = .0005), lymphocyte ratio (p = .0166), monocyte ratio (p = .0341), NLR (p = .005), and PLR (p = .008) differed significantly between the patients with and without post-operative wound healing failure. Neutrophil ratio, NLR, and PLR cut-off values of 64.9, 3.5, and 160 were significantly associated with the rate of wound healing failure rate (p = .0002, .00021, .0042, respectively).

  13. Quantification and variability in colonic volume with a novel magnetic resonance imaging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, M; Sandberg, Thomas Holm; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Segmental distribution of colorectal volume is relevant in a number of diseases, but clinical and experimental use demands robust reliability and validity. Using a novel semi-automatic magnetic resonance imaging-based technique, the aims of this study were to describe: (i) inter......-individual and intra-individual variability of segmental colorectal volumes between two observations in healthy subjects and (ii) the change in segmental colorectal volume distribution before and after defecation. Methods: The inter-individual and intra-individual variability of four colorectal volumes (cecum...... (p = 0.02). Conclusions & Inferences: Imaging of segmental colorectal volume, morphology, and fecal accumulation is advantageous to conventional methods in its low variability, high spatial resolution, and its absence of contrast-enhancing agents and irradiation. Hence, the method is suitable...

  14. World Gas Conference 1997. Working committee D. Distribution of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume deals with the work undertaken by Committee D during the Triennium 1994-1997. The subjects relating to gas distribution studied in this volume are as follows: Cost Management; Safety; Human Resource Development; Emerging Systems and General Subjects. Surveys were also conducted on these subjects and results included. Other gas distribution subjects are being addressed during the poster session. (EG)

  15. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) You must satisfy the liquidity requirement in § 107.1505. (4) The amount you distribute under... Distribution If your ratio of Leverage to Leverageable Capital as of the fiscal period end is: Then SBA's...

  16. Universal features of multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-01-01

    Universal features of multiplicity distributions are studied and combinants, certain linear combinations of ratios of probabilities, are introduced. It is argued that they can be a useful tool in analyzing multiplicity distributions of hadrons emitted in high energy collisions and large scale structure of galaxy distributions

  17. Determination of saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of semi-volatile aerosols: the integrated volume mentod

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the integrated volume method for estimating saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of a whole aerosol distribution. We measure the change of total volume of an aerosol distribution between a reference state and several heated states, with the heating...

  18. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10 3 /mm 3 at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10 3 /mm 3 before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10 3 /mm 3 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687

  19. The ratio method: a new way to look at halo nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capel P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction observable is presented to study exotic loosely-bound structures, such as halo nuclei. It consists of the ratio of two angular distributions, e. g. one for breakup and one for elastic scattering. This ratio is nearly independent of the reaction mechanism and is very sensitive to the projectile structure. This new ratio method is illustrated on the particular case of 11Be, the archetypal one-neutron halo nucleus.

  20. Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Jiang, Wentao; Fan, Yubo

    2018-05-01

    Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate. The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter. Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

  1. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  2. Is Preoperative Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio a Reliable Prognostic Parameter for Localized Prostate Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümay İpekçi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In spite of all efforts, prostate cancer is still the 2nd highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men. For this reason new developments are needed in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of prostate cancer. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio is a cheap and effective parameter used for research into many solid tumors; but there are not enough studies on the reliability of this parameter in prostate cancer. In this study we researched the efficacy of N/L ratio in localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between March 9, 2012 and April 23, 2017, the data of 140 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with localized prostate cancer were screened retrospectively. The patients’ ages, preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA and N/L ratio, pathologic stage, pathologic Gleason score, tumor volume, lymph node involvement, surgical margin positivity and presence or absence of 3rd month biochemical recurrence were noted. The correlations between N/L ratio with age, PSA, pathologic parameters, surgical margin positivity and biochemical recurrence were investigated. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.0±5.9 years, mean PSA value was 10.8±8.5 ng/mL and mean N/L ratio was 2.5±1.9. There was no correlation found between N/L ratio and PSA, pathologic stage, Gleason score, lymph node involvement, tumor volume, surgical margin positivity and biochemical recurrence (p>0.05. Conclusion: In our study investigating 140 patients with localized prostate cancer, we did not identify any correlation between N/L ratio and PSA, surgical stage and Gleason score, surgical margin positivity, and 3rd month biochemical recurrence. When the literature is investigated, it appears that N/L ratio is effective for metastatic prostate cancer. To provide a more accurate judgment of the role of N/L ratio in localized prostate cancer, there is a need for new studies with broader patient series.

  3. OPTIMUM VOLUME OF BANK RESERVE: FORECASTING OF OVERDUE CREDIT INDEBTEDNESS USING COPULA MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article propose to consider the possibility of RLUF-copulas application for the creation of joint distributions of overdue credit indebtedness ranks with macroeconomic indicators for the purpose of indebtedness forecasting and also for the definition of optimum volumes of reserve requirements for the corresponding losses. In this research the comparative analysis of multivariate distributions of RLUF-copula estimation with such classical copulas, as FGM-copula, Frank's copula and Gauss's copula is made. In the article the method of maximum likelihood is used for receiving estimates of model parameters. In case of RLUF-copula Bayesian estimates of parameters are received using the Metropolis algorithm with random volatility. Forecasting of bank reserve volumes for all received models is executed in the form of random sample generation by the means of the algorithm of acceptance-deviation for the creation of the corresponding sample of joint distribution using the copula density function. As the result of playing of hundred possible scenarios of indebtedness volumes is obtained the 95 % confidence level for the possible volume of credit indebtedness which can fully act as the optimum volume of reserve requirements for the corresponding credit losses.

  4. Cardiothoracic ratio may be misleading in the assessment of right- and left-ventricular size in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śpiewak, M.; Małek, Ł.A.; Biernacka, E.K.; Kowalski, M.; Michałowska, I.; Hoffman, P.; Miśko, J.; Demkow, M.; Rużyłło, W.; Marczak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relationship between cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and ventricular and atrial volumes in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Materials and methods: Patients with repaired TOF undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and chest radiography within 1 day were included (n = 82; median age: 24.7 years, interquartile range: 21.5–35.9). The CTR was obtained from upright posteroanterior chest roentgenograms. Analyses of CMR images and radiographs were performed in a blinded fashion. Results: There were 35.1% (13/37) of patients with normal CTR (<0.5) who had severe right ventricular (RV) dilatation. There were six patients (13.3%, 6/45) with high CTR with both normal RV and left-ventricular (LV) volumes. CTR did not correlate with either RV or LV volumes but showed a weak correlation with right- and left-atrial volumes (r = 0.43, p = 0.0001; r = 0.27, p = 0.01, respectively). CTR ≥0.5 showed poor ability in the identification of severe RV dilatation (sensitivity: 61.8%, specificity: 50%). The combination of CTR and signs of RV enlargement on lateral radiographs did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of any of those parameters alone. Conclusion: CTR in patients with repaired TOF reflected atrial rather than ventricular dilatation. The use of CTR or lateral radiographs in patients with repaired TOF may lead to false conclusions concerning ventricular size. - Highlights: • Cardiothoracic ratio did not correlate with either right- or left-ventricular volumes. • Cardiothoracic ratio reflected atrial rather than ventricular dilatation. • Normal cardiothoracic ratio did not exclude severe right ventricular dilatation. • Neither RVEF nor LVEF showed correlation with cardiothoracic ratio

  5. Cross section ratio and angular distributions of the reaction p + d → 3He + η at 48.8 MeV and 59.8 MeV excess energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Redmer, C.F.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P.; Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Hodana, M.; Jany, A.; Jany, B.R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Ozerianska, I.; Podkopal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G.J.; Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Goslawski, P.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Passfeld, A.; Taeschner, A.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bhatt, H.; Lalwani, K.; Varma, R.; Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroeher, H.; Wurm, P.; Zurek, M.; Coderre, D.; Ritman, J.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P.; Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Krapp, M.; Zink, A.; Fedorets, P.; Foehl, K.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Klos, B.; Stephan, E.; Weglorz, W.; Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D.; Mikirtychiants, M.; Pyszniak, A.; Roy, A.; Sawant, S.; Serdyuk, V.; Sopov, V.; Yamamoto, A.; Yurev, L.; Zabierowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present new data for angular distributions and on the cross section ratio of the p+d → 3 He + η reaction at excess energies of Q = 48.8 MeV and Q = 59.8 MeV. The data have been obtained at the WASA-at-COSY experiment (Forschungszentrum Juelich) using a proton beam and a deuterium pellet target. While the shape of obtained angular distributions show only a slow variation with the energy, the new results indicate a distinct and unexpected total cross section fluctuation between Q = 20 MeV and Q = 60 MeV, which might indicate the variation of the production mechanism within this energy interval. (orig.)

  6. Errors of the backextrapolation method in determination of the blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Rösler, U.; Frerichs, I.; Hahn, G.; Ennker, J.; Hellige, G.

    1999-01-01

    Backextrapolation is an empirical method to calculate the central volume of distribution (for example the blood volume). It is based on the compartment model, which says that after an injection the substance is distributed instantaneously in the central volume with no time delay. The occurrence of recirculation is not taken into account. The change of concentration with time of indocyanine green (ICG) was observed in an in vitro model, in which the volume was recirculating in 60 s and the clearance of the ICG could be varied. It was found that the higher the elimination of ICG, the higher was the error of the backextrapolation method. The theoretical consideration of Schröder et al ( Biomed. Tech. 42 (1997) 7-11) was proved. If the injected substance is eliminated somewhere in the body (i.e. not by radioactive decay), the backextrapolation method produces large errors.

  7. CARBON-TO-OXYGEN RATIOS IN M DWARFS AND SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Sorahana, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that high C/O ratios (>0.8) in circumstellar disks lead to the formation of carbon-dominated planets. Based on the expectation that elemental abundances in the stellar photospheres give the initial abundances in the circumstellar disks, the frequency distributions of C/O ratios of solar-type stars have been obtained by several groups. The results of these investigations are mixed. Some find C/O > 0.8 in more than 20% of stars, and C/O > 1.0 in more than 6%. Others find C/O > 0.8 in none of the sample stars. These works on solar-type stars are all differential abundance analyses with respect to the Sun and depend on the adopted C/O ratio in the Sun. Recently, a method of molecular line spectroscopy of M dwarfs, in which carbon and oxygen abundances are derived respectively from CO and H 2 O lines in the K band, has been developed. The resolution of the K- band spectrum is 20,000. Carbon and oxygen abundances of 46 M dwarfs have been obtained by this nondifferential abundance analysis. Carbon-to-oxygen ratios in M dwarfs derived by this method are more robust than those in solar-type stars derived from neutral carbon and oxygen lines in the visible spectra because of the difficulty in the treatment of oxygen lines. We have compared the frequency distribution of C/O distributions in M dwarfs with those of solar-type stars and have found that the low frequency of high-C/O ratios is preferred.

  8. CARBON-TO-OXYGEN RATIOS IN M DWARFS AND SOLAR-TYPE STARS