WorldWideScience

Sample records for distribution system planning

  1. Planning Systems for Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of the mission planning process involving distributed operations (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) and the computer hardware and software systems needed to support such an effort. Topics considered include: evolution of distributed planning systems, ISS distributed planning, the Payload Planning System (PPS), future developments in distributed planning systems, Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) and Next Generation distributed planning systems.

  2. Planning and Optimization Methods for Active Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbey, Chad; Baitch, Alex; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    distribution planning. Active distribution networks (ADNs) have systems in place to control a combination of distributed energy resources (DERs), defined as generators, loads and storage. With these systems in place, the AND becomes an Active Distribution System (ADS). Distribution system operators (DSOs) have...

  3. The comprehensive intermodal planning system in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Dziamski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Goods distribution by containers has opened new opportunities for them in the global supply chain network. Standardization of transportation units allow to simplify transport logistics operations and enable the integration of different types of transport. Currently, container transport is the most popular means of transport by sea, but recent studies show an increase in its popularity in land transport. In the paper presented the concept of a comprehensive intermodal planning system in a distributed environment which enables more efficient use containers in the global transport. The aim of this paper was to formulate and develop new concept of Internet Intermodal Planning System in distribution environment, supporting the common interests of the consignors and the logistic service providers by integrating the transportation modes, routing, logistics operations and scheduling in order to create intermodal transport plans. Methods: In the paper presented and discussed the new approach to the management of logistics resources used in international intermodal transport. Detailed analysis of proposed classification of variety transportation means has been carried out along with their specific properties, which may affect the time and cost of transportation. Have been presented the modular web-based distribution planning system supporting container transportation planning. Conducted the analysis of the main planning process and curried out the discussion on the effectiveness of the new web-based container transport planning system. Result and conclusions: This paper presents a new concept of the distributed container transport planning system integrating the available on the market logistics service providers with freight exchange. Specific to container planning new transport categories has been identified which simplify and facilitate the management of intermodal planning process. The paper presents a modular structure of Integrated

  4. Measurement based scenario analysis of short-range distribution system planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on short-range distribution system planning using a probabilistic approach. Empirical probabilistic distributions of load demand and distributed generations are derived from the historical measurement data and incorporated into the system planning. Simulations with various...... feasible scenarios are performed based on a local distribution system at Støvring in Denmark. Simulation results provide more accurate and insightful information for the decision-maker when using the probabilistic analysis than using the worst-case analysis, so that a better planning can be achieved....

  5. A novel optimal distribution system planning framework implementing distributed generation in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkar, S.; Poure, P.; Abbaspour-Tehrani-fard, A.; Saadate, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new framework included mathematical model and a new software package interfacing two powerful softwares (MATLAB and GAMS) for obtaining the optimal distributed generation (DG) capacity sizing and sitting investments with capability to simulate large distribution system planning. The proposed optimization model allows minimizing total system planning costs for DG investment, DG operation and maintenance, purchase of power by the distribution companies (DISCOs) from transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and system power losses. The proposed model provides not only the DG size and site but also the new market price as well. Three different cases depending on system conditions and three different scenarios depending on different planning alternatives and electrical market structures, have been considered. They have allowed validating the economical and electrical benefits of introducing DG by solving the distribution system planning problem and by improving power quality of distribution system. DG installation increases the feeders' lifetime by reducing their loading and adds the benefit of using the existing distribution system for further load growth without the need for feeders upgrading. More, by investing in DG, the DISCO can minimize its total planning cost and reduce its customers' bills. (author)

  6. A novel optimal distribution system planning framework implementing distributed generation in a deregulated electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkar, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN-UHP, Universite Henri Poincare de Nancy I, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Poure, P. [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy, LIEN, EA 3440, Universite Henri Poincare de Nancy I, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Abbaspour-Tehrani-fard, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Saadate, S. [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN-UHP, Universite Henri Poincare de Nancy I, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15

    This paper introduces a new framework included mathematical model and a new software package interfacing two powerful softwares (MATLAB and GAMS) for obtaining the optimal distributed generation (DG) capacity sizing and sitting investments with capability to simulate large distribution system planning. The proposed optimization model allows minimizing total system planning costs for DG investment, DG operation and maintenance, purchase of power by the distribution companies (DISCOs) from transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and system power losses. The proposed model provides not only the DG size and site but also the new market price as well. Three different cases depending on system conditions and three different scenarios depending on different planning alternatives and electrical market structures, have been considered. They have allowed validating the economical and electrical benefits of introducing DG by solving the distribution system planning problem and by improving power quality of distribution system. DG installation increases the feeders' lifetime by reducing their loading and adds the benefit of using the existing distribution system for further load growth without the need for feeders upgrading. More, by investing in DG, the DISCO can minimize its total planning cost and reduce its customers' bills. (author)

  7. 2015 Plan. Project 6: urban and rural distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The main development trends of distribution systems in 2015 Plan is studied, with the data of market continuity, costs and evolution of the physique system. Some factors that will influence the evolution of the distribution systems are presented and the impacts of economic view are discussed. The strategic lines that will give direction for the distribution expansion, including the energy conservation are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  8. Development of advanced methods for planning electric energy distribution systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenen, T.; Foote, B.L.; Thompson, J.C.; Fagan, J.E.

    1979-10-01

    An extensive search was made for the identification and collection of reports published in the open literature which describes distribution planning methods and techniques. In addition, a questionnaire has been prepared and sent to a large number of electric power utility companies. A large number of these companies were visited and/or their distribution planners interviewed for the identification and description of distribution system planning methods and techniques used by these electric power utility companies and other commercial entities. Distribution systems planning models were reviewed and a set of new mixed-integer programming models were developed for the optimal expansion of the distribution systems. The models help the planner to select: (1) optimum substation locations; (2) optimum substation expansions; (3) optimum substation transformer sizes; (4) optimum load transfers between substations; (5) optimum feeder routes and sizes subject to a set of specified constraints. The models permit following existing right-of-ways and avoid areas where feeders and substations cannot be constructed. The results of computer runs were analyzed for adequacy in serving projected loads within regulation limits for both normal and emergency operation.

  9. The planning and construction of Distributed Energy System in Qingdao Sino-German Eco-park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cun; Zhang, Gaijing; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduce the development and characteristics of new energy, Eco-city and Distributed Energy System in China, a case study of Qingdao Sino-German Eco-park, research on practical application about planning and construction of Distributed Energy System in Eco-city. Results show that: we must first do a good job in energy planning, giving full play to their own advantages, and Distributed Energy System based renewable energy resources is a promising option for reducing emissions from electricity generation in Eco-city.

  10. Probabilistic tools for planning and operating power systems with distributed energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöckl, Bernd; Papaefthymiou, George; Pinson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Stochastic energy flows are an increasingly important phenomenon in today's power system planning and operation. They are – among other reasons – caused by large amounts of stochastic generation such as wind. The inclusion of energy storage devices, distributed in future systems (distributed energy...... owners are either the grid operators, the generation owners, or the energy traders. For the grid operators being the DES owners, storage operation will have to be integrated into the planning of the system, therefore multivariate nonparametric time series analysis and synthesis methods have to be applied...... to recorded data of stochastic energy resources. Together with suited storage models, the implications of DES on the planning of the system can then be assessed. For the producers or traders being the owners of the DES, the topic to be addressed is the real-time operation of each storage device in the power...

  11. System analysis and planning of a gas distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Edwin F.M.; Farias, Helio Monteiro [AUTOMIND, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Carla V.R. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand by gas consumers require that projects or improvements in gas distribution networks be made carefully and safely to ensure a continuous, efficient and economical supply. Gas distribution companies must ensure that the networks and equipment involved are defined and designed at the appropriate time to attend to the demands of the market. To do that a gas distribution network analysis and planning tool should use distribution networks and transmission models for the current situation and the future changes to be implemented. These models are used to evaluate project options and help in making appropriate decisions in order to minimize the capital investment in new components or simple changes in operational procedures. Gas demands are increasing and it is important that gas distribute design new distribution systems to ensure this growth, considering financial constraints of the company, as well as local legislation and regulation. In this study some steps of developing a flexible system that attends to those needs will be described. The analysis of distribution requires geographically referenced data for the models as well as an accurate connectivity and the attributes of the equipment. GIS systems are often used as a deposit center that holds the majority of this information. GIS systems are constantly updated as distribution network equipment is modified. The distribution network modeling gathered from this system ensures that the model represents the current network condition. The benefits of this architecture drastically reduce the creation and maintenance cost of the network models, because network components data are conveniently made available to populate the distribution network. This architecture ensures that the models are continually reflecting the reality of the distribution network. (author)

  12. Implementation of an evolutionary algorithm in planning investment in a power distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés García Montoya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of an investment plan to implement in a distribution power system, is a task that constantly faced by utilities. This work presents a methodology for determining the investment plan for a distribution power system under a shortterm, using as a criterion for evaluating investment projects, associated costs and customers benefit from its implementation. Given the number of projects carried out annually on the system, the definition of an investment plan requires the use of computational tools to evaluate, a set of possibilities, the one that best suits the needs of the present system and better results. That is why in the job, implementing a multi objective evolutionary algorithm SPEA (Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm, which, based on the principles of Pareto optimality, it deliver to the planning expert, the best solutions found in the optimization process. The performance of the algorithm is tested using a set of projects to determine the best among the possible plans. We analyze also the effect of operators on the performance of evolutionary algorithm and results.

  13. Production and Distribution Planning in District Heating Systems; Produktions- och distributionsplanering av fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Dahlquist, Erik

    2006-12-15

    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The aim with the present project is to find out how also the distribution of heat can be considered in the planning. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, construct the production plan. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The report gives a survey introduction to production planning in district heating systems and presents a model for the purpose. The model is developed for one of the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by the energy company Fortum. Traditionally, models for production planning do not consider the distribution network. In such models, usually the methodology Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is used. The report suggests how the distribution network can be modeled as a MIP; it shall be possible to link the network model to existing software that models the production plants as MIP. The model is developed in the programming language GAMS. Analysis and results are presented. The results show that the suggested plans vary depending on if the distribution network is considered or not. The report also suggests how a simple sensitivity analysis of the production plans can be performed. This is necessary since there are always uncertainties associated with weather- and load predictions.

  14. Power Distribution System Planning Evaluation by a Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Zhang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of solutions is an important phase in power distribution system planning (PDSP which allows issues such as quality of supply, cost, social service and environmental implications to be considered and usually involves the judgments of a group of experts. The planning problem is thus suitable for the multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method. The evaluation process and evaluation criteria often involve uncertainties incorporated in quantitative analysis with crisp values and qualitative judgments with linguistic terms; therefore, fuzzy sets techniques are applied in this study. This paper proposes a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making (FMCGDM method for PDSP evaluation and applies a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision support system (FMCGDSS to support the evaluation task. We introduce a PDSP evaluation model, which has evaluation criteria within three levels, based on the characteristics of a power distribution system. A case-based example is performed on a test distribution network and demonstrates how all the problems in a PDSP evaluation are addressed using FMCGDSS. The results are acceptable to expert evaluators.

  15. Planning of Distribution Networks in Baghdad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Abdul-Wahhab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of electrical distribution networks is considered of highest priority at the present time in Iraq, due to the huge increase in electrical demand and expansions imposed on distribution networks as a result of the great and rapid urban development. Distribution system planning simulates and studies the behavior of electrical distribution networks under different operating conditions. The study provide understanding of the existing system and to prepare a short term development plan or a long term plan used to guide system expansion and future investments needed for improved network performance. The objective of this research is the planning of Al_Bayaa 11 kV distribution network in Baghdad city based on the powerful and efficient CYMDist software as a tool for the simulation and analysis of the network. The planning method proposed in this thesis is to reach the optimum operating conditions of the network by combining the network reconfiguration in sequence with the insertion of capacitors with optimal sizing and locations. The optimum performance of the network is achieved by reducing losses, improving voltage profile and alleviating overload for transformers and cables.

  16. A Study on the optimal distribution planning using computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Tae; Mun, Byung Hwa; Jang, Jung Tae; Hwang, Su Cheun; Kim, Ju Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Mun, Young Hwan; Choi, Sang Bong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Cheul; Han, Sung Ho [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    The main purpose of this study is to improve the CADPAD package to be convenient for the user and solve problems possibly to be emerged in application to three real distribution system of KEPCO (Kandong, Chungnam, Changwon branch) and retrofit the DISCAN program such as its modification of output function mouse manipulation, load creation / allocation, on-line help. In addition, problems concerned with practical application of investment / financing planning, load forecasting technique and reliability of system have been reviewed and also methods to raise the function of the package for extended application to other KEPCO`s distribution systems including interface with the programs already in use have been studied. (author). 61 refs., 114 figs.

  17. A Study on the optimal distribution planning using computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Tae; Mun, Byung Hwa; Jang, Jung Tae; Hwang, Su Cheun; Kim, Ju Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Mun, Young Hwan; Choi, Sang Bong [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Cheul; Han, Sung Ho [Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of this study is to improve the CADPAD package to be convenient for the user and solve problems possibly to be emerged in application to three real distribution system of KEPCO (Kandong, Chungnam, Changwon branch) and retrofit the DISCAN program such as its modification of output function mouse manipulation, load creation / allocation, on-line help. In addition, problems concerned with practical application of investment / financing planning, load forecasting technique and reliability of system have been reviewed and also methods to raise the function of the package for extended application to other KEPCO`s distribution systems including interface with the programs already in use have been studied. (author). 61 refs., 114 figs.

  18. Proceedings of the CEATI 2010 distribution planning workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This workshop provided a forum for electrical industry distribution experts to discuss methods of distribution planning that will ensure the provision of low-cost and reliable electrical service to present and future customers. Participants in the workshop discussed methods of integrating renewable energy resources, maximizing the use of existing assets, and reducing the carbon footprint of electric utilities. The effects of new loads on reliability, power quality, and voltage stability were considered. Planning distribution system modifications for the future were reviewed. The workshop provided an overview of distribution planning in relation to smart grids. The workshop included sessions on distribution planning for the 21. century; planning for a smarter grid; integrating renewable energy into the distribution system; and planning to manage reliability. The workshop featured 22 presentations, of which 16 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  19. Automated Planning and Scheduling for Planetary Rover Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Rabideau, Gregg; Tso, Kam S.; Chien, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Automated planning and Scheduling, including automated path planning, has been integrated with an Internet-based distributed operations system for planetary rover operations. The resulting prototype system enables faster generation of valid rover command sequences by a distributed planetary rover operations team. The Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) provides Internet-based distributed collaboration, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) provides automated planning and scheduling, and an automated path planner provided path planning. The system was demonstrated on the Rocky 7 research rover at JPL.

  20. Planning for a Distributed Disruption: Innovative Practices for Incorporating Distributed Solar into Utility Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mill, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dong, Changgui [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett [Independent Consultant

    2016-08-19

    The rapid growth of distributed solar photovoltaics (DPV) has critical implications for U.S. utility planning processes. This report informs utility planning through a comparative analysis of roughly 30 recent utility integrated resource plans or other generation planning studies, transmission planning studies, and distribution system plans. It reveals a spectrum of approaches to incorporating DPV across nine key planning areas, and it identifies areas where even the best current practices might be enhanced. 1) Forecasting DPV deployment: Because it explicitly captures several predictive factors, customer-adoption modeling is the most comprehensive forecasting approach. It could be combined with other forecasting methods to generate a range of potential futures. 2) Ensuring robustness of decisions to uncertain DPV quantities: using a capacity-expansion model to develop least-cost plans for various scenarios accounts for changes in net load and the generation portfolio; an innovative variation of this approach combines multiple per-scenario plans with trigger events, which indicate when conditions have changed sufficiently from the expected to trigger modifications in resource-acquisition strategy. 3) Characterizing DPV as a resource option: Today’s most comprehensive plans account for all of DPV’s monetary costs and benefits. An enhanced approach would address non-monetary and societal impacts as well. 4) Incorporating the non-dispatchability of DPV into planning: Rather than having a distinct innovative practice, innovation in this area is represented by evolving methods for capturing this important aspect of DPV. 5) Accounting for DPV’s location-specific factors: The innovative propensity-to-adopt method employs several factors to predict future DPV locations. Another emerging utility innovation is locating DPV strategically to enhance its benefits. 6) Estimating DPV’s impact on transmission and distribution investments: Innovative practices are being

  1. Planning for a Distributed Disruption: Innovative Practices for Incorporating Distributed Solar into Utility Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Barbose, Galen L.; Seel, Joachim; Dong, Changgui; Mai, Trieu; Sigrin, Ben; Zuboy, Jarett

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of distributed solar photovoltaics (DPV) has critical implications for U.S. utility planning processes. This report informs utility planning through a comparative analysis of roughly 30 recent utility integrated resource plans or other generation planning studies, transmission planning studies, and distribution system plans. It reveals a spectrum of approaches to incorporating DPV across nine key planning areas, and it identifies areas where even the best current practices might be enhanced. (1) Forecasting DPV deployment: Because it explicitly captures several predictive factors, customer-adoption modeling is the most comprehensive forecasting approach. It could be combined with other forecasting methods to generate a range of potential futures. (2) Ensuring robustness of decisions to uncertain DPV quantities: using a capacity-expansion model to develop least-cost plans for various scenarios accounts for changes in net load and the generation portfolio; an innovative variation of this approach combines multiple per-scenario plans with trigger events, which indicate when conditions have changed sufficiently from the expected to trigger modifications in resource-acquisition strategy. (3) Characterizing DPV as a resource option: Today's most comprehensive plans account for all of DPV's monetary costs and benefits. An enhanced approach would address non-monetary and societal impacts as well. (4) Incorporating the non-dispatchability of DPV into planning: Rather than having a distinct innovative practice, innovation in this area is represented by evolving methods for capturing this important aspect of DPV. (5) Accounting for DPV's location-specific factors: The innovative propensity-to-adopt method employs several factors to predict future DPV locations. Another emerging utility innovation is locating DPV strategically to enhance its benefits. (6) Estimating DPV's impact on transmission and distribution investments: Innovative

  2. Designing and Implementing a Distributed System Architecture for the Mars Rover Mission Planning Software (Maestro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgof, Gregory M.

    2005-01-01

    Distributed systems allow scientists from around the world to plan missions concurrently, while being updated on the revisions of their colleagues in real time. However, permitting multiple clients to simultaneously modify a single data repository can quickly lead to data corruption or inconsistent states between users. Since our message broker, the Java Message Service, does not ensure that messages will be received in the order they were published, we must implement our own numbering scheme to guarantee that changes to mission plans are performed in the correct sequence. Furthermore, distributed architectures must ensure that as new users connect to the system, they synchronize with the database without missing any messages or falling into an inconsistent state. Robust systems must also guarantee that all clients will remain synchronized with the database even in the case of multiple client failure, which can occur at any time due to lost network connections or a user's own system instability. The final design for the distributed system behind the Mars rover mission planning software fulfills all of these requirements and upon completion will be deployed to MER at the end of 2005 as well as Phoenix (2007) and MSL (2009).

  3. Planning of distributed generation in distribution network based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinze; Qu, Zhi; He, Xiaoyang; Jin, Xiaoming; Li, Tie; Wang, Mingkai; Han, Qiu; Gao, Ziji; Jiang, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale access of distributed power can improve the current environmental pressure, at the same time, increasing the complexity and uncertainty of overall distribution system. Rational planning of distributed power can effectively improve the system voltage level. To this point, the specific impact on distribution network power quality caused by the access of typical distributed power was analyzed and from the point of improving the learning factor and the inertia weight, an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IPSO) was proposed which could solve distributed generation planning for distribution network to improve the local and global search performance of the algorithm. Results show that the proposed method can well reduce the system network loss and improve the economic performance of system operation with distributed generation.

  4. Microgrids and distributed generation systems: Control, operation, coordination and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Liang

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) which include distributed generations (DGs), distributed energy storage systems, and adjustable loads are key components in microgrid operations. A microgrid is a small electric power system integrated with on-site DERs to serve all or some portion of the local load and connected to the utility grid through the point of common coupling (PCC). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and island mode. The structure and components of hierarchical control for a microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) are discussed and analyzed. Case studies would address the reliable and economic operation of IIT microgrid. The simulation results of IIT microgrid operation demonstrate that the hierarchical control and the coordination strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs) is an effective way of optimizing the economic operation and the reliability of microgrids. The benefits and challenges of DC microgrids are addressed with a DC model for the IIT microgrid. We presented the hierarchical control strategy including the primary, secondary, and tertiary controls for economic operation and the resilience of a DC microgrid. The simulation results verify that the proposed coordinated strategy is an effective way of ensuring the resilient response of DC microgrids to emergencies and optimizing their economic operation at steady state. The concept and prototype of a community microgrid that interconnecting multiple microgrids in a community are proposed. Two works are conducted. For the coordination, novel three-level hierarchical coordination strategy to coordinate the optimal power exchanges among neighboring microgrids is proposed. For the planning, a multi-microgrid interconnection planning framework using probabilistic minimal cut-set (MCS) based iterative methodology is proposed for enhancing the economic, resilience, and reliability signals in multi-microgrid operations. The implementation of high-reliability microgrids

  5. A Distributed Framework for Real Time Path Planning in Practical Multi-agent Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a framework for distributed, energy efficient, and real time implementable algorithms for path planning in multi-agent systems. The proposed framework is presented in the context of a motivating example of capture the flag which

  6. Reliability planning in distributed electric energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.

    1978-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop tools for technology evaluation that address questions involving the economics of large-scale systems. The kind of cost discussed usually involves some dynamic aspect of the energy system. In particular, such properties as flexibility, stability, and resilience are features of entire systems. Special attention must be paid to the question of reliability, i.e., availability on demand. The storage problem and the planning for reliability in utility systems are the subjects of this paper. The introductory chapter addresses preliminary definitions--reliability planning, uncertainty, resilience, and other sensitivities. The study focuses on the contrast between conventional power generation technologies with controllable output and intermittent resources such as wind and solar electric conversion devices. The system studied is a stylized representation of California conditions. Significant differences were found in reliability planning requirements (and therefore costs) for systems dominated by central station plants as opposed to those dominated by intermittent resource technologies. It is argued that existing hydroelectric facilities need re-optimization. These plants provide the only currently existing bulk power storage in electric energy systems. 38 references. (MCW)

  7. Planning of different types of distributed generation with seasonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Distributed generation, distribution system, distributed generation planning. ... photovoltaic can and in sometimes are required to provide reactive power as well. ...... “Optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation on radial.

  8. A Monte Carlo program converting activity distribution to absorbed dose distributions in a radionuclide treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    In systemic radiation therapy, the absorbed dose distribution must be calculated from the individual activity distribution. A computer code has been developed for the conversion of an arbitrary activity distribution to a 3-D absorbed dose distribution. The activity distribution can be described either analytically or as a voxel based distribution, which comes from a SPECT acquisition. Decay points are sampled according to the activity map, and particles (photons and electrons) from the decay are followed through the tissue until they either escape the patient or drop below a cut off energy. To verify the calculated results, the mathematically defined MIRD phantom and unity density spheres have been included in the code. Also other published dosimetry data were used for verification. Absorbed fraction and S-values were calculated. A comparison with simulated data from the code with MIRD data shows good agreement. The S values are within 10-20% of published MIRD S values for most organs. Absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in spheres (masses between 1 g and 200 kg) are within 10-15% of those published. Radial absorbed dose distributions in a necrotic tumor show good agreement with published data. The application of the code in a radionuclide therapy dose planning system, based on quantitative SPECT, is discussed. (orig.)

  9. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  10. Distributed Operations Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jason; Norris, Jeffrey; Powell, Mark; Rabe, Kenneth; Shams, Khawaja

    2007-01-01

    Maestro software provides a secure and distributed mission planning system for long-term missions in general, and the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) specifically. Maestro, the successor to the Science Activity Planner, has a heavy emphasis on portability and distributed operations, and requires no data replication or expensive hardware, instead relying on a set of services functioning on JPL institutional servers. Maestro works on most current computers with network connections, including laptops. When browsing down-link data from a spacecraft, Maestro functions similarly to being on a Web browser. After authenticating the user, it connects to a database server to query an index of data products. It then contacts a Web server to download and display the actual data products. The software also includes collaboration support based upon a highly reliable messaging system. Modifications made to targets in one instance are quickly and securely transmitted to other instances of Maestro. The back end that has been developed for Maestro could benefit many future missions by reducing the cost of centralized operations system architecture.

  11. Location and Size Planning of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation in Distribution network System Based on K-means Clustering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siqi; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Junyong

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a method to generate the planning scenarios, which is based on K-means clustering analysis algorithm driven by data, for the location and size planning of distributed photovoltaic (PV) units in the network. Taken the power losses of the network, the installation and maintenance costs of distributed PV, the profit of distributed PV and the voltage offset as objectives and the locations and sizes of distributed PV as decision variables, Pareto optimal front is obtained through the self-adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) and solutions are ranked by a method called technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS). Finally, select the planning schemes at the top of the ranking list based on different planning emphasis after the analysis in detail. The proposed method is applied to a 10-kV distribution network in Gansu Province, China and the results are discussed.

  12. Advances in Distributed Operations and Mission Activity Planning for Mars Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jason M.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Rabe, Kenneth J.; Shams, Khawaja

    2006-01-01

    A centralized mission activity planning system for any long-term mission, such as the Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER), is completely infeasible due to budget and geographic constraints. A distributed operations system is key to addressing these constraints; therefore, future system and software engineers must focus on the problem of how to provide a secure, reliable, and distributed mission activity planning system. We will explain how Maestro, the next generation mission activity planning system, with its heavy emphasis on portability and distributed operations has been able to meet these design challenges. MER has been an excellent proving ground for Maestro's new approach to distributed operations. The backend that has been developed for Maestro could benefit many future missions by reducing the cost of centralized operations system architecture.

  13. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    di Salvatore, F; Grattieri, W; Insinga, F; Malafarina, L; Mazzoni, M; Nicola, G

    1991-12-31

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transfering consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system`s general architecture.

  14. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klüter, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.klueter@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, and German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  15. Independent calculation of dose distributions for helical tomotherapy using a conventional treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klüter, Sebastian; Schubert, Kai; Lissner, Steffen; Sterzing, Florian; Oetzel, Dieter; Debus, Jürgen; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric verification of treatment plans in helical tomotherapy usually is carried out via verification measurements. In this study, a method for independent dose calculation of tomotherapy treatment plans is presented, that uses a conventional treatment planning system with a pencil kernel dose calculation algorithm for generation of verification dose distributions based on patient CT data. Methods: A pencil beam algorithm that directly uses measured beam data was configured for dose calculation for a tomotherapy machine. Tomotherapy treatment plans were converted into a format readable by an in-house treatment planning system by assigning each projection to one static treatment field and shifting the calculation isocenter for each field in order to account for the couch movement. The modulation of the fluence for each projection is read out of the delivery sinogram, and with the kernel-based dose calculation, this information can directly be used for dose calculation without the need for decomposition of the sinogram. The sinogram values are only corrected for leaf output and leaf latency. Using the converted treatment plans, dose was recalculated with the independent treatment planning system. Multiple treatment plans ranging from simple static fields to real patient treatment plans were calculated using the new approach and either compared to actual measurements or the 3D dose distribution calculated by the tomotherapy treatment planning system. In addition, dose–volume histograms were calculated for the patient plans. Results: Except for minor deviations at the maximum field size, the pencil beam dose calculation for static beams agreed with measurements in a water tank within 2%/2 mm. A mean deviation to point dose measurements in the cheese phantom of 0.89% ± 0.81% was found for unmodulated helical plans. A mean voxel-based deviation of −0.67% ± 1.11% for all voxels in the respective high dose region (dose values >80%), and a mean local

  16. Optimal Capacity Proportion and Distribution Planning of Wind, Photovoltaic and Hydro Power in Bundled Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X.; Tang, Q.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, X.; Ye, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system attends to become common in Northwest and Southwest of China. To make better use of the power complementary characteristic of different power sources, the installed capacity proportion of wind, photovoltaic and hydro power, and their capacity distribution for each integration node is a significant issue to be solved in power system planning stage. An optimal capacity proportion and capacity distribution model for wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system is proposed here, which considers the power out characteristic of power resources with different type and in different area based on real operation data. The transmission capacity limit of power grid is also considered in this paper. Simulation cases are tested referring to one real regional system in Southwest China for planning level year 2020. The results verify the effectiveness of the model in this paper.

  17. Computer aided planning of distribution systems and connection with medium term load forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Salvatore, F.; Grattieri, W.; Insinga, F.; Malafarina, L.; Mazzoni, M.; Nicola, G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to perform planning studies on HV (40-l50 kV), MV and LV networks, ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) has developed a computation system composed of a set of integrated programs which utilize the information stored in several data bases, with the aim of: providing energy consumption forecasts for each area of the country; transferring consumption for each area to the distribution network nodes and to evaluating the electric demand by using a statistical power/energy correlation model; analyzing several network development alternatives and selecting the optimum development plan by comparing the overall costs (investments, operation, risk). In order to make its utilization by planners easier, the computation system will be operated with interactive and graphic procedures made available by the use of graphic work stations. This report describes the main objectives and basic hypotheses assumed in the preparation of the computation system, as well as, the system's general architecture

  18. Planning method for integration and expansion of renewable energy sources with special attention to security supply in distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Arias, Jose Luis

    2012-07-01

    Today's structure of power systems with competitive wholesale markets for electricity encourages the introduction of new agents and products, customers with self-generating capacity and the specialization of generators, network operators and power suppliers. Furthermore one has to take into account the variation of the fossil fuel prices in the world market, which even anticipates the closeness of its scarcity, the instability of the fulfilment of contracts, and the existence of import restrictions. In addition the implementation of policies aiming to control CO{sub 2} emissions, and efficient use of energy plus the advent of more efficient technologies have to be incorporated in new network expansion projects. These are forcing utilities and society to seek new forms of electric system expansion without affecting their economic growth. This expresses a challenge to sustain such a growth changing the vision for the power system and the required security of electricity supply, usually based on internal factors of the electric sector, without considering the connection between the current transmission and distribution networks, the uncertainties related to the competition in the electricity market and the effect of distributed generation units. The high penetration of distributed generation resources, based on renewable energy sources, is increasingly observed worldwide and it depends on the cost of the technologies, market design, and subsidies. On that account, it is necessary to find alternatives and offers to develop a sustainable strategic plan for power system expansion. Currently, efforts are oriented to develop planning models which consider the income of power generation based on renewable energy sources founded on these new requirements, bearing in mind the relationship between the competitive markets and the power system planning. In this Thesis a general planning method for the expansion of the power grids is proposed. This planning method should

  19. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  20. Smart Distribution Networks: A Review of Modern Distribution Concepts from a Planning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Abbas Kazmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids (SGs, as an emerging grid modernization concept, is spreading across diverse research areas for revolutionizing power systems. SGs realize new key concepts with intelligent technologies, maximizing achieved objectives and addressing critical issues that are limited in conventional grids. The SG modernization is more noticeable at the distribution grid level. Thus, the transformation of the traditional distribution network (DN into an intelligent one, is a vital dimension of SG research. Since future DNs are expected to be interconnected in nature and operation, hence traditional planning methods and tools may no longer be applicable. In this paper, the smart distribution network (SDN concept under the SG paradigm, has presented and reviewed from the planning perspective. Also, developments in the SDN planning process have been surveyed on the basis of SG package (SGP. The package presents a SDN planning foundation via major SG-enabling technologies (SGTF, anticipated functionalities (SGAF, new consumption models (MDC as potential SDN candidates, associated policies and pilot projects and multi-objective planning (MOP as a real-world optimization problem. In addition, the need for an aggregated SDN planning model has also been highlighted. The paper discusses recent notable related works, implementation activities, various issues/challenges and potential future research directions; all aiming at SDN planning.

  1. Big Pylons: Mixed signals for transmission. Spatial planning for energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Heather; Hardy, Maelíosa; Lloyd, M. Greg; McGreal, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of a sustainable energy future raises many challenges in relation to energy distribution where a new understanding of spatial planning is needed in relation to energy production, consumption and storage. Understanding the emergent low carbon energy economy in terms of its production, distribution and consumption characteristics has prompted a deliberate spatial planning interest. This paper examines issues relating to spatial planning, regulation, political legitimacy and accountability in the current and future systems for energy distribution. In particular it examines the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland as a case study in terms of demonstrating the changing state–market–civil relations in an energy transition context with differentiated values and interests. The case study highlights implications for the regulation in the public interest of highly contested spaces, places and development schemes, together with a synopsis of government structure and change that is influencing the future of spatial planning and energy distribution in particular. - Highlights: • We examine links between spatial planning and regulation of energy distribution. • We examine the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland. • We highlight challenges surrounding the development of a resilient energy system. • We highlight links between spatial planning and infrastructural development

  2. Distribution network strengthens sales systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)

  3. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  4. Tools for Supporting Distributed Agile Project Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Maurer, Frank; Morgan, Robert; Oliveira, Josyleuda

    Agile project planning plays an important part in agile software development. In distributed settings, project planning is severely impacted by the lack of face-to-face communication and the inability to share paper index cards amongst all meeting participants. To address these issues, several distributed agile planning tools were developed. The tools vary in features, functions and running platforms. In this chapter, we first summarize the requirements for distributed agile planning. Then we give an overview on existing agile planning tools. We also evaluate existing tools based on tool requirements. Finally, we present some practical advices for both designers and users of distributed agile planning tools.

  5. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  6. Adaptive Curtailment Plan with Energy Storage for AC/DC Combined Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For developing a large-scale combined system with a number of distributed resources, an appropriate compensation strategy based on the system components and changeable condition must be configured to handle the characteristics of the internal systems. Since renewable sources generate various fluctuations, the compensation plans for the storage device connected along with the sources should be supported by a precise expectation method. A cooperative strategy involving the sharing of the DC section with environmentally sensitive generators, like photovoltaic system (PVs or waves, demands appropriate ESS compensation solutions, owing to its complexity. An active power-control algorithm with voltage-expectation based on the DC power flow is introduced in this paper and is applied in the designed case studies performed on the electromagnetic transient simulation. DC based multi-generation system is composed by applying tidal generator and super capacitor. To utilize wind energy, an offshore wind–wave generation system was utilized in the verification process.

  7. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebolle, David; Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  8. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebolle, David [Union Fenosa Distribucion, C/Antonio Lopez, 19, 28026 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  9. Cassini Information Management System in Distributed Operations Collaboration and Cassini Science Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equils, Douglas J.

    2008-01-01

    Launched on October 15, 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its ambitious journey to the Saturnian system with a complex suite of 12 scientific instruments, and another 6 instruments aboard the European Space Agencies Huygens Probe. Over the next 6 1/2 years, Cassini would continue its relatively simplistic cruise phase operations, flying past Venus, Earth, and Jupiter. However, following Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI), Cassini would become involved in a complex series of tasks that required detailed resource management, distributed operations collaboration, and a data base for capturing science objectives. Collectively, these needs were met through a web-based software tool designed to help with the Cassini uplink process and ultimately used to generate more robust sequences for spacecraft operations. In 2001, in conjunction with the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and later Venustar Software and Engineering Inc., the Cassini Information Management System (CIMS) was released which enabled the Cassini spacecraft and science planning teams to perform complex information management and team collaboration between scientists and engineers in 17 countries. Originally tailored to help manage the science planning uplink process, CIMS has been actively evolving since its inception to meet the changing and growing needs of the Cassini uplink team and effectively reduce mission risk through a series of resource management validation algorithms. These algorithms have been implemented in the web-based software tool to identify potential sequence conflicts early in the science planning process. CIMS mitigates these sequence conflicts through identification of timing incongruities, pointing inconsistencies, flight rule violations, data volume issues, and by assisting in Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage analysis. In preparation for extended mission operations, CIMS has also evolved further to assist in the planning and coordination of the dual playback redundancy of

  10. Multi types DG expansion dynamic planning in distribution system under stochastic conditions using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mahmood; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defining a DG dynamic planning problem. • Applying a new evolutionary algorithm called “CMAES” in planning process. • Considering electricity price and fuel price variation stochastic conditions. • Scenario generation and reduction with MCS and backward reduction programs. • Considering approximately all of the costs of the distribution system. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic DG planning problem considering uncertainties related to the intermittent nature of the DG technologies such as wind turbines and solar units in addition to the stochastic economic conditions. The stochastic economic situation includes the uncertainties related to the fuel and electricity price of each year. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate the possible scenarios of uncertain situations and the produced scenarios are reduced through backward reduction program. The aim of this paper is to maximize the revenue of the distribution system through the benefit cost analysis alongside the encouraging and punishment functions. In order to close to reality, the different growth rates for the planning period are selected. In this paper the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy is introduced and is used to find the best planning scheme of the DG units. The different DG types are considered in the planning problem. The main assumption of this paper is that the DISCO is the owner of the distribution system and the DG units. The proposed method is tested on a 9 bus test distribution system and the results are compared with the known genetic algorithm and PSO methods to show the applicability of the CMAES method in this problem

  11. Multi-Objective Planning Techniques in Distribution Networks: A Composite Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Abbas Kazmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks (DNWs are facing numerous challenges, notably growing load demands, environmental concerns, operational constraints and expansion limitations with the current infrastructure. These challenges serve as a motivation factor for various distribution network planning (DP strategies, such as timely addressing load growth aiming at prominent objectives such as reliability, power quality, economic viability, system stability and deferring costly reinforcements. The continuous transformation of passive to active distribution networks (ADN needs to consider choices, primarily distributed generation (DG, network topology change, installation of new protection devices and key enablers as planning options in addition to traditional grid reinforcements. Since modern DP (MDP in deregulated market environments includes multiple stakeholders, primarily owners, regulators, operators and consumers, one solution fit for all planning scenarios may not satisfy all these stakeholders. Hence, this paper presents a review of several planning techniques (PTs based on mult-objective optimizations (MOOs in DNWs, aiming at better trade-off solutions among conflicting objectives and satisfying multiple stakeholders. The PTs in the paper spread across four distinct planning classifications including DG units as an alternative to costly reinforcements, capacitors and power electronic devices for ensuring power quality aspects, grid reinforcements, expansions, and upgrades as a separate category and network topology alteration and reconfiguration as a viable planning option. Several research works associated with multi-objective planning techniques (MOPT have been reviewed with relevant models, methods and achieved objectives, abiding with system constraints. The paper also provides a composite review of current research accounts and interdependence of associated components in the respective classifications. The potential future planning areas, aiming at

  12. Integrated load distribution and production planning in series-parallel multi-state systems with failure rate depending on load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Yalaoui, Farouk

    2012-01-01

    A production system containing a set of machines (also called components) arranged according to a series-parallel configuration is addressed. A set of products must be produced in lots on this production system during a specified finite planning horizon. This paper presents a method for integrating load distribution decisions, and tactical production planning considering the costs of capacity change and the costs of unused capacity. The objective is to minimize the sum of capacity change costs, unused capacity costs, setup costs, holding costs, backorder costs, and production costs. The main constraints consist in satisfying the demand for all products over the entire horizon, and in not exceeding available repair resource. The production series-parallel system is modeled as a multi-state system with binary-state components. The proposed model takes into account the dependence of machines' failure rates on their load. Universal generating function technique can be used in the optimization algorithm for evaluating the expected system production rate in each period. We show how the formulated problem can be solved by comparing the results of several multi-product lot-sizing problems with capacity associated costs. The importance of integrating load distribution decisions and production planning is illustrated through numerical examples.

  13. Optimizing electrical distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Electrical utility distribution systems are in the middle of an unprecedented technological revolution in planning, design, maintenance and operation. The prime movers of the revolution are the major economic shifts that affect decision making. The major economic influence on the revolution is the cost of losses (technical and nontechnical). The vehicle of the revolution is the computer, which enables decision makers to examine alternatives in greater depth and detail than their predecessors could. The more important elements of the technological revolution are: system planning, computers, load forecasting, analytical systems (primary systems, transformers and secondary systems), system losses and coming technology. The paper is directed towards the rather unique problems encountered by engineers of utilities in developing countries - problems that are being solved through high technology, such as the recent World Bank-financed engineering computer system for Sri Lanka. This system includes a DEC computer, digitizer, plotter and engineering software to model the distribution system via a digitizer, analyse the system and plot single-line diagrams. (author). 1 ref., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Expansion planning for electrical generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The guidebook outlines the general principles of electric power system planning in the context of energy and economic planning in general. It describes the complexities of electric system expansion planning that are due to the time dependence of the problem and the interrelation between the main components of the electric system (generation, transmission and distribution). Load forecasting methods are discussed and the principal models currently used for electric system expansion planning presented. Technical and economic information on power plants is given. Constraints imposed on power system planning by plant characteristics (particularly nuclear power plants) are discussed, as well as factors such as transmission system development, environmental considerations, availability of manpower and financial resources that may affect the proposed plan. A bibliography supplements the references that appear in each chapter, and a comprehensive glossary defines terms used in the guidebook

  15. An environment for operation planning of electrical energy distribution systems; Um ambiente para planejamento da operacao de sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kleber

    1997-07-01

    The aim of operation planning of electrical energy distribution systems is to define a group of interventions in the distribution network in a way to reach a global optimization. Both normal operation and emergency conditions are considered including scheduled interventions in the network. Under normal conditions, some aspects as voltage drop and loss minimization, for example, are considered; under emergency conditions, the minimization of non-distributed energy and interruption time are taken into account. This proposes the development of a computer environment for operation planning studies. The design and implementation of a specific operation planning database, based on a relational database model, was carried out so that new information modules could be easily included. A statistical approach has been applied to the load model including consumption habits and seasonal information, for each consumer category. A group of operation planning functions is proposed, which includes simulation modules responsible for system analysis. These functions and the database should be designed together. The developed computer environment allows the inclusion of new functions, due to the standardized query language used to access the database. Two functions have been implemented for illustration. The development of the proposed environment constitutes a step towards an open operation planning system, an integration with other information systems and an easy-to-use system based on graphical interface. (author)

  16. Hydropower systems planning in distribution networks based on GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Fernandez-Jiminez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Alba, E.; Lara-Santillan, P.M.; Mendoza-Villena, M. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Planning models for hydraulic energy systems developed with a new computational geographic information system (GIS) tool were presented. The GIS tool was used to identify sections of rivers that are suitable for small-scale run-of-river hydropower generation in the La Rioja region of Spain. The tool was also used to evaluate economic data related to financing grants, technological costs, installation costs, and forecast demands for various consumption scenarios. Case studies of 2 hydropower systems were used to test the tool. The planning models were based on levelized electric costs (LEC) of run-of-river hydropower systems, and enabled the systems to be analyzed in isolation as well as when connected to an existing electricity network. Results of the modelling studies showed that the tool is capable of analyzing the LEC of potential hydropower systems in a range of different scenarios while maintaining the geographic characteristics and requirements of individual regions. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Optimal planning of electric vehicle charging station at the distribution system using hybrid optimization algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    India's ever increasing population has made it necessary to develop alternative modes of transportation with electric vehicles being the most preferred option. The major obstacle is the deteriorating impact on the utility distribution system brought about by improper setup of these charging...... stations. This paper deals with the optimal planning (siting and sizing) of charging station infrastructure in the city of Allahabad, India. This city is one of the upcoming smart cities, where electric vehicle transportation pilot project is going on under Government of India initiative. In this context......, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm and improved version of conventional particle swarm optimization is utilized for finding optimal placement of charging station in the Allahabad distribution system. The particle swarm optimization algorithm re-optimizes the received sub-optimal solution (site...

  18. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  19. Theory of planned behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in patient computer management system: The role of distributive justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarminah Samad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in Patient Computer Management System. Consequently, it determined the moderating effect of distributive justice on the relationship between Theory Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. The research was based on a correlational and cross-sectional study which involved a total of 336 nurses. Data was collected based on random sampling via self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares (PLS (Version 3.0 analysis was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that Theory of Plan Behavior components were significantly related to knowledge sharing. These components were also found to have a significant and positive influence on knowledge sharing. The study revealed that distributive justice had significantly moderated the relationship between two components of Theory Planned Behavior (attitude and subjective norm and knowledge sharing.

  20. Application of customer-interruption costs for optimum distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Y.L.; Chung, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new methodology for obtaining optimum values of the integrated cost of utility investment with customer interruption in distribution planning for electric power systems by determining the reliability cost and worth of the distribution system. Reliability cost refers to investment cost of the utility in achieving a defined level of reliability. Reliability worth is the benefit gained by the utility customer from an increase of reliability. A computer program has been developed to determine comparative reliability indices for a typical distribution network. With the average interruption cost, outage duration, average disconnected load, cost data for distribution equipment, etc. being known, the relation between reliability cost, reliability worth and reliability at the specified load point are obtained. The optimum reliability of the distribution system is then determined from the minimum cost to the utility with customer interruption. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated by several practical networks. (Author)

  1. Intelligent decision support algorithm for distribution system restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reetu; Mehfuz, Shabana; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-01-01

    Distribution system is the means of revenue for electric utility. It needs to be restored at the earliest if any feeder or complete system is tripped out due to fault or any other cause. Further, uncertainty of the loads, result in variations in the distribution network's parameters. Thus, an intelligent algorithm incorporating hybrid fuzzy-grey relation, which can take into account the uncertainties and compare the sequences is discussed to analyse and restore the distribution system. The simulation studies are carried out to show the utility of the method by ranking the restoration plans for a typical distribution system. This algorithm also meets the smart grid requirements in terms of an automated restoration plan for the partial/full blackout of network.

  2. Research and application of genetic algorithm in path planning of logistics distribution vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhou, Heng; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The core of the logistics distribution system is the vehicle routing planning, research path planning problem, provide a better solution has become an important issue. In order to provide the decision support for logistics and distribution operations, this paper studies the problem of vehicle routing with capacity constraints (CVRP). By establishing a mathematical model, the genetic algorithm is used to plan the path of the logistics vehicle to meet the minimum logistics and transportation costs.

  3. Development of 3-D Radiosurgery Planning System Using IBM Personal Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Tae Suk; Park, Charn Il; Ha, Sung Whan; Kang, Wee Saing; Suh, Doug Young; Park, Sung Hun

    1993-01-01

    Recently, stereotactic radiosurgery plan is required with the information of 3-D image and dose distribution. A project has been doing if developing LINAC based stereotactic radiosurgery since April 1991. The purpose of this research is to develop 3-D radiosurgery planning system using personal computer. The procedure of this research is based on two steps. The first step is to develop 3-D localization system, which input the image information of the patient, coordinate transformation, the position and shape of target, and patient contour into computer system using CT image and stereotactic frame. The second step is to develop 3-D dose planning system, which compute dose distribution on image plane, display on high resolution monitor both isodose distribution and patient image simultaneously and develop menu-driven planning system. This prototype of radiosurgery planning system was applied recently for several clinical cases. It was shown that our planning system is fast, accurate and efficient while making it possible to handle various kinds of image modalities such as angiography, CT and MRI. It makes it possible to develop general 3-D planning system using beam eye view or CT simulation in radiation therapy in future

  4. Towards Real-Time Distributed Planning in Multi-Robot Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in robotics related to multi-robot applications. Such systems can be involved in several tasks such as collaborative search and rescue, aerial transportation, surveillance, and monitoring, to name a few. There are two possible architectures for the autonomous control of multi-robot systems. In the centralized architecture, a master controller communicates with all the robots to collect information. It uses this information to make decisions for the entire system and then sends commands to each robot. In contrast, in the distributed architecture, each robot makes its own decision independent from a central authority. While distributed architecture is a more portable solution, it comes at the expense of extensive information exchange (communication). The extensive communication between robots can result in decision delays because of which distributed architecture is often impractical for systems with strict real-time constraints, e.g. when decisions have to be taken in the order of milliseconds. In this thesis, we propose a distributed framework that strikes a balance between limited communicated information and reasonable system-wide performance while running in real-time. We implement the proposed approach in a game setting of two competing teams of drones, defenders and attackers. Defending drones execute a proposed linear program algorithm (using only onboard computing modules) to obstruct attackers from infiltrating a defense zone while having minimal local message passing. Another main contribution is that we developed a realistic simulation environment as well as lab and outdoor hardware setups of customized drones for testing the system in realistic scenarios. Our software is completely open-source and fully integrated with the well-known Robot Operating System (ROS) in hopes to make our work easily reproducible and for rapid future improvements.

  5. Evaluation of concave dose distributions created using an inverse planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Hsiung, C.-Y.; Spirou, Spirodon V.; Chui, C.-S.; Amols, Howard I.; Ling, Clifton C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop optimum inverse treatment planning strategies for the treatment of concave targets adjacent to normal tissue structures. Methods and Materials: Optimized dose distributions were designed using an idealized geometry consisting of a cylindrical phantom with a concave kidney-shaped target (PTV) and cylindrical normal tissues (NT) placed 5-13 mm from the target. Targets with radii of curvature from 1 to 2.75 cm were paired with normal tissues with radii between 0.5 and 2.25 cm. The target was constrained to a prescription dose of 100% and minimum and maximum doses of 95% and 105% with relative penalties of 25. Maximum dose constraint parameters for the NT varied from 10% to 70% with penalties from 10 to 1000. Plans were evaluated using the PTV uniformity index (PTV D max /PTV D 95 ) and maximum normal tissue doses (NT D max /PTV D 95 ). Results: In nearly all situations, the achievable PTV uniformity index and the maximum NT dose exceeded the corresponding constraints. This was particularly true for small PTV-NT separations (5-8 mm) or strict NT dose constraints (10%-30%), where the achievable doses differed from the requested by 30% or more. The same constraint parameters applied to different PTV-NT separations yielded different dose distributions. For most geometries, a range of constraints could be identified that would lead to acceptable plans. The optimization results were fairly independent of beam energy and radius of curvature, but improved as the number of beams increased, particularly for small PTV-NT separations or strict dose constraints. Conclusion: Optimized dose distributions are strongly affected by both the constraint parameters and target-normal tissue geometry. Standard site-specific constraint templates can serve as a starting point for optimization, but the final constraints must be determined iteratively for individual patients. A strategy whereby NT constraints and penalties are modified until the highest

  6. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  7. A Distributed Framework for Real Time Path Planning in Practical Multi-agent Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-10-19

    We present a framework for distributed, energy efficient, and real time implementable algorithms for path planning in multi-agent systems. The proposed framework is presented in the context of a motivating example of capture the flag which is an adversarial game played between two teams of autonomous agents called defenders and attackers. We start with the centralized formulation of the problem as a linear program because of its computational efficiency. Then we present an approximation framework in which each agent solves a local version of the centralized linear program by communicating with its neighbors only. The premise in this work is that for practical multi-agent systems, real time implementability of distributed algorithms is more crucial then global optimality. Thus, instead of verifying the proposed framework by performing offline simulations in MATLAB, we run extensive simulations in a robotic simulator V-REP, which includes a detailed dynamic model of quadrotors. Moreover, to create a realistic scenario, we allow a human operator to control the attacker quadrotor through a joystick in a single attacker setup. These simulations authenticate that the proposed framework is real time implementable and results in a performance that is comparable with the global optimal solution under the considered scenarios.

  8. Oncentra brachytherapy planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jack

    2018-03-27

    In modern cancer management, treatment planning has progressed as a contemporary tool with all the advances in computing power in recent years. One of the advanced planning tools uses 3-dimensional (3D) data sets for accurate dose distributions in patient prescription. Among these planning processes, brachytherapy has been a very important part of a successful cancer management program, offering clinical benefits with specific or combined treatments with external beam therapy. In this chapter, we mainly discussed the Elekta Oncentra planning system, which is the main treatment planning tool for high-dose rate (HDR) modality in our facility and in many other facilities in the United States. HDR is a technically advanced form of brachytherapy; a high-intensity radiation source (3.6 mm in length) is delivered with step motor in submillimeter precision under computer guidance directly into the tumor areas while minimizing injury to surrounding normal healthy tissue. Oncentra planning is the key component to generate a deliverable brachytherapy procedure, which is executed on the microSelectron V3 remote afterloader treatment system. Creating a highly conformal plan can be a time-consuming task. The development of Oncentra software (version 4.5.3) offers a variety of useful tools that facilitate many of the clinical challenging tasks for planning, such as contouring and image reconstruction, as well as rapid planning calculations with dose and dose volume histogram analysis. Oncentra Brachy module creates workflow and optimizes the planning accuracy for wide varieties of clinical HDR treatments, such as skin, gynecologic (GYN), breast, prostate, and many other applications. The treatment file can also be transferred to the afterloader control station for speedy delivery. The design concept, calculation algorithms, and optimization modules presented some key characteristics to plan and treat the patients effectively and accurately. The dose distribution and accuracy of

  9. Does Vertebroplasty Affect Radiation Dose Distribution?: Comparison of Spatial Dose Distributions in a Cement-Injected Vertebra as Calculated by Treatment Planning System and Actual Spatial Dose Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, A.; Tanigawa, N.; Kariya, Sh.; Yagi, R.; Nakatani, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sano, A.; Ikeda, K.; Utsunomiya, K.; Harima, Y.; Sawada, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assess differences in dose distribution of a vertebral body injected with bone cement as calculated by radiation treatment planning system (RTPS) and actual dose distribution. Methods. We prepared two water-equivalent phantoms with cement, and the other two phantoms without cement. The bulk density of the bone cement was imported into RTPS to reduce error from high CT values. A dose distribution map for the phantoms with and without cement was calculated using RTPS with clinical setting and with the bulk density importing. Actual dose distribution was measured by the film density. Dose distribution as calculated by RTPS was compared to the dose distribution measured by the film dosimetry. Results. For the phantom with cement, dose distribution was distorted for the areas corresponding to inside the cement and on the ventral side of the cement. However, dose distribution based on film dosimetry was undistorted behind the cement and dose increases were seen inside cement and around the cement. With the equivalent phantom with bone cement, differences were seen between dose distribution calculated by RTPS and that measured by the film dosimetry. Conclusion. The dose distribution of an area containing bone cement calculated using RTPS differs from actual dose distribution

  10. An overview of trends in distribution network planning: A movement towards smart planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Hu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network planning, historically known as a ‘predict and provide’ process, seeks to determine a set of optimal network solutions for supplying electric demands spatially distributed over a geographic area. Today, the rapid development and deployment of distributed generation and smart...... grid products (e.g., control, communication, and new economic measures) call for urgent improvements in distribution network planning to allow the utilities to proactively modernize their existing distribution grids. This paper reviews the current practices in this area and the emerging trends towards...

  11. SBNCT plan: A 3-dimensional treatment planning system for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinstein, L.E.; Ramsay, E.B.; Gajewski, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Meek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The need for accurate and comprehensive 3-dimensional treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been debated for the past several years. Although many argue against the need for elaborate and expensive treatment planning programs which mimic conventional radiotherapy planning systems, it is clear that in order to realize significant gains over conventional fractionated radiation therapy, patients must be treated to the edge of normal tissue tolerance. Just how close to this edge is dictated by the uncertainties in dosimetry. Hence the focus of BNCT planning is the determination of dose distribution throughout normal tissue volumes. Although precise geometric manipulation of the epithermal neutron beam is not achievable, the following variables play an important role in BNCT optimization: patient orientation, dose fractionation, number of fields, megawatt-minutes per fraction, use of surface bolus, and use of collimation. Other variables which are not as easily adjustable and would not, therefore, be part of treatment planning optimization, include external patient contour, internal patient heterogeneities, boron compound distributions, and RBE's. The boron neutron capture therapy planning system developed at SUNY Stony Brook (SBNCT-Plan) was designed as an interactive graphic tool to assist the radiation oncologist in generating the optimum plan for a neutron capture treatment

  12. A model for the distribution channels planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.F.; Zuurbier, P.; Campomar, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Research of existing literature reveals some models (sequence of steps) for companies that want to plan distribution channels. None of these models uses strong contributions from transaction cost economics, bringing a possibility to elaborate on a "distribution channels planning model", with these

  13. Optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources in distribution networks: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlRashidi, M.R., E-mail: malrash2002@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET) (Kuwait); AlHajri, M.F., E-mail: mfalhajri@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET) (Kuwait)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A new hybrid PSO for optimal DGs placement and sizing. {yields} Statistical analysis to fine tune PSO parameters. {yields} Novel constraint handling mechanism to handle different constraints types. - Abstract: An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented for optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources (DG). This problem can be divided into two sub-problems: the DG optimal size (continuous optimization) and location (discrete optimization) to minimize real power losses. The proposed approach addresses the two sub-problems simultaneously using an enhanced PSO algorithm capable of handling multiple DG planning in a single run. A design of experiment is used to fine tune the proposed approach via proper analysis of PSO parameters interaction. The proposed algorithm treats the problem constraints differently by adopting a radial power flow algorithm to satisfy the equality constraints, i.e. power flows in distribution networks, while the inequality constraints are handled by making use of some of the PSO features. The proposed algorithm was tested on the practical 69-bus power distribution system. Different test cases were considered to validate the proposed approach consistency in detecting optimal or near optimal solution. Results are compared with those of Sequential Quadratic Programming.

  14. Optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources in distribution networks: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlRashidi, M.R.; AlHajri, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new hybrid PSO for optimal DGs placement and sizing. → Statistical analysis to fine tune PSO parameters. → Novel constraint handling mechanism to handle different constraints types. - Abstract: An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented for optimal planning of multiple distributed generation sources (DG). This problem can be divided into two sub-problems: the DG optimal size (continuous optimization) and location (discrete optimization) to minimize real power losses. The proposed approach addresses the two sub-problems simultaneously using an enhanced PSO algorithm capable of handling multiple DG planning in a single run. A design of experiment is used to fine tune the proposed approach via proper analysis of PSO parameters interaction. The proposed algorithm treats the problem constraints differently by adopting a radial power flow algorithm to satisfy the equality constraints, i.e. power flows in distribution networks, while the inequality constraints are handled by making use of some of the PSO features. The proposed algorithm was tested on the practical 69-bus power distribution system. Different test cases were considered to validate the proposed approach consistency in detecting optimal or near optimal solution. Results are compared with those of Sequential Quadratic Programming.

  15. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  16. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P; Jaerventausta, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Paulasaari, H [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  17. Intercomparison of radiotherapy treatment planning systems using calculated and measured dose distributions for external photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, A.; Jaervinen, H.; Vatnitskij, S.; Ermakov, I.; Chervjakov, A.; Kulmala, J.; Pitkaenen, M.; Vaeyrynen, T.; Vaeaenaenen, A.

    1991-02-01

    The requirement of 5 % overall accuracy for the target absorbed dose in radiotherapy implies that the accuracy of the relative dose calculation should be within only a few per cent. According to the recommendation by the International Commission on radiation units and measurements (ICRU), a computer-produced dose distribution can be considered to be accurate enough if it differs from the results of relative dose measurements by less than 2 %, or 2 mm in the position of isodose curves involving very steep dose gradients. In this study five treatment planning systems, currently used by the hospitals in Finland or in the USSR, were intercompared with respect to the above requirement. Five typical cases of irradiation were selected: regular fields, oblique incidence, irregular field, wedge field and inhomogeneity in a water equivalent phantom. Complete dose distributions were used for the intercomparison, and the beam data for each TPS was that pertaining to the beam where the comparative relative measurements were performed. The results indicate that the dose distributions produced by different TPS:s can differ from each other as well as from the measured dose distributions up to a level which is not acceptable in terms of the above requirement. Greatest differences seem to be related to the omission or undue consideration of the scatter components of the beam. A suitable quality assurance program for the systematic testing of the performance of the treatment planning systems could be based on a selection of tests as used in this study.(orig.)

  18. A MILP model for integrated plan and evaluation of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Hongbo; Gao, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, technological innovations and a changing economic and regulatory environment have resulted in a renewed interest for distributed energy resources (DER). However, because of the lack of a suitable design tool, the expected potential of DER penetration is not always exerted sufficiently. In this paper, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model has been developed for the integrated plan and evaluation of DER systems. Given the site's energy loads, local climate data, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, the model minimizes overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their operating schedules. Furthermore, the economic, energetic and environmental effects of the DER system can be evaluated. As an illustrative example, an investigation has been conducted of economically optimal DER system for an eco-campus in Kitakyushu, Japan. The result illustrates that gas engine is currently the most popular DER technology from the economic point of view. Although holding reasonable economic merits, unless combined with heat recovery units, the introduction of DER technologies may result in marginal or even adverse environmental effects. Furthermore, according to the results of sensitivity analysis, the optimal system combination and corresponding economic and environmental performances are more or less sensitive to the scale of energy demand, energy prices (both electricity and city gas), as well as carbon tax rate. (author)

  19. Distributed Energy Planning for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    At various levels of government across the United States and globally climate resilient solutions are being adopted and implemented. Solutions vary based on predicted hazards, community context, priorities, complexity, and available resources. Lessons are being learned through the implementation process, which can be replicated regardless of level or type of government entity carrying out the resiliency planning. Through a number of analyses and technical support across the world, NREL has learned key lessons related to resilience planning associated with power generation and water distribution. Distributed energy generation is a large factor in building resilience with clean energy technologies and solutions. The technical and policy solutions associated with distributed energy implementation for resilience fall into a few major categories, including spatial diversification, microgrids, water-energy nexus, policy, and redundancy.

  20. Distribution Route Planning of Clean Coal Based on Nearest Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunrui

    2018-01-01

    Clean coal technology has made some achievements for several ten years, but the research in its distribution field is very small, the distribution efficiency would directly affect the comprehensive development of clean coal technology, it is the key to improve the efficiency of distribution by planning distribution route rationally. The object of this paper was a clean coal distribution system which be built in a county. Through the surveying of the customer demand and distribution route, distribution vehicle in previous years, it was found that the vehicle deployment was only distributed by experiences, and the number of vehicles which used each day changed, this resulted a waste of transport process and an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the mathematical model was established here in order to aim at shortest path as objective function, and the distribution route was re-planned by using nearest-insertion method which been improved. The results showed that the transportation distance saved 37 km and the number of vehicles used had also been decreased from the past average of 5 to fixed 4 every day, as well the real loading of vehicles increased by 16.25% while the current distribution volume staying same. It realized the efficient distribution of clean coal, achieved the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption.

  1. Architecture for Integration of Distributed ERP systems and E-commerce Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper will use the latest research within the extended transaction models and replication methods to illustrate how to design distributed enterprise resource planning (ERP) software with high performance and availability. In a distributed ERP system, an e‐commerce server is an ordinary sales...

  2. HVDC-System-Interaction Assessment through Line-Flow Change-Distribution Factor and Transient-Stability Analysis at Planning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the overhead transmission line in residential areas; therefore, the HVDC system application is increasing, and as the number of DC systems in the power system increases, the interaction assessment regarding the HVDC system gains importance. An index named multi-infeed interaction factor (MIIF is commonly used to estimate the interaction between power converters; however, the HVDC system is composed of two converters and a transmission line. The MIIF represents the interaction between the rectifiers and inverters, but not for the whole system. In this work, a method to assess the interaction of the whole system was therefore studied. To decide on the location of the new HVDC transmission system at the planning stage, in consideration of the interaction of the existing DC system, the line flow change distribution factor, according to the HVDC-transmission capacity change, was examined. Also, a power system transient -stability analysis was performed with different HVDC system locations, depending on the distribution factor. The simulation results indicate that when the factor is higher, two HVDC systems have a stronger interaction and are less stable in the transient state.

  3. Techniques of artificial intelligence applied to the electric power expansion distribution system planning problem; Tecnicas de inteligencia artificial aplicadas ao problema de planejamento da expansao do sistema de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froes, Salete Maria

    1996-07-01

    A tool named Constrained Decision Problem (CDP), which is based on Artificial Intelligence and a specific application to Distribution System Planning is described. The CDP allows multiple objective optimization that does not, necessarily, result in a single optimal solution. First, a literature review covers published works related to Artificial Intelligence applications to Electric Power Distribution Systems, emphasizing feeder restoration and reconfiguration. Some concepts related to Artificial Intelligence are described, with particular attention to Planning and to Constrained Decision Problems. Following, an Electric Power System planning model is addressed by using the CDP tool. Some case studies illustrate the Distribution Planning model, which are compared with standard optimization models. Concluding, some comments establishing the possibilities of CDP applications are followed by a view on future developments. (author)

  4. Application of Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Optimal Load Shedding Planning and Operation in an Islanded Distribution Network Integrated with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a radial distribution network integrated with distributed generation (DG, frequency and voltage instability could occur due to grid disconnection, which would result in an islanded network. This paper proposes an optimal load shedding scheme to balance the electricity demand and the generated power of DGs. The integration of the Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO is proposed for the application of the planned load shedding and under frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme. In planning mode, the hybrid optimization maximizes the amount of load remaining and improves the voltage profile of load buses within allowable limits. Moreover, the hybrid optimization can be used in UFLS scheme to identify the optimal combination of loads that need to be shed from a network in operation mode. In order to assess the capabilities of the hybrid optimization, the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and part of the Malaysian distribution network with different types of DGs were used. The response of the proposed optimization method in planning and operation were compared with other optimization techniques. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid optimization in planning mode and demonstrated that the proposed UFLS scheme is quick enough to restore the system frequency without overshooting in less execution time.

  5. Evaluation of IMRT plans of prostate carcinoma from four treatment planning systems based on Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zifeng; Han Chun; Liu Dan; Cao Yankun; Li Runxiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: With the Monte Carlo method to recalculate the IMRT dose distributions from four TPS to provide a platform for independent comparison and evaluation of the plan quality.These results will help make a clinical decision as which TPS will be used for prostate IMRT planning. Methods: Eleven prostate cancer cases were planned with the Corvus, Xio, Pinnacle and Eclipse TPS. The plans were recalculated by Monte Carlo using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans. Dose-volume-histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as D min (the minimum dose received by 99% of CTV/PTV), D max (the maximum dose received by 1% of CTV/PTV), V 110% , V 105% , V 95% (the volume of CTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 95% of the prescription dose), the volume of rectum and bladder receiving >65 Gy and >40 Gy, and the volume of femur receiving >50 Gy were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: The Monte Carlo results agreed with the dose distributions from the TPS to within 3%/3 mm. The Xio, Pinnacle and Eclipse plans show less target dose heterogeneity and lower V 65 and V 40 for the rectum and bladder compared to the Corvus plans. The PTV D min is about 2 Gy lower for Xio plans than others while the Corvus plans have slightly lower female head V 50 (0.03% and 0.58%) than others. The Corvus plans require significantly most segments (187.8) and MUs (1264.7) to deliver and the Pinnacle plans require fewest segments (82.4) and MUs (703.6). Conclusions: We have tested an independent Monte Carlo dose calculation system for dose reconstruction and plan evaluation. This system provides a platform for the fair comparison and evaluation of treatment plans to facilitate clinical decision making in selecting a TPS and beam delivery system for particular treatment sites. (authors)

  6. Towards Real-Time Distributed Planning in Multi-Robot Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    of extensive information exchange (communication). The extensive communication between robots can result in decision delays because of which distributed architecture is often impractical for systems with strict real-time constraints, e.g. when decisions have

  7. Optimal reactive power planning for distribution systems considering intermittent wind power using Markov model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng

    Wind farms, photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, and micro-turbines are all considered to be Distributed Generation (DG). DG is defined as the generation of power which is dispersed throughout a utility's service territory and either connected to the utility's distribution system or isolated in a small grid. This thesis addresses modeling and economic issues pertaining to the optimal reactive power planning for distribution system with wind power generation (WPG) units. Wind farms are inclined to cause reverse power flows and voltage variations due to the random-like outputs of wind turbines. To deal with this kind of problem caused by wide spread usage of wind power generation, this thesis investigates voltage and reactive power controls in such a distribution system. Consequently static capacitors (SC) and transformer taps are introduced into the system and treated as controllers. For the purpose of getting optimum voltage and realizing reactive power control, the research proposes a proper coordination among the controllers like on-load tap changer (OLTC), feeder-switched capacitors. What's more, in order to simulate its uncertainty, the wind power generation is modeled by the Markov model. In that way, calculating the probabilities for all the scenarios is possible. Some outputs with consecutive and discrete values have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speeds. The thesis will describe the method to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrix. After that, utilizing genetic algorithm, the optimal locations of SCs, the sizes of SCs and transformer taps are determined so as to minimize the cost or minimize the power loss, and more importantly improve voltage profiles. The applicability of the proposed method is verified through simulation on a 9-bus system and a 30-bus system respectively. At last, the simulation results indicate that as long as the available capacitors are able to sufficiently

  8. Plans for a Collaboratively Developed Distributed Control System for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, W.R.; Gurd, D.P.; Hammonds, J.; Lewis, S.A.; Smith, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based pulsed neutron source to be built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The facility has five major sections - a ''front end'' consisting of a 65 keV H - ion source followed by a 2.5 MeV RFQ; a 1 GeV linac; a storage ring; a 1MW spallation neutron target (upgradeable to 2 MW); the conventional facilities to support these machines and a suite of neutron scattering instruments to exploit them. These components will be designed and implemented by five collaborating institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Front End), Los Alamos National Laboratory (Linac); Brookhaven National Laboratory (Storage Ring); Argonne National Laboratory (Instruments); and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Neutron Source and Conventional Facilities). It is proposed to implement a fully integrated control system for all aspects of this complex. The system will be developed collaboratively, with some degree of local autonomy for distributed systems, but centralized accountability. Technical integration will be based upon the widely-used EPICS control system toolkit, and a complete set of hardware and software standards. The scope of the integrated control system includes site-wide timing and synchronization, networking and machine protection. This paper discusses the technical and organizational issues of planning a large control system to be developed collaboratively at five different institutions, the approaches being taken to address those issues, as well as some of the particular technical challenges for the SNS control system

  9. A Distributed User Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    NOE08 Department of Computer Science NOVO 8 1990 University of Maryland S College Park, MD 20742 D Abstract Current user information database technology ...Transactions on Computer Systems, May 1988. [So189] K. Sollins. A plan for internet directory services. Technical report, DDN Network Information Center...2424 A Distributed User Information System DTiC Steven D. Miller, Scott Carson, and Leo Mark DELECTE Institute for Advanced Computer Studies and

  10. A planning and analysis framework for evaluating distributed generation and utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    The numbers of smaller scale distributed power generation units connected to the distribution networks of electricity utilities in the UK and elsewhere have grown significantly in recent years. Numerous economic and political drivers have stimulated this growth and continue to provide the environment for future growth in distributed generation. The simple fact that distributed generation is independent from the distribution utility complicates planning and operational tasks for the distribution network. The uncertainty relating to the number, location and type of distributed generating units to connect to the distribution network in the future makes distribution planning a particularly difficult activity. This thesis concerns the problem of distribution network and business planning in the era of distributed generation. A distributed generation strategic analysis framework is proposed to provide the required analytical capability and planning and decision making framework to enable distribution utilities to deal effectively with the challenges and opportunities presented to them by distributed generation. The distributed generation strategic analysis framework is based on the best features of modern planning and decision making methodologies and facilitates scenario based analysis across many utility strategic options and uncertainties. Case studies are presented and assessed to clearly illustrate the potential benefits of such an approach to distributed generation planning in the UK electricity supply industry. (author)

  11. 71: Three dimensional radiation treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.; Wong, J.W.; Harms, W.B.; Drzymala, R.E.; Emami, B.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 3-dimensional (3-D) radiation treatment planning (RTP) system has been developed and is in use. The system features a real-time display device and an array processor for computer intensive computations. The dose distribution can be displayed as 2-D isodose distributions superimposed on 2-D gray scale images of the patient's anatomy for any arbitrary plane and as a display of isodose surfaces in 3-D. In addition, dose-volume histograms can be generated. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Risky Group Decision-Making Method for Distribution Grid Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.

  13. Internet services for planning distributed generation connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, D.; Morgan, A.; Barbier, C.; Reay, P.

    2005-07-01

    The required publication by distributed network operators (DNOs) of details of the current state of their network systems and future planned developments in the form of Long Term Development Statements (LTDS) are discussed. This project aims to increase the usefulness of the information in the LTDS by making it available on the internet and by providing an initial assessment of connection opportunities and the possibility of viewing existing renewable generation projects. The services developed covered data loading, data visualisation, security, connection assessment, reporting, and generation site registration. The benefits of an electronic version of the LTDS are highlighted.

  14. Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.

    This planning guide in marketing and distributive education is designed to provide the curriculum coordinator and instructor with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the career field of marketing. Such programs require competencies in sales, sales promotion, buying, transporting, storing, financing, marketing research, and management.…

  15. Control of distributed systems : tutorial and overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Schuppen, J. H.; Boutin, O.; Kempker, P.L.; Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš; Pambakian, N.; Ran, A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, 5-6 (2011), s. 579-602 ISSN 0947-3580 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : distributed system * coordination control * hierarchical control * distributed control * distributed control with communication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.817, year: 2011 http://ejc.revuesonline.com/article.jsp?articleId=16873

  16. Planning Optimization of the Distributed Antenna System in High-Speed Railway Communication Network Based on Improved Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The network planning is a key factor that directly affects the performance of the wireless networks. Distributed antenna system (DAS is an effective strategy for the network planning. This paper investigates the antenna deployment in a DAS for the high-speed railway communication networks and formulates an optimization problem which is NP-hard for achieving the optimal deployment of the antennas in the DAS. To solve this problem, a scheme based on an improved cuckoo search based on dimension cells (ICSDC algorithm is proposed. ICSDC introduces the dimension cell mechanism to avoid the internal dimension interferences in order to improve the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ICSDC-based scheme obtains a lower network cost compared with the uniform network planning method. Moreover, ICSDC algorithm has better performance in terms of the convergence rate and accuracy compared with the conventional cuckoo search algorithm, the particle swarm optimization, and the firefly algorithm.

  17. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  18. Dose distribution assessment (comparison) in the target volume treated with VMAT given by the planning system and evaluated by TL dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravim, A.; Sakuraba, R.K.; Campos, L.L., E-mail: ambravim@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2015-07-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a relatively new therapy technique in which treatment is delivered using a cone beam that rotates around the patient. The radiation is delivered in a continuous gantry rotation while the cone beam is modulated by the intertwining of dynamic multileaf collimators (MLCs). Studies of VMAT plans have shown reduction in the treatment delivery time and monitor units (MU) comparable to IMRT plans improving major comfort to the patient and reducing uncertainties associated with patient movement during treatment. The treatment using VMAT minimizes the biological effects of radiation to critical structures near to the target volumes and produces excellent dose distributions. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation is essential for the radiological protection programs for quality assurance and licensing of equipment. For radiation oncology a quality assurance program is essentially to maintain the quality of patient care. As the VMAT is a new technique of radiation therapy it is important to optimize quality assurance mechanisms to ensure that tests are performed in order to preserve the patient and the equipment. This paper aims to determinate the dose distribution in the target volume (tumor to be treated) and the scattered dose distribution in the risk organs for VMAT technique comparing data given by the planning system and thermoluminescent (TL) response. (author)

  19. The Cost of Distribution System Upgrades to Accommodate Increasing Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems on Real Feeders in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ding, Fei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The increasing deployment of distributed photovoltaic systems (DPV) can impact operations at the distribution level and the transmission level of the electric grid. It is important to develop and implement forward-looking approaches for calculating distribution upgrade costs that can be used to inform system planning, market and tariff design, cost allocation, and other policymaking as penetration levels of DPV increase. Using a bottom-up approach that involves iterative hosting capacity analysis, this report calculates distribution upgrade costs as a function of DPV penetration on three real feeders - two in California and one in the Northeastern United States.

  20. A new evolutionary solution method for dynamic expansion planning of DG-integrated primary distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadigorji, Masoud; Amjady, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dynamic distribution network expansion planning model is presented. • A Binary Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (BEPSO) algorithm is proposed. • A Modified Differential Evolution (MDE) algorithm is proposed. • A new bi-level optimization approach composed of BEPSO and MDE is presented. • The effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach is extensively illustrated. - Abstract: Reconstruction in the power system and appearing of new technologies for generation capacity of electrical energy has led to significant innovation in Distribution Network Expansion Planning (DNEP). Distributed Generation (DG) includes the application of small/medium generation units located in power distribution networks and/or near the load centers. Appropriate utilization of DG can affect the various technical and operational indices of the distribution network such as the feeder loading, energy losses and voltage profile. In addition, application of DG in proper size is an essential tool to achieve the DG maximum potential benefits. In this paper, a time-based (dynamic) model for DNEP is proposed to determine the optimal size, location and installation year of DG in distribution system. Also, in this model, the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is exerted to determine the optimal generation of DGs for every potential solution in order to minimize the investment and operation costs following the load growth in a specified planning period. Besides, the reinforcement requirements of existing distribution feeders are considered, simultaneously. The proposed optimization problem is solved by the combination of evolutionary methods of a new Binary Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (BEPSO) and Modified Differential Evolution (MDE) to find the optimal expansion strategy and solve OPF, respectively. The proposed planning approach is applied to two typical primary distribution networks and compared with several other methods. These comparisons illustrate the

  1. Integrated planning of electric vehicles routing and charging stations location considering transportation networks and power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arias

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EVs represent a significant option that contributes to improve the mobility and reduce the pollution, leaving a future expectation in the merchandise transportation sector, which has been demonstrated with pilot projects of companies operating EVs for products delivering. In this work a new approach of EVs for merchandise transportation considering the location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs and the impact on the Power Distribution System (PDS is addressed. This integrated planning is formulated through a mixed integer non-linear mathematical model. Test systems of different sizes are designed to evaluate the model performance, considering the transportation network and PDS. The results show a trade-off between EVs routing, PDS energy losses and EVCSs location.

  2. Using Micro-Synchrophasor Data for Advanced Distribution Grid Planning and Operations Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McParland, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roberts, Ciaran [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report reviews the potential for distribution-grid phase-angle data that will be available from new micro-synchrophasors (µPMUs) to be utilized in existing distribution-grid planning and operations analysis. This data could augment the current diagnostic capabilities of grid analysis software, used in both planning and operations for applications such as fault location, and provide data for more accurate modeling of the distribution system. µPMUs are new distribution-grid sensors that will advance measurement and diagnostic capabilities and provide improved visibility of the distribution grid, enabling analysis of the grid’s increasingly complex loads that include features such as large volumes of distributed generation. Large volumes of DG leads to concerns on continued reliable operation of the grid, due to changing power flow characteristics and active generation, with its own protection and control capabilities. Using µPMU data on change in voltage phase angle between two points in conjunction with new and existing distribution-grid planning and operational tools is expected to enable model validation, state estimation, fault location, and renewable resource/load characterization. Our findings include: data measurement is outstripping the processing capabilities of planning and operational tools; not every tool can visualize a voltage phase-angle measurement to the degree of accuracy measured by advanced sensors, and the degree of accuracy in measurement required for the distribution grid is not defined; solving methods cannot handle the high volumes of data generated by modern sensors, so new models and solving methods (such as graph trace analysis) are needed; standardization of sensor-data communications platforms in planning and applications tools would allow integration of different vendors’ sensors and advanced measurement devices. In addition, data from advanced sources such as µPMUs could be used to validate models to improve

  3. Implementation of a Web-Based Collaborative Process Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifen; Liu, Tingting; Qiao, Li; Huang, Shuangxi

    Under the networked manufacturing environment, all phases of product manufacturing involving design, process planning, machining and assembling may be accomplished collaboratively by different enterprises, even different manufacturing stages of the same part may be finished collaboratively by different enterprises. Based on the self-developed networked manufacturing platform eCWS(e-Cooperative Work System), a multi-agent-based system framework for collaborative process planning is proposed. In accordance with requirements of collaborative process planning, share resources provided by cooperative enterprises in the course of collaboration are classified into seven classes. Then a reconfigurable and extendable resource object model is built. Decision-making strategy is also studied in this paper. Finally a collaborative process planning system e-CAPP is developed and applied. It provides strong support for distributed designers to collaboratively plan and optimize product process though network.

  4. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaerventausta, P; Verho, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Pitkaenen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion to the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. Nowadays the SCADA is the main computer system (and often the only) in the control center. However, the information displayed by the SCADA is often inadequate, and several tasks cannot be solved by a conventional SCADA system. A need for new computer applications in control center arises from the insufficiency of the SCADA and some other trends. The latter means that the overall importance of the distribution networks is increasing. The slowing down of load-growth has often made network reinforcements unprofitable. Thus the existing network must be operated more efficiently. At the same time larger distribution areas are for economical reasons being monitored at one control center and the size of the operation staff is decreasing. The quality of supply requirements are also becoming stricter. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the

  5. Use of Monte Carlo computation in benchmarking radiotherapy treatment planning system algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.D.; Ryde, S.J.S.; Seaby, A.W.; Hancock, D.A.; Evans, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatments are becoming more complex, often requiring the dose to be calculated in three dimensions and sometimes involving the application of non-coplanar beams. The ability of treatment planning systems to accurately calculate dose under a range of these and other irradiation conditions requires evaluation. Practical assessment of such arrangements can be problematical, especially when a heterogeneous medium is used. This work describes the use of Monte Carlo computation as a benchmarking tool to assess the dose distribution of external photon beam plans obtained in a simple heterogeneous phantom by several commercially available 3D and 2D treatment planning system algorithms. For comparison, practical measurements were undertaken using film dosimetry. The dose distributions were calculated for a variety of irradiation conditions designed to show the effects of surface obliquity, inhomogeneities and missing tissue above tangential beams. The results show maximum dose differences of 47% between some planning algorithms and film at a point 1 mm below a tangentially irradiated surface. Overall, the dose distribution obtained from film was most faithfully reproduced by the Monte Carlo N-Particle results illustrating the potential of Monte Carlo computation in evaluating treatment planning system algorithms. (author)

  6. Integrating smart grid solution into distribution network planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The planning of medium voltage (MV) distribution networks is a challenging optimization problem due to its scale, its inherent uncertainty, and non-linear nature. In the international technical literature, there are many different optimization models and methods available to approach this planning

  7. Reliability worth assessment of radial systems with distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellart Llavall, Francesc Xavier

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in technology, utilities generation (DG) on the distribution systems. Reliability worth is very important in power system planning and operation. Having a DG ensures reli increase the reliability worth. This research project presents the study of a radial distribution system and the impact of placing DG in order to increase the reliability worth. where a DG have to be placed. The reliability improvement is measured by different reliability indices tha...

  8. An Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for Power Distribution Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution network planning because of involving many variables and constraints is a multiobjective, discrete, nonlinear, and large-scale optimization problem. Harmony search (HS algorithm is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the improvisation process of music players. HS algorithm has several impressive advantages, such as easy implementation, less adjustable parameters, and quick convergence. But HS algorithm still has some defects such as premature convergence and slow convergence speed. According to the defects of the standard algorithm and characteristics of distribution network planning, an improved harmony search (IHS algorithm is proposed in this paper. We set up a mathematical model of distribution network structure planning, whose optimal objective function is to get the minimum annual cost and constraint conditions are overload and radial network. IHS algorithm is applied to solve the complex optimization mathematical model. The empirical results strongly indicate that IHS algorithm can effectively provide better results for solving the distribution network planning problem compared to other optimization algorithms.

  9. IMPERA: Integrated Mission Planning for Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project IMPERA (Integrated Mission Planning for Distributed Robot Systems. The goal of IMPERA was to realize an extraterrestrial exploration scenario using a heterogeneous multi-robot system. The main challenge was the development of a multi-robot planning and plan execution architecture. The robot team consists of three heterogeneous robots, which have to explore an unknown environment and collect lunar drill samples. The team activities are described using the language ALICA (A Language for Interactive Agents. Furthermore, we use the mission planning system pRoPhEt MAS (Reactive Planning Engine for Multi-Agent Systems to provide an intuitive interface to generate team activities. Therefore, we define the basic skills of our team with ALICA and define the desired goal states by using a logic description. Based on the skills, pRoPhEt MAS creates a valid ALICA plan, which will be executed by the team. The paper describes the basic components for communication, coordinated exploration, perception and object transportation. Finally, we evaluate the planning engine pRoPhEt MAS in the IMPERA scenario. In addition, we present further evaluation of pRoPhEt MAS in more dynamic environments.

  10. A generalization information management system applied to electrical distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, K.I.; Neumann, S.A.; Nielsen, T.D.; Bower, P.K. (Empros Systems International (US)); Hughes, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    This article presents a system solution approach that meets the requirements being imposed by industry trends and the electric utility customer. Specifically, the solution addresses electric distribution management systems. Electrical distribution management is a particularly well suited area of application because it involves a high diversity of tasks, which are currently supported by a proliferation of automated islands. Islands of automation which currently exist include (among others) distribution operations, load management, automated mapping, facility management, work order processing, and planning.

  11. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  12. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  13. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S

    1997-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  14. Specification of a system for planning and analysis of independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system; Especificacao de um sistema de planeamento e analise do impacto da conexao de geradores independentes no sistema electrico da distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Luis Miguel; Matos, Manuel Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Campos, Manuel Luis Borges [Centro para a Excelencia na Distribuicao (CED), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a system for planning and analysis of the independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system. This system is being developed under a contract signed between the Center for Excellency in the Distribution (CED), state of Sao Paulo - Brazil and the INESC, Porto - Portugal - energy unit.

  15. Left-forbidding cooperating distributed grammar systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldefus, F.; Masopust, Tomáš; Meduna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 40-42 (2010), s. 3661-3667 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : cooperating distributed grammar system * cooperating derivation mode * left-forbidding grammar * generative power * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510003440

  16. Robust control of distributed parameter mechanical systems using a multidimensional systems approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cichy, B.; Augusta, Petr; Rogers, E.; Galkowski, K.; Hurák, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 67-75 ISSN 0239-7269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : robust control * distributed parameter mechanical systems * multidimensional systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/TR/augusta-0347866.pdf

  17. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  18. On the control of distributed parameter systems using a multidimensional systems setting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cichy, B.; Augusta, Petr; Rogers, E.; Galkowski, K.; Hurák, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2008), s. 1566-1581 ISSN 0888-3270 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Distributed parameter systems * Modelling * Control law design Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2008

  19. Transition in Gas Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, and Embedded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully distributed engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of distributed control capability from this initial implementation to fully distributed and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders

  20. Route planning module as a part of Supply Chain Management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Košíček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the demand for creating a systematic approach for managing sales, ordering, and logistics has increased. Supply Chain Management (SCM is one of the responses to problems that have arose with the need for managing complex supply chains. Nowadays, most of the activities of Supply Chain Management is realized or supported with computing technologies. Route planning is an important part of Supply Chain Management related to both procurement and distribution. Route planning systems specify the sequences in which the selected transport vehicles should supply the demand points by requested quantities of goods at the right time. The paper is focused on the analysis of a route planning system which could be used as a part of Supply Chain Management information system or as a standalone application. It describes basic techniques and frameworks of transportation problems as well as important functional requirements, considering recent trends in the field of distribution planning. As a result, functional specification of basic features and other components of system are provided. The paper is a result of a joint initiative of the authors and a vendor of business information systems.

  1. Two efficient heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpal, Yuvraj; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-period production system where a set of machines are arranged in parallel. The machines are unreliable and the failure rate of machine depends on the load assigned to the machine. The expected production rate of the system is considered to be a non-monotonic function of its load. Because of the machine failure rate, the total production output depends on the combination of loads assigned to different machines. We consider the integration of load distribution decisions with production planning decision. The product demands are considered to be known in advance. The objective is to minimize the sum of holding costs, backorder costs, production costs, setup costs, capacity change costs and unused capacity costs while satisfying the demand over specified time horizon. The constraint is not to exceed available repair resources required to repair the machine breakdown. The paper develops two heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem. The first heuristic consists of a three-phase approach, while the second one is based on tabu search metaheuristic. The efficiency of the proposed heuristics is tested through the randomly generated problem instances. - Highlights: • The expected performance of the system is a non-monotonic function of its load. • We consider the integration of load distribution and production planning decisions. • The paper proposes three phase and tabu search based heuristics to solve the problem. • Lower bound has been developed for checking the effectiveness of the heuristics. • The efficiency of the heuristic is tested through randomly generated instances.

  2. 'Y' a distributed resource sharing system in nuclear research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Zeletin, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the rationales for the transition from HMINET-2 to a distributed resource sharing system in Hahn-Meitner-Institute for Nuclear Research. The architecture and rationales for the planned new distributed resource system (Y) in HMI are outlined. The introduction of a distributed operating system is a prerequisite for a resource-sharing system. Y will provide not only the integration of networks of different qualities (high speed back-bone, LANs of different technologies, ports to national X.25 network and satellite) at hardware level, but also an integrated global user view of the whole system. This will be designed and implemented by decoupling the user-view from the hardware topology by introducing a netwide distributed operating system. (Auth.)

  3. Marketing and Distribution: A Team Plan for In-Service Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ralph E.

    1976-01-01

    Distributive education (DE) teacher education universities in Indiana completed a consortium testing an exemplary plan to use in followup service activities with first- and second-year distributive education teachers. How the plan was developed and ways in which it was successful are discussed. (HD)

  4. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray

    2012-01-01

    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  5. Discipline, dilemmas, decisions and data distribution in the planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discipline, dilemmas, decisions and data distribution in the planning and ... Emphasis is placed on the value of a heterogeneous article structure and a ... Keywords: access structure, data distribution, frame structure, fre-quency of use, ...

  6. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  7. Electric Power Distribution System Model Simplification Using Segment Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Andrew P.; McDermott, Thomas E.; Akcakaya, Murat; Reed, Gregory F.

    2018-05-01

    Quasi-static time-series (QSTS) simulation is used to simulate the behavior of distribution systems over long periods of time (typically hours to years). The technique involves repeatedly solving the load-flow problem for a distribution system model and is useful for distributed energy resource (DER) planning. When a QSTS simulation has a small time step and a long duration, the computational burden of the simulation can be a barrier to integration into utility workflows. One way to relieve the computational burden is to simplify the system model. The segment substitution method of simplifying distribution system models introduced in this paper offers model bus reduction of up to 98% with a simplification error as low as 0.2% (0.002 pu voltage). In contrast to existing methods of distribution system model simplification, which rely on topological inspection and linearization, the segment substitution method uses black-box segment data and an assumed simplified topology.

  8. Electric Power Distribution System Model Simplification Using Segment Substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Andrew P.; McDermott, Thomas E.; Akcakaya, Murat; Reed, Gregory F.

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-static time-series (QSTS) simulation is used to simulate the behavior of distribution systems over long periods of time (typically hours to years). The technique involves repeatedly solving the load-flow problem for a distribution system model and is useful for distributed energy resource (DER) planning. When a QSTS simulation has a small time step and a long duration, the computational burden of the simulation can be a barrier to integration into utility workflows. One way to relieve the computational burden is to simplify the system model. The segment substitution method of simplifying distribution system models introduced in this paper offers model bus reduction of up to 98% with a simplification error as low as 0.2% (0.002 pu voltage). Finally, in contrast to existing methods of distribution system model simplification, which rely on topological inspection and linearization, the segment substitution method uses black-box segment data and an assumed simplified topology.

  9. CMS Planning and Scheduling System

    CERN Document Server

    Kotamaki, M

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures and the system to build and maintain the schedules needed to manage time, resources, and progress of the CMS project. The system is based on the decomposition of the project into work packages, which can be each considered as a complete project with its own structure. The system promotes the distribution of the decision making and responsibilities to lower levels in the organisation by providing a state-of-the-art system to formalise the external commitments of the work packages without limiting their ability to modify their internal schedules to best meet their commitments. The system lets the project management focus on the interfaces between the work packages and alerts the management immediately if a conflict arises. The proposed system simplifies the planning and management process and eliminates the need for a large, centralised project management system.

  10. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  11. 26 CFR 1.457-7 - Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. 1.457-7 Section 1.457-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...-7 Taxation of Distributions Under Eligible Plans. (a) General rules for when amounts are included in...

  12. The ATLAS Distributed Analysis System

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Pacheco Pages, A; Stradling, A

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high but steadily improving; grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters ...

  13. The ATLAS Distributed Analysis System

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high but steadily improving; grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters ...

  14. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  15. INFORMATION SYSTEM STRATEGIC PLANNING WITH ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Yorita Astri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is needed in an enterprise to support businessprocesses run by an enterprise. Therefore, to develop information system can use enterprisearchitecture approach which can define strategic planning of enterprise information system. SMPNegeri 1 Jambi can be viewed as an enterprise because there are entities that should be managedthrough an integrated information system. Since there has been no unification of different elementsin a unity yet, enterprise architecture model using Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP isneeded which will obtain strategic planning of enterprise information system in SMP Negeri 1Jambi. The goal of strategic planning of information system with Enterprise Architecture Planning(EAP is to define primary activities run by SMP Negeri 1 Jambi and support activities supportingprimary activities. They can be used as a basis for making data architecture which is the entities ofapplication architecture. At last, technology architecture is designed to describe technology neededto provide environment for data application. The plan of implementation is the activity plan madeto implemented architectures by enterprise.

  16. Scalable and practical multi-objective distribution network expansion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, N.H.; Grond, M.O.W.; Poutré, La J.A.; Bosman, P.A.N.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate the distribution network expansion planning (DNEP) problem as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem with different objectives that distribution network operators (DNOs) would typically like to consider during decision making processes for expanding their networks. Objectives are

  17. Comprehensive evaluation index system of total supply capability in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linyao; Wu, Guilian; Yang, Jingyuan; Jia, Shuangrui; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Weiqing

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the distribution network, based on the existing distribution network evaluation index system, combined with the basic principles of constructing the evaluation index, put forward a new evaluation index system of distribution network capacity. This paper is mainly based on the total supply capability of the distribution network, combining single index and various factors, into a multi-evaluation index of the distribution network, thus forming a reasonable index system, and various indicators of rational quantification make the evaluation results more intuitive. In order to have a comprehensive judgment of distribution network, this paper uses weights to analyse the importance of each index, verify the rationality of the index system through the example, it is proved that the rationality of the index system, so as to guide the direction of distribution network planning.

  18. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  19. A possibilistic model to determine the cost of environmental quality in mid/short term planning of an electricity distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo Alejandro; Gimenez Alvarez, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a Possibilistic Optimization Model to determine the Dynamic Environmental Quality Cost, applied on an Electricity Distribution System and measured as Network System Visual Impact. The Mid/Short Term Planning is the Regulatory Control Period. A multicriteria optimization approach is proposed, and for each criterion, non-stochastic uncertainties are recognized and represented by mean the introduction of Fuzzy Sets. In this way, a possibility in the occurrence of criteria variables values is established. In addition, as consequence of uncertainties of criteria preference ranking, a Model to obtain criteria Priority Vector is introduced. The Environmental Quality Cost determination is based in the relationship between the Investment Cost and an Impact Index of Network System Environmental Quality, proposed in this work. Finally, a simulation on a real system and the most important conclusions are presented.

  20. Implementation of three dimensional treatment planning system for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Tibor; Kurup, P.G.G.; Stumpf, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) treatment planning system was installed at Apollo Cancer Hospital, Chennai, India in 1995. This paper gives a short description of the system including hardware components, calculation algorithm, measured data requirements and specific three dimensional features. The concept and the structure of the system are shortly described. The first impressions along with critical opinions and the experiences are gained during the data acquisition are mentioned. Some improvements in the user interface are suggested. It is emphasized that although a 3D system offers more detailed and accurate dose distributions compared to a 2D system, it also introduces a greatly increased workload for the planning staff. (author)

  1. Health Canada unveils plan to distribute marijuana for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism

  2. Frequency analysis for planned islanding operation in the Danish distribution system - Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    a planned islanding operation test. To evaluate the test and achieve useful experience for future similar operations in Bornholm or even in other similar systems, the frequency data before, during and after this period, were recorded by Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), supplied by Centre for Electric...

  3. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  4. The Synthesis Method of Automated System of Operational Planning in Low-Space Communication System Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kovbasiuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the decrease of efficiency in low-speed communication systems, satellite communication, which are based on nanoplatform is a high degree of operational planning centralisation. To overcome this problem the method which carries out the distribution of tasks of communications operational planning minimizing the exchange of information between spatially remote sites, and takes into account the computing performance of software and hardware was developed. The technique is based on the use of methods of structural and parametric synthesis, simulation and statistical analysis of the results. Its use allows to obtain the optimal structure of the automated system of operational planning in low-space communication system messaging evaluation of efficiency in terms of fixed communication of information load.

  5. Designing Sustainable Systems for Urban Freight Distribution through techniques of Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muerza, V.; Larrode, E.; Moreno- Jimenez, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis and selection of the parameters that have a major influence on the optimization of the urban freight distribution system by using sustainable means of transport, such as electric vehicles. In addition, a procedure has been be studied to identify the alternatives that may exist to establish the best system for urban freight distribution, which suits the stage that is considered using the most appropriate means of transportation available. To do this, it has been used the Analytic Hierarchy Process, one of the tools of multicriteria decision analysis. In order to establish an adequate planning of an urban freight distribution system using electric vehicles three hypotheses are necessary: (i) it is necessary to establish the strategic planning of the distribution process by defining the relative importance of the strategic objectives of the process of distribution of goods in the urban environment, both economically and technically and in social and environmental terms; (ii) it must be established the operational planning that allows the achievement of the strategic objectives with the most optimized allocation of available resources; and (iii) to determine the optimal architecture of the vehicle that best suits the operating conditions in which it will work and ensures optimum energy efficiency in operation. (Author)

  6. Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile workshops in Osogbo, ... data pertaining to the activities and other related issues of their workshops. ... The study therefore, recommends the establishment of mechanic complex, ...

  7. FoCa: a modular treatment planning system for proton radiotherapy with research and educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D; Kondrla, M; Shaindlin, A; Carabe, A

    2014-12-07

    FoCa is an in-house modular treatment planning system, developed entirely in MATLAB, which includes forward dose calculation of proton radiotherapy plans in both active and passive modalities as well as a generic optimization suite for inverse treatment planning. The software has a dual education and research purpose. From the educational point of view, it can be an invaluable teaching tool for educating medical physicists, showing the insights of a treatment planning system from a well-known and widely accessible software platform. From the research point of view, its current and potential uses range from the fast calculation of any physical, radiobiological or clinical quantity in a patient CT geometry, to the development of new treatment modalities not yet available in commercial treatment planning systems. The physical models in FoCa were compared with the commissioning data from our institution and show an excellent agreement in depth dose distributions and longitudinal and transversal fluence profiles for both passive scattering and active scanning modalities. 3D dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries were compared with a commercial treatment planning system, yielding a gamma-index pass rate of above 94% (using FoCa's most accurate algorithm) for all cases considered. Finally, the inverse treatment planning suite was used to produce the first prototype of intensity-modulated, passive-scattered proton therapy, using 13 passive scattering proton fields and multi-leaf modulation to produce a concave dose distribution on a cylindrical solid water phantom without any field-specific compensator.

  8. IMRT treatment planning-A comparative inter-system and inter-centre planning exercise of the ESTRO QUASIMODO group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohsung, Joerg; Gillis, Sofie; Arrans, Rafael; Bakai, Annemarie; De Wagter, Carlos; Knoeoes, Tommy; Mijnheer, Ben J.; Paiusco, Marta; Perrin, Bruce A.; Welleweerd, Hans; Williams, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this work was a comparison of realistic IMRT plans based on the same CT-image data set and a common predefined set of dose objectives for the planning target volume and the organs at risk. This work was part of the larger European QUASIMODO IMRT verification project. Materials and methods: Eleven IMRT plans were produced by nine different European groups, each applying a representative set of clinically used IMRT treatment planning systems. The plans produced were to be deliverable in a clinically acceptable treatment time with the local technical equipment. All plans were characterized using a set of different quality measures such as dose-volume histograms, number of monitor units and treatment time. Results: Only one plan was able to fulfil all dose objectives strictly; six plans failed some of the objectives but were still considered to be clinically acceptable; four plans were not able to reach the objectives. Additional quality scores such as the number of monitor units and treatment time showed large variations, which mainly depend on the delivery technique. Conclusion: The presented planning study showed that with nearly all presently available IMRT planning and delivery systems comparable dose distributions could be achieved if the planning goals are clearly defined in advance

  9. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, Implementation Strategy for a Distribution Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reilly, James T. [Reilly Associates, Pittston, PA (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electric distribution utilities encounter many challenges to successful deployment of Distribution Management Systems (DMSs). The key challenges are documented in this report, along with suggestions for overcoming them. This report offers a recommended list of activities for implementing a DMS. It takes a strategic approach to implementing DMS from a project management perspective. The project management strategy covers DMS planning, procurement, design, building, testing, Installation, commissioning, and system integration issues and solutions. It identifies the risks that are associated with implementation and suggests strategies for utilities to use to mitigate them or avoid them altogether. Attention is given to common barriers to successful DMS implementation. This report begins with an overview of the implementation strategy for a DMS and proceeds to put forward a basic approach for procuring hardware and software for a DMS; designing the interfaces with external corporate computing systems such as EMS, GIS, OMS, and AMI; and implementing a complete solution.

  11. Intelligent Control and Operation of Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad

    methodology to ensure efficient control and operation of the future distribution networks. The major scientific challenge is thus to develop control models and strategies to coordinate responses from widely distributed controllable loads and local generations. Detailed models of key Smart Grid (SG) elements...... in this direction but also benefit distribution system operators in the planning and development of the distribution network. The major contributions of this work are described in the following four stages: In the first stage, an intelligent Demand Response (DR) control architecture is developed for coordinating...... the key SG actors, namely consumers, network operators, aggregators, and electricity market entities. A key intent of the architecture is to facilitate market participation of residential consumers and prosumers. A Hierarchical Control Architecture (HCA) having primary, secondary, and tertiary control...

  12. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management; Distribution preventive et plans de gestion des stocks de comprimes d'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  13. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  14. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  15. A MODEL OF HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM FOR FOREIGN EXCHANGE PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Kermek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the design of heterogeneous distributed system for foreign exchange portfolio analysis. The proposed model includes few separated and dislocated but connected parts through distributed mechanisms. Making system distributed brings new perspectives to performance busting where software based load balancer gets very important role. Desired system should spread over multiple, heterogeneous platforms in order to fulfil open platform goal. Building such a model incorporates different patterns from GOF design patterns, business patterns, J2EE patterns, integration patterns, enterprise patterns, distributed design patterns to Web services patterns. The authors try to find as much as possible appropriate patterns for planned tasks in order to capture best modelling and programming practices.

  16. Information system for personnel work distribution in Kaunas Maironis gymnasium

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskaitė, Eglė

    2005-01-01

    This information technology master degree work. In this work it is made research of the task of teacher's work distribution acording to schoolchildren's individual studying plans. In this work it it analyzed the process of teacher's work distribution and their information needs. This information system was created in MS Visio surroundings and realized with MS SQL Server and VBA implements.

  17. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system security plan. 659.25 Section 659.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... and system security plan. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to conduct an annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the rail...

  19. Development of a system to verify the programs used for planning of photon beams teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocariz Ayala, Victor Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver to the tumor the radiation dose prescribed by the physician, in the most possible accurate form, to save, as much as possible, the healthy tissues located in the neighborhood of the tumor. In order to reach these objectives, it is necessary to carry out a treatment planning and the more the used technologies and therapeutical procedures are sophisticated, the more the planning will be sophisticated. The most sophisticated planning systems use computer programs and are able to determine dose distributions in three dimensions. However, since they work using mathematical models, they may fail and it is necessary to evaluate their performances in order to be considered reliable. Therefore, the availability of a system capable to evaluate the performance of planning systems employed in oncological teletherapy, using ionizing radiation, becomes important. In this work, a data file to be used in radiotherapy planning system quality control (Algorithm accuracy and dose distribution) was developed and it is able to be sent by mail to the radiotherapy services that work with photon beams. (author)

  20. Serious Gaming for Water Systems Planning and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan A. Savic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment, with applications in the area of water systems planning and management. A survey of published work on gaming is carried out with particular attention given to applications of Serious Gaming to water systems planning and management. The survey is also used to identify the principal criteria for the classification of Serious Gaming for water related applications, including application areas, goals, number and type of players, user interface, type of simulation model used, realism of the game, performance feedback, progress monitoring and game portability. The review shows that game applications in the water sector can be a valuable tool for making various stakeholders aware of the socio-techno-economic issues related to managing complex water systems. However, the critical review also indicates a gap that exists in the Serious Game application area with the lack of water distribution system games. A conceptually simple, but computationally elaborate new game for water distribution system analysis, design and evaluation (SeGWADE is presented in this paper. It has a main goal of finding a least-cost design for a well-known benchmark problem, for which the game environment takes the computational and visualisation burden away from the simulation tool and the player. The game has been evaluated in a classroom environment in which a high degree of player engagement with the game was observed, due to its basic game ingredients and activities, i.e., challenge, play and fun. In addition, a clear improvement in learning has been observed in how players attempted to identify solutions that satisfy the pressure criterion with players readily identifying the proximity of the better solutions to the starting

  1. Control of discrete-event systems with modular or distributed structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; van Schuppen, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 388, č. 3 (2007), s. 199-226 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100190609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : supervisory control * modular discrete-event system * distributed discrete-event system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.735, year: 2007

  2. TECHNIQUE OF OPTIMAL AUDIT PLANNING FOR INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Shago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complication of information security management systems leads to the necessity of improving the scientific and methodological apparatus for these systems auditing. Planning is an important and determining part of information security management systems auditing. Efficiency of audit will be defined by the relation of the reached quality indicators to the spent resources. Thus, there is an important and urgent task of developing methods and techniques for optimization of the audit planning, making it possible to increase its effectiveness. The proposed technique gives the possibility to implement optimal distribution for planning time and material resources on audit stages on the basis of dynamics model for the ISMS quality. Special feature of the proposed approach is the usage of a priori data as well as a posteriori data for the initial audit planning, and also the plan adjustment after each audit event. This gives the possibility to optimize the usage of audit resources in accordance with the selected criteria. Application examples of the technique are given while planning audit information security management system of the organization. The result of computational experiment based on the proposed technique showed that the time (cost audit costs can be reduced by 10-15% and, consequently, quality assessments obtained through audit resources allocation can be improved with respect to well-known methods of audit planning.

  3. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  4. A simple planning technique of craniospinal irradiation in the eclipse treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Athiyaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new planning method for Craniospinal Irradiation by Eclipse treatment planning system using Field alignment, Field-in-Field technique was developed. Advantage of this planning method was also studied retrospectively for previously treated five patients of medulloblastoma with variable spine length. Plan consists of half beam blocked parallel opposed cranium, and a single posterior cervicospine field was created by sharing the same isocenter, which obviates divergence matching. Further, a single symmetrical field was created to treat remaining Lumbosacral spine. Matching between a inferior diverging edge of cervicospine field and superior diverging edge of a Lumbosacral field was done using the field alignment option. ′Field alignment′ is specific option in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, which automatically matches the field edge divergence as per field alignment rule. Multiple segments were applied in both the spine field to manage with hot and cold spots created by varying depth of spinal cord. Plan becomes fully computerized using this field alignment option and multiple segments. Plan evaluation and calculated mean modified Homogeneity Index (1.04 and 0.1 ensured that dose to target volume is homogeneous and critical organ doses were within tolerance. Dose variation at the spinal field junction was verified using ionization chamber array (I′MatriXX for matched, overlapped and gap junction spine fields; the delivered dose distribution confirmed the ideal clinical match, over exposure and under exposure at the junction, respectively. This method is simple to plan, executable in Record and Verify mode and can be adopted for various length of spinal cord with only two isocenter in shorter treatment time.

  5. Distribution System Reliability Analysis for Smart Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Tawfiq Masad

    Reliability of power systems is a key aspect in modern power system planning, design, and operation. The ascendance of the smart grid concept has provided high hopes of developing an intelligent network that is capable of being a self-healing grid, offering the ability to overcome the interruption problems that face the utility and cost it tens of millions in repair and loss. To address its reliability concerns, the power utilities and interested parties have spent extensive amount of time and effort to analyze and study the reliability of the generation and transmission sectors of the power grid. Only recently has attention shifted to be focused on improving the reliability of the distribution network, the connection joint between the power providers and the consumers where most of the electricity problems occur. In this work, we will examine the effect of the smart grid applications in improving the reliability of the power distribution networks. The test system used in conducting this thesis is the IEEE 34 node test feeder, released in 2003 by the Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The objective is to analyze the feeder for the optimal placement of the automatic switching devices and quantify their proper installation based on the performance of the distribution system. The measures will be the changes in the reliability system indices including SAIDI, SAIFI, and EUE. The goal is to design and simulate the effect of the installation of the Distributed Generators (DGs) on the utility's distribution system and measure the potential improvement of its reliability. The software used in this work is DISREL, which is intelligent power distribution software that is developed by General Reliability Co.

  6. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  7. Plan for the design, development, and implementation, and operation of the National Water Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey is developing a National Water Information System (NWIS) that will integrate and replace its existing water data and information systems of the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, National Water Data Exchange, National Water-Use Information, and Water Resources Scientific Information Center programs. It will be a distributed data system operated as part of the Division 's Distributed Information System, which is a network of computers linked together through a national telecommunication network known as GEONET. The NWIS is being developed as a series of prototypes that will be integrated as they are completed to allow the development and implementation of the system in a phased manner. It also is being developed in a distributed manner using personnel who work under the coordination of a central NWIS Project Office. Work on the development of the NWIS began in 1983 and it is scheduled for completion in 1990. This document presents an overall plan for the design, development, implementation, and operation of the system. Detailed discussions are presented on each of these phases of the NWIS life cycle. The planning, quality assurance, and configuration management phases of the life cycle also are discussed. The plan is intended to be a working document for use by NWIS management and participants in its design and development and to assist offices of the Division in planning and preparing for installation and operation of the system. (Author 's abstract)

  8. ANALISIS BULLWHIP EFFECT TERHADAP PENERAPAN DISTRIBUTION RESOURCE PLANNING DI PT. MNJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Suseno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Manajemen persediaan barang/produk menjadi sangat penting dan krusial bagi perusahaan distribusi. PT. MNJ sebagai perusahaan distribusi produk farmasi dan pangan, memiliki komitmen yang tinggi dan kepedulian dalam memberikan barang/produk dengan jumlah yang tepat dan waktu yang tepat. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk mengendalikan persediaan secara optimal dengan metode Distribusi Resource Planning (DRP dan melakukan pengukuran nilai bullwhip effect. Sampel penelitian adalah dua cabang utama dari 56 cabang PT.MNJ, dengan dua produk utama yaitu Paramex dan Konicare 125 ml. Penelitian ini menghitung dan menentukan rencana penjualan dengan menggunakan empat metode peramalan eksponensial. Selanjutnya, dilakukan perencanaan persediaan dengan metode DRP untuk menghasilkan kapan dan berapa banyak barang yang didistribusi ke cabang penjualan dengan biaya terendah. Penelitian ini juga membahas hasil perhitungan bullwhip effect selama 3 bulan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan menerapkan DRP dapat menurunkan nilai bullwhip effect baik untuk cabang Jakarta maupun Solo.   Kata Kunci: distribusi resource planning; bullwhip effect; peramalan Abstract Inventory management of goods/product becomes very important and crucial for distribution company. PT. MNJ as a distribution company of pharmaceutical and food products, have high commitment and concern in providing the goods/products with the right amount and the right time. This study attempted to optimal control the supply with Distribution Resource Planning (DRP method and measuring the value of the bullwhip effect. Samples are two main branches of the 56 branches PT.MNJ, with two main product Paramex and Konicare 125 ml. This research calculates and determines the sales plans using four methods of forecasting exponential. Furthermore, the inventory planning with DRP method to produce when and how many goods are distributed to branch sales at the lowest cost. This study also discusses the results of

  9. Characterization of HDR Ir-192 source for 3D planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Rubo, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Louise A.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy treatment involves surgical or cavitary insertion of radioactive sources for diseases treatments, such as: lung, gynecologic or prostate cancer. This technique has great ability to administer high doses to the tumor, with adjacent normal tissue preservation equal or better than external beam radiation therapy. Several innovations have been incorporated in this treatment technique, such as, 3D treatment planning system and computer guided sources. In detriment to scientific advances there are no protocols that relate dose with tumor volume, organs or A point, established by ICRU38 and used to prescribe dose in treatment planning system. Several international studies, like as EMBRACE, the multicentre international study, has been trying to correlate the dose volume using 3D planning systems and medical images, as those obtained by CT or MRI, to establish treatment protocols. With the objective of analyzing the 3D dose distribution, a micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device for high dose-rate (HDR) was characterized in the present work. Through the data provided by the manufacturer the source was simulated, using the MCNP5 code to calculate American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 report (AAPM TG43) specified parameters. The simulations have shown great agreement when compared to the ONCENTRA planning system results and those provided by literature. The micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device will be utilized to simulate 3D dose distribution through CT images processed by an auxiliary software which process DICOM images. (author)

  10. Characterization of HDR Ir-192 source for 3D planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D., E-mail: gabriel.fonseca@usp.b, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.b, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rubo, Rodrigo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia; Minamisawa, Renato A., E-mail: renato.minamisawa@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ferreira, Louise A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy treatment involves surgical or cavitary insertion of radioactive sources for diseases treatments, such as: lung, gynecologic or prostate cancer. This technique has great ability to administer high doses to the tumor, with adjacent normal tissue preservation equal or better than external beam radiation therapy. Several innovations have been incorporated in this treatment technique, such as, 3D treatment planning system and computer guided sources. In detriment to scientific advances there are no protocols that relate dose with tumor volume, organs or A point, established by ICRU38 and used to prescribe dose in treatment planning system. Several international studies, like as EMBRACE, the multicentre international study, has been trying to correlate the dose volume using 3D planning systems and medical images, as those obtained by CT or MRI, to establish treatment protocols. With the objective of analyzing the 3D dose distribution, a micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device for high dose-rate (HDR) was characterized in the present work. Through the data provided by the manufacturer the source was simulated, using the MCNP5 code to calculate American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 report (AAPM TG43) specified parameters. The simulations have shown great agreement when compared to the ONCENTRA planning system results and those provided by literature. The micro Selectron-HDR remote afterloading device will be utilized to simulate 3D dose distribution through CT images processed by an auxiliary software which process DICOM images. (author)

  11. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  12. Systemic Planning: Dealing with Complexity by a Wider Approach to Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    2005-01-01

    and methodology that can be helpful for planning under circumstances characterised by complexity and uncertainty. It is argued that compared to conventional, planning – referred to as systematic planning - there is a need for a wider, more systemic approach to planning that is better suited to current real......On the basis of a new book Systemic Planning this paper addresses systems thinking and complexity in a context of planning. Specifically, renewal of planning thinking on this background is set out as so-called systemic planning (SP). The principal concern of SP is to provide principles...

  13. Multi-objective analysis of impacts of distributed generation placement on the operational characteristics of networks for distribution system planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barin, Alexandre; Pozzatti, Luis F.; Canha, Luciane N.; Abaide, Alzenira R. [Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, Post-graduation Program of Electric Engineering - PPGEE, Center of Studies of Energy and Environment - CEEMA, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Machado, Ricardo Q. [University of Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Arend, Gustavo [State Electric Energy Company - CEEE-D, Division of Distribution, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Recent advances in energy technology generation and new directions in electricity regulation have made distributed generation (DG) more widespread, with consequent significant impacts on the operational characteristics of distribution networks. For this reason, new methods for identifying such impacts are needed, together with research and development of new tools and resources to maintain and facilitate continued expansion towards DG. This paper presents a study aimed at determining appropriate DG sites for distribution systems. The main considerations which determine DG sites are also presented, together with an account of the advantages gained from correct DG placement. The paper intends to define some quantitative and qualitative parameters evaluated by Digsilent registered, GARP3 registered and DSA-GD software. A multi-objective approach based on the Bellman-Zadeh algorithm and fuzzy logic is used to determine appropriate DG sites. The study also aims to find acceptable DG locations both for distribution system feeders, as well as for nodes inside a given feeder. (author)

  14. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care

  15. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legger, F

    2014-01-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  16. The ATLAS distributed analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

  17. Experimental dosimetry in conformal breast teletherapy compared with the planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana Batista; Silva, Hugo Leonardo Lemos; Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcísio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and analyse the absorbed dose profiles from the conformal radiotherapy planning and experimental dosimetry taken in a breast anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom. Conformal radiotherapy planning was elaborated in the Treatment Planning System (TPS). EBT2 Gafchromic radiochromic films were applied as dosimeters, positioned internally and superficially in the breast phantom. The standard radiation protocol was applied in the breast phantom. The films were digitalised, and their responses were analysed in RGB. The optical densities were processed, reproducing the spatial dose distribution. - Highlights: • Distributions of absorbed doses were generated by the TPS and measured by radiochromic films. • The breast phantom simulated a human breast in position for treatment. • A large portion of the glandular tissue absorbed doses that were equivalent to the radiotherapy planning. • There were regions of hot spots and small areas of under dosage in deeper areas at the lung interface

  18. BDTPS The BNCT Treatment Planning System jointly developed at DIMNP and JRC/IE

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G; Mazzini, M; Moss, R; Muzi, L; International Workshop on "Neutron Capture Therapy: State of the art"

    2003-01-01

    The idea to couple the Treatment Planning System (TPS) to the information on the real boron distribution in the patient is the main added value of the new methodology set-up at DIMNP of University of Pisa, in collaboration with the JRC of Petten (NL). The methodology has been implemented in the new TPS, called BDTPS (Boron Distribution Treatment Planning System), which takes into account the actual boron distribution in the patient brain, while the standard TPS assumes a uniform boron distribution, absolutely far from the reality. Nowadays, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is able to provide this in vivo information. The new TPS, based on the Monte Carlo technique, has been validated comparing the main BNCT parameters (thermal flux, boron dose, etc.) as measured during the irradiation of a special heterogeneous boron phantom (HEBOM), ad hoc designed, as calculated by the BDTPS and by the standard TPS SERA. An evident SERA overestimation of the thermal neutron flux, as well as the boron dose, has been detect...

  19. Multi-objective optimal planning of the stand-alone microgrid system based on different benefit subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Wang, Nan; Lu, Hai; Li, Xialin; Wang, Chengshan

    2016-01-01

    As an important means to realize the energetic complementarity and improve the efficiency of renewable resources, the stand-alone microgrid (SAMG) system gains attention increasingly, especially in islands and remote areas. In this paper, considering the interest conflict of the distribution company and the distributed generation owner, a new multi-objective optimal planning model is formulated for medium voltage SAMG. Besides, to avoid the power constraint of distributed generation (DG) once the over-limit voltage occurs, a novel two-step power dispatch control method including the voltage regulation strategy is proposed, in which the absorption of distributed power by energy storage system (ESS) and the reactive power adjustment though its power control system are used to regulate voltage. The goal of this paper is to search the Pareto-optimal front of the site and capacity of DG as well as the contract price between both parties, and thus can provide effective references for practical planning of SAMG. Considering the high cost of ESS, the investment analysis of ESS is also discussed in the paper. - Highlights: • A multi-objective planning model based on different benefit subjects is proposed. • A two-step power dispatch method including the voltage regulation is proposed. • The economical efficiency of the proposed model is analyzed. • The effective reference for the stand-alone microgrid planning is provided.

  20. Integrated production-distribution planning optimization models: A review in collaborative networks context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Andres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the area of collaborative networks are more and more aware of proposing collaborative approaches to address planning processes, due to the advantages associated when enterprises perform integrated planning models. Collaborative production-distribution planning, among the supply network actors, is considered a proper mechanism to support enterprises on dealing with uncertainties and dynamicity associated to the current markets. Enterprises, and especially SMEs, should be able to overcome the continuous changes of the market by increasing their agility. Carrying out collaborative planning allows enterprises to enhance their readiness and agility for facing the market turbulences. However, SMEs have limited access when incorporating optimization tools to deal with collaborative planning, reducing their ability to respond to the competition. The problem to solve is to provide SMEs affordable solutions to support collaborative planning. In this regard, new optimisation algorithms are required in order to improve the collaboration within the supply network partners. As part of the H2020 Cloud Collaborative Manufacturing Networks (C2NET research project, this paper presents a study on integrated production and distribution plans. The main objective of the research is to identify gaps in current optimization models, proposed to address integrated planning, taking into account the requirements and needs of the industry. Thus, the needs of the companies belonging to the industrial pilots, defined in the C2NET project, are identified; analysing how these needs are covered by the optimization models proposed in the literature, to deal with the integrated production-distribution planning.

  1. Clinical evaluation and verification of the hyperthermia treatment planning system hyperplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Johanna; Wust, Peter; Stalling, Dether; Seebass, Martin; Nadobny, Jacek; Beck, Rudolf; Hege, Hans-Christian; Deuflhard, Peter; Felix, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A prototype of the hyperthermia treatment planning system (HTPS) HyperPlan for the SIGMA-60 applicator (BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah, USA) has been evaluated with respect to clinical practicability and correctness. Materials and Methods: HyperPlan modules extract tissue boundaries from computed tomography (CT) images to generate regular and tetrahedral grids as patient models, to calculate electric field (E-field) distributions, and to visualize three-dimensional data sets. The finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is applied to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the patient. Temperature distributions are calculated by a finite-element code and can be optimized. HyperPlan was tested on 6 patients with pelvic tumors. For verification, measured SAR values were compared with calculated SAR values. Furthermore, intracorporeal E-field scans were performed and compared with calculated profiles. Results: The HTPS can be applied under clinical conditions. Measured absolute SAR (in W/kg), as well as relative E-field scans, correlated well with calculated values (±20%) using the contour-based FDTD method. Values calculated by applying the FDTD method directly on the voxel (CT) grid, were less well correlated with measured data. Conclusion: The HyperPlan system proved to be clinically feasible, and the results were quantitatively and qualitatively verified for the contour-based FDTD method

  2. Optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources with market participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvillo, C.F.; Sánchez-Miralles, A.; Villar, J.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Price-maker optimization model for planning and operation of aggregated DER. • 3 Case studies are proposed, considering different electricity pricing scenarios. • Analysis of benefits and effect on electricity prices produced by DER aggregation. • Results showed considerable benefits even for relatively small aggregations. • Results suggest that the impact on prices should not be overlooked. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources (DER) with participation in the electricity market. Aggregators manage their portfolio of resources in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the grid, while participating in the day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The goal of this paper is to propose a model for aggregated DER systems planning, considering its participation in the electricity market and its impact on the market price. The results are the optimal planning and management of DER systems, and the appropriate energy transactions for the aggregator in the wholesale day-ahead market according to the size of its aggregated resources. A price-maker approach based on representing the market competitors with residual demand curves is followed, and the impact on the price is assessed to help in the decision of using price-maker or price-taker approaches depending on the size of the aggregated resources. A deterministic programming problem with two case studies (the average scenario and the most likely scenario from the stochastic ones), and a stochastic one with a case study to account for the market uncertainty are described. For both models, market scenarios have been built from historical data of the Spanish system. The results suggest that when the aggregated resources have enough size to follow a price-maker approach and the uncertainty of the markets is considered in the planning process, the DER systems can achieve up to 50% extra economic benefits, depending on the market

  3. Multiobjective planning of distribution networks incorporating switches and protective devices using a memetic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, A. Vieira; Murta-Pina, João; Pires, V. Fernão

    2015-01-01

    A multi-objective planning approach for the reliability of electric distribution networks using a memetic optimization is presented. In this reliability optimization, the type of the equipment (switches or reclosers) and their location are optimized. The multiple objectives considered to find the optimal values for these planning variables are the minimization of the total equipment cost and at the same time the minimization of two distribution network reliability indexes. The reliability indexes are the system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) and system average interruption duration index (SAIDI). To solve this problem a memetic evolutionary algorithm is proposed, which combines the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) with a local search algorithm. The obtained Pareto-optimal front contains solutions of different trade-offs with respect to the three objectives. A real distribution network is used to test the proposed algorithm. The obtained results show that this approach allows the utility to obtain the optimal type and location of the equipments to achieve the best reliability with the lower cost. - Highlights: • Reliability indexes SAIFI and SAIDI and Equipment Cost are optimized. • Optimization of equipment type, number and location on a MV network. • Memetic evolutionary algorithm with a local search algorithm is proposed. • Pareto optimal front solutions with respect to the three objective functions

  4. Planning and Resource Management in an Intelligent Automated Power Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Power system management is a process of guiding a power system towards the objective of continuous supply of electrical power to a set of loads. Spacecraft power system management requires planning and scheduling, since electrical power is a scarce resource in space. The automation of power system management for future spacecraft has been recognized as an important R&D goal. Several automation technologies have emerged including the use of expert systems for automating human problem solving capabilities such as rule based expert system for fault diagnosis and load scheduling. It is questionable whether current generation expert system technology is applicable for power system management in space. The objective of the ADEPTS (ADvanced Electrical Power management Techniques for Space systems) is to study new techniques for power management automation. These techniques involve integrating current expert system technology with that of parallel and distributed computing, as well as a distributed, object-oriented approach to software design. The focus of the current study is the integration of new procedures for automatically planning and scheduling loads with procedures for performing fault diagnosis and control. The objective is the concurrent execution of both sets of tasks on separate transputer processors, thus adding parallelism to the overall management process.

  5. Parallel and distributed processing in power system simulation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Djalma M [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in computer technology will certainly have a great impact in the methodologies used in power system expansion and operational planning as well as in real-time control. Parallel and distributed processing are among the new technologies that present great potential for application in these areas. Parallel computers use multiple functional or processing units to speed up computation while distributed processing computer systems are collection of computers joined together by high speed communication networks having many objectives and advantages. The paper presents some ideas for the use of parallel and distributed processing in power system simulation and control. It also comments on some of the current research work in these topics and presents a summary of the work presently being developed at COPPE. (author) 53 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Nevada test site radionuclide inventory and distribution: project operations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This document is the operational plan for conducting the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The basic objective of this program is to inventory the significant radionuclides of NTS origin in NTS surface soil. The expected duration of the program is five years. This plan includes the program objectives, methods, organization, and schedules

  7. MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A DISTRIBUTED SHOP FLOOR MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adopting distributed control architecture is the important development direction for shop floor management and control system,is also the requirement of making it agile,intelligent and concurrent. Some key problems in achieving distributed control architecture are researched. An activity model of shop floor is presented as the requirement definition of the prototype system. The multi-agent based software architecture is constructed. How the core part in shop floor management and control system,production plan and scheduling is achieved. The cooperation of different agents is illustrated. Finally,the implementation of the prototype system is narrated.

  8. Group Acceptance Sampling Plan for Lifetime Data Using Generalized Pareto Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a group acceptance sampling plan (GASP is introduced for the situations when lifetime of the items follows the generalized Pareto distribution. The design parameters such as minimum group size and acceptance number are determined when the consumer’s risk and the test termination time are specified. The proposed sampling plan is compared with the existing sampling plan. It is concluded that the proposed sampling plan performs better than the existing plan in terms of minimum sample size required to reach the same decision.

  9. Measurement system for depth dose distribution in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hirotsugu; Tsutaka, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    An accurate estimation of an absorbed dose distribution in human tissue is indispensable to efficiently perform radiotherapy in humans. Previously, various methods for such estimation have been developed, however, there is some problem in those methods, it takes too long times (3-4 hours) to determine the absorbed dose distribution through scanning by ionization chamber in water phantom. So, a determination system of depth dose was developed with an aim to determine the absorbed dose of X-ray or electron beam in materials similar to human body. This system was composed of a detector including scintillation fibers which allows emission due to radio-interaction, CCD camera for determination of light distribution of the emission and personal computer for data processing. Though the accuracy of this system was ±2% similar to that of the conventional measuring method, measuring time was reduced to almost 5 min, markedly shorter than that of the conventional water phantom (3-4 hours). The efficacy of works including the adjustment of irradiation system, planning, etc. would be improved by application of this system. (M.N.)

  10. Computerized three-dimensional treatment planning system utilizing interactive colour graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McShan, D L; Silverman, A; Lanza, D M; Reinstein, L E; Glicksman, A S [Rhode Island Hospital (US). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1979-06-01

    A new computerized radiation treatment planning system has been developed to aid in three-dimensional treatment planning. Using interactive colour graphics in conjunction with a PDP 11/45 computer, the system can take multiple transverse contours and construct a perspective display of the treatment region showing organ surfaces as well as cross-sectional contours. With interactively selected orientations, the display allows easy perception of the relative positioning of the treatment volume and the neighbouring anatomy. For external beam treatment planning, interactive computer simulation is used to select diaphragm sizes which best conform to the target area while avoiding sensitive structures. Dose calculations for the selected beams are carried out on multiple transverse planes. The calculational planes and surfaces are displayed in perspective with radiation dosage displayed in an interactively manipulated colour display. Altogether the system provides an easy assessment of the volume to be irradiated, interactive selection of optimal arrangements of treatment fields and a means of visualizing and evaluating the resulting dose distributions.

  11. Planning and control of automated material handling systems: The merge module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Hurink, Johann L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Schuur, Peter; Hu, Bo; Morasch, Karl; Pickl, Stefan; Siegle, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We address the field of internal logistics, embodied in Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs), which are complex installations employed in sectors such as Baggage Handling, Physical Distribution, and Parcel & Postal. We work on designing an integral planning and real-time control architecture,

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian; Eagle, Don G.; Burmeister, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalichowski, Adrian, E-mail: nalichoa@karmanos.org [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Eagle, Don G. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Burmeister, Jay [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  14. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potter, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will identify the needs of a distribution system to operate efficiently, safely and reliably; summarize both benefits and challenges for the operation of the distribution system with high penetration levels of distributed energy resources; define a suite of services based on those changing operational needs that could be provided by resources; identify existing demand response opportunities sponsored by distribution utilities and/or aggregators of retail customers; assess the extent to which distribution system services can be provided via DR opportunities both in their current form and with alterations to their design; and provide a qualitative assessment of coordination issues that bulk power and distribution system providers of DR opportunities will need to address.

  15. Verification of IMRT dose distributions using a water beam imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Boyer, Arthur L.; Ma, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    A water beam imaging system (WBIS) has been developed and used to verify dose distributions for intensity modulated radiotherapy using dynamic multileaf collimator. This system consisted of a water container, a scintillator screen, a charge-coupled device camera, and a portable personal computer. The scintillation image was captured by the camera. The pixel value in this image indicated the dose value in the scintillation screen. Images of radiation fields of known spatial distributions were used to calibrate the device. The verification was performed by comparing the image acquired from the measurement with a dose distribution from the IMRT plan. Because of light scattering in the scintillator screen, the image was blurred. A correction for this was developed by recognizing that the blur function could be fitted to a multiple Gaussian. The blur function was computed using the measured image of a 10 cmx10 cm x-ray beam and the result of the dose distribution calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Based on the blur function derived using this method, an iterative reconstruction algorithm was applied to recover the dose distribution for an IMRT plan from the measured WBIS image. The reconstructed dose distribution was compared with Monte Carlo simulation result. Reasonable agreement was obtained from the comparison. The proposed approach makes it possible to carry out a real-time comparison of the dose distribution in a transverse plane between the measurement and the reference when we do an IMRT dose verification

  16. Distributed processor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, B.

    1976-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency in high-energy physics and in other fields to solve computational problems by distributing tasks among the resources of inter-coupled processing devices and associated system elements. This trend has gained further momentum more recently with the increased availability of low-cost processors and with the development of the means of data distribution. In two lectures, the broad question of distributed computing systems is examined and the historical development of such systems reviewed. An attempt is made to examine the reasons for the existence of these systems and to discern the main trends for the future. The components of distributed systems are discussed in some detail and particular emphasis is placed on the importance of standards and conventions in certain key system components. The ideas and principles of distributed systems are discussed in general terms, but these are illustrated by a number of concrete examples drawn from the context of the high-energy physics environment. (Auth.)

  17. A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Nuesken, Frank; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC. We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified. It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3 mm distance

  18. Application of reliability worth concepts in power system operational planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J C.O. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the application of a new methodology for calculating total system interruption costs in power system operational planning. Some important operational aspects are discussed: chronological load curves, customer damage functions for each consumer class, maintenance scheduling and non-exponential repair times. It is also presented the calculation of the probability distribution of the system interruption cost to improve the decision making process associated with alternative operational strategies. The Brazilian Southeastern system is used to illustrate all previous applications. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. 23 CFR 420.109 - What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Research Funds § 420.109 What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds? 420.109 Section 420.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. Integration of second cancer risk calculations in a radiotherapy treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M; Schneider, U

    2014-01-01

    Second cancer risk in patients, in particular in children, who were treated with radiotherapy is an important side effect. It should be minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment plan for the patient. The objectives of this study were to integrate a risk model for radiation induced cancer into a treatment planning system which allows to judge different treatment plans with regard to second cancer induction and to quantify the potential reduction in predicted risk. A model for radiation induced cancer including fractionation effects which is valid for doses in the radiotherapy range was integrated into a treatment planning system. From the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution the 3D-risk equivalent dose (RED) was calculated on an organ specific basis. In addition to RED further risk coefficients like OED (organ equivalent dose), EAR (excess absolute risk) and LAR (lifetime attributable risk) are computed. A risk model for radiation induced cancer was successfully integrated in a treatment planning system. Several risk coefficients can be viewed and used to obtain critical situations were a plan can be optimised. Risk-volume-histograms and organ specific risks were calculated for different treatment plans and were used in combination with NTCP estimates for plan evaluation. It is concluded that the integration of second cancer risk estimates in a commercial treatment planning system is feasible. It can be used in addition to NTCP modelling for optimising treatment plans which result in the lowest possible second cancer risk for a patient.

  1. The availability of the step optimization in Monaco planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Sup

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to reduce this gap and complete the treatment plan, to be made by the re-optimization is performed in the same conditions as the initial treatment plan different from Monaco treatment planning system. The optimization is carried in two steps when performing the inverse calculation for volumetric modulated radiation therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy in Monaco treatment planning system. This study was the first plan with a complete optimization in two steps by performing all of the treatment plan, without changing the optimized condition from Step 1 to Step 2, a typical sequential optimization performed. At this time, the experiment was carried out with a pencil beam and Monte Carlo algorithm is applied In step 2. We compared initial plan and re-optimized plan with the same optimized conditions. And then evaluated the planning dose by measurement. When performing a re-optimization for the initial treatment plan, the second plan applied the step optimization. When the common optimization again carried out in the same conditions in the initial treatment plan was completed, the result is not the same. From a comparison of the treatment planning system, similar to the dose-volume the histogram showed a similar trend, but exhibit different values that do not satisfy the conditions best optimized dose, dose homogeneity and dose limits. Also showed more than 20% different in comparison dosimetry. If different dose algorithms, this measure is not the same out. The process of performing a number of trial and error, and you get to the ultimate goal of treatment planning optimization process. If carried out to optimize the completion of the initial trust only the treatment plan, we could be made of another treatment plan. The similar treatment plan could not satisfy to optimization results. When you perform re-optimization process, you will need to apply the step optimized conditions, making sure the dose distribution through the optimization

  2. DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING – EFFICIENT TOOL FOR POWER SYSTEM EXPANSION PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMO A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper isfocusing on dynamic programming use for power system expansion planning (EP – transmission network (TNEP and distribution network (DNEP. The EP problem has been approached from the retrospective and prospective point of view. To achieve this goal, the authors are developing two software-tools in Matlab environment. Two techniques have been tackled: particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA. The case study refers to Test 25 buses test power system developed within the Power Systems Department.

  3. Cooperative Path-Planning for Multi-Vehicle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a collision avoidance algorithm for multi-vehicle systems, which is a common problem in many areas, including navigation and robotics. In dynamic environments, vehicles may become involved in potential collisions with each other, particularly when the vehicle density is high and the direction of travel is unrestricted. Cooperatively planning vehicle movement can effectively reduce and fairly distribute the detour inconvenience before subsequently returning vehicles to their intended paths. We present a novel method of cooperative path planning for multi-vehicle systems based on reinforcement learning to address this problem as a decision process. A dynamic system is described as a multi-dimensional space formed by vectors as states to represent all participating vehicles’ position and orientation, whilst considering the kinematic constraints of the vehicles. Actions are defined for the system to transit from one state to another. In order to select appropriate actions whilst satisfying the constraints of path smoothness, constant speed and complying with a minimum distance between vehicles, an approximate value function is iteratively developed to indicate the desirability of every state-action pair from the continuous state space and action space. The proposed scheme comprises two phases. The convergence of the value function takes place in the former learning phase, and it is then used as a path planning guideline in the subsequent action phase. This paper summarizes the concept and methodologies used to implement this online cooperative collision avoidance algorithm and presents results and analysis regarding how this cooperative scheme improves upon two baseline schemes where vehicles make movement decisions independently.

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR ENHANCING STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jalal Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Management Information Systems (MIS is the key factor to facilitate and attain efficient decision making in an organization. This research explores the extent to which management information systems implemented to make successful decisions at two selected financial organizations. The research examined whether the selected financial institutions of Bahrain vary as to the use of Management Information Systems leadership of decision making for strategic and tactical planning purposes. The research adapted the quantitative research design to examine two research hypotheses. A total of 190 forms were equally distributed to those who are working at different management levels at the selected organizations. The results of the research showed that MIS was primarily used to enhance strategic planning in both financial institutions. The regression analysis revealed that Tactical planning is found to have no effect on Decision Making, while Strategic planning has a clear effect on the Decision Making Effectiveness in both organizations

  5. An energy integrated, multi-microgrid, MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) approach for residential distributed energy system planning – A South Australian case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Carmen; Fraga, Eric S.; James, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of distributed generation units and microgrids in the current grid infrastructure requires an efficient and cost effective local energy system design. A mixed-integer linear programming model is presented to identify such optimal design. The electricity as well as the space heating and cooling demands of a small residential neighbourhood are satisfied through the consideration and combined use of distributed generation technologies, thermal units and energy storage with an optional interconnection with the central grid. Moreover, energy integration is allowed in the form of both optimised pipeline networks and microgrid operation. The objective is to minimise the total annualised cost of the system to meet its yearly energy demand. The model integrates the operational characteristics and constraints of the different technologies for several scenarios in a South Australian setting and is implemented in GAMS. The impact of energy integration is analysed, leading to the identification of key components for residential energy systems. Additionally, a multi-microgrid concept is introduced to allow for local clustering of households within neighbourhoods. The robustness of the model is shown through sensitivity analysis, up-scaling and an effort to address the variability of solar irradiation. - Highlights: • Distributed energy system planning is employed on a small residential scale. • Full energy integration is employed based on microgrid operation and tri-generation. • An MILP for local clustering of households in multi-microgrids is developed. • Micro combined heat and power units are key components for residential microgrids

  6. Knowledge-Based operation planning system for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuya Iwamoto; Shungo Sakurai; Hitoshi Uematsu; Makoto Tsuiki

    1987-01-01

    A knowledge-Based Boiling Water Reactor operation planning system was developed to support core operators or core management engineers in making core operation plans, by automatically generating suboptimum core operation procedures. The procedures are obtained by searching a branching tree of the possible core status (nodes) and the elementary operations to change the core status (branches). A path that ends at the target node, and contains only operationally feasible nodes can be a candidate of the solution. The core eigenvalue, the power distribution and the thermal limit parameters at key points are calculated by running a three-dimensional (3-D) BWR core physics simulator to examine the feasibility of the nodes and the performance of candidates. To obtain a practically acceptable solution within a reasonable time rather than making a time-consuming effort to get the optimum one, the Depth-First-Search method, together with the heuristic branch-bounding, was used to search the branching tree. The system was applied to actual operation plannings with real plant data, and gave satisfactory results. It can be concluded that the system can be applied to generate core operation procedures as a substitute for core management experts

  7. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  8. Research on key technology of planning and design for AC/DC hybrid distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Guilian; Zheng, Huan; Deng, Junpeng; Shi, Pengjia

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand of DC generation and DC load, the development of DC technology, AC and DC distribution network integrating will become an important form of future distribution network. In this paper, the key technology of planning and design for AC/DC hybrid distribution network is proposed, including the selection of AC and DC voltage series, the design of typical grid structure and the comprehensive evaluation method of planning scheme. The research results provide some ideas and directions for the future development of AC/DC hybrid distribution network.

  9. Multi-objective PSO based optimal placement of solar power DG in radial distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing trend of electricity demand, fossil fuel depletion and environmental issues request the integration of renewable energy into the distribution system. The optimal planning of renewable distributed generation (DG is much essential for ensuring maximum benefits. Hence, this paper proposes the optimal placement of probabilistic based solar power DG into the distribution system. The two objective functions such as power loss reduction and voltage stability index improvement are optimized. The power balance and voltage limits are kept as constraints of the problem. The non-sorting pare to-front based multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO technique is proposed on standard IEEE 33 radial distribution test system.

  10. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  11. Combined Use of Systematic Conservation Planning, Species Distribution Modelling, and Connectivity Analysis Reveals Severe Conservation Gaps in a Megadiverse Country (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network. PMID:25479411

  12. Comparison of DVH data from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M A; Kearvell, R; Hooton, B; Spry, N A; Bydder, S A; Joseph, D J; Haworth, A; Hug, B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the variation of dose-volume histogram (DVH) data sourced from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs). Treatment plan exports were obtained from 33 Australian and New Zealand centres during a dosimetry study. Plan information, including DVH data, was exported from the TPS at each centre and reviewed in a digital review system (SWAN). The review system was then used to produce an independent calculation of DVH information for each delineated structure. The relationships between DVHs extracted from each TPS and independently calculated were examined, particularly in terms of the influence of CT scan slice and pixel widths, the resolution of dose calculation grids and the TPS manufacturer. Calculation of total volume and DVH data was consistent between SWAN and each TPS, with the small discrepancies found tending to increase with decreasing structure size. This was significantly influenced by the TPS model used to derive the data. For target structures covered with relatively uniform dose distributions, there was a significant difference between the minimum dose in each TPS-exported DVH and that calculated independently. (note)

  13. Planning for information systems

    CERN Document Server

    King, William R

    2015-01-01

    Edited by one of the best-known and most widely respected figures in the field, ""Planning for Information Systems"" is a comprehensive, single source overview of the myriad ideas and processes that are identified with IS planning. While many chapters deal with high level strategic planning, the book gives equal attention to on-the-ground planning issues.Part I, 'Key Concepts of IS Planning', focuses on how IS planning has evolved over the years; business-IS strategic alignment; and the role of dynamic organizational capabilities in leveraging IS competencies. Part II, 'The Organizational IS P

  14. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  15. Planning ATES systems under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Kwakkel, Jan; Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) can contribute to significant reductions in energy use within the built environment, by providing seasonal energy storage in aquifers for the heating and cooling of buildings. ATES systems have experienced a rapid uptake over the last two decades; however, despite successful experiments at the individual level, the overall performance of ATES systems remains below expectations - largely due to suboptimal practices for the planning and operation of systems in urban areas. The interaction between ATES systems and underground aquifers can be interpreted as a common-pool resource problem, in which thermal imbalances or interference could eventually degrade the storage potential of the subsurface. Current planning approaches for ATES systems thus typically follow the precautionary principle. For instance, the permitting process in the Netherlands is intended to minimize thermal interference between ATES systems. However, as shown in recent studies (Sommer et al., 2015; Bakr et al., 2013), a controlled amount of interference may benefit the collective performance of ATES systems. An overly restrictive approach to permitting is instead likely to create an artificial scarcity of available space, limiting the potential of the technology in urban areas. In response, master plans - which take into account the collective arrangement of multiple systems - have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative. However, permits and master plans both take a static, ex ante view of ATES governance, making it difficult to predict the effect of evolving ATES use or climactic conditions on overall performance. In particular, the adoption of new systems by building operators is likely to be driven by the available subsurface space and by the performance of existing systems; these outcomes are themselves a function of planning parameters. From this perspective, the interactions between planning authorities, ATES operators, and subsurface conditions

  16. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  17. Construction of a remote radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takahashi, Chiaki; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Seiji, Hiromasa; Sasaki, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a remote radiotherapy planning system, and we examined the usefulness of and faults in our system in this study. Two identical radiotherapy planning systems, one installed at our institution and the other installed at an affiliated hospital, were used for radiotherapy planning. The two systems were connected by a wide area network (WAN), using a leased line. Beam data for the linear accelerator at the affiliated hospital were installed in the two systems. During the period from December 2001 to December 2002, 43 remote radiotherapy plans were made using this system. Data were transmitted using a file transfer protocol (FTP) software program. The 43 radiotherapy plans examined in this study consisted of 13 ordinary radiotherapy plans, 28 radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents, and 2 radiotherapy plans for emergency cases. There were ten minor planning changes made in radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents. Our remote radiotherapy planning system based on WAN using a leased line is useful for remote radiotherapy, with advantages for both radiation oncologists and medical residents. (author)

  18. A research-oriented treatment planning program system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalet, I.J.; Jacky, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of a treatment planning program is to graphically simulate radiation dose distributions from proposed radiation therapy treatments. While many such programs are available which provide this much-needed service, none addresses the question of how to intercompare calculation and display techniques. This paper describes a program system designed for support of research efforts, particularly development and testing of new calculation algorithms. The system emphasizes a modular flexible structure, enabling programs to be developed somewhat as interchangeable parts. Thus multiple variants of a calculation algorithm can be compared without undue software overhead or additional data management. Unusual features of the system include extensive use of command procedures, logical names and a structured language (PASCAL). These features are described along with other implementation details. Obstacles, limitations and future applications are also discussed. (Auth.)

  19. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  20. Radiation Planning Assistant - A Streamlined, Fully Automated Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Laurence E.; Kisling, Kelly; McCarroll, Rachel; Zhang, Lifei; Yang, Jinzhong; Simonds, Hannah; du Toit, Monique; Trauernicht, Chris; Burger, Hester; Parkes, Jeannette; Mejia, Mike; Bojador, Maureen; Balter, Peter; Branco, Daniela; Steinmann, Angela; Baltz, Garrett; Gay, Skylar; Anderson, Brian; Cardenas, Carlos; Jhingran, Anuja; Shaitelman, Simona; Bogler, Oliver; Schmeller, Kathleen; Followill, David; Howell, Rebecca; Nelson, Christopher; Peterson, Christine; Beadle, Beth

    2018-01-01

    The Radiation Planning Assistant (RPA) is a system developed for the fully automated creation of radiotherapy treatment plans, including volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for patients with head/neck cancer and 4-field box plans for patients with cervical cancer. It is a combination of specially developed in-house software that uses an application programming interface to communicate with a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system. It also interfaces with a commercial secondary dose verification software. The necessary inputs to the system are a Treatment Plan Order, approved by the radiation oncologist, and a simulation computed tomography (CT) image, approved by the radiographer. The RPA then generates a complete radiotherapy treatment plan. For the cervical cancer treatment plans, no additional user intervention is necessary until the plan is complete. For head/neck treatment plans, after the normal tissue and some of the target structures are automatically delineated on the CT image, the radiation oncologist must review the contours, making edits if necessary. They also delineate the gross tumor volume. The RPA then completes the treatment planning process, creating a VMAT plan. Finally, the completed plan must be reviewed by qualified clinical staff. PMID:29708544

  1. Quantitative dosimetric verification of an IMRT planning and delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D.A.; Mutic, S.; Dempsey, J.F.; Gerber, R.L.; Bosch, W.R.; Perez, C.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background and purpose: The accuracy of dose calculation and delivery of a commercial serial tomotherapy treatment planning and delivery system (Peacock, NOMOS Corporation) was experimentally determined. Materials and methods: External beam fluence distributions were optimized and delivered to test treatment plan target volumes, including three with cylindrical targets with diameters ranging from 2.0 to 6.2 cm and lengths of 0.9 through 4.8 cm, one using three cylindrical targets and two using C-shaped targets surrounding a critical structure, each with different dose distribution optimization criteria. Computer overlays of film-measured and calculated planar dose distributions were used to assess the dose calculation and delivery spatial accuracy. A 0.125 cm 3 ionization chamber was used to conduct absolute point dosimetry verification. Thermoluminescent dosimetry chips, a small-volume ionization chamber and radiochromic film were used as independent checks of the ion chamber measurements. Results: Spatial localization accuracy was found to be better than ±2.0 mm in the transverse axes (with one exception of 3.0 mm) and ±1.5 mm in the longitudinal axis. Dosimetric verification using single slice delivery versions of the plans showed that the relative dose distribution was accurate to ±2% within and outside the target volumes (in high dose and low dose gradient regions) with a mean and standard deviation for all points of -0.05% and 1.1%, respectively. The absolute dose per monitor unit was found to vary by ±3.5% of the mean value due to the lack of consideration for leakage radiation and the limited scattered radiation integration in the dose calculation algorithm. To deliver the prescribed dose, adjustment of the monitor units by the measured ratio would be required. Conclusions: The treatment planning and delivery system offered suitably accurate spatial registration and dose delivery of serial tomotherapy generated dose distributions. The quantitative dose

  2. New development of integrated CT simulation system for radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Takeyuki; Kono, Michio

    1993-01-01

    In order to put more accurate radiotherapy into practice, a radiotherapy planning system using CT, which is named CT simulation system, has been developed and introduced at Kobe University Hospital. The CT simulation system consists of a CT scanner, an image processing work-station, and a laser marking system. The target area of radiation is determined on each CT axial image of scout view in the work-station. Three-dimensional treatment planning is feasible on the basis of the two-dimensional tumor information in CT axial images. After setting treatment parameters, the contour of the radiation field on beam's eye view and the iso-center position are calculated by computer. This system makes it possible to choose an appropriate irradiation method and an optimal dose distribution. In the present study we examined the fundamental capability of this system. The laser marking system proved to have a very high degree of accuracy. The outcome of a phantom test raised the strong possibility that this system may be applied clinically. In addition to these basic findings, this paper describes preliminary clinical observations that support the good reproducibility of the radiation field projected with the CT simulator. In conclusion, this system is of high value for radiation therapy planning. (author)

  3. Regulatory review and barriers for the electricity supply system for distributed generation in EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Skytte, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from di...... distributed generation. This paper reviews the current regulation of the grids with respect to distributed generation in EU-15 Member States and compares the different systems. Several barriers are identified.......When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from...

  4. Integrated operation of electric vehicles and renewable generation in a smart distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The contribution of electric vehicles to provide the reserve capacity is analyzed. • Decentralized energy and reserve scheduling in a distribution system is presented. • The integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is proposed. - Abstract: Distribution system complexity is increasing mainly due to technological innovation, renewable Distributed Generation (DG) and responsive loads. This complexity makes difficult the monitoring, control and operation of distribution networks for Distribution System Operators (DSOs). In order to cope with this complexity, a novel method for the integrated operational planning of a distribution system is presented in this paper. The method introduces the figure of the aggregator, conceived as an intermediate agent between end-users and DSOs. In the proposed method, energy and reserve scheduling is carried out by both aggregators and DSO. Moreover, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as responsive loads that can participate in ancillary service programs by providing reserve to the system. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated on an 84-bus distribution test system. Simulation results show that the integrated scheduling of EVs and renewable generators can mitigate the negative effects related to the uncertainty of renewable generation

  5. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto

    1996-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  6. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Junior, Alberto

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Conversion of helical tomotherapy plans to step-and-shoot IMRT plans--Pareto front evaluation of plans from a new treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Kristoffer; Ceberg, Crister; Engström, Per; Benedek, Hunor; Nilsson, Per; Knöös, Tommy

    2011-06-01

    The resulting plans from a new type of treatment planning system called SharePlan have been studied. This software allows for the conversion of treatment plans generated in a TomoTherapy system for helical delivery, into plans deliverable on C-arm linear accelerators (linacs), which is of particular interest for clinics with a single TomoTherapy unit. The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare the plans generated in the SharePlan system with the original TomoTherapy plans and with plans produced in our clinical treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on C-arm linacs. In addition, we have analyzed how the agreement between SharePlan and TomoTherapy plans depends on the number of beams and the total number of segments used in the optimization. Optimized plans were generated for three prostate and three head-and-neck (H&N) cases in the TomoTherapy system, and in our clinical treatment planning systems (TPS) used for IMRT planning with step-and-shoot delivery. The TomoTherapy plans were converted into step-and-shoot IMRT plans in SharePlan. For each case, a large number of Pareto optimal plans were created to compare plans generated in SharePlan with plans generated in the Tomotherapy system and in the clinical TPS. In addition, plans were generated in SharePlan for the three head-and-neck cases to evaluate how the plan quality varied with the number of beams used. Plans were also generated with different number of beams and segments for other patient cases. This allowed for an evaluation of how to minimize the number of required segments in the converted IMRT plans without compromising the agreement between them and the original TomoTherapy plans. The plans made in SharePlan were as good as or better than plans from our clinical system, but they were not as good as the original TomoTherapy plans. This was true for both the head-and-neck and the prostate cases, although the differences between the plans for the latter were

  8. An Extended Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Integration of Fuzzy Process Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed integration of process planning and scheduling (DIPPS aims to simultaneously arrange the two most important manufacturing stages, process planning and scheduling, in a distributed manufacturing environment. Meanwhile, considering its advantage corresponding to actual situation, the triangle fuzzy number (TFN is adopted in DIPPS to represent the machine processing and transportation time. In order to solve this problem and obtain the optimal or near-optimal solution, an extended genetic algorithm (EGA with innovative three-class encoding method, improved crossover, and mutation strategies is proposed. Furthermore, a local enhancement strategy featuring machine replacement and order exchange is also added to strengthen the local search capability on the basic process of genetic algorithm. Through the verification of experiment, EGA achieves satisfactory results all in a very short period of time and demonstrates its powerful performance in dealing with the distributed integration of fuzzy process planning and scheduling (DIFPPS.

  9. Dosimetric and QA aspects of Konrad inverse planning system for commissioning intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Shrikant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT planning is performed using the Konrad inverse treatment planning system and the delivery of the treatment by using Siemens Oncor Impression Plus linear accelerator (step and shoot, which has been commissioned recently. The basic beam data required for commissioning the system were generate. The quality assurance of relative and absolute dose distribution was carried out before clinical implementation. The salient features of Konrad planning system, like dependence of grid size on dose volume histogram (DVH, number of intensity levels and step size in sequencer, are studied quantitatively and qualitatively. To verify whether the planned dose [from treatment planning system (TPS] and delivered dose are the same, the absolute dose at a point is determined using CC01 ion chamber and the axial plane dose distribution is carried out using Kodak EDR2 in conjunction with OmniPro IMRT Phantom and OmniPro IMRT software from Scanditronix Wellhofer. To obtain the optimum combination in leaf sequencer module, parameters like number of intensity levels, step size are analyzed. The difference between pixel values of optimum fluence profile and the fluence profile obtained for various combinations of number of intensity levels and step size is compared and plotted. The calculations of the volume of any RT structure in the dose volume histogram are compared using grid sizes 3 mm and 4 mm. The measured and planned dose at a point showed good agreement (< 3% except for a few cases wherein the chamber was placed in a relatively high dose gradient region. The axial plane dose distribution using film dosimetry shows excellent agreement (correlation coefficient> 0.97 in all the cases. In the leaf sequencer module, the combination of number of intensity level 7 with step size of 3 is the optimal solution for obtaining deliverable segments. The RT structure volume calculation is found to be more accurate with grid size of

  10. Statistical evaluation of the dose-distribution charts of the National Computerized Irradiation Planning Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjas, Geza; Jozsef, Gabor; Gyenes, Gyoergy; Petranyi, Julia; Bozoky, Laszlo; Pataki, Gezane

    1985-01-01

    The establishment of the National Computerized Irradiation Planning Network allowed to perform the statistical evaluation presented in this report. During the first 5 years 13389 dose-distribution charts were calculated for the treatment of 5320 patients, i.e. in average, 2,5 dose-distribution chart-variants per patient. This number practically did not change in the last 4 years. The irradiation plan of certain tumour localizations was performed on the basis of the calculation of, in average, 1.6-3.0 dose-distribution charts. Recently, radiation procedures assuring optimal dose-distribution, such as the use of moving fields, and two- or three-irradiation fields, are gaining grounds. (author)

  11. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  12. Distributed Market-Based Algorithms for Multi-Agent Planning with Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1 Introduction 1 2 Distributed Market-Based Multi-Agent Planning 5 2.1 Problem Formulation...over the deterministic planner, on the “test set” of scenarios with changing economies. . . 50 xi xii Chapter 1 Introduction Multi-agent planning is...representation of the objective (4.2.1). For example, for the supply chain mangement problem, we assumed a sequence of Bernoulli coin flips, which seems

  13. Gas distribution management; elaboration of Gas Supply Triennial Plan. Circular of 21 April 1999; Organisation de la distribution du gaz; elaboration du Plan triennal de desserte gaziere. Circulaire du 21 avril 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    The circular of 21 April 1999 issued by the Secretary of State for Industry of the French government concerns the gas distribution and the manner of elaboration of the Plan of gas supply. The recipients are asked, by observing the legislative and regulatory provisions, to contribute by working out the departmental components of the national gas distribution plan. They should establish the list of localities where works for gas distribution should start within three years from the data of plan launching. The circular mentions: I. the context and the concept of the Gas Supply Plan; II. the transitory period; III. criteria of setting in the plan; IV. request for setting, treatment of the request and publication of the plan. The juridical context is established as well as the application field of the circular. Concerning the criteria of setting in the plan one appeals to minimal requirements of economic efficiency and profitableness. Steps from submitting the demand through transmission of the departmental plan proposal to minister in charge with energy are explained. Appendix I establishes the criteria of payback and the evaluation method, Appendix II and Appendix III give models for calculation form and tables for incomes and expenses, respectively. The circular contains also attached two documents, one titled 'The large gas infrastructures' and the other 'Structure of gas sector in France'. The development of European grid, as prelude to a more open market and the development strategies for European operators are presented, as well as the present situation and evolution of the gas sector in France.

  14. Customer-focused planning: Beyond integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) evolved from the growing recognition by utilities and regulators that efforts to influence the use of electricity by customers could be more cost-effective than simply expanding the generation system. Improvements in IRP methodology are taking many different forms. One major effort is to move planning closer to the customer. Customer-focused planning (CFP) starts with customer values and uses these to drive decision-making within the utility. CFP is process- rather than product- oriented and typically operates at the bulk power system level. Options available to meet customer needs include electricity, alternative fuels, capital substitution, and end-use management or control. The customer selects the option(s) based on a value set that typically includes safety, reliability, convenience, and cost. There are also four possible levels of decision-making: the end-use; customer/power meter; transmission/distribution interface; and the utility bulk power system. Challenges of implementing CFP include identifying customer wants, needs, and values; integration of utility planning efforts; and the dynamics of the CFP process, in which costs can change with each modification of the transmission and distribution system. Two examples of recent moves toward CFP at Central Maine Power are reviewed. 2 refs., 1 fig

  15. A dose-volume histogram based decision-support system for dosimetric comparison of radiotherapy treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, J. C. L.; Herrero, M. A.; Núñez, L.

    2015-01-01

    The choice of any radiotherapy treatment plan is usually made after the evaluation of a few preliminary isodose distributions obtained from different beam configurations. Despite considerable advances in planning techniques, such final decision remains a challenging task that would greatly benefit from efficient and reliable assessment tools. For any dosimetric plan considered, data on dose-volume histograms supplied by treatment planning systems are used to provide estimates on planning target coverage as well as on sparing of organs at risk and the remaining healthy tissue. These partial metrics are then combined into a dose distribution index (DDI), which provides a unified, easy-to-read score for each competing radiotherapy plan. To assess the performance of the proposed scoring system, DDI figures for fifty brain cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided in three groups depending on tumor location and malignancy. For each patient, three tentative plans were designed and recorded during planning, one of which was eventually selected for treatment. We thus were able to compare the plans with better DDI scores and those actually delivered. When planning target coverage and organs at risk sparing are considered as equally important, the tentative plan with the highest DDI score is shown to coincide with that actually delivered in 32 of the 50 patients considered. In 15 (respectively 3) of the remaining 18 cases, the plan with highest DDI value still coincides with that actually selected, provided that organs at risk sparing is given higher priority (respectively, lower priority) than target coverage. DDI provides a straightforward and non-subjective tool for dosimetric comparison of tentative radiotherapy plans. In particular, DDI readily quantifies differences among competing plans with similar-looking dose-volume histograms and can be easily implemented for any tumor type and localization, irrespective of the planning system and

  16. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans for Grapevine Plant Canopy-Inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Ivo E; Brambilla, Carla; Colleoni, Emanuele; Jermini, Mauro; Trivellone, Valeria; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the study of the spatial distribution and the design of sampling plans for estimating nymph densities of the grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball in vine plant canopies. In a reference vineyard sampled for model parameterization, leaf samples were repeatedly taken according to a multistage, stratified, random sampling procedure, and data were subjected to an ANOVA. There were no significant differences in density neither among the strata within the vineyard nor between the two strata with basal and apical leaves. The significant differences between densities on trunk and productive shoots led to the adoption of two-stage (leaves and plants) and three-stage (leaves, shoots, and plants) sampling plans for trunk shoots- and productive shoots-inhabiting individuals, respectively. The mean crowding to mean relationship used to analyze the nymphs spatial distribution revealed aggregated distributions. In both the enumerative and the sequential enumerative sampling plans, the number of leaves of trunk shoots, and of leaves and shoots of productive shoots, was kept constant while the number of plants varied. In additional vineyards data were collected and used to test the applicability of the distribution model and the sampling plans. The tests confirmed the applicability 1) of the mean crowding to mean regression model on the plant and leaf stages for representing trunk shoot-inhabiting distributions, and on the plant, shoot, and leaf stages for productive shoot-inhabiting nymphs, 2) of the enumerative sampling plan, and 3) of the sequential enumerative sampling plan. In general, sequential enumerative sampling was more cost efficient than enumerative sampling.

  17. A new multiple robot path planning algorithm: dynamic distributed particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Asma; Bouamama, Sadok

    2017-01-01

    Multiple robot systems have become a major study concern in the field of robotic research. Their control becomes unreliable and even infeasible if the number of robots increases. In this paper, a new dynamic distributed particle swarm optimization (D 2 PSO) algorithm is proposed for trajectory path planning of multiple robots in order to find collision-free optimal path for each robot in the environment. The proposed approach consists in calculating two local optima detectors, LOD pBest and LOD gBest . Particles which are unable to improve their personal best and global best for predefined number of successive iterations would be replaced with restructured ones. Stagnation and local optima problems would be avoided by adding diversity to the population, without losing the fast convergence characteristic of PSO. Experiments with multiple robots are provided and proved effectiveness of such approach compared with the distributed PSO.

  18. Distribution Network Expansion Planning Based on Multi-objective PSO Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for electrical distribution network expansion planning using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO). The optimization objectives are: investment and operation cost, energy losses cost, and power congestion cost. A two-phase multi-objective PSO...... algorithm was proposed to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity of Pareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of both the proposed multi-objective planning approach and the improved multi-objective PSO have been verified...

  19. Planning and design of information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blokdijk, André

    1991-01-01

    Planning and Design of Information Systems provides a theoretical base and a practical method of executing the planning of computerized information systems, and the planning and design of individual applications. The book is organized into five parts, covering the non-technical and nonimplementational part of information systems planning, design, and development. Part I gives the theoretical base for the subsequent parts of the book. It discusses modeling, techniques, notations, boundaries, quality issues and aspects, and decomposition techniques and problems. Part II discusses the needs, prob

  20. Dose/volume–response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O.; Karlsdóttir, Àsa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. Materials and methods: The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. Results: The differences in associations using the planned over the motion-inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (55–70 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.12–0.21; Rs = 0.11–0.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs = 0.13, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power

  1. Marketing and Distribution: What About Training Plans in the DE Project Laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ruth

    1977-01-01

    Managing a distributive education (DE) laboratory is a challenge. The laboratory is the simulated training station, with the instructor taking on the role of employer, managing student activities and learning. One tool to be utilized in managing a DE laboratory is a training plan. This article discusses the need for student training plans and the…

  2. Multistage and multiobjective formulations of globally optimal upgradable expansions for electric power distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri Yazdi Pin, Mohammad

    Electric power distribution systems are the last high voltage link in the chain of production, transport, and delivery of the electric energy, the fundamental goals of which are to supply the users' demand safely, reliably, and economically. The number circuit miles traversed by distribution feeders in the form of visible overhead or imbedded underground lines, far exceed those of all other bulk transport circuitry in the transmission system. Development and expansion of the distribution systems, similar to other systems, is directly proportional to the growth in demand and requires careful planning. While growth of electric demand has recently slowed through efforts in the area of energy management, the need for a continued expansion seems inevitable for the near future. Distribution system and expansions are also independent of current issues facing both the suppliers and the consumers of electrical energy. For example, deregulation, as an attempt to promote competition by giving more choices to the consumers, while it will impact the suppliers' planning strategies, it cannot limit the demand growth or the system expansion in the global sense. Curiously, despite presence of technological advancements and a 40-year history of contributions in the area, many of the major utilities still relay on experience and resort to rudimentary techniques when planning expansions. A comprehensive literature review of the contributions and careful analyses of the proposed algorithms for distribution expansion, confirmed that the problem is a complex, multistage and multiobjective problem for which a practical solution remains to be developed. In this research, based on the 15-year experience of a utility engineer, the practical expansion problem has been clearly defined and the existing deficiencies in the previous work identified and analyzed. The expansion problem has been formulated as a multistage planning problem in line with a natural course of development and industry

  3. Task planning systems with natural language interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambayashi, Shaw; Uenaka, Junji

    1989-12-01

    In this report, a natural language analyzer and two different task planning systems are described. In 1988, we have introduced a Japanese language analyzer named CS-PARSER for the input interface of the task planning system in the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). For the purpose of a high speed analysis, we have modified a dictionary system of the CS-PARSER by using C language description. It is found that the new dictionary system is very useful for a high speed analysis and an efficient maintenance of the dictionary. For the study of the task planning problem, we have modified a story generating system named Micro TALE-SPIN to generate a story written in Japanese sentences. We have also constructed a planning system with natural language interface by using the CS-PARSER. Task planning processes and related knowledge bases of these systems are explained. A concept design for a new task planning system will be also discussed from evaluations of above mentioned systems. (author)

  4. Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    1987-01-01

    In the past five years, distributed operating systems research has gone through a consolidation phase. On a large number of design issues there is now considerable consensus between different research groups. In this paper, an overview of recent research in distributed systems is given. In turn, the

  5. A system architecture for holonic manufacturing planning and control (EtoPlan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, Gerhard; Giebels, M.M.T.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the system architecture of a flexible manufacturing planning and control system, named EtoPlan. The concept is based on the holonic control approach of building multiple and temporary hierarchies (holarchies). This paper describes the system architecture for flexible

  6. Pervasive Electricity Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Tahir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Now a days a country cannot become economically strong until and unless it has enough electrical power to fulfil industrial and domestic needs. Electrical power being the pillar of any country’s economy, needs to be used in an efficient way. The same step is taken here by proposing a new system for energy distribution from substation to consumer houses, also it monitors the consumer consumption and record data. Unlike traditional manual Electrical systems, pervasive electricity distribution system (PEDS introduces a fresh perspective to monitor the feeder line status at distribution and consumer level. In this system an effort is taken to address the issues of electricity theft, manual billing, online monitoring of electrical distribution system and automatic control of electrical distribution points. The project is designed using microcontroller and different sensors, its GUI is designed in Labview software.

  7. Clinical use of the hyperthermia treatment planning system HyperPlan to predict effectiveness and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa, Geetha; Gellermann, Johanna; Rau, Beate; Nadobny, Jacek; Schlag, Peter; Deuflhard, Peter; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim is to prove the clinical practicability of the hyperthermia treatment planning system HyperPlan on a β-test level. Data and observations obtained from clinical hyperthermia are compared with the numeric methods FE (finite element) and FDTD (finite difference time domain), respectively. Methods and Materials: The planning system HyperPlan is built on top of the modular, object-oriented platform for visualization and model generation AMIRA. This system already contains powerful algorithms for image processing, geometric modeling, and three-dimensional graphics display. A number of hyperthermia-specific modules are provided, enabling the creation of three-dimensional tetrahedral patient models suitable for treatment planning. Two numeric methods, FE and FDTD, are implemented in HyperPlan for solving Maxwell's equations. Both methods base their calculations on segmented (contour based) CT or MR image data. A tetrahedral grid is generated from the segmented tissue boundaries, consisting of approximately 80,000 tetrahedrons per patient. The FE method necessitates, primarily, this tetrahedral grid for the calculation of the E-field. The FDTD method, on the other hand, calculates the E-field on a cubical grid, but also requires a tetrahedral grid for correction at electrical interfaces. In both methods, temperature distributions are calculated on the tetrahedral grid by solving the bioheat transfer equation with the FE method. Segmentation, grid generation, E-field, and temperature calculation can be carried out in clinical practice at an acceptable time expenditure of about 1-2 days. Results: All 30 patients we analyzed with cervical, rectal, and prostate carcinoma exhibit a good correlation between the model calculations and the attained clinical data regarding acute toxicity (hot spots), prediction of easy-to-heat or difficult-to-heat patients, and the dependency on various other individual parameters. We could show sufficient agreement between

  8. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-16

    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  9. Sewer System Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Field Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan.

  10. 40 CFR 141.622 - Subpart V monitoring plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures; and (iv) Monitoring plans for any other systems in the combined distribution system if the State... current distribution system locations with expected high TTHM or HAA5 levels. The State may also require modifications in your monitoring plan. If you are a subpart H system serving > 3,300 people, you must submit a...

  11. Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The objective of power system operation is to meet the demand at all the locations ... The traditional electric power generation systems utilize the conventional energy resources, such as fossil ..... Power Distribution Planning Reference Book.

  12. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at a... system security plan; and (e) Document the rail transit agency's process for making its system security...

  13. A Multi-Agent Traffic Control Model Based on Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization construction, urban travel has become a quite thorny and imminent problem. Some previous researches on the large urban traffic systems easily change into NPC problems. We purpose a multi-agent inductive control model based on the distributed approach. To describe the real traffic scene, this model designs four different types of intelligent agents, i.e. we regard each lane, route, intersection and traffic region as different types of intelligent agents. Each agent can achieve the real-time traffic data from its neighbor agents, and decision-making agents establish real-time traffic signal plans through the communication between local agents and their neighbor agents. To evaluate the traffic system, this paper takes the average delay, the stopped time and the average speed as performance parameters. Finally, the distributed multi-agent is simulated on the VISSIM simulation platform, the simulation results show that the multi-agent system is more effective than the adaptive control system in solving the traffic congestion.

  14. Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

  15. Reliability Worth Analysis of Distribution Systems Using Cascade Correlation Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidari, Alireza; Agelidis, Vassilios; Pou, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Reliability worth analysis is of great importance in the area of distribution network planning and operation. The reliability worth's precision can be affected greatly by the customer interruption cost model used. The choice of the cost models can change system and load point reliability indices....... In this study, a cascade correlation neural network is adopted to further develop two cost models comprising a probabilistic distribution model and an average or aggregate model. A contingency-based analytical technique is adopted to conduct the reliability worth analysis. Furthermore, the possible effects...

  16. Optimizing queries in distributed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the main elements of query optimizations in distributed systems. First, data architecture according with system level architecture in a distributed environment is presented. Then the architecture of a distributed database management system (DDBMS is described on conceptual level followed by the presentation of the distributed query execution steps on these information systems. The research ends with presentation of some aspects of distributed database query optimization and strategies used for that.

  17. Probabilistic Reasoning for Robustness in Automated Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Steven; Clement, Bradley; Chien, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A general-purpose computer program for planning the actions of a spacecraft or other complex system has been augmented by incorporating a subprogram that reasons about uncertainties in such continuous variables as times taken to perform tasks and amounts of resources to be consumed. This subprogram computes parametric probability distributions for time and resource variables on the basis of user-supplied models of actions and resources that they consume. The current system accepts bounded Gaussian distributions over action duration and resource use. The distributions are then combined during planning to determine the net probability distribution of each resource at any time point. In addition to a full combinatoric approach, several approximations for arriving at these combined distributions are available, including maximum-likelihood and pessimistic algorithms. Each such probability distribution can then be integrated to obtain a probability that execution of the plan under consideration would violate any constraints on the resource. The key idea is to use these probabilities of conflict to score potential plans and drive a search toward planning low-risk actions. An output plan provides a balance between the user s specified averseness to risk and other measures of optimality.

  18. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems in Power System: Power Quality Impacts and Optimal Planning Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Fazliana Abdul Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of some of the main issues in photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG. A discussion of the harmonic distortion produced by PVDG units is presented. The maximum permissible penetration level of PVDG in distribution system is also considered. The general procedures of optimal planning for PVDG placement and sizing are also explained in this paper. The result of this review shows that there are different challenges for integrating PVDG in the power systems. One of these challenges is integrated system reliability whereas the amount of power produced by renewable energy source is consistent. Thus, the high penetration of PVDG into grid can decrease the reliability of the power system network. On the other hand, power quality is considered one of the challenges of PVDG whereas the high penetration of PVDGs can lead to more harmonic propagation into the power system network. In addition to that, voltage fluctuation of the integrated PVDG and reverse power flow are two important challenges to this technology. Finally, protection of power system with integrated PVDG is one of the most critical challenges to this technology as the current protection schemes are designed for unidirectional not bidirectional power flow pattern.

  19. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnveden, Göran; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed

  20. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, Göran, E-mail: goran.finnveden@abe.kth.se; Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  1. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  2. Identification of optimal strategies for energy management systems planning under multiple uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; Yang, Z.F.; Tan, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Management of energy resources is crucial for many regions throughout the world. Many economic, environmental and political factors are having significant effects on energy management practices, leading to a variety of uncertainties in relevant decision making. The objective of this research is to identify optimal strategies in the planning of energy management systems under multiple uncertainties through the development of a fuzzy-random interval programming (FRIP) model. The method is based on an integration of the existing interval linear programming (ILP), superiority-inferiority-based fuzzy-stochastic programming (SI-FSP) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP). Such a FRIP model allows multiple uncertainties presented as interval values, possibilistic and probabilistic distributions, as well as their combinations within a general optimization framework. It can also be used for facilitating capacity-expansion planning of energy-production facilities within a multi-period and multi-option context. Complexities in energy management systems can be systematically reflected, thus applicability of the modeling process can be highly enhanced. The developed method has then been applied to a case of long-term energy management planning for a region with three cities. Useful solutions for the planning of energy management systems were generated. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violation were obtained. They could be used for generating decision alternatives and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints. The solutions can also provide desired energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans with a minimized system cost, a maximized system reliability and a maximized energy security. Tradeoffs between system costs and constraint-violation risks could be successfully tackled, i.e., higher costs will increase system stability, while a desire for lower

  3. Thermal Distribution System | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal Distribution System Thermal Distribution System The Energy Systems Integration Facility's . Photo of the roof of the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The thermal distribution bus allows low as 10% of its full load level). The 60-ton chiller cools water with continuous thermal control

  4. Distributed generation hosting capacity calculation of MV distribution feeders in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Oguz, Emre Utku; Bizkevelci, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Integration of distributed generation into distribution networks introduces new challenges to distribution system operators while the penetration level increases. One of the challenges is the voltage rise issue as a part of the steady-state analysis of DGs during planning and operational stages. ...

  5. Planning and Execution: The Spirit of Opportunity for Robust Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    One of the most exciting endeavors pursued by human kind is the search for life in the Solar System and the Universe at large. NASA is leading this effort by designing, deploying and operating robotic systems that will reach planets, planet moons, asteroids and comets searching for water, organic building blocks and signs of past or present microbial life. None of these missions will be achievable without substantial advances in.the design, implementation and validation of autonomous control agents. These agents must be capable of robustly controlling a robotic explorer in a hostile environment with very limited or no communication with Earth. The talk focuses on work pursued at the NASA Ames Research center ranging from basic research on algorithm to deployed mission support systems. We will start by discussing how planning and scheduling technology derived from the Remote Agent experiment is being used daily in the operations of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. Planning and scheduling is also used as the fundamental paradigm at the core of our research in real-time autonomous agents. In particular, we will describe our efforts in the Intelligent Distributed Execution Architecture (IDEA), a multi-agent real-time architecture that exploits artificial intelligence planning as the core reasoning engine of an autonomous agent. We will also describe how the issue of plan robustness at execution can be addressed by novel constraint propagation algorithms capable of giving the tightest exact bounds on resource consumption or all possible executions of a flexible plan.

  6. Planning regional energy system in association with greenhouse gas mitigation under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H. [Research Academy of Energy and Environmental Studies, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Chen, X. [Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology and Desert Environment, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are expected to continue to rise due to the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels and ever-boosting demand for energy. This leads to inevitable conflict between satisfying increasing energy demand and reducing GHG emissions. In this study, an integrated fuzzy-stochastic optimization model (IFOM) is developed for planning energy systems in association with GHG mitigation. Multiple uncertainties presented as probability distributions, fuzzy-intervals and their combinations are allowed to be incorporated within the framework of IFOM. The developed method is then applied to a case study of long-term planning of a regional energy system, where integer programming (IP) technique is introduced into the IFOM to facilitate dynamic analysis for capacity-expansion planning of energy-production facilities within a multistage context to satisfy increasing energy demand. Solutions related fuzzy and probability information are obtained and can be used for generating decision alternatives. The results can not only provide optimal energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans, but also help decision-makers identify desired policies for GHG mitigation with a cost-effective manner. (author)

  7. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  8. Measurements and predictions of the air distribution systems in high compute density (Internet) data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jinkyun [HIMEC (Hanil Mechanical Electrical Consultants) Ltd., Seoul 150-103 (Korea); Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Lim, Taesub; Kim, Byungseon Sean [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    When equipment power density increases, a critical goal of a data center cooling system is to separate the equipment exhaust air from the equipment intake air in order to prevent the IT server from overheating. Cooling systems for data centers are primarily differentiated according to the way they distribute air. The six combinations of flooded and locally ducted air distribution make up the vast majority of all installations, except fully ducted air distribution methods. Once the air distribution system (ADS) is selected, there are other elements that must be integrated into the system design. In this research, the design parameters and IT environmental aspects of the cooling system were studied with a high heat density data center. CFD simulation analysis was carried out in order to compare the heat removal efficiencies of various air distribution systems. The IT environment of an actual operating data center is measured to validate a model for predicting the effect of different air distribution systems. A method for planning and design of the appropriate air distribution system is described. IT professionals versed in precision air distribution mechanisms, components, and configurations can work more effectively with mechanical engineers to ensure the specification and design of optimized cooling solutions. (author)

  9. 20 CFR 1002.264 - Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? 1002.264 Section 1002.264 Employees' Benefits... and Benefits Pension Plan Benefits § 1002.264 Is the employee allowed to repay a previous distribution from a pension benefits plan upon being reemployed? Yes, provided the plan is a defined benefit plan...

  10. Generic planning and control of automated material handling systems : practical requirements versus existing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Schuur, Peter; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem to design a generic planning and control architecture for utomated material handling systems (AMHSs). We illustrate the relevance of this research direction, and then address three different market sectors where AMHSs are used, i.e., baggage handling, distribution,

  11. Guide to distribution network planning and system design. Development of decentralized electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillaber, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Meet demand, robustness, economics, supply reliability, facility structures, transport capacity, voltage management, short-circuit management, net operation, planning techniques and systematics. (HSI)

  12. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations

  13. PlanJury: probabilistic plan evaluation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Sonke, J.-J.; van Herk, M.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Over a decade ago, the 'Van Herk margin recipe paper' introduced plan evaluation through DVH statistics based on population distributions of systematic and random errors. We extended this work for structures with correlated uncertainties (e.g. lymph nodes or parotid glands), and considered treatment plans containing multiple (overlapping) dose distributions (e.g. conventional lymph node and hypo-fractionated tumor doses) for which different image guidance protocols may lead to correlated errors. Methods: A command-line software tool 'PlanJury' was developed which reads 3D dose and structure data exported from a treatment planning system. Uncertainties are specified by standard deviations and correlation coefficients. Parameters control the DVH statistics to be computed: e.g. the probability of reaching a DVH constraint, or the dose absorbed at given confidence in a (combined) volume. Code was written in C++ and parallelized using OpenMP. Testing geometries were constructed using idealized spherical volumes and dose distributions. Results: Negligible stochastic noise could be attained within two minutes computation time for a single target. The confidence to properly cover both of two targets was 90% for two synchronously moving targets, but decreased by 7% if the targets moved independently. For two partially covered organs at risk the confidence of at least one organ below the mean dose threshold was 40% for synchronous motion, 36% for uncorrelated motion, but only 20% for either of the organs separately. Two abutting dose distributions ensuring 91% confidence of proper target dose for correlated motions led to 28% lower confidence for uncorrelated motions as relative displacements between the doses resulted in cold spots near the target. Conclusions: Probabilistic plan evaluation can efficiently be performed for complicated treatment planning situations, thus providing important plan quality information unavailable in conventional PTV based evaluations.

  14. Energy models for generation planning and midterm operation of hydrothermal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthauer, E

    1981-01-01

    The aims of generation planning and midterm operation of a power system are reliable and economical load coverage at any moment. For solving some of the planning tasks, it is advantageous to use energy models, if a large amount of power is installed in hydro-storage plants. Energy models apply the probability of load coverage in a given period as a quantitative measure for a power system's reliability provided the availability of the transmission network is given. Reliability may be influenced by installing new plants (longterm) or by committing the existing plants in a particular fashion. An evaluation of these activities makes it possible to determine decisions which optimize a given object function. In this thesis, energy models for the Swiss hydrothermal power system are derived and tested by simulation. For this utility, energy supply during the emptying period of the storage plants in winter is of special interest. Therefore, the criteria for generation planning are derived by analysing the distribution functions of future energy balances in winter periods. The committment of the existing plants and energy exchange with other utilities in a straight following winter period are planned by means of a sequential decision process. It is shown how strategies for these planning tasks are found with the models. Those model parameters, having the highest influence on reliable and economical load coverage are extracted by means of sensitivity analysis.

  15. Expert system in power distribution lines switching; Sistema especialista em manobras de redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavellucci, Celso

    1989-07-01

    This work proposes an expert system integrated to procedures of numerical computation, denominated RD and projected to suggest alternatives of switching plans in the isolation and re-establishment of power distribution lines. The switching plans are based on the specialist's knowledge (network operator) and in evaluations of the electric conditions of the switching. Specialist's knowledge is represented in the form of triples (context, attribute, value) and production rules, that are evaluated conveniently by the machine of inference of the RD system. The electric power distribution is represented by a graph model, where the knots are load blocks and the arcs are key of the system. The evaluation of the electric requirements (voltage drop and physical capacity of the components of the power distribution lines) it is obtained through a maneuver simulator (numeric computation). The maneuver simulator bases on the Method of the Moments for the calculation of the voltage drop. With base in these ideas a prototype of the RD system was developed.

  16. Expert system in power distribution lines switching; Sistema especialista em manobras de redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavellucci, Celso

    1989-07-01

    This work proposes an expert system integrated to procedures of numerical computation, denominated RD and projected to suggest alternatives of switching plans in the isolation and re-establishment of power distribution lines. The switching plans are based on the specialist's knowledge (network operator) and in evaluations of the electric conditions of the switching. Specialist's knowledge is represented in the form of triples (context, attribute, value) and production rules, that are evaluated conveniently by the machine of inference of the RD system. The electric power distribution is represented by a graph model, where the knots are load blocks and the arcs are key of the system. The evaluation of the electric requirements (voltage drop and physical capacity of the components of the power distribution lines) it is obtained through a maneuver simulator (numeric computation). The maneuver simulator bases on the Method of the Moments for the calculation of the voltage drop. With base in these ideas a prototype of the RD system was developed.

  17. SCANPLAN planning system for medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsyannikov, D.A.; Sergeev, S.L.; Stuchenkov, A.B.; Vorogushin, M.F.; Tikhomirov, A.S.; Shishov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The SCANPLAN automatic system for planning and documentation of every treatment of the photon radiotherapy is described. The system is oriented at the operating systems Windows 98, 2000 and is developed with using the Visual Studio 6.0 technology. This system consists of the following components: planning unit, module for preparation of anatomical information, data base and patient catalogs [ru

  18. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Power Distribution Network Planning Project Based on Improved IAHP and Multi-Level Extension Assessment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Chenyang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Reasonable distribution network planning is an essential prerequisite of the economics and security of the future power grid. The comprehensive benefit evaluation of a distribution network planning project can make significant contributions towards guiding decisions during the planning scheme, the optimization of the distribution network structure, and the rational use of resources. In this paper, in light of the characteristics of the power distribution network, the comprehensive benefit eva...

  19. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while...

  20. Clinical Investigations of a CT-based reconstruction and 3D-Treatment planning system in interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotas, C; Zamboglou, N [Strahlenklinik, Stadtische Kliniken Offenbach, Offenbach (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials : A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT based treatment planning has been developed and clinically evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT scans has been developed. An interface for the Nucletron Plato BPS treatment planning system for the optimisation and calculation of dose distribution has been devised. The planning target volume(s) are defined as sets of points using contouring tools and are for optimisation of the 3D dose distribution. Dose-volume histogram-based analysis of the dose distribution enables a clinically realistic evaluation of the brachytherapy application to be made. The CT-guided implantation of catheters and the CT-based treatment planning procedure has been performed for interstitial brachytherapy and for different tumour and anatomical localizations in 197 patients between 1996 and 1997. Results : The accuracy of the CT reconstruction was tested using a quality assurance phantom an an interstitial implant of 12 needles and compared with the results of reconstruction using radiographs[hs. Both methods give comparable results with regard to accuracy. The CT based reconstruction was faster. Clinical feasibility has been proven in pre-irradiated recurrences of brain tumour, in pre-treated recurrences or metastatic disease, and in breast carcinomas. The tumour volume treated ranged from 5.1 - 2741 cm3. Analysis of the implant quality showed a slight significant lower COIN value for the bone implants, but no differences in respect to the planning target volume. Conclusions : With the integration of CT imaging in the treatment planning and documentation of brachytherapy, we have a new CT based quality assurance method to evaluate

  1. Clinical Investigations of a CT-based reconstruction and 3D-Treatment planning system in interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotas, C.; Zamboglou, N.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials : A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT based treatment planning has been developed and clinically evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT scans has been developed. An interface for the Nucletron Plato BPS treatment planning system for the optimisation and calculation of dose distribution has been devised. The planning target volume(s) are defined as sets of points using contouring tools and are for optimisation of the 3D dose distribution. Dose-volume histogram-based analysis of the dose distribution enables a clinically realistic evaluation of the brachytherapy application to be made. The CT-guided implantation of catheters and the CT-based treatment planning procedure has been performed for interstitial brachytherapy and for different tumour and anatomical localizations in 197 patients between 1996 and 1997. Results : The accuracy of the CT reconstruction was tested using a quality assurance phantom an an interstitial implant of 12 needles and compared with the results of reconstruction using radiographs[hs. Both methods give comparable results with regard to accuracy. The CT based reconstruction was faster. Clinical feasibility has been proven in pre-irradiated recurrences of brain tumour, in pre-treated recurrences or metastatic disease, and in breast carcinomas. The tumour volume treated ranged from 5.1 - 2741 cm3. Analysis of the implant quality showed a slight significant lower COIN value for the bone implants, but no differences in respect to the planning target volume. Conclusions : With the integration of CT imaging in the treatment planning and documentation of brachytherapy, we have a new CT based quality assurance method to evaluate

  2. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 06: Real-Time Interactive Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Q; Mestrovic, A; Otto, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel system for generalized Real-Time Interactive Planning (RTIP) applied to head and neck (H and N) VMAT. Methods: The clinician interactively manipulates dose distributions using DVHs, isodoses, or rate of dose fall-off, which may be subjected to user-defined constraints. Dose is calculated using a fast Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) algorithm, which simulates the limits of what can be achieved during treatment. After each manipulation contributing fluence elements are modified and the dose distribution updates in effectively real-time. For H and N VMAT planning, structure sets for 11 patients were imported into RTIP. Each dose distribution was interactively modified to minimize OAR dose while constraining target DVHs. The resulting RTIP DVHs were transferred to the Eclipse™ VMAT optimizer, and conventional VMAT optimization was performed. Results: Dose calculation and update times for the ADE algorithm ranged from 2.4 to 22.6 milliseconds, thus facilitating effectively real-time manipulation of dose distributions. For each of the 11 H and N VMAT cases, the RTIP process took ∼2–10 minutes. All RTIP plans exhibited acceptable PTV coverage, mean dose, and max dose. 10 of 11 RTIP plans achieved substantially improved sparing of one or more OARs without compromising dose to targets or other OARs. Importantly, 10 of the 11 RTIP plans required only one or two post-RTIP optimizations. Conclusions: RTIP is a novel system for manipulating and updating achievable dose distributions in real-time. H and N VMAT plans generated using RTIP demonstrate improved OAR sparing and planning efficiency. Disclosures: One author has a commercial interest in the presented materials

  3. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  4. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  5. Steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzasa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Applying Artificial Intelligence technology to steam generator non-destructive examination (NDE) can help identify high risk locations in steam generators and can aid in preparing technical specification compliant eddy current test (ECT) programs. A steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System has been developed which can assist NDE or utility personnel in planning ECT programs. This system represents and processes its information using an object oriented declarative knowledge base, heuristic rules, and symbolic information processing, three artificial intelligence based techniques incorporated in the design. The output of the system is an automated generation of ECT programs. Used in an outage inspection, this system significantly reduced planning time

  6. Requirements for advanced decision support tools in future distribution network planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grond, M.O.W.; Morren, J.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the need and requirements for advanced decision support tools in future network planning from a distribution network operator perspective. The existing tools will no longer be satisfactory for future application due to present developments in the electricity sector that increase

  7. Distributed security in closed distributed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Alejandro Mario

    properties. This is also restricted to distributed systems in which the set of locations is known a priori. All this follows techniques borrowed from both the model checking and the static analysis communities. In the end, we reach a step towards solving the problem of enforcing security in distributed...... systems. We achieve the goal of showing how this can be done, though we restrict ourselves to closed systems and with a limited set of enforceable security policies. In this setting, our approach proves to be efficient. Finally, we achieve all this by bringing together several fields of Computer Science......The goal of the present thesis is to discuss, argue and conclude about ways to provide security to the information travelling around computer systems consisting of several known locations. When developing software systems, security of the information managed by these plays an important role...

  8. Distribution system modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, William H

    2001-01-01

    For decades, distribution engineers did not have the sophisticated tools developed for analyzing transmission systems-often they had only their instincts. Things have changed, and we now have computer programs that allow engineers to simulate, analyze, and optimize distribution systems. Powerful as these programs are, however, without a real understanding of the operating characteristics of a distribution system, engineers using the programs can easily make serious errors in their designs and operating procedures. Distribution System Modeling and Analysis helps prevent those errors. It gives readers a basic understanding of the modeling and operating characteristics of the major components of a distribution system. One by one, the author develops and analyzes each component as a stand-alone element, then puts them all together to analyze a distribution system comprising the various shunt and series devices for power-flow and short-circuit studies. He includes the derivation of all models and includes many num...

  9. A Distributed and Collaborative Intelligent System for Medical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wided LEJOUAD-CHAARI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed collaborative system assisting physicians in diagnosis when processing medical images. This is a Web-based solution since the different participants and resources are on various sites. It is collaborative because these participants (physicians, radiologists, knowledgebasesdesigners, program developers for medical image processing, etc. can work collaboratively to enhance the quality of programs and then the quality of the diagnosis results. It is intelligent since it is a knowledge-based system including, but not only, a knowledge base, an inference engine said supervision engine and ontologies. The current work deals with the osteoporosis detection in bone radiographies. We rely on program supervision techniques that aim to automatically plan and control complex software usage. Our main contribution is to allow physicians, who are not experts in computing, to benefit from technological advances made by experts in image processing, and then to efficiently use various osteoporosis detection programs in a distributed environment.

  10. Radwaste treatment complex. DRAWMACS planned maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the operation of the Planned Maintenance System for the Radwaste Treatment Complex. The Planned Maintenance System forms part of the Decommissioning and Radwaste Management Computer System (DRAWMACS). Further detailed information about the data structure of the system is contained in Database Design for the DRAWMACS Planned Maintenance System (AEA-D and R-0285, 2nd issue, 25th February 1992). Information for other components of DRAWMACS is contained in Basic User Guide for the Radwaste Treatment Plant Computer System (AEA-D and R-0019, July 1990). (author)

  11. Emergency warning via automated distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident of March 28, 1979, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Emergency Management Agency require a general upgrading of existing Emergency Preparedness Plans. NUREG-0654/FEMA REP-1, Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants, dated October 1980, describes the Emergency Plans required and includes the Plant Operator's Onsite Plan, as well as the State, County, and Local Offsite Plans. As part of these Emergency Preparedness Plans, an Emergency Notification System is required to alert the general population within the Emergency Planning Zone surrounding a Nuclear Power Plant that a general emergency has occurred and that they should tune to an Emergency Broadcast Station for further information and instructions. The emergency notification system for Beaver Valley Power Station is described. The system is the capability of alerting 100% of the population with 5 mi of Beaver Valley Power Station within 15 min, and the capability of alerting 100% of the population within 10 mi of Beaver Valley Power Station within 45 min

  12. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  13. Mobile systems capability plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  14. Treatment Planning Systems for BNCT Requirements and Peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G

    2003-01-01

    The main requirements and peculiarities expected from the BNCT-oriented treatment planning system (TPS) are summarized in this paper. The TPS is a software, which can be integrated or composed by several auxiliary programs. It plays important roles inside the whole treatment planning of the patient's organ in BNCT. However, the main goal is the simulation of the irradiation, in order to obtain the optimal configuration, in terms of neutron spectrum, patient positioning and dose distribution in the tumour and healthy tissues. The presence of neutrons increases the level of complexity, because much more nuclear reactions need to be monitored and properly calculated during the simulation of the patient's treatment. To this purposes several 3D geometry reconstruction techniques, generally based on the CT scanning data, are implemented and Monte Carlo codes are normally used. The TPSs are expected to show also the results (basically doses and fluences) in a proper format, such as isocurves (or isosurfaces) along t...

  15. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs.

  16. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Sushila Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan problem based on truncated life tests when the lifetime following a Sushila distribution is considered in this paper. For various acceptance numbers, confidence levels and values of the ratio between fixed experiment time and particular mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ascertain a specified mean life were found. The operating characteristic function values of the suggested sampling plans and the producer’s risk are presented. Some tables are provided and the results are illustrated by an example of a real data set.

  17. Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Dean

    Planning Programming and Budgeting Systems (PPBS) have been considered as either synonymous with abstract, advanced, mathematical systems analysis or as an advanced accounting and control system. If PPBS is to perform a useful function, both viewpoints must be combined such that a number of standardized procedures and reports are required and…

  18. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng; Georgiadis, Michael C.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  19. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  20. Intelligent control of a planning system for astronaut training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Chen, G

    1999-07-01

    This work intends to design, analyze and solve, from the systems control perspective, a complex, dynamic, and multiconstrained planning system for generating training plans for crew members of the NASA-led International Space Station. Various intelligent planning systems have been developed within the framework of artificial intelligence. These planning systems generally lack a rigorous mathematical formalism to allow a reliable and flexible methodology for their design, modeling, and performance analysis in a dynamical, time-critical, and multiconstrained environment. Formulating the planning problem in the domain of discrete-event systems under a unified framework such that it can be modeled, designed, and analyzed as a control system will provide a self-contained theory for such planning systems. This will also provide a means to certify various planning systems for operations in the dynamical and complex environments in space. The work presented here completes the design, development, and analysis of an intricate, large-scale, and representative mathematical formulation for intelligent control of a real planning system for Space Station crew training. This planning system has been tested and used at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  1. Advantages of three-dimensional treatment planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalla, E.M.; ELSAyed, A.A.; ElGantiry, M.; ElTahher, Z.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning in-patients maxilla, breast, bladder, and lung tumors to explore its potential therapeutic advantage over the traditional dimensional (2-D) approach in these diseases. Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) treatment planning was compared to three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning. In five selected disease sites, plans calculated with both types of treatment planning were compared. The (3-D) treatment planning system used in this work TMS version 5.1 B from helax AB is based on a monte Carlo-based pencil beam model. The other treatment planning system (2-D 0, introduced in this study was the multi data treatment planning system version 2.35. For the volumes of interest; quality of dose distribution concerning homogeneity in the target volume and the isodose distribution in organs at risk, was discussed. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the two planning systems were made using dose volume histograms (DVH's) . For comparisons of dose distributions in real-patient cases, differences ranged from 0.8% to 6.4% for 6 MV, while in case of 18 MV photon, it ranged from 1,8% to 6.5% and was within -+3 standard deviations for the dose between the two planning systems.Dose volume histogram (DVH) shows volume reduction of the radiation-related organs at risk 3-D planning

  2. Monte Carlo systems used for treatment planning and dose verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, Lorenzo [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Essen (Germany); Rodriguez, Miguel [Centro Medico Paitilla, Balboa (Panama); Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    General-purpose radiation transport Monte Carlo codes have been used for estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in external photon and electron beam radiotherapy patients since several decades. Results obtained with these codes are usually more accurate than those provided by treatment planning systems based on non-stochastic methods. Traditionally, absorbed dose computations based on general-purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used only for research, owing to the difficulties associated with setting up a simulation and the long computation time required. To take advantage of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes applied to routine clinical practice, researchers and private companies have developed treatment planning and dose verification systems that are partly or fully based on fast Monte Carlo algorithms. This review presents a comprehensive list of the currently existing Monte Carlo systems that can be used to calculate or verify an external photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment plan. Particular attention is given to those systems that are distributed, either freely or commercially, and that do not require programming tasks from the end user. These systems are compared in terms of features and the simulation time required to compute a set of benchmark calculations. (orig.) [German] Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten werden allgemein anwendbare Monte-Carlo-Codes zur Simulation des Strahlungstransports benutzt, um die Verteilung der absorbierten Dosis in der perkutanen Strahlentherapie mit Photonen und Elektronen zu evaluieren. Die damit erzielten Ergebnisse sind meist akkurater als solche, die mit nichtstochastischen Methoden herkoemmlicher Bestrahlungsplanungssysteme erzielt werden koennen. Wegen des damit verbundenen Arbeitsaufwands und der langen Dauer der Berechnungen wurden Monte-Carlo-Simulationen von Dosisverteilungen in der konventionellen Strahlentherapie in der Vergangenheit im Wesentlichen in der Forschung eingesetzt. Im Bemuehen, Monte

  3. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Bhattacharya, K.; Fuller, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  5. High Voltage Distribution System (HVDS) as a better system compared to Low Voltage Distribution System (LVDS) applied at Medan city power network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinzi, R.; Hamonangan, TS; Fahmi, F.

    2018-02-01

    In the current distribution system, a large-capacity distribution transformer supplies loads to remote locations. The use of 220/380 V network is nowadays less common compared to 20 kV network. This results in losses due to the non-optimal distribution transformer, which neglected the load location, poor consumer profile, and large power losses along the carrier. This paper discusses how high voltage distribution systems (HVDS) can be a better system used in distribution networks than the currently used distribution system (Low Voltage Distribution System, LVDS). The proposed change of the system into the new configuration is done by replacing a large-capacity distribution transformer with some smaller-capacity distribution transformers and installed them in positions that closest to the load. The use of high voltage distribution systems will result in better voltage profiles and fewer power losses. From the non-technical side, the annual savings and payback periods on high voltage distribution systems will also be the advantage.

  6. Evaluation of a commercial automatic treatment planning system for prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Kanabu; Haga, Akihiro; Nomoto, Akihiro; Sarmiento, Raniel A; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in Radiation Oncology treatment planning have led to the development of software packages that facilitate automated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. Such solutions include site-specific modules, plan library methods, and algorithm-based methods. In this study, the plan quality for prostate cancer generated by the Auto-Planning module of the Pinnacle 3 radiation therapy treatment planning system (v9.10, Fitchburg, WI) is retrospectively evaluated. The Auto-Planning module of Pinnacle 3 uses a progressive optimization algorithm. Twenty-three prostate cancer cases, which had previously been planned and treated without lymph node irradiation, were replanned using the Auto-Planning module. Dose distributions were statistically compared with those of manual planning by the paired t-test at 5% significance level. Auto-Planning was performed without any manual intervention. Planning target volume (PTV) dose and dose to rectum were comparable between Auto-Planning and manual planning. The former, however, significantly reduced the dose to the bladder and femurs. Regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between volume overlap between bladder and PTV divided by the total bladder volume and resultant V70. The findings showed that manual planning typically exhibits a logistic way for dose constraint, whereas Auto-Planning shows a more linear tendency. By calculating the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to validate the statistical model, a reduction of interoperator variation in Auto-Planning was shown. We showed that, for prostate cancer, the Auto-Planning module provided plans that are better than or comparable with those of manual planning. By comparing our results with those previously reported for head and neck cancer treatment, we recommend the homogeneous plan quality generated by the Auto-Planning module, which exhibits less dependence on anatomic complexity

  7. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time

  8. Optical augmented reality assisted navigation system for neurosurgery teaching and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Qun; Geng, Xing-Yun; Wang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-Peng; Jiang, Kui; Tang, Le-Min; Zhou, Guo-Min; Dong, Jian-Cheng

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposed a convenient navigation system for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching with augmented reality (AR) technique, which maps the three-dimensional reconstructed virtual anatomy structures onto a skull model. This system included two parts, a virtual reality system and a skull model scence. In our experiment, a 73 year old right-handed man initially diagnosed with astrocytoma was selected as an example to vertify our system. His imaging data from different modalities were registered and the skull soft tissue, brain and inside vessels as well as tumor were reconstructed. Then the reconstructed models were overlayed on the real scence. Our findings showed that the reconstructed tissues were augmented into the real scence and the registration results were in good alignment. The reconstructed brain tissue was well distributed in the skull cavity. The probe was used by a neurosurgeon to explore the surgical pathway which could be directly posed into the tumor while not injuring important vessels. In this way, the learning cost for students and patients' education about surgical risks reduced. Therefore, this system could be a selective protocol for image guided surgery(IGS), and is promising for neurosurgeon's pre-operative planning and teaching.

  9. An expert system for a local planning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, G.J.; Meester, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design of an Expert System (ES) that supports decision making in a Local Planning System (LPS) environment. The LPS provides the link between a high level factory planning system (rough cut capacity planning and material coordination) and the actual execution of jobs on

  10. Bayesian Belief Networks for predicting drinking water distribution system pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Royce A.; Guikema, Seth D.; Henneman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to construct a knowledge model for pipe breaks in a water zone. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to model drinking water distribution system pipe breaks using BBNs. Development of expert systems such as BBNs for analyzing drinking water distribution system data is not only important for pipe break prediction, but is also a first step in preventing water loss and water quality deterioration through the application of machine learning techniques to facilitate data-based distribution system monitoring and asset management. Due to the difficulties in collecting, preparing, and managing drinking water distribution system data, most pipe break models can be classified as “statistical–physical” or “hypothesis-generating.” We develop the BBN with the hope of contributing to the “hypothesis-generating” class of models, while demonstrating the possibility that BBNs might also be used as “statistical–physical” models. Our model is learned from pipe breaks and covariate data from a mid-Atlantic United States (U.S.) drinking water distribution system network. BBN models are learned using a constraint-based method, a score-based method, and a hybrid method. Model evaluation is based on log-likelihood scoring. Sensitivity analysis using mutual information criterion is also reported. While our results indicate general agreement with prior results reported in pipe break modeling studies, they also suggest that it may be difficult to select among model alternatives. This model uncertainty may mean that more research is needed for understanding whether additional pipe break risk factors beyond age, break history, pipe material, and pipe diameter might be important for asset management planning. - Highlights: • We show Bayesian Networks for predictive and diagnostic management of water distribution systems. • Our model may enable system operators and managers to prioritize system

  11. Decision regarding Gazifere Inc.'s request to maintain current tariffs, its distribution plan and energy efficiency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote-Verhaaf, A.; Patoine, M.A.; Tanguay, F.

    2002-01-01

    In June 2002 Gazifere Inc. applied to Quebec's Regie de l'energie for approval to maintain its current gas tariffs in its area of operation, the Outaouais region of Quebec. Gazifere also presented its program for energy efficiency and its distribution program with a request to extend its distribution network in the Outaouais. The energy efficiency program includes the rental of residential water heaters, water and gas savings, high efficiency furnaces, rental of commercial water heaters, and a program for low income families. The Regie reviewed the application and declared that the current fees could remain in effect until October 1, 2002. It also approved the modifications proposed by Gazifere to the adjustment of rates. The Regie reviewed the objectives of the energy efficiency programs and approved a volumetric budget for the plan and authorized that the deferred rate be kept in the energy efficiency program. The Regie approved that the energy efficiency plan should extend over 3 years with the exception of the residential inspection program until more information could be gathered on the energy savings in the residential sector. The Regie made a request to Gazifere to provide data on industrial consumption before authorizing $3,730,200 for extension of their distribution network. It approved the amount $5,306,400 as exploitation charges for the year 2002-2003. refs., tabs

  12. Development of inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Maruo, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    To lead proper irradiation condition effectively, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is developing an inverse-planning system for neutron capture therapy (NCT-IPS) based on the JAEA computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for BNCT. The leading methodology of an optimum condition in the NCT-IPS has been applied spatial channel theory with adjoint flux solution of Botzman transport. By analyzing the results obtained from the adjoint flux calculations according to the theory, optimum incident point of the beam against the patient can be found, and neutron spectrum of the beam which can generate ideal distribution of neutron flux around tumor region can be determined. The conceptual design of the NCT-IPS was investigated, and prototype of NCT-IPS with JCDS is being developed. (author)

  13. Combination of AC Transmission Expansion Planning and Reactive Power Planning in the restructured power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Hemmati, Reza; Parastegari, Moein

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► To overcome the disadvantages of DC model in Transmission Expansion Planning, AC model should be used. ► The Transmission Expansion Planning associated with Reactive Power Planning results in fewer new transmission lines. ► Electricity market concepts should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Reliability aspects should be considered in Transmission Expansion Planning problem. ► Particle Swarm Optimization is a suitable optimization method to solve Transmission Expansion Planning problem. - Abstract: Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is an important issue in power system studies. It involves decisions on location and number of new transmission lines. Before deregulation of the power system, the goal of TEP problem was investment cost minimization. But in the restructured power system, nodal prices, congestion management, congestion surplus and so on, have been considered too. In this paper, an AC model of TEP problem (AC-TEP) associated with Reactive Power Planning (RPP) is presented. The goals of the proposed planning problem are to minimize investment cost and maximize social benefit at the same time. In the proposed planning problem, in order to improve the reliability of the system the Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) index of the system is limited by a constraint. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation method is used to determine the EENS. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is used to solve the proposed planning problem which is a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem. Simulation results on Garver and RTS systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed planning problem for reduction of the total investment cost, EENS index and also increasing social welfare of the system.

  14. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  15. RBAC Administration in Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Crampton, J.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the administration of RBAC policies in centralized systems, the problem of the administration of a distributed system has hardly been addressed. We present a formal system for modelling a distributed RBAC system and its administration. We define two basic

  16. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  17. Design of distributed systems of hydrolithosphere processes management. A synthesis of distributed management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, I. M.; Pervukhin, D. A.; Ilyushin, Y. V.; Afanaseva, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper considers an important problem of designing distributed systems of hydrolithosphere processes management. The control actions on the hydrolithosphere processes under consideration are implemented by a set of extractive wells. The article shows the method of defining the approximation links for description of the dynamic characteristics of hydrolithosphere processes. The structure of distributed regulators, used in the management systems by the considered processes, is presented. The paper analyses the results of the synthesis of the distributed management system and the results of modelling the closed-loop control system by the parameters of the hydrolithosphere process.

  18. Tank waste remediation system risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management Plan is to describe a consistent approach to risk management such that TWRS Project risks are identified and managed to achieve TWRS Project success. The Risk Management Plan implements the requirements of the Tank Waste Remediation System Systems Engineering Management Plan in the area of risk management. Figure ES-1 shows the relationship of the TWRS Risk Management Plan to other major TWRS Project documents. As the figure indicates, the Risk Management Plan is a tool used to develop and control TWRS Project work. It provides guidance on how TWRS Project risks will be assessed, analyzed, and handled, and it specifies format and content for the risk management lists, which are a primary product of the risk management process. In many instances, the Risk Management Plan references the TWRS Risk Management Procedure, which provides more detailed discussion of many risk management activities. The TWRS Risk Management Plan describes an ongoing program within the TWRS Project. The Risk Management Plan also provides guidance in support of the TWRS Readiness To-Proceed (RTP) assessment package

  19. Analysis of Mesh Distribution Systems Considering Load Models and Load Growth Impact with Loops on System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, A.; Murty, V. V. S. N.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution system is the final link between bulk power system and consumer end. A distinctive load flow solution method is used for analysis of the load flow of radial and weakly meshed network based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) and KVL. This method has excellent convergence characteristics for both radial as well as weakly meshed structure and is based on bus injection to branch current and branch-current to bus-voltage matrix. The main contribution of the paper is: (i) an analysis has been carried out for a weekly mesh network considering number of loops addition and its impact on the losses, kW and kVAr requirements from a system, and voltage profile, (ii) different load models, realistic ZIP load model and load growth impact on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements, (iii) impact of addition of loops on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements from substation, and (iv) comparison of system performance with radial distribution system. Voltage stability is a major concern in planning and operation of power systems. This paper also includes identifying the closeness critical bus which is the most sensitive to the voltage collapse in radial distribution networks. Node having minimum value of voltage stability index is the most sensitive node. Voltage stability index values are computed for meshed network with number of loops added in the system. The results have been obtained for IEEE 33 and 69 bus test system. The results have also been obtained for radial distribution system for comparison.

  20. Communication Facilities for Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barladeanu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of physical networks and communication protocols in Distributed Systems can have a direct impact on system efficiency and reliability. This paper tries to identify efficient mechanisms and paradigms for communication in distributed systems.

  1. Draft Automatic Data Acquisition System Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) Plan has been prepared in support of the requirement for detailed site characterization of the Deaf Smith County candidate repository site in salt, and describes the data acquisition system which will be used for unattended data collection from the geotechnical instrumentation installed at the site. Section 1.1 discusses the programmatic background to the plan, Section 1.2 presents the scope and purpose of the plan, and the organization of the document is given in Section 1.3. 31 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs

  2. Control and operation of distributed generation in distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Many distribution systems nowadays have significant penetration of distributed generation (DG)and thus, islanding operation of these distribution systems is becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. The DG should operate optimally during both grid-connected and island...... algorithm, which uses average rate of change off requency (Af5) and real power shift RPS), in the islanded mode. RPS will increase or decrease the power set point of the generator with increasing or decreasing system frequency, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed method can operate...

  3. ERGONOMIC ASPECTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS: A TEXTILE PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION CENTER PROJECT CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lourenço da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The planning and execution phases of a distribution center project of a large textile industry was made, evaluating the ergonomic aspects related to the operations to be performed in the facility and staff anthropometric data. The ergonomic collaborative analysis of the tasks associated with the method of movement plotting, guided the planning of the picking, manual induction and order consolidation areas from the distribution center. Using this methodology, it was possible to obtain a proper ergonomically project planning and execution of the three studied areas.

  4. Underfrequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System With Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Significant penetration of distributed generation in many distribution systems has opened an option of operating distribution systems in island mode for economical and technical reasons. However, balancing frequency of the islanded system is still an issue to be solved, especially when the demand...

  5. Loss Allocation in a Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, a large part of the electricity is produced by wind turbines and combined heat and power plants (CHPs). Most of them are connected to the network through distribution systems. This paper presents a new algorithm for allocation of the losses in a distribution system with distributed...... generation. The algorithm is based on a reduced impedance matrix of the network and current injections from loads and production units. With the algorithm, the effect of the covariance between production and consumption can be evaluated. To verify the theoretical results, a model of the distribution system...

  6. Decision support in hierarchical planning systems: The case of procurement planning in oil refining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Kasper Bislev; Lynge, Lasse Hadberg; Akkerman, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of decision support systems for hierarchically structured planning approaches, such as commercially available advanced planning systems. We develop a framework to show how such a decision support system can be designed with the existing organization in mind...... and from the perspective of the organizational aspects involved. To exemplify and develop our framework, we use a case study of crude oil procurement planning in the refining industry. The results of the case study indicate an improved organizational embedding of the DSS, leading to significant savings...... in terms of planning efforts and procurement costs. In general, our framework aims to support the continuous improvement of advanced planning systems, increasing planning quality in complex supply chain settings....

  7. Onboard autonomous mission re-planning for multi-satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zixuan; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an onboard autonomous mission re-planning system for Multi-Satellites System (MSS) to perform onboard re-planing in disruptive situations. The proposed re-planning system can deal with different potential emergency situations. This paper uses Multi-Objective Hybrid Dynamic Mutation Genetic Algorithm (MO-HDM GA) combined with re-planning techniques as the core algorithm. The Cyclically Re-planning Method (CRM) and the Near Real-time Re-planning Method (NRRM) are developed to meet different mission requirements. Simulations results show that both methods can provide feasible re-planning sequences under unforeseen situations. The comparisons illustrate that using the CRM is average 20% faster than the NRRM on computation time. However, by using the NRRM more raw data can be observed and transmitted than using the CRM within the same period. The usability of this onboard re-planning system is not limited to multi-satellite system. Other mission planning and re-planning problems related to autonomous multiple vehicles with similar demands are also applicable.

  8. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors

  9. Evaluation of a commercial biologically based IMRT treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenenko, Vladimir A.; Reitz, Bodo; Day, Ellen; Qi, X. Sharon; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    A new inverse treatment planning system (TPS) for external beam radiation therapy with high energy photons is commercially available that utilizes both dose-volume-based cost functions and a selection of cost functions which are based on biological models. The purpose of this work is to evaluate quality of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans resulting from the use of biological cost functions in comparison to plans designed using a traditional TPS employing dose-volume-based optimization. Treatment planning was performed independently at two institutions. For six cancer patients, including head and neck (one case from each institution), prostate, brain, liver, and rectal cases, segmental multileaf collimator IMRT plans were designed using biological cost functions and compared with clinically used dose-based plans for the same patients. Dose-volume histograms and dosimetric indices, such as minimum, maximum, and mean dose, were extracted and compared between the two types of treatment plans. Comparisons of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD), a previously proposed plan quality index (fEUD), target conformity and heterogeneity indices, and the number of segments and monitor units were also performed. The most prominent feature of the biologically based plans was better sparing of organs at risk (OARs). When all plans from both institutions were combined, the biologically based plans resulted in smaller EUD values for 26 out of 33 OARs by an average of 5.6 Gy (range 0.24 to 15 Gy). Owing to more efficient beam segmentation and leaf sequencing tools implemented in the biologically based TPS compared to the dose-based TPS, an estimated treatment delivery time was shorter in most (five out of six) cases with some plans showing up to 50% reduction. The biologically based plans were generally characterized by a smaller conformity index, but greater heterogeneity index compared to the dose-based plans. Overall, compared to plans based on dose

  10. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... 219 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning AGENCY... Agriculture is adopting a new National Forest System land management planning rule (planning rule). The new...

  11. Development of computerized dose planning system and applicator for high dose rate remote afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. J. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Kim, S. W. [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea); Kim, O. B.; Lee, H. J.; Won, C. H. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Yoon, S. M. [Dong-a Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To design and fabricate of the high dose rate source and applicators which are tandem, ovoids and colpostat for OB/Gyn brachytherapy includes the computerized dose planning system. Designed the high dose rate Ir-192 source with nuclide atomic power irradiation and investigated the dose characteristics of fabricated brachysource. We performed the effect of self-absorption and determining the gamma constant and output factor and determined the apparent activity of designed source. he automated computer planning system provided the 2D distribution and 3D includes analysis programs. Created the high dose rate source Ir-192, 10 Ci(370GBq). The effective attenuation factor from the self-absorption and source wall was examined to 0.55 of the activity of bare source and this factor is useful for determination of the apparent activity and gamma constant 4.69 Rcm{sup 2}/mCi-hr. Fabricated the colpostat was investigated the dose distributions of frontal, axial and sagittal plane in intra-cavitary radiation therapy for cervical cancer. The reduce dose at bladder and rectum area was found about 20 % of original dose. The computerized brachytherapy planning system provides the 2-dimensional isodose and 3-D include the dose-volume histogram(DVH) with graphic-user-interface mode. emoted afterloading device was built for experiment of created Ir-192 source with film dosimetry within {+-}1 mm discrepancy. 34 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  12. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  13. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  14. Information Assurance for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Risk Considerations in Public Sector Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, S.; Islam, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems reveal and pose non-typical risks due to its dependencies of interlinked business operations and process reengineering. Understanding of such type of risks is significant conducting and planning assurance involvement of the reliability of these complicated computer systems. Specially, in case of distributed environment where data reside at multiple sites and risks are of unique nature. Until now, there are brief pragmatic grounds on this public sector ERP issue. To analyze this subject, a partially organized consultation study was carried out with 15 skilled information systems auditors who are specialists in evaluating ERP systems risks. This methodology permitted to get more elaborated information about stakeholder's opinions and customer experiences. In addition, interviewees mentioned a numerous basic execution troubles (e.g. inadequately skilled human resource and insufficient process reengineering attempts) that lead into enhanced hazards. It was also reported by the interviewees that currently risks vary across vendors and across applications. Eventually, in offering assurance with ERP systems participants irresistibly stresses examining the process instead of system end product. (author)

  15. Information Assurance for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Risk Considerations in Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHZAD NAEEM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems reveal and pose non-typical risks due to its dependencies of interlinked business operations and process reengineering. Understanding of such type of risks is significant conducting and planning assurance involvement of the reliability of these complicated computer systems. Specially, in case of distributed environment where data reside at multiple sites and risks are of unique nature. Until now, there are brief pragmatic grounds on this public sector ERP issue. To analyze this subject, a partially organized consultation study was carried out with 15 skilled information systems auditors who are specialists in evaluating ERP systems risks. This methodology permitted to get more elaborated information about stakeholder?s opinions and customer experiences. In addition, interviewees mentioned a numerous basic execution troubles (e.g. inadequately skilled human resource and insufficient process reengineering attempts that lead into enhanced hazards. It was also reported by the interviewees that currently risks vary across vendors and across applications. Eventually, in offering assurance with ERP systems participants irresistibly stresses examining the process instead of system end product.

  16. Enterprise Architecture Planning in developing A planning Information System: a Case Study of Semarang State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Kholiq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has applied an integrated design and development of planning information system, which is been designed using Enterprise Architecture Planning. Frequent discrepancy between planning and realization of the budget that has been made, resulted in ineffective planning, is one of the reason for doing this research. The design using EAP aims to keep development aligned and in line with the strategic direction of the organization. In the practice, EAP is carried out in several stages of the planning initiation, identification and definition of business functions, proceeded with architectural design and EA implementation plan that has been built. In addition to the design of the Enterprise Architecture, this research carried out the implementation, and was tested by several methods of black box and white box. Black box testing method is used to test the fundamental aspects of the software, tested by two kinds of testing, first is using User Acceptance Testing and the second is using software functionality testing. White box testing method is used to test the effectiveness of the code in the software, tested using unit testing. Tests conducted using white box and black box on the integrated planning information system, is declared successful. Success in the software testing can not be ascertained if the software built has not shown any distinction from prior circumstance to the development of this integrated planning information system. For ensuring the success of this system implementation, the authors test consistency between the planning of data and the realization of prior-use of the information system, until after-use information system. This consistency test is done by reducing the time data of the planning and realization time. From the tabulated data, the planning information system that has been built reduces the difference between the planning time and the realization time, in which indicates that the planning information system

  17. Enterprise Architecture Planning in developing A planning Information System: a Case Study of Semarang State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Kholiq; Prahasto, Toni; Kusumawardhani, Amie

    2018-02-01

    This research has applied an integrated design and development of planning information system, which is been designed using Enterprise Architecture Planning. Frequent discrepancy between planning and realization of the budget that has been made, resulted in ineffective planning, is one of the reason for doing this research. The design using EAP aims to keep development aligned and in line with the strategic direction of the organization. In the practice, EAP is carried out in several stages of the planning initiation, identification and definition of business functions, proceeded with architectural design and EA implementation plan that has been built. In addition to the design of the Enterprise Architecture, this research carried out the implementation, and was tested by several methods of black box and white box. Black box testing method is used to test the fundamental aspects of the software, tested by two kinds of testing, first is using User Acceptance Testing and the second is using software functionality testing. White box testing method is used to test the effectiveness of the code in the software, tested using unit testing. Tests conducted using white box and black box on the integrated planning information system, is declared successful. Success in the software testing can not be ascertained if the software built has not shown any distinction from prior circumstance to the development of this integrated planning information system. For ensuring the success of this system implementation, the authors test consistency between the planning of data and the realization of prior-use of the information system, until after-use information system. This consistency test is done by reducing the time data of the planning and realization time. From the tabulated data, the planning information system that has been built reduces the difference between the planning time and the realization time, in which indicates that the planning information system can motivate the

  18. Distributed systems status and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  19. Analysis of distribution systems with a high penetration of distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten

    Since the mid eighties, a large number of wind turbines and distributed combined heat and power plants (CHPs) have been connected to the Danish power system. Especially in the Western part, comprising Jutland and Funen, the penetration is high compared to the load demand. In some periods the wind...... power alone can cover the entire load demand. The objective of the work is to investigate the influence of wind power and distributed combined heat and power production on the operation of the distribution systems. Where other projects have focused on the modeling and control of the generators and prime...... movers, the focus of this project is on the operation of an entire distribution system with several wind farms and CHPs. Firstly, the subject of allocation of power system losses in a distribution system with distributed generation is treated. A new approach to loss allocation based on current injections...

  20. Techno-economical analysis of innovative technologies in electrical power systems. A feasibility study for a Russian distribution system operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Holger; Nikitina, Elena; Makarov, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Since the liberalization of the energy market in Europe transmission and distribution system operators have been facing fundamentally new challenges when ensuring a safe and reliable power supply. In addition to purely technical criteria economical aspects have become increasingly important in the strategic planning and operation of power systems. As described in this contribution, the results of a feasibility study demonstrate how the use of innovative technologies can make a valuable contribution to improve the economical situation.

  1. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  2. SDDOT transportation systems management & operations program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a comprehensive Transportation Systems Management and : Operations (TSM&O) Program Plan for the South Dakota Department of Transportation. This plan guides : business planning and strategic decision...

  3. A Simple Adaptive Overcurrent Protection of Distribution Systems With Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    current when the system is connected to the grid and when it is islanded. This paper proposes the use of adaptive protection, using local information, to overcome the challenges of the overcurrent protection in distribution systems with distributed generation. The trip characteristics of the relays...... are updated by detecting operating states (grid connected or island) and the faulted section. The paper also proposes faulted section detection using the time over-current characteristics of the protective relays. Simulation results show that the operating state and faulted section can be correctly identified......A significant increase in the penetration of distributed generation has resulted in a possibility of operating distribution systems with distributed generation in islanded mode. However, over-current protection of an islanded distribution system is still an issue due to the difference in fault...

  4. Determining the theoretical reliability function of thermal power system using simple and complex Weibull distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaba Dragan V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper is the representation of the probabilistic technique for thermal power system reliability assessment. Exploitation research of the reliability of the fossil fuel power plant system has defined the function, or the probabilistic law, according to which the random variable behaves (occurrence of complete unplanned standstill. Based on these data, and by applying the reliability theory to this particular system, using simple and complex Weibull distribution, a hypothesis has been confirmed that the distribution of the observed random variable fully describes the behaviour of such a system in terms of reliability. Establishing a comprehensive insight in the field of probabilistic power system reliability assessment technique could serve as an input for further research and development in the area of power system planning and operation.

  5. Spatial distribution and sequential sampling plans for Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Serra, Giuseppe; Lentini, Andrea; Deliperi, Salvatore; Delrio, Gavino

    2015-09-01

    The within- and between-plant distribution of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), was investigated in order to define action thresholds based on leaf infestation and to propose enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for pest management applications in protected crops. The pest spatial distribution was aggregated between plants, and median leaves were the most suitable sample to evaluate the pest density. Action thresholds of 36 and 48%, 43 and 56% and 60 and 73% infested leaves, corresponding to economic thresholds of 1 and 3% damaged fruits, were defined for tomato cultivars with big, medium and small fruits respectively. Green's method was a more suitable enumerative sampling plan as it required a lower sampling effort. Binomial sampling plans needed lower average sample sizes than enumerative plans to make a treatment decision, with probabilities of error of sampling plan required 87 or 343 leaves to estimate the population density in extensive or intensive ecological studies respectively. Binomial plans would be more practical and efficient for control purposes, needing average sample sizes of 17, 20 and 14 leaves to take a pest management decision in order to avoid fruit damage higher than 1% in cultivars with big, medium and small fruits respectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong Hum; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-21

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an 'on-demand' basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture's constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm(2)) from the Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are

  7. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Yong Hum; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2013-01-01

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an ‘on-demand’ basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture’s constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm 2 ) from the Varian TrueBeam TM STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are

  8. The Impact of Connecting Distributed Generation to the Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mgaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general problem of utilizing of renewable energy sources to generate electric energy. Recent advances in renewable energy power generation technologies, e.g., wind and photovoltaic (PV technologies, have led to increased interest in the application of these generation devices as distributed generation (DG units. This paper presents the results of an investigation into possible improvements in the system voltage profile and reduction of system losses when adding wind power DG (wind-DG to a distribution system. Simulation results are given for a case study, and these show that properly sized wind DGs, placed at carefully selected sites near key distribution substations, could be very effective in improving the distribution system voltage profile and reducing power losses, and hence could  improve the effective capacity of the system

  9. A SWOT analysis of Planning Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, G.; Geertman, S.; Schot, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of planning support systems (PSS) is fragmented between users and system developers. The lack of combined insights blocks development in the right direction and makes potential users hesitant to apply PSS in planning. This

  10. Multi-objective optimization of distributed generation with voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and line power capacity limit. In this paper, it is analyzed that voltage step constraint affects the location, size and power factor of DG in distribution network. The studies are carried out for 17-bus, 38-bus and 76-bus distribution systems. Keywords: Distributed generation, distribution system, distributed generation planning, ...

  11. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Power distribution systems are basic parts of power systems and reliability of these systems at present is a key issue for power engineering development and requires special attention. Operation of distribution systems is accompanied by a number of factors that produce random data a large number of unplanned interruptions. Research has shown that the predominant factors that have a significant influence on the reliability of distribution systems are: weather conditions (39.7%, defects in equipment(25% and unknown random factors (20.1%. In the article is studied the influence of random behavior and are presented estimations of reliability of predominantly rural electrical distribution systems.

  12. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ''as is'' condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ''to be'' configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively

  13. Information Systems for University Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert J.

    This paper proposes construction of a separate data base environment for university planning information, distinct from data bases and systems supporting operational functioning and management. The data base would receive some of its input from the management information systems (MIS)/transactional data bases and systems through a process of…

  14. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper......, we consider an optimal DER coordination problem over multiple time periods subject to constraints at both system and device levels. Fully distributed algorithms are proposed to dynamically and automatically coordinate distributed generators with multiple/single storages. With the proposed algorithms...

  15. Real-time interactive treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an interactive treatment planning platform that permits real-time manipulation of dose distributions including DVHs and other dose metrics. The hypothesis underlying the approach proposed here is that the process of evaluating potential dose distribution options and deciding on the best clinical trade-offs may be separated from the derivation of the actual delivery parameters used for the patient’s treatment. For this purpose a novel algorithm for deriving an Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) was developed. The ADE algorithm is computationally efficient so as to update dose distributions in effectively real-time while accurately incorporating the limits of what can be achieved in practice. The resulting system is a software environment for interactive real-time manipulation of dose that permits the clinician to rapidly develop a fully customized 3D dose distribution. Graphical navigation of dose distributions is achieved by a sophisticated method of identifying contributing fluence elements, modifying those elements and re-computing the entire dose distribution. 3D dose distributions are calculated in ∼2–20 ms. Including graphics processing overhead, clinicians may visually interact with the dose distribution (e.g. ‘drag’ a DVH) and display updates of the dose distribution at a rate of more than 20 times per second. Preliminary testing on various sites shows that interactive planning may be completed in ∼1–5 min, depending on the complexity of the case (number of targets and OARs). Final DVHs are derived through a separate plan optimization step using a conventional VMAT planning system and were shown to be achievable within 2% and 4% in high and low dose regions respectively. With real-time interactive planning trade-offs between Target(s) and OARs may be evaluated efficiently providing a better understanding of the dosimetric options available to each patient in static or adaptive RT. (paper)

  16. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  17. Impact of climate change on operations and planning of Hydro-Quebec's generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, M.P.; Houle, B.; Robert, S.

    2008-01-01

    Studies that are underway at OURANOS indicate that some of the probable climate change scenarios in the coming years will have an effect on Quebec's watersheds hydrology and on temperatures. For Hydro-Quebec, who draws more than 95% of its generation from hydraulic resources and whose electricity loads depend pretty much on temperatures, such climate changes will definitely have a significant impact on many aspects of the planning and operations of its system. Our presentation will be divided into three parts. First, to bridge the gap between climate change scientists and water managers, we will present a list of the types of parameters needed from the scientists in order for the water managers to assess the impacts of climate changes on a hydroelectric system such as Hydro-Quebec's. These parameters will include changes in annual and seasonal distribution and variability of natural inflows and, most importantly, the timing of the changes in the coming years. The second part will focus on the types of adaptive decisions and strategies that will have to be taken ahead of time in order to implement the changes on a hydroelectric generation system such as Hydro-Quebec's. They will cover different areas such as generation planning, operations planning and optimization, refurbishment and replacement of infrastructures, dam safety, flood control and protection, maintenance planning and reliability. Finally, we will present more specific results of the impact of some climate change scenarios on Hydro-Quebec's overall generation system, showing differences between regions, and a case study on one of its river systems. (author)

  18. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  19. Classification of fibroglandular tissue distribution in the breast based on radiotherapy planning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Evans, Philip; Windridge, David; Harris, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of breast tissues is required for a number of applications such as model based deformable registration in breast radiotherapy. The accuracy of breast tissue segmentation is affected by the spatial distribution (or pattern) of fibroglandular tissue (FT). The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate texture features, determined from planning computed tomography (CT) data, to classify the spatial distribution of FT in the breast. Planning CT data of 23 patients were evaluated in this study. Texture features were derived from the radial glandular fraction (RGF), which described the distribution of FT within three breast regions (posterior, middle, and anterior). Using visual assessment, experts grouped patients according to FT spatial distribution: sparse or non-sparse. Differences in the features between the two groups were investigated using the Wilcoxon rank test. Classification performance of the features was evaluated for a range of support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Experts found eight patients and 15 patients had sparse and non-sparse spatial distribution of FT, respectively. A large proportion of features (>9 of 13) from the individual breast regions had significant differences (p <0.05) between the sparse and non-sparse group. The features from middle region had most significant differences and gave the highest classification accuracy for all the SVM kernels investigated. Overall, the features from middle breast region achieved highest accuracy (91 %) with the linear SVM kernel. This study found that features based on radial glandular fraction provide a means for discriminating between fibroglandular tissue distributions and could achieve a classification accuracy of 91 %

  20. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents

  1. Sales Forecasting System for Newspaper Distribution Companies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencay İncesu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Newspapers are like goods with a shelf life of one day and they have to be distributed daily basis to the sales points. A problem that most newspaper companies encounter daily is how to predict the right number of newspapers to print and distribute among distinct sales points. The aim is to predict newspaper demand as accurately as possible to meet customer need with minimum number of returns, missed sales and oversupply. This makes it necessary to develop a short-term forecasting system. The data taken from one of the largest distribution companies in Turkey is time dependent. Therefore, time series analysis is used to forecast newspaper circulation. In this paper, the newspaper sales system is examined for Turkey. Various types of forecasting techniques which are applicable to newspaper circulation planning are compared and a nonlinear approach for returns is applied.

  2. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  3. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  4. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  5. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  6. 49 CFR 659.21 - System security plan: general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: general requirements. 659.21... State Oversight Agency § 659.21 System security plan: general requirements. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to implement a system security plan that, at a minimum, complies...

  7. Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

    2002-11-01

    This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

  8. Automatic generation of water distribution systems based on GIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In the field of water distribution system (WDS) analysis, case study research is needed for testing or benchmarking optimisation strategies and newly developed software. However, data availability for the investigation of real cases is limited due to time and cost needed for data collection and model setup. We present a new algorithm that addresses this problem by generating WDSs from GIS using population density, housing density and elevation as input data. We show that the resulting WDSs are comparable to actual systems in terms of network properties and hydraulic performance. For example, comparing the pressure heads for an actual and a generated WDS results in pressure head differences of ±4 m or less for 75% of the supply area. Although elements like valves and pumps are not included, the new methodology can provide water distribution systems of varying levels of complexity (e.g., network layouts, connectivity, etc.) to allow testing design/optimisation algorithms on a large number of networks. The new approach can be used to estimate the construction costs of planned WDSs aimed at addressing population growth or at comparisons of different expansion strategies in growth corridors.

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Distribution System Considering Sequential Characteristics of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wanxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In allusion to the randomness of output power of distributed generation (DG, a reliability evaluation model based on sequential Monte Carlo simulation (SMCS for distribution system with DG is proposed. Operating states of the distribution system can be sampled by SMCS in chronological order thus the corresponding output power of DG can be generated. The proposed method has been tested on feeder F4 of IEEE-RBTS Bus 6. The results show that reliability evaluation of distribution system considering the uncertainty of output power of DG can be effectively implemented by SMCS.

  10. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  11. A Multiobjective Stochastic Production-Distribution Planning Problem in an Uncertain Environment Considering Risk and Workers Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective two stage stochastic programming model is proposed to deal with a multi-period multi-product multi-site production-distribution planning problem for a midterm planning horizon. The presented model involves majority of supply chain cost parameters such as transportation cost, inventory holding cost, shortage cost, production cost. Moreover some respects as lead time, outsourcing, employment, dismissal, workers productivity and training are considered. Due to the uncertain nature of the supply chain, it is assumed that cost parameters and demand fluctuations are random variables and follow from a pre-defined probability distribution. To develop a robust stochastic model, an additional objective functions is added to the traditional production-distribution-planning problem. So, our multi-objective model includes (i the minimization of the expected total cost of supply chain, (ii the minimization of the variance of the total cost of supply chain and (iii the maximization of the workers productivity through training courses that could be held during the planning horizon. Then, the proposed model is solved applying a hybrid algorithm that is a combination of Monte Carlo sampling method, modified -constraint method and L-shaped method. Finally, a numerical example is solved to demonstrate the validity of the model as well as the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  12. Islanding Operation of Distribution System with Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The growing interest in distributed generations (DGs) due to environmental concern and various other reasons have resulted in significant penetration of DGs in many distribution system worldwide. DGs come with many benefits. One of the benefits is improved reliability by supplying load during power...

  13. Statistical models for the analysis of water distribution system pipe break data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamijala, Shridhar; Guikema, Seth D.; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    The deterioration of pipes leading to pipe breaks and leaks in urban water distribution systems is of concern to water utilities throughout the world. Pipe breaks and leaks may result in reduction in the water-carrying capacity of the pipes and contamination of water in the distribution systems. Water utilities incur large expenses in the replacement and rehabilitation of water mains, making it critical to evaluate the current and future condition of the system for maintenance decision-making. This paper compares different statistical regression models proposed in the literature for estimating the reliability of pipes in a water distribution system on the basis of short time histories. The goals of these models are to estimate the likelihood of pipe breaks in the future and determine the parameters that most affect the likelihood of pipe breaks. The data set used for the analysis comes from a major US city, and these data include approximately 85,000 pipe segments with nearly 2500 breaks from 2000 through 2005. The results show that the set of statistical models previously proposed for this problem do not provide good estimates with the test data set. However, logistic generalized linear models do provide good estimates of pipe reliability and can be useful for water utilities in planning pipe inspection and maintenance

  14. Paradigm of planning under uncertainties - application to the planning of the electric energy distribution system; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto; Reis, Lineu Belico dos

    1996-07-01

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the dynamic programming, which comprehends the multistage processes subjected to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and Fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions relative to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of 'evolutional rules' associated to 'network flow' algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems. Particularly, the model fits in the ambit of the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by 'strips' of actions (discrete or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the 'real world'. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric power, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm's applicability. Through comparisons effectuated with and pre-validated algorithm, evaluations related to the potentialities and to the coherence of the paradigm's applicability were made. (author)

  15. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Paola; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Frau-Valenti, Joan; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  16. A guide to distribution network operator connection and use of system methodologies and charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This report aims to help those developing or planning to develop power generation schemes connected to local electricity distribution systems (distributed generation) to understand the various regional network charging schemes in the UK. It is also intended to act as a route map to understand distribution charges as they are currently applied; further changes in charging arrangements between 2005 and 2010 are indicated and signposts to sources of further information are provided. The report explains the structure of distribution networks, the outcome of the regulatory review of distribution pricing undertaken by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem) applicable from 1 April 2005 and how this affects distribution network operators (DNOs) and their distribution charges. The report considers: the energy policy framework in the UK; the commercial and regulatory framework that applies to distributed generators; DNOs and their regulatory framework; network charging methodologies and principles; charging statements; and areas of likely future changes. Individual schedules and contact details are given in an appendix for each DNO.

  17. An overview of state of distribution in the country with particular reference to distribution in the country with particular reference to distribution in metropolitan cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishoo, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Actual investment in transmission and distribution segment of power development programme of the country has remained far below the plan allocation which itself has always remained below the allocation for generation. It has resulted into creating serious constraints in utilising available power in many areas. Factors responsible for heavy distribution losses are pointed out. Emphasis on rural electrification at any cost without appropriate investment in back-up distribution system and sub-transmission system is causing heavy distribution losses. Special features and problems of the urban distribution are discussed. Taking Bombay Suburban Electricity Supply (BSES) system as an illustration, it is described how the distribution problems are being tackled. (M.G.B.)

  18. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  19. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  20. Advanced Distribution Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Avazov, Artur; Sobinova, Lubov Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  1. Advanced Distribution Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  2. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996)

  3. Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borneman, L.E.

    1998-01-09

    This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996).

  4. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    deviation and real power shift. When a distribution system, with all its generators operating at maximum power, is islanded, the frequency will go down if the total load is more than the total generation. An under-frequency load shedding procedure for islanded distribution systems with DG unit(s) based...... states. Short circuit power also changes when some of the generators in the distribution system are disconnected. This may result in elongation of fault clearing time and hence disconnection of equipments (including generators) in the distribution system or unnecessary operation of protective devices...... operational challenges. But, on the other hand, it has also opened up some opportunities. One opportunity/challenge is an islanded operation of a distribution system with DG unit(s). Islanding is a situation in which a distribution system becomes electrically isolated from the remainder of the power system...

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  6. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  7. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  8. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  9. Master planning for successful safeguard/security systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The development and phased implementation of an overall master plan for weapons systems and facilities engaged in the complexities of high technology provides a logical road map for system accomplishment. An essential factor in such a comprehensive plan is development of an integrated systems security engineering plan. Some DOD programs use new military regulations and policy directives to mandate consideration of the safeguard/security disciplines be considered for weapons systems and facilities during the entire life cycle of the program. The emphasis is to make certain the weapon system and applicable facilities have complementary security features. Together they must meet the needs of the operational mission and, at the same time, provide the security forces practical solutions to their requirements. This paper discusses the process of meshing the safe- guards/security requirements with an overall the master plan and the challenges attendant to this activity

  10. Decennial plan of expansion 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Decennial Plan of Expansion 1994-2003 of Electric sector reproduces the results of the studies occurred during the planning cycle of 1992/93 from the Coordinator Groups of the Electric System Planning. Based in the market forecasting, economic-financier and time for finishing the the works, the Decennial Plan of Expansion presents the schedule of the main generation and transmission works for the next ten years, the annual spend in generation, transmission and distribution, the costs of expansion and the evaluation of attending conditions in electric system in Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  11. Considering inventory distributions in a stochastic periodic inventory routing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Ehsan; Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with the stochasticity of parameters is one of the critical issues in business and industry nowadays. Supply chain planners have difficulties in forecasting stochastic parameters of a distribution system. Demand rates of customers during their lead time are one of these parameters. In addition, holding a huge level of inventory at the retailers is costly and inefficient. To cover the uncertainty of forecasting demand rates, researchers have proposed the usage of safety stock to avoid stock-out. However, finding the precise level of safety stock depends on forecasting the statistical distribution of demand rates and their variations in different settings among the planning horizon. In this paper the demand rate distributions and its parameters are taken into account for each time period in a stochastic periodic IRP. An analysis of the achieved statistical distribution of the inventory and safety stock level is provided to measure the effects of input parameters on the output indicators. Different values for coefficient of variation are applied to the customers' demand rate in the optimization model. The outcome of the deterministic equivalent model of SPIRP is simulated in form of an illustrative case.

  12. Treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy of breast cancer – from Paris system to anatomy-based inverse planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Major

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial breast brachytherapy has evolved considerably from fluoroscopy-based 2D to anatomy-based 3D planning. To plan the right positions of the catheters, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT imaging can be used, but the treatment plan is always based on postimplant CT images. With CT imaging, the 3D target volume can be defined more precisely and delineation of the organs at risk volumes is also possible. Consequently, parameters calculated from dose-volume histogram can be used for quantitative plan evaluation. The catheter reconstruction is also easier and faster on CT images compared to X-ray films. In high dose rate brachytherapy, using a stepping source, a number of forward dose optimization methods (manual, geometrical, on dose points, graphical are available to shape the dose distribution to the target volume, and these influence dose homogeneities to different extent. Currently, inverse optimization algorithms offer new possibilities to improve dose distributions further considering the requirements for dose coverage, dose homogeneity, and dose to organs at risk simultaneously and automatically. In this article, the evolvement of treatment planning for interstitial breast implants is reviewed, different forward optimization methods are discussed, and dose-volume parameters used for quantitative plan evaluation are described. Finally, some questions of the inverse optimization method are investigated and initial experiences of the authors are presented.

  13. Digitalized distribution system for the power supply. Internet of the energy; Digitalisiertes Verteilungsnetz fuer die Stromversorgung. Internet der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenhaeuser, Bernd; Ebbes, Alexander [GIP AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-05-13

    Current power distribution systems are highly connected with each other, redundantly designed with respect to the security of supply and require a central planning. Due to the close interlocking, disturbances may spread quickly and lead to a large-scale blackout. In order to counteract failures in the face of an increasing share of renewable energy, energy has to be hold out - an inefficient and expensive reserve. A decentralized, digital power distribution system may handle the task much better.

  14. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized control,  control with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  15. Distributed Cognition and Embodiment in Text Planning: A Situated Study of Collaborative Writing in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Through a study of collaborative writing at a student advocacy nonprofit, this article explores how writers distribute their text planning across tools, artifacts, and gestures, with a particular focus on how embodied representations of texts are present in text planning. Findings indicate that these and other representations generated by the…

  16. Guide to Developing an Environmental Management System - Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page takes you though the basic steps (Plan, Do, Check, Act) of building an Environmental Management System (EMS) as they are outlined in the 2001 Second Edition of Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide. Plan section.

  17. Fujian electric system analysis and nuclear power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianwen; Fu Qiang; Cheng Ping

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the study is to conduct a long term electric expansion planning and nuclear power planning for Fujian Province. The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III) is used to optimize the electric system. Probabilistic Simulation is one of the most favorite techniques for middle and long term generation and production cost planning of electric power system. The load duration curve is obtained by recording the load data of a time interval into a monotone non-increasing sense. Polynomial function is used to describe the load duration curve (LDC), and this LDC is prepared for probabilistic simulation in WASP-III. WASP-III is a dynamic optimizing module in the area of supply modelling. It could find out the economically optimal expansion plan for a power generating system over a period of up to thirty years, with the constraints given by the planners. The optimum is evaluated in terms of minimum discounted total costs. Generating costs, amount of energy not served and reliability of the system are analyzed in the system expansion planning by using the probabilistic simulation method. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. Hydro electricity is the cheapest one of all available technologies and resources. After the large hydro station is committed at the end of 1995, more base load power plants are needed in the system. Coal-fired power plants with capacity of 600 MWe will be the most competitive power plants in the future of the system. At the end of the studying period, about half of the stalled capacity will be composed of these power plants. Nuclear power plants with capacity of 600 MWe are suitable for the system after the base load increases to a certain level. Oil combustion units will decrease the costs of the system. (12 tabs., 6 figs.)

  18. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony L.; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J.; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A novel phantom is presented for ‘full system’ dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit.

  19. Design and implementation of a film dosimetry audit tool for comparison of planned and delivered dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Antony L; Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew; Lee, Chris; Ratcliffe, Ailsa J

    2013-01-01

    A novel phantom is presented for ‘full system’ dosimetric audit comparing planned and delivered dose distributions in HDR gynaecological brachytherapy, using clinical treatment applicators. The brachytherapy applicator dosimetry test object consists of a near full-scatter water tank with applicator and film supports constructed of Solid Water, accommodating any typical cervix applicator. Film dosimeters are precisely held in four orthogonal planes bisecting the intrauterine tube, sampling dose distributions in the high risk clinical target volume, points A and B, bladder, rectum and sigmoid. The applicator position is fixed prior to CT scanning and through treatment planning and irradiation. The CT data is acquired with the applicator in a near clinical orientation to include applicator reconstruction in the system test. Gamma analysis is used to compare treatment planning system exported RTDose grid with measured multi-channel film dose maps. Results from two pilot audits are presented, using Ir-192 and Co-60 HDR sources, with a mean gamma passing rate of 98.6% using criteria of 3% local normalization and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA). The mean DTA between prescribed dose and measured film dose at point A was 1.2 mm. The phantom was funded by IPEM and will be used for a UK national brachytherapy dosimetry audit. (paper)

  20. Advanced Distribution Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazov Artur R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  1. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization

  2. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  3. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  4. System Planning With The Hanford Waste Operations Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.; Certa, P.J.; Wells, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  5. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  6. SCOS 2: A distributed architecture for ground system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Karl P.

    The current generation of spacecraft ground control systems in use at the European Space Agency/European Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC) is based on the SCOS 1. Such systems have become difficult to manage in both functional and financial terms. The next generation of spacecraft is demanding more flexibility in the use, configuration and distribution of control facilities as well as functional requirements capable of matching those being planned for future missions. SCOS 2 is more than a successor to SCOS 1. Many of the shortcomings of the existing system have been carefully analyzed by user and technical communities and a complete redesign was made. Different technologies were used in many areas including hardware platform, network architecture, user interfaces and implementation techniques, methodologies and language. As far as possible a flexible design approach has been made using popular industry standards to provide vendor independence in both hardware and software areas. This paper describes many of the new approaches made in the architectural design of the SCOS 2.

  7. Test plan: Brayton Isotope Power System Ground Demonstration System (BIPS-GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to provide an overall outline of all testing to be accomplished on the GDS. Included in this test plan are administrative requirements, instrumentation accuracies, instrumentation, equipment definitions, system test setup, and facility installation. The test program will enable collection of sufficient data to establish material, component, and system design integrity. The data will also be used to establish and evaluate component and system performance and reliability characteristics, verification of proper system component integration prior to initiation of Phase II, and flight system (FS) development

  8. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  9. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit

  10. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baoping; Chen, Zhuo; Wei, Yuguo; Qin, Xiaofeng

    2007-07-01

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  11. Bluetooth-based distributed measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng [Department of Mechatronics, College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2007-07-15

    A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.

  12. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  13. Planning a transportation system for US Defense Transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.

    1983-05-01

    The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans. 9 figures, 1 table

  14. Planning a transportation system for US defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, K.V.; Hurley, J.D.; Smith, L.J.; McFadden, M.H.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Fedie, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The development and planning of a transportation system for US Department of Energy (USDOE) Defense Transuranic (TRU) waste has required the talents and expertise of many people. Coordination activities, design activities, fabrication, research and development, operations, and transportation are but a few of the areas around which this system is built. Due to the large number of organizations, regulations and personalities the planning task becomes extremely complex. The intent of this paper is to discuss the steps taken in planning this system, to identify the various organizations around which this system is designed, and to discuss program progress to date, scheduling, and future plans

  15. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paola [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sudria-Andreu, Antoni [Centre d' Innovacio en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), E.T.S. Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica Catalunya, Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Josep Pla, B2, Pl. Baixa, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Frau-Valenti, Joan [ENDESA, Carrer Joan Maragall, 16 07006 Palma (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan. (author)

  16. Integrating design and production planning with knowledge-based inspection planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ghaleb Y.; Ketan, Hussein S.; Adil, Mazen B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an intelligent environment to integrate design and inspection earlier to the design stage. A hybrid knowledge-based approach integrating computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) was developed, thereafter called computer-aided design and inspection planning (CADIP). CADIP was adopted for automated dimensional inspection planning. Critical functional features were screened based on certain attributes for part features for inspection planning application. Testing the model resulted in minimizing the number of probing vectors associated with the most important features in the inspected prismatic part, significant reduction in inspection costs and release of human labor. In totality, this tends to increase customer satisfaction as a final goal of the developed system. (author)

  17. Strategic planning--a plan for excellence for South Haven Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Joanne; Baskel, Maureen; Martelli, Mary

    2011-01-01

    South Haven Health System has developed an innovative approach to strategic planning. The key to success of this process has been the multidisciplinary involvement of all stakeholders from the first planning session through the final formation of a strategic plan with measurable objectives for each goal. The process utilizes a Conversation Café method for identifying opportunities and establishing goals, Strategic Oversight Teams to address each goal and a Champion for implementation of each objective. Progress is measured quarterly by Strategic Oversight Team report cards. Transparency of communication within the organization and the sharing of information move the plan forward. The feedback from participant evaluations has been overwhelmingly positive. They are involved and excited.

  18. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed.

  19. Enhancement on infectious diseases nursing plan information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Lin; Hao, Te-Hui; Hsu, Chien-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on researches, the most time-consuming nursing activities, in teaching hospital, are: room patrols, the blood pressure survey, the body temperature pulse breath survey, the nursing record maintenance. The nursing record is one way to communicate data. It can allow the medical service team to understand what measures the nursing staff once did for sickness, as well as responses from sickness. Nevertheless, it is the key component to utilize the record with a clinical nursing plan, so as to provide a proficient health management. Since the maintenance of nursing plan is costly and time-consuming, therefore, it is essential to establish the nursing plan information system, which can effectively promote the nursing quality. This research main body comes from one infectious disease division nursing plan information system, which was developed in 1992, and its data base covers entire courtyard compatibility and various faculties characteristic nursing plan. The nursing staff often complained that this system is not user-friendly, its contents are not comprehensive, and sometimes it does not let staff choose the right diagnosis. Therefore this research is based on history analysis and the questionnaire survey procedure first, the infectious disease nursing plan use number of times, the frequency and the project content, then by the literature scientific theory and result of the improvement group discussion together. The original 38 infectious disease division nursing plan will be expanded to 45 nursing plans. Moreover, the common 38 infectious disease code (ICD-9), and its corresponding diagnosis items, shall automatically appear in the disease diagnose code field, so it would be better off for the nursing staff to set up the nursing plan efficiently. Infectious disease division nursing plan information system utilization ratio is promoted 9.6-folds, according to research outcome. Each task consumes 3.68 minutes beforehand-including computer program operation, the

  20. Identification systems subject to plan cybersecurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Sanz, J.; Perez Alcaniz, T.; Garcia Garcia, I.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of a Plan Cybersecurity ensures that systems and communications networks that perform functions related to both physical security such emergency action and their support systems, and interfaces that may affect them, are protected with an effective system against cyber attacks.

  1. Probabilistic analysis in normal operation of distribution system with distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila-Robles, R.; Sumper, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the incorporation of high levels of small-scale non-dispatchable distributed generation is leading to the transition from the traditional 'vertical' power system structure to a 'horizontally-operated' power system, where the distribution networks contain both stochastic generation...... and load. This fact increases the number of stochastic inputs and dependence structures between them need to be considered. The deterministic analysis is not enough to cope with these issues and a new approach is needed. Probabilistic analysis provides a better approach. Moreover, as distribution systems...

  2. Power system restoration: planning and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D. [Assam Engineering Coll., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Assam (India); Sinha, A.K. [Inidan Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes a restoration guidance simulator, which allows power system operator/planner to simulate and plan restoration events in an interactive mode. The simulator provides a list of restoration events according to the priority based on some restoration rules and list of priority loads. It also provides in an interactive mode the list of events, which becomes possible as the system grows during restoration. Further, the selected event is validated through a load flow and other analytical tools to show the consequences of implementing the planned event. (Author)

  3. The THUDSOS Distributed Operating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖先Zhi; 刘旭峰; 等

    1991-01-01

    The THUDSOS is a distributed operating system modeled as an abstract machine which provides decentralized control,transparency,availability,and reliability,as welol as a good degree of autonomy at each node,that makes our distributed system usable.Our operating system supports transparent access to data through network wide filesystem.The simultaneous access to any device is discussed for the case when the peripherals are treated as files.This operating system allows spawning of parallel application programs to solve problems in the fields,such as numerical analysis and artificial intelligence.

  4. Basic Concepts Required in the Development of a Planning Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, F. D.

    This report, the result of developmental research on a planning information system for North Carolina, describes the planning process at higher levels of State government, defines a general information system and derives a planning information system from various types of planning, provides guidelines for system design and evaluation, and…

  5. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  6. Biological planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganchev, D.; Nakova, N.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to introduce and apply the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) radiobiological model for dosimetry planning and assessment of dose distribution against the radiobiological response of the tumor and healthy tissues and its comparison with the standard traditional method of planning and evaluation by dose-rate histograms, determination of the advantages and disadvantages of the predictive radiobiological models against standard methodologies. Methods used: Planning was done with VMAT Technique Planning System Eclipse v13.6 - Photon Optimizer (PO) v13.6 optimization algorithm and Analytical Anisotropy Algorithm (AAA) v13.6 for calculating the final dose distribution. In each case, three dosimetry plans were developed: plan 1 - standard dosing with DV criteria to be used as control, plan 2 - planning with dose gEUD criteria only, and plan 3 - combined planning with 2 types (DV and gEUD) criteria. The results obtained were evaluated by a dose-response histogram against QUANTEC, the recommendations on the toxicity for normal tissue and the relationships between toxicity and volume effects. Results: The planning by using the gEUD method, though significantly more effective in protecting the normal tissue, has led to 'cold' and 'hot' spots with clinically unacceptable values and compared to the standard DV method. The combined method demonstrated superiority both for the formation of a dose distribution with a large inhomogeneity and irregular geometric shape, and reduction the dose in critical organs and normal tissue, with acceptable homogeneity and conformation of distribution. Conclusion: Dosimetry planning using the gEUD model has a number of advantages, the main of which is to provide criteria that correspond to radiobiological effects, but its specificity requires a great deal of attention when using it. Although it offers improved organ preservation, additional research is needed on the relationship between

  7. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  8. Improvements in patient treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Atkinson, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) software system is used to develop treatment planning information. In typical use BNCT-Rtpe consists of three main components: (1) Semi-automated geometric modeling of objects (brain, target, eyes, sinus) derived from MRI, CT, and other medical imaging modalities, (2) Dose computations for these geometric models with rtt-MC, the INEL Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, and (3) Dose contouring overlaid on medical images as well as generation of other dose displays. We continue to develop a planning system based on three-dimensional image-based reconstructions using Bspline surfaces. Even though this software is in an experimental state, it has been applied for large animal research and for an isolated case of treatment for a human glioma. Radiation transport is based on Monte Carlo, however there will be implementations of faster methods (e.g. diffusion theory) in the future. The important thing for treatment planning is the output which must convey, to the radiologist, the deposition of dose to healthy and target tissue. Many edits are available such that one can obtain contours registered to medical image, dose/volume histograms and most information required for treatment planning and response assessment. Recent work has been to make the process more automatic and easier to use. The interface, now implemented for contouring and reconstruction, utilizes the Xwindowing system and the MOTIF graphical users interface for effective interaction with the planner. Much work still remains before the tool can be applied in a routine clinical setting

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF THE ADVANCED PLANNING AND SCHEDULING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Botelho de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the activities of the planning and control of companies are becoming increasingly complex and the managers of this area are constantly pressured to reduce operating costs, maintain inventories at adequate levels, to fully meet the demand of customers, and to respond effectively to changes that occur. The planning and scheduling task is important for most companies, so according to some authors, there is a need for further analysis of the practical use of production planning and control systems. Within the context of production planning and control systems development, in the 1990s were launched the APS systems, which represent an innovation when compared to their predecessors. This paper intended to provide through a literature review, the concepts, structure, capabilities, implementation process and benefits of using APS systems in the companies production planning and control. The main contribution of this research is to show a strong conceptual understanding regarding APS systems, which can be used as a solid theoretical reference for future researches.

  10. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  11. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  12. SCI-Clone/32 - a distributed real time simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in engineering and in particular digital computers has enabled the simulation manufacturers to deliver a realism of a kind undreamt of a decade ago. 32-bit computers ranging in processor power from several hundred thousand instructions per second to many millions are at the heart of each simulator. Gould has pioneered digital computers in simulation with real time systems using shared memory, parallel processors, 64KByte cache, and shadow memory. The market is planning for higher iteration rates, lower life cycle costs, and the development of part task products. These can be met by distributing the tasks amongst nodal computers having a unique architecture for sharing data variables with minimal contention. (Auth.)

  13. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Fine, V; Potekhin, M; Panitkin, S; De, K; Nilsson, P; Stradling, A; Walker, R; Compostella, G

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. PanDA has performed well with high reliability and robustness during the two years of LHC data-taking, while being actively evolved to meet the rapidly changing requirements for analysis use cases. We will present an overview of system evolution including automatic rebrokerage and reattempt for analysis jobs, adaptation for the CernVM File System, support for the multi-cloud model through which Tier-2 sites act as members of multiple clouds, pledged resource management and preferential brokerage, and monitoring improvements. We will also describe results from the analysis of two years of PanDA usage statistics, current issues, and plans for the future.

  14. Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, John [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Newhauser, Wayne, E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Homann, Kenneth; Howell, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Schneider, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects.

  15. Equilibrium distribution function in collisionless systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Collisionless systems of a large number of N particles interacting by Coulomb forces are widely spread in cosmic and laboratory plasma. A statistical theory of equilibrium state of collisionless Coulomb systems which evolution obeys Vlasov equation is proposed. The developed formalism permits a sequential consideration of such distributed in one-particle six-dimensional phase space of a system and to obtain a simple result: equilibrium distribution function has the form of Fermi-Dirac distribution and doesn't depend on initial state factors

  16. On Distributed Port-Hamiltonian Process Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopezlena, Ricardo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we use the term distributed port-Hamiltonian Process Systems (DPHPS) to refer to the result of merging the theory of distributed Port-Hamiltonian systems (DPHS) with the theory of process systems (PS). Such concept is useful for combining the systematic interconnection of PHS with the

  17. Designing of network planning system for small-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Russkikh, P. A.; Vinnichenko, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents features of network planning in small-scale discrete production. The procedure of explosion of the production order, considering multilevel representation, is developed. The software architecture is offered. Approbation of the network planning system is carried out. This system allows carrying out dynamic updating of the production plan.

  18. Contraceptive social marketing and community-based distribution systems in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Townsend, M C

    1988-01-01

    Three operations research experiments were carried out in three provinces of Colombia to improve the cost-effectiveness of Profamilia's nonclinic-based programs. The experiments tested: (a) whether a contraceptive social marketing (CSM) strategy can replace a community-based distribution (CBD) program in a high contraceptive use area; (b) if wage incentives for salaried CBD instructors will increase contraceptive sales; and (c) whether a specially equipped information, education, and communication (IEC) team can replace a cadre of rural promoters to expand family planning coverage. All three strategies proved to be effective, but only the CSM system yielded a profit. Despite this, Profamilia discontinued its CSM program soon after the experiment was completed. Unexpected government controls regulating the price and sale of contraceptives in Colombia made the program unprofitable. As a result, family planning agencies are cautioned against replacing CBD programs with CSM. Instead, CBD programs might adopt a more commercial approach to become more efficient.

  19. An investigation of the effect of changes of planning criteria on power system expansion planning with a case study of the Jordanian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, Fawwaz; Abu-Shikhah, Nazih; Abu-Zarour, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the planning process of power systems. In the context of expansion planning, focus is paid to selection criteria that enable the optimization of related factors that will result in the best performance. This is described as meeting demand whilst reducing costs and maintaining minimal risk in operation. In this paper, different criteria used in the planning of power system expansion studies are investigated with the objective of identifying their impact on the expansion plan. The results of these criteria on the expansion study of the Jordanian power system are presented. Results show good correspondence to the actual adopted solutions. The spinning reserve is the most influential planning criterion on the overall system expansion cost. This is followed by the peak load changes, and the forced outage rate of the candidate units used for capacity additions to meet future expected demand. Finally, the loss of load expectation and cost of energy not served have the least effect on the overall system expansion cost. These results highlight the importance to be placed on performing sensitivity analyses to determine the most cost effective and acceptable expansion plan of the electric power system. There is a need to continually update the planning criteria to cater for changes and developments in the power system and the economic situation. Finally, the methodology of this study can be generalized to other power systems.

  20. An investigation of the effect of changes of planning criteria on power system expansion planning with a case study of the Jordanian power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkarmi, Fawwaz; Abu-Shikhah, Nazih [Al-Ahliyya Amman University, College of Engineering, AA University Post Office, Zip code 19328 (Jordan); Abu-Zarour, Mohammad [NEPCO, Department of Generation Planning, P.O. Box 2310, Amman 11194 (Jordan)

    2010-10-15

    Many factors contribute to the planning process of power systems. In the context of expansion planning, focus is paid to selection criteria that enable the optimization of related factors that will result in the best performance. This is described as meeting demand whilst reducing costs and maintaining minimal risk in operation. In this paper, different criteria used in the planning of power system expansion studies are investigated with the objective of identifying their impact on the expansion plan. The results of these criteria on the expansion study of the Jordanian power system are presented. Results show good correspondence to the actual adopted solutions. The spinning reserve is the most influential planning criterion on the overall system expansion cost. This is followed by the peak load changes, and the forced outage rate of the candidate units used for capacity additions to meet future expected demand. Finally, the loss of load expectation and cost of energy not served have the least effect on the overall system expansion cost. These results highlight the importance to be placed on performing sensitivity analyses to determine the most cost effective and acceptable expansion plan of the electric power system. There is a need to continually update the planning criteria to cater for changes and developments in the power system and the economic situation. Finally, the methodology of this study can be generalized to other power systems. (author)

  1. A Heuristic Approach to Distributed Generation Source Allocation for Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent trends in electrical power distribution system operation and management are aimed at improving system conditions in order to render good service to the customer. The reforms in distribution sector have given major scope for employment of distributed generation (DG resources which will boost the system performance. This paper proposes a heuristic technique for allocation of distribution generation source in a distribution system. The allocation is determined based on overall improvement in network performance parameters like reduction in system losses, improvement in voltage stability, improvement in voltage profile. The proposed Network Performance Enhancement Index (NPEI along with the heuristic rules facilitate determination of feasible location and corresponding capacity of DG source. The developed approach is tested with different test systems to ascertain its effectiveness.

  2. Review on Islanding Operation of Distribution System with Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    The growing environmental concern and various benefits of distributed generation (DG) have resulted in significant penetration of DG in many distribution systems worldwide. One of the major expected benefits of DG is the improvement in the reliability of power supply by supplying load during power...... outage by operating in an island mode. However, there are many challenges to overcome before islanding operation of a distribution system with DG can become a viable solution in future. This paper reviews some of the major challenges with islanding operation and explores some possible solutions...

  3. Design considerations, architecture, and use of the Mini-Sentinel distributed data system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Lesley H; Weiner, Mark G; Boudreau, Denise M; Cooper, William O; Daniel, Gregory W; Nair, Vinit P; Raebel, Marsha A; Beaulieu, Nicolas U; Rosofsky, Robert; Woodworth, Tiffany S; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design, implementation, and use of a large, multiorganizational distributed database developed to support the Mini-Sentinel Pilot Program of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As envisioned by the US FDA, this implementation will inform and facilitate the development of an active surveillance system for monitoring the safety of medical products (drugs, biologics, and devices) in the USA. A common data model was designed to address the priorities of the Mini-Sentinel Pilot and to leverage the experience and data of participating organizations and data partners. A review of existing common data models informed the process. Each participating organization designed a process to extract, transform, and load its source data, applying the common data model to create the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. Transformed data were characterized and evaluated using a series of programs developed centrally and executed locally by participating organizations. A secure communications portal was designed to facilitate queries of the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database and transfer of confidential data, analytic tools were developed to facilitate rapid response to common questions, and distributed querying software was implemented to facilitate rapid querying of summary data. As of July 2011, information on 99,260,976 health plan members was included in the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. The database includes 316,009,067 person-years of observation time, with members contributing, on average, 27.0 months of observation time. All data partners have successfully executed distributed code and returned findings to the Mini-Sentinel Operations Center. This work demonstrates the feasibility of building a large, multiorganizational distributed data system in which organizations retain possession of their data that are used in an active surveillance system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Patient dose simulation in X-ray CT using a radiation treatment-planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Yasuo; Oda, Masahiko; Minamoto, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    Medical irradiation dosage has been increasing with the development of new radiological equipment and new techniques like interventional radiology. It is fair to say that patient dose has been increased as a result of the development of multi-slice CT. A number of studies on the irradiation dose of CT have been reported, and the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is now used as a general means of determining CT dose. However, patient dose distribution in the body varies with the patient's constitution, bowel gas in the body, and conditions of exposure. In this study, patient dose was analyzed from the viewpoint of dose distribution, using a radiation treatment-planning computer. Percent depth dose (PDD) and the off-center ratio (OCR) of the CT beam are needed to calculate dose distribution by the planning computer. Therefore, X-ray CT data were measured with various apparatuses, and beam data were sent to the planning computer. Measurement and simulation doses in the elliptical phantom (Mix-Dp: water equivalent material) were collated, and the CT irradiation dose was determined for patient dose simulation. The rotational radiation treatment technique was used to obtain the patient dose distribution of CT, and patient dose was evaluated through simulation of the dose distribution. CT images of the thorax were sent to the planning computer and simulated. The result was that the patient dose distribution of the thorax was obtained for CT examination. (author)

  5. Active Distribution Grid Management based on Robust AC Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Bessa, Richard J.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Further integration of distributed renewable energy sources in distribution systems requires a paradigm change in grid management by the distribution system operators (DSO). DSOs are currently moving to an operational planning approach based on activating flexibility from distributed energy resou...

  6. A virtual reality solution for evaluation of radiotherapy plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Daniel; Muren, Ludvig; Mehus, Anfinn

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a VR system for evaluation of treatment plans used in radiotherapy (RT), developed to improve the understanding of the spatial relationships between the patient anatomy and the calculated dose distribution. The VR system offers visualization through interactive volume rendering...... of RT dose distribution and computed tomography (CT) and surface and line rendering of RT structures such as target volumes and organs at risk. The VR system has been installed and networked in a hospital room used for the daily RT conferences, making stereoscopic viewing of treatment planning data...

  7. A virtual reality solution for evaluation of radiotherapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Daniel; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Mehus, Anfinn; Kvinnsland, Yngve; Ulvang, Dag Magne; Villanger, Kare P.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a VR system for evaluation of treatment plans used in radiotherapy (RT), developed to improve the understanding of the spatial relationships between the patient anatomy and the calculated dose distribution. The VR system offers visualization through interactive volume rendering of RT dose distribution and computed tomography (CT) and surface and line rendering of RT structures such as target volumes and organs at risk. The VR system has been installed and networked in a hospital room used for the daily RT conferences, making stereoscopic viewing of treatment planning data for clinical cases possible

  8. An overview of the EOSDIS V0 information management system: Lessons learned from the implementation of a distributed data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick M.

    1994-01-01

    The EOSDIS Version 0 system, released in July, 1994, is a working prototype of a distributed data system. One of the purposes of the V0 project is to take several existing data systems and coordinate them into one system while maintaining the independent nature of the original systems. The project is a learning experience and the lessons are being passed on to the architects of the system which will distribute the data received from the planned EOS satellites. In the V0 system, the data resides on heterogeneous systems across the globe but users are presented with a single, integrated interface. This interface allows users to query the participating data centers based on a wide set of criteria. Because this system is a prototype, we used many novel approaches in trying to connect a diverse group of users with the huge amount of available data. Some of these methods worked and others did not. Now that V0 has been released to the public, we can look back at the design and implementation of the system and also consider some possible future directions for the next generation of EOSDIS.

  9. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor urbanization policies, inefficient planning and monitoring technologies are evident. The consequences include some of the worst types of environmental hazards. Best urbanization practices require integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide ...

  10. Optimal planning of integrated multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Beuzekom, I.; Gibescu, M.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical approach for the optimal planning of integrated energy systems is proposed. In order to address the challenges of future, RES-dominated energy systems, the model deliberates between the expansion of traditional energy infrastructures, the integration...... and sustainability goals for 2030 and 2045. Optimal green- and brownfield designs for a district's future integrated energy system are compared using a one-step, as well as a two-step planning approach. As expected, the greenfield designs are more cost efficient, as their results are not constrained by the existing...

  11. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  12. PM2006: a highly scalable urban planning management information system--Case study: Suzhou Urban Planning Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changfeng; Liang, Song; Ruan, Yong; Huang, Jie

    2008-10-01

    During the urbanization process, when facing complex requirements of city development, ever-growing urban data, rapid development of planning business and increasing planning complexity, a scalable, extensible urban planning management information system is needed urgently. PM2006 is such a system that can deal with these problems. In response to the status and problems in urban planning, the scalability and extensibility of PM2006 are introduced which can be seen as business-oriented workflow extensibility, scalability of DLL-based architecture, flexibility on platforms of GIS and database, scalability of data updating and maintenance and so on. It is verified that PM2006 system has good extensibility and scalability which can meet the requirements of all levels of administrative divisions and can adapt to ever-growing changes in urban planning business. At the end of this paper, the application of PM2006 in Urban Planning Bureau of Suzhou city is described.

  13. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  14. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot......The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... assembly task is discussed....

  15. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) Defense Acquisition Management Information...President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then Year...Phone: 845-9625 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: May 19, 2014 Program Information Program Name Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5) DoD

  16. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  17. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  18. BUDGET PLANNING IN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Melnichuk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the nature, targets, functions, principles and methods of budget planning and development of classifications due to its types. The essence of budget planning presented by various authors, is own interpretation (the process of developing a plan of formation, distribution and redistribution of financial funds according to budget system units during the reporting period based on budgetary purposes and targets defined by socio-economic development strategy...

  19. Advanced smartgrids for distribution system operators

    CERN Document Server

    Boillot, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic of the Energy Transition is engaged in many region of the World. This is a real challenge for electric systems and a paradigm shift for existing distribution networks. With the help of "advanced" smart technologies, the Distribution System Operators will have a central role to integrate massively renewable generation, electric vehicle and demand response programs. Many projects are on-going to develop and assess advanced smart grids solutions, with already some lessons learnt. In the end, the Smart Grid is a mean for Distribution System Operators to ensure the quality and the secu

  20. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... distributed transmission system. [73 FR 74064, Dec. 5, 2008] ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission...

  1. Smart-DS: Synthetic Models for Advanced, Realistic Testing: Distribution Systems and Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgindy, Tarek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bugbee, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rossol, Michael N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vergara, Claudio [MIT; Domingo, Carlos Mateo [IIT Comillas; Postigo, Fernando [IIT Comillas; de Cuadra, Fernando [IIT Comillas; Gomez, Tomas [IIT Comillas; Duenas, Pablo [MIT; Luke, Max [MIT; Li, Vivian [MIT; Vinoth, Mohan [GE Grid Solutions; Kadankodu, Sree [GE Grid Solutions

    2017-08-09

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Universidad Pontificia Comillas (Comillas-IIT, Spain) and GE Grid Solutions, is working on an ARPA-E GRID DATA project, titled Smart-DS, to create: 1) High-quality, realistic, synthetic distribution network models, and 2) Advanced tools for automated scenario generation based on high-resolution weather data and generation growth projections. Through these advancements, the Smart-DS project is envisioned to accelerate the development, testing, and adoption of advanced algorithms, approaches, and technologies for sustainable and resilient electric power systems, especially in the realm of U.S. distribution systems. This talk will present the goals and overall approach of the Smart-DS project, including the process of creating the synthetic distribution datasets using reference network model (RNM) and the comprehensive validation process to ensure network realism, feasibility, and applicability to advanced use cases. The talk will provide demonstrations of early versions of synthetic models, along with the lessons learnt from expert engagements to enhance future iterations. Finally, the scenario generation framework, its development plans, and co-ordination with GRID DATA repository teams to house these datasets for public access will also be discussed.

  2. Reliability assessment of distribution system with the integration of renewable distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adefarati, T.; Bansal, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Addresses impacts of renewable DG on the reliability of the distribution system. • Multi-objective formulation for maximizing the cost saving with integration of DG. • Uses Markov model to study the stochastic characteristics of the major components. • The investigation is done using modified RBTS bus test distribution system. • Proposed approach is useful for electric utilities to enhance the reliability. - Abstract: Recent studies have shown that renewable energy resources will contribute substantially to future energy generation owing to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels. Wind and solar energy resources are major sources of renewable energy that have the ability to reduce the energy crisis and the greenhouse gases emitted by the conventional power plants. Reliability assessment is one of the key indicators to measure the impact of the renewable distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution networks and to minimize the cost that is associated with power outage. This paper presents a comprehensive reliability assessment of the distribution system that satisfies the consumer load requirements with the penetration of wind turbine generator (WTG), electric storage system (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV). A Markov model is proposed to access the stochastic characteristics of the major components of the renewable DG resources as well as their influence on the reliability of a conventional distribution system. The results obtained from the case studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using WTG, ESS and PV to enhance the reliability of the conventional distribution system.

  3. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  4. Communication Systems and Study Method for Active Distribution Power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    Due to the involvement and evolvement of communication technologies in contemporary power systems, the applications of modern communication technologies in distribution power system are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO......) reference seven-layer model of communication systems, and the main communication technologies and protocols on each corresponding layer are introduced. Some newly developed communication techniques, like Ethernet, are discussed with reference to the possible applications in distributed power system....... The suitability of the communication technology to the distribution power system with active renewable energy based generation units is discussed. Subsequently the typical possible communication systems are studied by simulation. In this paper, a novel method of integrating communication system impact into power...

  5. Distributed Cognition and Distributed Morality: Agency, Artifacts and Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heersmink, Richard

    2017-04-01

    There are various philosophical approaches and theories describing the intimate relation people have to artifacts. In this paper, I explore the relation between two such theories, namely distributed cognition and distributed morality theory. I point out a number of similarities and differences in these views regarding the ontological status they attribute to artifacts and the larger systems they are part of. Having evaluated and compared these views, I continue by focussing on the way cognitive artifacts are used in moral practice. I specifically conceptualise how such artifacts (a) scaffold and extend moral reasoning and decision-making processes, (b) have a certain moral status which is contingent on their cognitive status, and (c) whether responsibility can be attributed to distributed systems. This paper is primarily written for those interested in the intersection of cognitive and moral theory as it relates to artifacts, but also for those independently interested in philosophical debates in extended and distributed cognition and ethics of (cognitive) technology.

  6. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  7. Distributed systems for protecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1980-05-01

    The advantages of distributed control systems for the control of nuclear power stations are obviously of great interest. Some years ago, EPRI, (Electric Power Research Institute) showed that multiplexing the signals is technically feasible, that it enables the availability specifications to be met and costs to be reduced. Since then, many distributed control systems have been proposed by the manufacturers. This note offers some comments on the application of the distribution concept to protection systems -what should be distributed- and ends with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for the pressurized power stations now being built in France [fr

  8. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  9. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System

  10. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of impacts of distributed generation integration in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sujiang; Zhou, Erbiao; Ji, Fengkun; Cao, Xinhui; Liu, Lingshuang; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Xuyang; Cai, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    All Distributed generation (DG) as the supplement to renewable energy centralized utilization, is becoming the focus of development direction of renewable energy utilization. With the increasing proportion of DG in distribution network, the network power structure, power flow distribution, operation plans and protection are affected to some extent. According to the main impacts of DG, a comprehensive evaluation model of distributed network with DG is proposed in this paper. A comprehensive evaluation index system including 7 aspects, along with their corresponding index calculation method is established for quantitative analysis. The indices under different access capacity of DG in distribution network are calculated based on the IEEE RBTS-Bus 6 system and the evaluation result is calculated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The proposed model and method are verified effective and validity through case study.

  12. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  13. Progress on Protection Strategies to Mitigate the Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Norshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of distributed generation (DG based on renewable energy sources leads to its high integration in the distribution network (DN. Despite its well-known benefits, mainly in improving the distribution system reliability and security, there are challenges encountered from a protection system perspective. Traditionally, the design and operation of the protection system are based on a unidirectional power flow in the distribution network. However, the integration of distributed generation causes multidirectional power flows in the system. Therefore, the existing protection systems require some improvement or modification to address this new feature. Various protection strategies for distribution system have been proposed so that the benefits of distributed generation can be fully utilized. This paper reviews the current progress in protection strategies to mitigate the impact of distributed generation in the distribution network. In general, the reviewed strategies in this paper are divided into: (1 conventional protection systems and (2 modifications of the protection systems. A comparative study is presented in terms of the respective benefits, shortcomings and implementation cost. Future directions for research in this area are also presented.

  14. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D; Macedo, F X; Mcconnach, J S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  16. SU-E-T-616: Plan Quality Assessment of Both Treatment Planning System Dose and Measurement-Based 3D Reconstructed Dose in the Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Systematic radiotherapy plan quality assessment promotes quality improvement. Software tools can perform this analysis by applying site-specific structure dose metrics. The next step is to similarly evaluate the quality of the dose delivery. This study defines metrics for acceptable doses to targets and normal organs for a particular treatment site and scores each plan accordingly. The input can be the TPS or the measurement-based 3D patient dose. From this analysis, one can determine whether the delivered dose distribution to the patient receives a score which is comparable to the TPS plan score, otherwise replanning may be indicated. Methods: Eleven neuroblastoma patient plans were exported from Eclipse to the Quality Reports program. A scoring algorithm defined a score for each normal and target structure based on dose-volume parameters. Each plan was scored by this algorithm and the percentage of total possible points was obtained. Each plan also underwent IMRT QA measurements with a Mapcheck2 or ArcCheck. These measurements were input into the 3DVH program to compute the patient 3D dose distribution which was analyzed using the same scoring algorithm as the TPS plan. Results: The mean quality score for the TPS plans was 75.37% (std dev=14.15%) compared to 71.95% (std dev=13.45%) for the 3DVH dose distribution. For 3/11 plans, the 3DVH-based quality score was higher than the TPS score, by between 0.5 to 8.4 percentage points. Eight/11 plans scores decreased based on IMRT QA measurements by 1.2 to 18.6 points. Conclusion: Software was used to determine the degree to which the plan quality score differed between the TPS and measurement-based dose. Although the delivery score was generally in good agreement with the planned dose score, there were some that improved while there was one plan whose delivered dose quality was significantly less than planned. This methodology helps evaluate both planned and delivered dose quality. Sun Nuclear Corporation has

  17. Distributed Optimization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  18. A multistage framework for reliability-based distribution expansion planning considering distributed generations by a self-adaptive global-based harmony search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaie, Mojtaba; Ameli, Mohammad T.; Sepasian, Mohammad S.; Weinsier, Philip D.; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present a new multistage framework for reliability-based Distribution Expansion Planning (DEP) in which expansion options are a reinforcement and/or installation of substations, feeders, and Distributed Generations (DGs). The proposed framework takes into account not only costs associated with investment, maintenance, and operation, but also expected customer interruption cost in the optimization as four problem objectives. At the same time, operational restrictions, Kirchhoff's laws, radial structure limitation, voltage limits, and capital expenditure budget restriction are considered as problem constraints. The proposed model is a non-convex optimization problem having a non-linear, mixed-integer nature. Hence, a hybrid Self-adaptive Global-based Harmony Search Algorithm (SGHSA) and Optimal Power Flow (OPF) were used and followed by a fuzzy satisfying method in order to obtain the final optimal solution. The SGHSA is a recently developed optimization algorithm which imitates the music improvisation process. In this process, the harmonists improvise their instrument pitches, searching for the perfect state of harmony. The planning methodology was demonstrated on the 27-node, 13.8-kV test system in order to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of the proposed model. Simulation results illustrated the sufficiency and profitableness of the newly developed framework, when compared with other methods. - Highlights: • A new multistage framework is presented for reliability-based DEP problem. • In this paper, DGs are considered as an expansion option to increase the flexibility of the proposed model. • In this paper, effective factors of DEP problem are incorporated as a multi-objective model. • In this paper, three new algorithms HSA, IHSA and SGHSA are proposed. • Results obtained by the proposed SGHSA algorithm are better than others

  19. Information System for Land-Use Planning and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao; MIAO Fang

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain the overall social interest in land use and improve the level of land administration, an information system for land-use planning and management (ISLUPM) was established, which is composed of presentation layer, business logic layer and data layer in the general structure. The application support platform of the ISLUPM, built based on COM, COM+ and .NET standard components, includes data engine, data management, assemblies, components management, operation management, and interface. Then, an elaboration was made on major functions of the ISLUPM, such as planning revision scheme, planning operation flow, digital processing, thematic analysis and inquiry, and preparation of the chart of reserved land resources. The developed system has been successfully applied to the land-use planning and management work of Longquanyi District, Chengdu, China. It may provide a reference for development of geographic information system (GIS) for land and resources.

  20. Tourism and recreation system planning in Alberta provincial parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...

  1. Visualization of biomedical image data and irradiation planning using a parallel computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrig, R.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution explains the development of a novel, low-cost workstation for the processing of biomedical tomographic data sequences. The workstation was to allow both graphical display of the data and implementation of modelling software for irradiation planning, especially for calculation of dose distributions on the basis of the measured tomogram data. The system developed according to these criteria is a parallel computing system which performs secondary, two-dimensional image reconstructions irrespective of the imaging direction of the original tomographic scans. Three-dimensional image reconstructions can be generated from any direction of view, with random selection of sections of the scanned object. (orig./MM) With 69 figs., 2 tabs [de

  2. Information security management system planning for CBRN facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenaeu, Joseph D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leitch, Rosalyn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glantz, Clifford S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Landine, Guy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryant, Janet L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lewis, John [National Nuclear Lab., Workington (United Kingdom); Mathers, Gemma [National Nuclear Lab., Workington (United Kingdom); Rodger, Robert [National Nuclear Lab., Workington (United Kingdom); Johnson, Christopher [National Nuclear Lab., Workington (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this document is to provide guidance for the development of information security management system planning documents at chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) facilities. It describes a risk-based approach for planning information security programs based on the sensitivity of the data developed, processed, communicated, and stored on facility information systems.

  3. Information security management system planning for CBRN facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaeu, Joseph D.; O'Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lewis, John; Mathers, Gemma; Rodger, Robert; Johnson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this document is to provide guidance for the development of information security management system planning documents at chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) facilities. It describes a risk-based approach for planning information security programs based on the sensitivity of the data developed, processed, communicated, and stored on facility information systems.

  4. Systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system

  5. Distributed computer systems theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zedan, H S M

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Computer Systems: Theory and Practice is a collection of papers dealing with the design and implementation of operating systems, including distributed systems, such as the amoeba system, argus, Andrew, and grapevine. One paper discusses the concepts and notations for concurrent programming, particularly language notation used in computer programming, synchronization methods, and also compares three classes of languages. Another paper explains load balancing or load redistribution to improve system performance, namely, static balancing and adaptive load balancing. For program effici

  6. The influence of inhomogeneities on the dose distribution of fast electrons in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windemuth, M.

    1985-01-01

    Simple models are used to make a principal comparison between measured fast-electron dose distributions behind tissue inhomogeneities and those calculated by means of an irradiation planning system. The different organs were represented by water (for muscle), by cork (for the lungs) and by graphite (for bone). Corresponding to their density, inhomogeneities result, in principle, in a dose shift to a greater or smaller body depth which is correctly considered by the irradiation planning system. However, electron scattering transversal to beam direction will occur behind inhomogeneity edges which, in general, are not covered by the irradiation planning system, but which result in dose distributions deviating strongly from those expected as due to the shift. This is the reason for the limited accuracy of irradiation planning systems in complicated inhomogeneity distribution. The thesis demonstrates those cases which justify irradiation planning and those cases where they are not a reliable basis for irradiation. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  8. Stability analysis of distributed order fractional chen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminikhah, H; Refahi Sheikhani, A; Rezazadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    We first investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of stability of nonlinear distributed order fractional system and then we generalize the integer-order Chen system into the distributed order fractional domain. Based on the asymptotic stability theory of nonlinear distributed order fractional systems, the stability of distributed order fractional Chen system is discussed. In addition, we have found that chaos exists in the double fractional order Chen system. Numerical solutions are used to verify the analytical results.

  9. Stability Analysis of Distributed Order Fractional Chen System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminikhah, H.; Refahi Sheikhani, A.; Rezazadeh, H.

    2013-01-01

    We first investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of stability of nonlinear distributed order fractional system and then we generalize the integer-order Chen system into the distributed order fractional domain. Based on the asymptotic stability theory of nonlinear distributed order fractional systems, the stability of distributed order fractional Chen system is discussed. In addition, we have found that chaos exists in the double fractional order Chen system. Numerical solutions are used to verify the analytical results. PMID:24489508

  10. Improvement of dose distribution of esophageal irradiation using the field-within-a-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Tsugunori; Okabe, Keigo; Yamato, Hidetada; Murakami, Jyunji; Nakazawa, Yasuo; Kato, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The wide radiation field for mediastinal dose distribution should be inhomogeneous with the usual simple opposed beam irradiation. The purpose of this study was to improve the dose distribution of the mediastinum using a conventional planning system with a dose-volume histogram (DVH) and the field-in-field technique. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution is obtained in bilateral opposed-field irradiation. An overdose area obtained from the 3D dose distribution is defined and reprojected into the irradiation field. A new reduced field is created by removing the reprojected overdose area. A 3D dose distribution is again obtained and compared with the results from first one. Procedures were repeated until each of the target volumes was within ±5% of the prescribed dose and the irradiation volume within 107% or less of the prescribed dose. From the DVH analysis, our field-within-a-field technique resulted in a more uniform dose distribution within the conventional planning. The field-within-a-field technique involves many parameters, and an inverse planning algorithm is suitable for computation. However, with our method, the forward planning system is adequate for planning, at least in a relatively straightforward planning system such as bilateral opposed fields therapy. (author)

  11. Linking human and natural systems in the planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer

    2012-01-01

    Planning links human and natural systems in the urban-rural interface by engaging people in consideration of the future of natural resources. We review evolving ideas about what planning entails, who it involves, and what its outcomes should be. Sense of place, collaboration, emergent planning, and other new developments in planning are discussed. Smaller plans,...

  12. Planning the expansion of distribution: technical and regulatory considerations; Planejamento da expansao da distribuicao: consideracoes tecnicas e regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil; Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre Passos da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica, Recursos Naturais e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The article presents the basis for the new planning of power distribution highlighting the beginning of the public hearing process for the creation of PRODIST: Procedures for Distribution of Electric Power by the ANEEL - National Agency of Electrical Energy.

  13. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  14. The strategic planning of health management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles and functions of strategic planning of information systems in health services. It selects four specialised methodologies of strategic planning for analysis with respect to their applicability in the health field. It then examines the utilisation of information planning in case studies of three health organisations (two State departments of health and community services and one acute care institution). Issues arising from the analysis concern the planning process, the use to which plans are put, and implications for management.

  15. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7 (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.;