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Sample records for distribution chemical composition

  1. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    <300µm, <106µm, <63µm and <44µm respectively. There was no remarkable difference in silica (SiO2) as particle fractions reduced from <. 300µm - < 106µm - < 63µm but an observed. Table 1.0 Chemical composition of crude clay. Component wt (%). SiO2. 38.48. Al2O3. 12.46. Fe2O3. 6.18. TiO2. 1.85. MgO. 14.67. CaO.

  2. Data Descriptor : Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Kristensson, Adam; Iwamoto, Yoko; Pringle, Kirsty; Reddington, Carly; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Baltensperger, Urs; Bialek, Jakub; Birmili, Wolfram; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Fiebig, Markus; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Furuya, Masaki; Hammer, Emanuel; Heikkinen, Liine; Herrmann, Erik; Holzinger, Rupert; Hyono, Hiroyuki; Kanakidou, Maria; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kinouchi, Kento; Kos, Gerard P A; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Motos, Ghislain; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Paramonov, Mikhail; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Slowik, Jay; Sonntag, Andre; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wittbom, Cerina; Ogren, John A.; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Carslaw, Ken; Stratmann, Frank; Gysel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other

  3. K-Ar age and chemical composition of basalt, andesite distributed in Shimabara peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Setsuya; Kamata, Hirotake

    1987-10-01

    Regarding the volcanic rocks genarated by eruption of volcanos in Shimabara Penisula, historical process of change of chemical compositions were studied. For determining the chemical compositions of basalt, andesite, X-ray fluorescence analysis was applied. By this result, distribution map of potassium and other microelements contained in the basalt and andesite was completed. It was considered that magma of similar composition were continuously kept supplied to north-western Kyushu including Shimabara Penisula since later Mesozoic era, that island arc type magma was generated at least 1.4 million years ago by the action of ocean plate, and that andesites were produced by mixing magma of hot spot type with that of island arc type. (3 figs, 2 tabs, 31 refs)

  4. Influence of silane content and filler distribution on chemical-mechanical properties of resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathy Aparecida XAVIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of silane concentration and filler size distribution on the chemical-mechanical properties of experimental composites. Experimental composites with silane contents of 0%, 1% and 3% (in relation to filler mass and composites with mixtures of barium glass particles (median size = 0.4, 1 and 2 μm and nanometric silica were prepared for silane and filler analyses, respectively. The degree of conversion (DC was analyzed by FTIR. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS was tested after 24-h or 90-d storage in water, and fracture toughness, after 24 h. The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05. The DC was not significantly affected by the silane content or filler distribution. The 0% silane group had the lowest immediate BFS, and the 90-d storage time reduced the strength of the 0% and 3% groups. BFS was not affected by filler distribution, and aging decreased the BFS of all the groups. Silanization increased the fracture toughness of both the 1% and 3% groups, similarly. Significantly higher fracture toughness was observed for mixtures with 2 μm glass particles. Based on the results, 3% silane content boosted the initial strength, but was more prone to degradation after water storage. Variations in the filler distribution did not affect BFS, but fracture toughness was significantly improved by increasing the filler size.

  5. Particle number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Xinming

    2014-09-01

    The aerosol number concentration and size distribution as well as size-resolved particle chemical composition were measured during haze and photochemical smog episodes in Shanghai in 2009. The number of haze days accounted for 43%, of which 30% was severe (visibilitysmog episodes, about 5.89 times and 4.29 times those of clean days. The particle volume concentration and surface concentration in haze, photochemical smog and clean days were 102, 49, 15μm(3)/cm(3) and 949, 649, 206μm(2)/cm(3), respectively. As haze events got more severe, the number concentration of particles smaller than 50nm decreased, but the particles of 50-200nm and 0.5-1μm increased. The diurnal variation of particle number concentration showed a bimodal pattern in haze days. All soluble ions were increased during haze events, of which NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) increased greatly, followed by Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-). These ions were very different in size-resolved particles during haze and photochemical smog episodes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Source apportionment of aerosol particles at a European air pollution hot spot using particle number size distributions and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Cecilia; Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Masiol, Mauro; Topinka, Jan; Zhao, Yongjing; Křůmal, Kamil; Cliff, Steven; Mikuška, Pavel; Hopke, Philip K

    2018-03-01

    Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic) is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Air pollution source apportionment is essential for implementation of successful abatement strategies. UFPs or nanoparticles of diameter hot-spot including nanoparticles, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly time resolved particle number size distributions (NSD, 14 nm-10 μm) and PM 0.09-1.15 chemical composition. Diurnal patterns, meteorological variables, gaseous pollutants, organic markers, and associations between the NSD factors and chemical composition factors were used to identify the pollution sources. The PMF on the NSD reveals two factors in the ultrafine size range: industrial UFPs (28%, number mode diameter - NMD 45 nm), industrial/fresh road traffic nanoparticles (26%, NMD 26 nm); three factors in the accumulation size range: urban background (24%, NMD 93 nm), coal burning (14%, volume mode diameter - VMD 0.5 μm), regional pollution (3%, VMD 0.8 μm) and one factor in the coarse size range: industrial coarse particles/road dust (2%, VMD 5 μm). The PMF analysis of PM 0.09-1.15 revealed four factors: SIA/CC/BB (52%), road dust (18%), sinter/steel (16%), iron production (16%). The factors in the ultrafine size range resolved with NSD have a positive correlation with sinter/steel production and iron production factors resolved with chemical composition. Coal combustion factor resolved with NSD has moderate correlation with SIA/CC/BB factor. The organic markers homohopanes correlate with coal combustion and the levoglucosan correlates with urban background. The PMF applications to NSD and chemical composition datasets are complementary. PAHs in PM 1 were found to be associated with coal combustion factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  8. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  9. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  10. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory

  11. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N; Parducci V, Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L; Setzer, William N

    2017-09-23

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger , and Cryptococcus neoformans . Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p -cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p -cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans , with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (-)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil.

  12. Mineralogy and chemical composition and distribution of rare earth elements of clay-rich sediments, Central Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyakairu, G.W.A.

    2001-02-01

    of the Buganda-Toro System rocks, whereas the felsic sediments are derivatives of granitoid rocks of the basement. The most significant geochemical finding is that despite intense weathering, which has affected most elements, the REE, Th, and Sc remain immobile. Analysis of the > 63, 32-63, and 63 μm are quartz rich. The whole-rock chemistry shows that the 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3 compared to Upper Continental Crust (UCC) with the trace element content comparable to the bulk samples. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are remarkably similar for the grain size fractions, with a general enrichment of LREE and a depletion of Eu. The > 63 μm fractions have the lowest REE abundances and show no LREE-HREE fractionation with a negative Eu anomaly. The shape of the REE pattern of 2 and Al 2 O 3 , with the other oxides being present only in trace amounts. Depletion in oxides of Ti, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K not only shows the extent of kaolinization, but also gives the kaolin an almost white color. The kaolinization and weathering processes have enriched Ni and depleted other trace element contents in the Buwambo kaolin. The chondrite normalized REE patterns show LREE enrichment with a negative Ce anomaly. The enrichment and depletion of the different trace elements appear to be caused by differentiation processes during kaolinization and leaching with meteoric water. From its mineralogical and chemical composition, the kaolin is suitable for earthen and sanitary ware production. (author)

  13. Chemical composition of arctic snow: concentration levels and regional distribution of major elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Hall, Gwendy; Gìslason, Sigurdur; Belsey, William; Braun, Marlene; Goloubeva, Natalia I; Olsen, Hans Kristian; Scheie, Jon Ove; Vaive, Judy E

    2005-01-05

    At the end of the northern winter 1996/1997, 21 snow samples were collected from 17 arctic localities in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Svalbard, Russia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Iceland. Major element concentrations of the filtered (0.45 mum) melted snow indicate that most samples are consistent with a diluted seawater composition. Deviations from this behaviour indicate additional SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) relative to seawater, suggesting a minor contribution from (probably local) coal combustion emissions (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard). The samples with the highest Na and Cl(-) content (Canada, Russia) also have higher Na/SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-) ratios than seawater, suggesting a slight contamination from (probably local) deicing activities. Local soil or rock dust inputs in the snow are indicated by 'excess' Ca contents (Alaska, Svalbard, Greenland, Sweden). No overall relationship was found between pH (range: 4.6-6.1) and total or non-seasalt SO(4)(2-) (NSS), suggesting that acidification due to long-range transport of SO(2) pollution is not operating on an arctic-wide scale. In a few samples (Alaska, Finland, Sweden, Svalbard), a significant proportion (>50%) of SO(4)(2-) is non-marine in origin. Sources for this non-marine SO(4)(2-) need not all be found in long-range atmospheric transport and more likely sources are local industry (Finland, Sweden), road traffic (Alaska) or minor snow-scooting traffic (one Svalbard locality). A few samples from northern Europe show a relatively weak trend of decreasing pH with increasing NO(3)(-).

  14. Influence of the chemical composition of human tissues on dose distributions in hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batin, E.

    2008-06-01

    To compute the dose distribution, treatment planning systems require the exact anatomical location of tissues provided by computed tomography (CT) and the exact range of hadron beams in tissues based on the water equivalent ratio (WER). Since CT numbers are determined with x-rays and with an energy different from that used in hadron-therapy, a relation between CT numbers and the WER must to be established. We propose a determination of the WER with a Monte-Carlo simulation (GEANT4). We have determined the WER for 76 human tissues for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. The difference between the stoichiometric calibration and the simulated WER is lower than 1%. An additional 2% uncertainty that arises from the uncertainty in the CT numbers measurement should also be considered. The calculated WER were used to convert the deposited energy curve into the human tissue deposited energy curve for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. For both beams, the difference between the rescaled Bragg peak location and the one from the simulated curve is lower than 0.5 mm over the whole range of CT numbers. The differences between the maximum deposited energy can reach 3% for the proton beam in bones and vary between 1.5% and 3.5% for all tissues for the carbon beam. The scaling in two dimensions can be improved by using an additional factor that takes the scattering into account. (author)

  15. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles  > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure

  16. Bayesian analysis of systems with random chemical composition: renormalization-group approach to Dirichlet distributions and the statistical theory of dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Tsuchiya, Masa; Oefner, Peter; Ross, John

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of systems with random chemical composition and try to obtain a theoretical derivation of the self-similar Dirichlet distribution, which is used empirically in molecular biology, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. We consider a system made up of many chemical species and assume that the statistical distribution of the abundance of each chemical species in the system is the result of a succession of a variable number of random dilution events, which can be described by using the renormalization-group theory. A Bayesian approach is used for evaluating the probability density of the chemical composition of the system in terms of the probability densities of the abundances of the different chemical species. We show that for large cascades of dilution events, the probability density of the composition vector of the system is given by a self-similar probability density of the Dirichlet type. We also give an alternative formal derivation for the Dirichlet law based on the maximum entropy approach, by assuming that the average values of the chemical potentials of different species, expressed in terms of molar fractions, are constant. Although the maximum entropy approach leads formally to the Dirichlet distribution, it does not clarify the physical origin of the Dirichlet statistics and has serious limitations. The random theory of dilution provides a physical picture for the emergence of Dirichlet statistics and makes it possible to investigate its validity range. We discuss the implications of our theory in molecular biology, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  17. Chemical composition of patikaraparpam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, A; Rani, M G; Susan, T; Purushothaman, K K

    1997-04-01

    Patikaraparpam, a Siddha formulation in prepared by trituration of potash alum with egg albumin followed by calcinatin. The three authentic laboratories made parpams as well as six commercial samples have been examined for their chemical composition. The analytical data that emerged from the analysis of the above samples showed that seven parpams contained only aluminium sulphate and they did respond to tests for potassium. An inspection of the crude drugs patikaram' available in the market established that potash alum and ammonia alum are indiscriminateldy taken for use, according to literature, only potash alum should be used in Indian system of medicine. Patikarapparapam is indicated in urinary inflammations and obstructions and is a reputed diuretic. Potassium salts are established diuretic. These studies show that the raw drugs sellers, the pharamaceutists or manufacturers of medicine and the physician as well should make sure that only potash alum is used in Indian medicine.

  18. The physical properties, lignin distribution, chemical composition of fibers and gas exchange rate of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties under prolonged water deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Khalatbari, A.M; Jaafar, Z.E; Khalatbari, A. A; Hazandy, A.H; Mohd Ridzwan, A. H

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics and physical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibers cultivated and subjected to three different water frequencies in Universiti Putra Malaysia, were analyzed. For deep analysis, which includes micro-scale viewing for identification of kenaf cell wall structure, fibers were viewed in order to study the physical characteristics, anatomy, and lignin distribution. The chemical composition was determined considering Technical Association of Pulp and Pap...

  19. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Litsea cubeba Harvested from Its Distribution Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Litsea cubeba (Lour. Pers. is a promising industrial crop with fruits rich in essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils of L. cubeba (EOLC were determined for fruits harvested from eight regions in China. The overall essential oil content, obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, ranged from 3.04% to 4.56%. In total, 59 compounds were identified, the dominant components being monoterpenes (94.4–98.4%, represented mainly by neral and geranial (78.7–87.4%. D-Limonene was unexpectedly a lesser constituent (0.7–5.3% in fruits, which differed from previous reports (6.0–14.6%. Several components were only detected in certain regions and compounds such as o-cymene and eremophilene have never before been reported in EOLC. These results demonstrate significant regional variation in the chemical composition of EOLC. This investigation provides important information with regard to the bioactivity, breeding work and industrial applications of L. cubeba.

  20. A measurement based analysis of the spatial distribution, temporal variation and chemical composition of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schäfer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the studies presented in this paper is to present an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter in Munich and Augsburg, Germany, and to identify and discuss the factors determining the aerosol pollution in both areas. Surface-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements of particle mass and particle size distribution have been performed in, around, and above the two cities. Two measurement campaigns were conducted in Munich, one in late spring and one in winter 2003. Another campaign has been on-going in Augsburg since 2004. Spatial and temporal variations are analyzed from this data (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1. There are higher particle mass concentrations at the urban site than at the surrounding rural sites, especially in winter. No significant difference in the major ionic composition of the particles between the urban and the rural site was detected. This is considered to be related to the spatial distribution of secondary inorganic aerosol that is more homogeneous than aerosol resulting from other sources like traffic or urban releases in general. During the measurement campaigns mixing layer heights were determined continuously by remote sensing (SODAR, ceilometer, RASS. Significant dependence of particle size distribution and particle mass concentration on mixing layer height was found. This finding paves the way to new applications of satellite remote sensing products.

  1. Changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of a hay-based ration offered once or twice daily to dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the changes of particle size distribution and chemical composition of the total mixed ration (TMR based on hay as the main forage component (“dry” TMR and distributed once (7.00 am or twice (7.00 am and 1.00 pm daily to 32 lactating cows. The trial was divided in two periods of 14 days each. Diet (DM=53.7% was formulated in order to assure the nutritional requirements of cows producing 24 kg/d of milk (crude protein=14.4% DM; NDF=40.9% DM; milk FU=0.88/kg DM and additional amounts of concentrates were distributed using automatic feeders. Four TMR samples were collected daily (7.00 am, 10.00 am, 1.00 pm, 4.00 pm for six days during each experiment period for a total number of 48 feed samples. Each feed sample was subjected to the estimation of the particle size distribution using the separator of Pennsylvania State University composed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom, and to the determination of the chemical composition. Changes of all three particle size fractions for TMRs were observed during the day with distributions of the TMR both once and twice daily. With the once daily distribution, the large particles fraction increased linearly (P<0.001 from 19.7 to 23.4, 32.2, and 35.1%, while the finest particle fraction decreased (from 60.1 to 58.3, 50.0, 47.8%. According to particle size changes, the chemical composition varied significantly at the different times of sampling when TMR was distributed once daily. Significant variations of DM were detected for TMR with a linear (P<0.001 increase (from 54.4 to 57.9, 60.7, 61.5%. Considering once TMR distribution, the values of NDF and starch showed an opposite trend with an increase of 6.5 and a decrease of 8.3 points from 7.00 am to 4.00 pm (i.e., 9 hrs after distribution. Correlations were estimated between chemical and physical characteristics of TMRs. NDF content was positively and significantly correlated to

  2. Particle size distribution, chemical composition and meteorological factor analysis: A case study during wintertime snow cover in Zhengzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Qun; Yan, Qishe; Jiang, Nan; Wei, Junhua; Wei, Zhiyuan; Yin, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    There was a significant snowfall event in North China from November 23 to 25 in 2015. Considering that most of the bare surface and road dust were covered by snow, the effect of dust and soil could be ignored. Atmospheric particle samples were collected in Zhengzhou, China during a haze event from November 28 to December 4, 2015. To better understand the formation and evolution of this hazy event, the size distribution, particle number, composition of particles and meteorological parameters were measured and analyzed. Results show that the meteorological conditions played an important role in the occurrence and elimination of this event. The hourly fine particle matter (PM2.5) concentration was positively correlated with relative humidity (r = 0.84, p NH4+) on hazy days was higher than that on clean days. The higher NH4+ concentration in this case may be contributed by traffic and coal-power emission. Crustal matter accounted for 2.4% in PM2.5 on hazy days, and it confirmed that the contribution of dust emission source was negligible during this event. The ratios of NO3-/SO42 - ranging from 0.41 to 0.67 indicated the relative importance of stationary combustion. The ratios of OC/EC varied from 2.73 to 3.42 and indicated the presence of secondary organic carbon. Effective haze mitigation should enforce pollutant control measures for primary emission (dust) and secondary aerosol gaseous precursor (NH3, NO2 and SO2).

  3. The Chemical Composition of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Nittler, Larry R.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Grove, Timothy L.; Peplowski, Patrick N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury's surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and thorium, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatur...

  4. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  5. Chemical composition of lunar material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J A; Abbey, S; Champ, W H

    1970-01-30

    Chemical and emission spectrographic analyses of three Apollo 11 samples, 10017-29, 10020-30, and 10084-132, are given. Major and minor constituents were determined both by conventional rock analysis methods and by a new composite scheme utilizing a lithium fluoborate method for dissolution of the samples and atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry. Trace constituents were determined by optical emission spectroscopy involving a d-c arc, air-jet controlled.

  6. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  7. Size distribution, chemical composition and oxidation reactivity of particulate matter from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yueqi; Zhu, Lei; Fang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhuyue; Guan, Chun; Xia, Chen; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-gasoline blended fuels have been widely applied in markets recently, as ethanol reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and improves anti-knock performance. However, its effects on particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine still need further investigation. In this study, the effects of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels on particle size distributions, number concentrations, chemical composition and soot oxidation activity of GDI engine were investigated. It was found that ethanol-gasoline blended fuels increased the particle number concentration in low-load operating conditions. In higher load conditions, the ethanol-gasoline was effective for reducing the particle number concentration, indicating that the chemical benefits of ethanol become dominant, which could reduce soot precursors such as large n-alkanes and aromatics in gasoline. The volatile organic mass fraction in ethanol-gasoline particulates matter was higher than that in gasoline particulate matter because ethanol reduced the amount of soot precursors during combustion and thereby reduced the elemental carbon proportions in PM. Ethanol addition also increased the proportion of small particles, which confirmed the effects of ethanol on organic composition. Ethanol-gasoline reduced the concentrations of most PAH species, except those with small aromatic rings, e.g., naphthalene. Soot from ethanol-gasoline has lower activation energy of oxidation than that from gasoline. The results in this study indicate that ethanol-gasoline has positive effects on PM emissions control, as the soot oxidation activity is improved and the particle number concentrations are reduced at moderate and high engine loads. - Highlights: • Ethanol-gasoline reduces elemental carbon in PM. • Ethanol-gasoline increases volatile organic fraction in PM. • Soot generated from ethanol-gasoline has higher oxidation activity.

  8. Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 chemical composition in a coastal city of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengren; Hu, Min; Du, Bohan; Guo, Qingfeng; Tan, Tianyi; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Wu, Zhijun; Guo, Song

    2017-12-15

    Rapid economic development and urbanization in China has been concentrated in coastal cities, resulting in haze and photochemical smog issues, especially in the densely-populated Yangtze River Delta. In this study, we explore particulate matter (specifically PM 2.5 ) pollution in a city in Zhejiang Province (Ningbo), chosen to represent a typical, densely-populated urban city with residential and industrial sections. PM 2.5 samples were collected at five sites in four seasons from Dec. 2012 to Nov. 2013. The annual average PM 2.5 mass concentration was 53.2±30.4μg/m 3 , with the highest concentration in winter and lowest in summer. Among the five sites, PM 2.5 concentration was highest in an urban residential site and lowest in a suburban site, due to effects of urbanization and the anthropogenic influences. The chemical components of PM 2.5 show significant seasonal variation. In addition, secondary transformation was high in Ningbo, with the highest proportion of secondary components found at a suburban site and the lowest at the industrial sites. Ningbo is controlled by five major air masses originating from inland China, from the Bohai Sea, offshore from the southeast, the Yellow Sea, and off the east coast of Korea. The relative contributions of these air masses differ, by season, with the Bohai Sea air mass dominating in winter and spring, the maritime southeast air mass in summer, and the Yellow Sea and coastal Korean air masses dominating in autumn. The continental air mass is associated with a high PM 2.5 concentration, indicating that it is primarily transports primary emissions. In contrast, the concentration ratios among secondary formed pollutants were higher in the maritime air masses, which suggests that sea breezes control temporal and spatial variations of air pollution over coastal cities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  10. Chemical Composition Based Aerosol Optical Properties According to Size Distribution and Mixture Types during Smog and Asian Dust Events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  11. Variation of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions at the urban and downwind regional sites in the Pearl River Delta during summertime pollution episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, D. L.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Guo, S.; Wen, M. T.; Nowak, A.; Wehner, B.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Wang, X. S.; Li, Y. P.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2010-10-01

    In order to characterize the features of particulate pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in the summer, continuous measurements of particle number size distributions and chemical compositions were simultaneously performed at Guangzhou urban site (GZ) and Back-garden downwind regional site (BG) in July 2006. Particle number concentration from 20 nm to 10 μm at BG was (1.7±0.8)×104 cm-3, about 40% lower than that at GZ, (2.9±1.1)×104 cm-3. The total particle volume concentration at BG was 94±34 μm3 cm-3, similar to that at GZ, 96±43 μm3 cm-3. More 20-100 nm particles, significantly affected by the traffic emissions, were observed at GZ, while 100-660 nm particle number concentrations were similar at both sites as they are more regional. PM2.5 values were similar at GZ (69±43 μg m-3) and BG (69±58 μg m-3) with R2 of 0.71 for the daily average PM2.5 at these two sites, indicating the fine particulate pollution in the PRD region to be regional. Two kinds of pollution episodes, the accumulation pollution episode and the regional transport pollution episode, were observed. Fine particles over 100 nm dominated both number and volume concentrations of total particles during the late periods of these pollution episodes. Accumulation and secondary transformation are the main reasons for the nighttime accumulation pollution episode. SO42-, NO3- accounted for about 60% in 100-660 nm particle mass and PM2.5 increase. When south or southeast wind prevailed in the PRD region, regional transport of pollutants took place. Regional transport contributed about 30% to fine particulate pollution at BG during a regional transport case. Secondary transformation played an important role during regional transport, causing higher increase rates of secondary ions in PM1.0 than other species and shifting the peaks of sulfate and ammonium mass size distributions to larger sizes. SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ accounted for about 70% and 40% of PM1.0 and PM2.5, respectively.

  12. Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, secondary metabolites, in vitro gas production characteristics and acceptability study of some forage for ruminant feeding in South-Western Nigeria. ... Chemical composition and qualitative analysis of saponins, phenol and steroids of the plants were determined. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was ...

  13. Temperature distribution of thick thermoset composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhan-Sheng; Du, Shanyi; Zhang, Boming

    2004-05-01

    The development of temperature distribution of thick polymeric matrix laminates during an autoclave vacuum bag process was measured and compared with numerically calculated results. The finite element formulation of the transient heat transfer problem was carried out for polymeric matrix composite materials from the heat transfer differential equations including internal heat generation produced by exothermic chemical reactions. Software based on the general finite element software package was developed for numerical simulation of the entire composite process. From the experimental and numerical results, it was found that the measured temperature profiles were in good agreement with the numerical ones, and conventional cure cycles recommended by prepreg manufacturers for thin laminates should be modified to prevent temperature overshoot.

  14. Chemical composition of stars in Ruprecht 106 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P.

    High resolution spectra of 9 stars belonging to the globular cluster Rup 106 have been used to determine their chemical composition. The results reveal that Ruprecht 106 exhibits abundance anomalies when compared to galactic globular cluster of similar metallicity. The chemical composition of these stars is similar to what is found in Dwarf spheroidal galaxies favoring the hypothesis that Rup 106 has not been formed in our Galaxy.

  15. Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the seed of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), the physicochemical properties of the seed oil and the amino acids profiles of the seed protein have been determined. In proximate composition, the crude fat content of 58.41% indicates that the plant seed is an oil seed. Its protein content of ...

  16. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  17. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  18. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  19. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  20. Chemical composition of gamma Pegasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.J.

    1976-01-01

    Equivalent-width data for 274 spectral lines (lambda lambda 3090--6700), the profiles of Hγ and H delta, and the continuous flux distribution (lambda lambda 1400--8100) of the sharp-lined B2 star γ Peg have been interpreted with the aid of the Princeton ultraviolet line-blanketed model atmospheres and the hydrogen line-broadening theory of Vidal, Cooper, and Smith. New equivalent-width data from 2 A mm -1 coude plates extend the ground-based observations for γ Peg shortward to lambda 3094. Seventy-one additional lines have been identified, of which 34 could be analyzed. In addition to new ground-based continuum observations (lambda lambda 3300--8100), flux data in the far-ultraviolet (lambda lambda 1384--2550) have been obtained with the S2/68 experiment package on board the TDl satellite. An interpolated model atmosphere of T/sub eff/ = 21,500 K, log g = 3.7 predicts the observed continuous energy distribution from lambda lambda 2200--7500, the observed profiles of Hγ and H delta, and the ionization equilibria of Si III/Si IV and S II/S III. With the exception of neon, chlorine, and argon, the derived abundances are within 0.2 dex of the currently accepted solar values. Neon appears to be overabundant because non-LTE effects are large for Ne I; the chlorine and argon anomalies are discussed in the paper. The temperature which was obtained for γ Peg in this investigation is consistent with the one predicted by the angular-diameter calibration of effective temperatures for early B-type stars. The only serious mismatch between the observations and the model atmosphere is shortward of lambda 2200, where much more line blanketing is observed than was included in the computation of the models

  1. Chemical composition and strength of dolomite geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, E. A.; Al Bakri, A. M. M.; Liew, Y. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The chemical composition of dolomite and the compressive strength of dolomite geopolymer composites were studied. The both composites prepared with mechanical mixer manufactured by with rotor speed of 350 rpm and curing in the oven for 24 hours at 80˚C. XRF analysis showThe dolomite raw materials contain fewer amounts of Si and Al but high Ca in its composition. Dolomite geopolymer composites with 20M of NaOH shows greater and optimum compressive strength compared to dolomite geopolymer with other NaOH molarity. This indicated better interaction of dolomite raw material and alkaline activator need high molarity of NaOH in order to increase the reactivity of dolomite.

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS. MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA. A. Rebiai* and T.Lanez. University of El Oued, VTRS Laboratory, P.O. Box 789, 39000, El Oued, Algeria. Received: 08 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 December 2012 / Published online: 31 ...

  3. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties for both lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food legumes. Therefore, the research findings can be used by ...

  4. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thymus vulgaris, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Ocimum gratissimum are spices widely used as aroma enhancers and food preservatives. This work assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of their essential oils on some food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter ...

  6. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  7. Chemical composition of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn P. Urbanski; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires are major sources of trace gases and aerosol, and these emissions are believed to significantly influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The wide variety of pollutants released by wildland fire include greenhouse gases, photochemically reactive compounds, and fine and coarse particulate matter. Through...

  8. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  9. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... of dry matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ± 0.042%), ash (5.50 ± 0.42%) and total soluble sugar (0.64 ± 0.001%) (p < 0.05).

  10. Chemical microsensors based on polymer fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal F.; Levit, Natalia; Tepper, Gary C.

    2005-05-01

    There is an urgent need for new chemical sensors for defense and security applications. In particular, sensors are required that can provide higher sensitivity and faster response in the field than existing baseline technologies. We have been developing a new solid-state chemical sensor technology based on microscale polymer composite fiber arrays. The fibers consist of an insulating polymer doped with conducting particles and are electrospun directly onto the surface of an interdigitated microelectrode. The concentration of the conducting particles within the fiber is controlled and is near the percolation threshold. Thus, the electrical resistance of the polymer fiber composite is very sensitive to volumetric changes produced in the polymer by vapor absorption. Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of the new microsensor. The objective is to take advantage of the very high surface to volume ratio, low thermal mass and linear geometry of the composite fibers to produce sensors exhibiting an extremely high vapor sensitivity and rapid response. The simplicity and low cost of a resistance-based chemical microsensor makes this sensing approach an attractive alternative to devices requiring RF electronics or time-of-flight analysis. Potential applications of this technology include battlespace awareness, homeland security, environmental surveillance, medical diagnostics and food process monitoring.

  11. On the operation of composition of distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, A; Sorek, S [Institute of Mathematics, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16A, 35-310 Rzeszow (Poland)

    2006-02-28

    The proofs of the results of P. Antosik [3] on the distributional composition of distributions (in the sense of Mikusinski's theory of irregular operations), which contained essential gaps, are completed due to some measure theory techniques, and the results are generalized. The obtained theorems can be applied to prove some formulas, which may be interesting to physicists, concerning the substitution of measures (in particular, the Dirac delta distribution) to continuous functions.

  12. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sulphide mineralization and their chemical evo- lution in relative .... properties and chemical compositions. Electron ..... from the sulphide lode provide clues to the chang- ing fluid ..... Raymond O L 1996 Pyrite composition and ore geneis in.

  13. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor. (b...

  14. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  15. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; hide

    1994-01-01

    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  16. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  17. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  18. MINEQL, Chemical Equilibrium Composition of Aqueous Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, John C.; Zachary, Joseph L.; Morel, Francois M.M.; Parsons, Ralph M.; Schweingruber, M.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINEQL is a subroutine package to calculate equilibrium composition of an aqueous system, accounting for mass transfer. MINEQL-EIR contains an additional base on enthalpy and heat capacity data and has the option to do calculations at temperatures different from 25 degrees C. 2 - Method of solution: In MINEQL, the Gibbs free-energy function is minimized and mass balance chemical reaction equations are solved simultaneously. In MINEQL-EIR, the iteration scheme to solve the system of equations has been improved to make the probability of divergence very small. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: MINEQL does not take into account mass transfer of water molecules

  19. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  20. Chemical composition of water extracts from shungite and shungite water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charykova, M.V.; Bornyakova, I.I.; Polekhovskij, Yu.S.; Charykov, N.A.; Kustova, E.V.; Arapov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water extracts from shungite-3 of Zagozhino deposit (Karelia) and natural water contacting with shungite rocks are done. Chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water are studied [ru

  1. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and ... versatile material for geotechnical engineering and as well as their demand for ..... A PhD thesis submitted to the Chemical ...

  2. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  3. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  4. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; SAAD, Z.; GHADDAR, A.; NASREDDINE, M.; KATTAN, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H + ,Na + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 + and NH + 4 ) and major anions (Cl - , NO - 3 , HCO - 3 and SO 2 - 4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na + and Cl - in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO - 4 and NO - 3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CAATINGA POTENTIAL FORAGES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dynara Layza de Souza da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of some potential forages species, natives from Caatinga region, were evaluated. Samples of Macroptilium heterophyllum, Stylosanthes humilis, Rhynchosia mínima, Desmodium tortuosum Sw. Dc, Merremia aegyptia, Mimosa tenuiflora Wild, Bauhinia cheilantha and as well Macroptilium lathyroides, Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Mimosa tenuiflora hays were collected in Rio Grande do Norte Stated, during 2011 rainy season. The analyses: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP mineral matter (MM ether extract  (EE neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin (LIG, insoluble neutral detergent nitrogen, (INDN insoluble acid detergent nitrogen, (ADIN, total phenol (TF and total tannin (TT were done at Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos in Ceará State. Plants analyzed, as expected, for tropical species, exhibited high level of cell wall constituents, high lignifications rate and revealed substantial presence of anti nutritional compounds. However, regardless of this data, the main problem, for grazing animals, is due to its xerophytes characteristics. Most of the shrubs and trees are deciduous, losing its leaves during the dry season. In addition, herbaceous presents a very rapid lifetime cycle, germinating and senescing during the brief wet season.

  6. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we studied the chemical composition of the essential oil of Cistus ladanifer and Cistus libanotis growing in Eastern Morocco. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Camphene, borneol ...

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal ...

  9. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  10. Coordination in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Kartsaklis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An open problem with categorical compositional distributional semantics is the representation of words that are considered semantically vacuous from a distributional perspective, such as determiners, prepositions, relative pronouns or coordinators. This paper deals with the topic of coordination between identical syntactic types, which accounts for the majority of coordination cases in language. By exploiting the compact closed structure of the underlying category and Frobenius operators canonically induced over the fixed basis of finite-dimensional vector spaces, we provide a morphism as representation of a coordinator tensor, and we show how it lifts from atomic types to compound types. Linguistic intuitions are provided, and the importance of the Frobenius operators as an addition to the compact closed setting with regard to language is discussed.

  11. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-seven major, minor and trace elements were determined by INAA and RNAA in samples of hibonite, black rim and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, HAL. The peculiar isotopic, mineralogical and textural properties of HAL are accompanied by very unusual trace element abundances. The most striking feature of the chemistry is the virtual absence of Ce from an inclusion otherwise highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os and Ir, relative to other refractory elements. Of the lithophile elements determined which are normally considered to be refractory in a gas of solar composition, Sr, Ba, Ce, U and V are the most volatile in oxidizing gases. The distribution of REE between hibonite and rims seems to have been established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. On the basis of HAL's chemical and isotopic composition, possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are discussed. (author)

  12. [Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens and methods of its investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Novikov, I A; Pakhomova, N A; Motalov, V G

    2018-01-01

    Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens of human and experimental animals (cows, dogs, rats, rabbits) have been analyzed in various studies. In most cases, the studies employed different methods to determine the gross (total) composition of chemical elements and their concentrations in the examined samples. Less frequently, they included an assessment of the distribution of chemical elements in the lens and correlation of their concentration with its morphological changes. Chemical elements from all groups (series) of the periodic classification system were discovered in the lens substance. Despite similar investigation methods, different authors obtained contradicting results on the chemical composition of the lens. This article presents data suggesting possible correlation between inorganic chemical elements in the lens substance with the development and formation of lenticular opacities. All currently employed methods are known to only analyze limited number of select chemical elements in the tissues and do not consider the whole range of elements that can be analyzed with existing technology; furthermore, the majority of studies are conducted on the animal model lens. Therefore, it is feasible to continue the development of the chemical microanalysis method by increasing the sensitivity of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) with the purpose of assessing the gross chemical composition and distribution of the elements in the lens substance, as well as revealing possible correlation between element concentration and morphological changes in the lens.

  13. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  14. Aerosol Size and Chemical Composition in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y. W.; Hayes, P. L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Croft, B.; O'Neill, N. T.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic aerosol have a strong annual cycle, with winter months dominated by long range transport from lower latitudes resulting in high mass loadings. Conversely, local emissions are more prominent in the summer months because of the decreased influence of transported aerosol, allowing us to regularly observe both transported and local aerosol. This study will present observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution collected at the Polar Environment Artic Research Laboratory and the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory at Eureka (80N, 86W) and Alert (82N, 62W), Nunavut, respectively. Summer time observations of the number size distribution reveal a persistent mode of particles centered between 30-50 nm, with occasional bursts of smaller particles. The non-refractory aerosol chemical composition, measured by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, is primarily organic, with contributions from both aged and fresher organic aerosol. Factor analysis will be conducted to better understand these sources. The site at Eureka is more susceptible to long range transport since it is at the top of a mountain ridge (610 m above sea level) and will be compared to the site at Alert on an elevated plain (200 m above sea level). This will allow us to determine the relative contributions from processes and sources at the sites at different elevations. Comparisons with aerosol optical depth and GEOS-Chem model output will also be presented to put these surface measurements into context with the overlying and regional atmosphere. Results from this study contribute to our knowledge of aerosol in the high Arctic.

  15. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  16. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  17. Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and energy values of cereal grains produced in the Western Cape area of South Africa. TS Brand, CW Cruywagen, DA Brandt, M Viljoen, WW Burger ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacteria and its chemical composition were evaluated by the method of agar-well diffusion and GC-MS, respectively. Some typical compounds samples were identified in the propolis samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the ...

  19. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  20. Relationship between bacterial density and chemical composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    Key words: Bacterial density, chemical composition, oxidation pond, sewage, tropics. INTRODUCTION ... pond for about two weeks during which algae, bacteria and other organisms act ..... Chloride can serve as nutrient for micro- organisms ...

  1. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca were analyzed ... brown or dark green in colors and fragrant. .... extraction used and geographic origin of plant studied.

  2. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  3. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  4. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  5. A compositional reservoir simulator on distributed memory parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rame, M.; Delshad, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the application of distributed memory parallel computes to field scale reservoir simulations using a parallel version of UTCHEM, The University of Texas Chemical Flooding Simulator. The model is a general purpose highly vectorized chemical compositional simulator that can simulate a wide range of displacement processes at both field and laboratory scales. The original simulator was modified to run on both distributed memory parallel machines (Intel iPSC/960 and Delta, Connection Machine 5, Kendall Square 1 and 2, and CRAY T3D) and a cluster of workstations. A domain decomposition approach has been taken towards parallelization of the code. A portion of the discrete reservoir model is assigned to each processor by a set-up routine that attempts a data layout as even as possible from the load-balance standpoint. Each of these subdomains is extended so that data can be shared between adjacent processors for stencil computation. The added routines that make parallel execution possible are written in a modular fashion that makes the porting to new parallel platforms straight forward. Results of the distributed memory computing performance of Parallel simulator are presented for field scale applications such as tracer flood and polymer flood. A comparison of the wall-clock times for same problems on a vector supercomputer is also presented

  6. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  7. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  8. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component 80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (roof owning to diagenetic contraction. Authors thank academic Lisitsyn for encourage, Andrey Apletalin for valuable help, and everybody, who helped in field

  9. Chemical composition of the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M; Spaans, M

    2003-01-01

    A prediction of standard inflationary cosmology is that the elemental composition of the medium out of which the earliest stars and galaxies condensed consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium (4)He, with small admixtures of deuterium, lithium (7)Li, and (3)He. The most redshifted quasars,

  10. Ethylene vinylacetate copolymer and nanographite composite as chemical vapour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, Santa; Sakale, Gita; Knite, Maris

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-nanostructured carbon composite as chemical vapour sensor is described, made by the dissolution method of a non-conductive polymer, ethylene vinylacetate copolymer, mixed with conductive nanographite particles (carbon black). Sensor exhibits relative electrical resistance change in chemical vapours, like ethanol and toluene. Since the sensor is relatively cheap, easy to fabricate, it can be used in air quality monitoring and at industries to control hazardous substance concentration in the air, for example, to protect workers from exposure to chemical spills

  11. A new material for chemical industry - wood polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Patil, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper outlines the advantages of the radiation cured wood-polymer composites (WPC) for application in certain critical areas of chemical industry. The wood-polymer composite made filterpress frames and plates were tested in a chemical plant. The entire exercise is elaborated. The radiation cured wood exhibited a considerably extended useful life in alkaline and acidic solutions. Composites based on teak wood showed a remarkable improvement with a nominal polymer loading of 10%. The reports of accelerated aging test of WPC are also presented. (auth.)

  12. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ±. 0.042%), ash .... protein diet need. The unripe plantain flour was found to contain low quantities of ash which reflected its mineral contents. Table 2. Phytochemical composition of unripe plantain flour.

  13. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  14. Chemical food composition: implications for atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2011-01-01

    To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p UNIFESP table is American in origin.

  15. Linking remotely sensed aerosol types to their chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Johnson, M. S.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Meskhidze, N.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% ± 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into `dark' and `light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  16. Chemical composition of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (18.2 km2, 1.3 km3, 143 m max. depth has been severely polluted since industrialisation of its watershed began in 1926, at which time the lake began to receive industrial effluents containing high concentrations of copper and ammonia. Chromium-, nickel-, and zinc-rich effluents from plating factories have also contributed to pollution levels, and pH -levels dropped below 4.0 as a result of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrates. More than 60 papers have documented the evolution of the chemical characteristics of both water and sediment, and the sudden decline of plankton, as well as benthos and fish. As a remedial action the lake was limed from May 1989 to June 1990 with 10,900 tons of CaCO3. The treatment was immediately effective in raising the pH and decreasing the metal concentrations in the water column, and plankton and fish communities quickly rebounded. However, the chemical characteristics of sediments were influenced by the liming to a much lesser extent. Since 900 tons of copper and the same amount of chromium were contained in the top 10 cm of sediment, it appears likely that the sediment could potentially act as a current and future source of these metals to the water column. This observation has resulted in the implementation of a vigorous monitoring regime to track the post-liming recovery of Lake Orta.

  17. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRAESEPE (M44)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Roper, Brian W.; Lum, Michael G., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: brianwroper@gmail.com, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu [Visiting astronomer, W. M. Keck Observatory jointly operated by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Star clusters have long been used to illuminate both stellar evolution and Galactic evolution. They also hold clues to the chemical and nucleosynthetic processes throughout the history of the Galaxy. We have taken high signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectra of 11 solar-type stars in the Praesepe open cluster to determine the chemical abundances of 16 elements: Li, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Y, and Ba. We have determined Fe from Fe I and Fe II lines and find [Fe/H] = +0.12 ±0.04. We find that Li decreases with temperature due to increasing Li depletion in cooler stars; it matches the Li-temperature pattern found in the Hyades. The [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] abundances are below solar and lower than the field star samples due to the younger age of Praesepe (0.7 Gyr) than the field stars. The alpha-elements, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, have solar ratios with respect to Fe, and are also lower than the field star samples. The Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, track Fe and have solar values. The neutron capture element [Y/Fe] is found to be solar, but [Ba/Fe] is enhanced relative to solar and to the field stars. Three Praesepe giants were studied by Carrera and Pancino; they are apparently enhanced in Na, Mg, and Ba relative to the Praesepe dwarfs. The Na enhancement may indicate proton-capture nucleosynthesis in the Ne → Na cycling with dredge-up into the atmospheres of the red giants.

  18. Chemical composition and microstructure of Bauhinia grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Dlamini, Nomusa

    2014-09-01

    Bauhinia is a leguminous plant species found in almost every part of the world, including southern Africa. In this study, grain composition and protein body microstructure of two indigenous southern African Bauhinia species, B. galpinii and B. petersiana were determined. Protein (38 g/100 g) and fat (23 g/100 g) were the major constituents of Bauhinia. Bauhinia grains also contained substantial amounts of zinc (6 mg/100 g) and iron (3 mg/100 g) when compared to FAO/WHO standards. The parenchyma cells of Bauhinia showed spherical protein bodies with globoids inclusions and these were surrounded by lipids. However, the protein bodies of B. petersiana were smaller in size (7 ± 3 μm) than those of B. galpinii (13 ± 4 μm). The microstructure of protein bodies in Bauhinia is very similar to that of soya, suggesting that the processing technology developed for soya protein may be adopted for Bauhinia.

  19. Distribution of squares modulo a composite number

    OpenAIRE

    Aryan, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of squares modulo a square-free number $q$. We also look at inverse questions for the large sieve in the distribution aspect and we make improvements on existing results on the distribution of $s$-tuples of reduced residues.

  20. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  1. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)

  2. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects o...

  3. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2013-01-01

    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.

  4. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff for livestock. ... AFW using day-old cockerels and considering performance parameters showed that treated AFW improved feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio even better ...

  5. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  6. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the nutrient content of Panicum maximum-Moringa ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2015) > ... Tannin concentrations in these diets were below the 6.00g/100g toxic level for small ruminants.

  8. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  9. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum gilletii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation, and its chemical compositions determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The oil was dominated by sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes which accounted for 38.30 and 34.00%, respectively. The oil showed good activity against A. gambiae and recorded LC50 ...

  10. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  11. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  12. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  13. The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of macronutrient deficiencies on chemical composition of dwarf green coconut (Cocu nucifera linn) seedling. ... Elimination of magnesium also leads to reduction in the concentration of chlorophyll. starch and sugar concentrations improved with nitrogen and potassium but decreased with were more ...

  14. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  15. Chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil of Illicium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicities of essential oil derived from Illicium fargesii Finet et Gagnep fruits against the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch). Essential oil of I. fargesii fruits was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by GC (Gas Chromatography) ...

  16. The chemical composition and industrial quality of Barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the mineralization is of high industrial quality and compares favourably with the Azara barite deposits of the Benue Trough. The quality of the barite meets American Petroleum institute (API) requirements for use as drilling mud. KEYWORDS: Barite, mineralization, quality, chemical composition, southeastern Nigeria.

  17. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue pasture for dairy cows. TJ Dugmore, KP Walsh, Sally J. Morning, CI MacDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  19. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... The chemical composition of twig essential oils of Xylopia malayana, Xylopia elliptica and Xylopia fusca ... Volatile constituents and bioactivity studies are available in the literature on Xylopia aethiopica (Issakou et al., 2014;. Sylvain et al, 2014; Vyry et al, 2014), Xylopia longifolia. (Fourier et al, 1993), ...

  20. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  1. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  2. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The essential oils obtained yielded of 5.9 for Eugenia caryophylla and 0.2% Mentha sp cf piperita respectively. The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha ...

  3. Antimicrobial properties and chemical compositions of the petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and chemical compositions of the petroleum ether extract of theaerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The aerial parts of the plant were air dried under shade, pounded using wooden mortar and pestle into coarse powder. The coarse powder was extracted in aSoxhlet ...

  4. Computer program determines chemical composition of physical system at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, S. S.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 digital computer program calculates equilibrium composition of complex, multiphase chemical systems. This is a free energy minimization method with solution of the problem reduced to mathematical operations, without concern for the chemistry involved. Also certain thermodynamic properties are determined as byproducts of the main calculations.

  5. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  7. species composition, relative abundance and distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, 2011. ISSN: 0379– ... distribution at Entoto Natural Park and escarpment was carried out during July 2009 - March 2010. The study ..... University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 496 pp. 20.

  8. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  9. Composition, distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-06-29

    Jun 29, 1989 ... The species composition, distribution and seasonal abundance of ichthyoplankton in the Sundays River estuary was ... The importance of southern African estuaries as nursery areas for juvenile ... 1990,25(3) the mid-channel.

  10. Sediment distribution and composition on the shallow water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments of the shallow water carbonate basin in Zanzibar channel were investigated for composition and grain size distribution. The surface sediment composition was dominated by carbonate sands (with CaCO3 > 30%), except in the area adjacent to mainland coastline and a thin lobe which projects from Ruvu River to ...

  11. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  12. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  13. Pressure vessel steels: influence of chemical composition on irradiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, M.M.; Hammad, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron irradiation of the steels used in the construction of the nuclear reactor pressure vessels can lead to the embrittlement of these materials, increasing the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and decreasing the fracture energy, which can limit the plant life. The knowledge of irradiation embrittlement and the means for minimizing such degradation is therefore important in the field of assuring the safety of the nuclear power plants. Irradiation embrittlement is quite a complex process. It involves many variables. The most important of these are irradiation temperature, neutron fluence (neutron dose), neutron flux (neutron dose rate), and chemical composition of the irradiated material. This paper is concerned with the effect of chemical composition, the role of residual and alloying elements in the irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels in light water reactors. It presents a critical review for the published work in this field through the last 25 years

  14. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H 2 SO 4 for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  15. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  16. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  17. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  18. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the Avian Fauna of Entoto Natural Park and Escarpment, Addis Ababa. ... Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, settlement and land degradation were the main threats for the distribution of birds in the present study area.

  19. Load Distribution Factors for Composite Multicell Box Girder Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjay; Bhargava, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Cellular steel section composite with a concrete deck is one of the most suitable superstructures in resisting torsional and warping effects induced by highway loading. This type of structure has inherently created new design problems for engineers in estimating its load distribution when subjected to moving vehicles. Indian Codes of Practice does not provide any specific guidelines for the design of straight composite concrete deck-steel multi-cell bridges. To meet the practical requirements arising during the design process, a simple design method is needed for straight composite multi-cell bridges in the form of load distribution factors for moment and shear. This work presents load distribution characteristics of straight composite multi-cell box girder bridges under IRC trains of loads.

  20. Tritium distributing in stainless steel determined by chemical etchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Chen Changan; Chen Shicun; Jing Wenyong

    2009-01-01

    The depth distribution of tritium in stainless steel was measured by chemical etching. The results show that the method can more quantitatively evaluate the tritium distributing in stainless steel. The maximum amount of tritium which distributed in crystal lattice of stainless steel is limitted by its solubility at room temperature. The other form of tritium in stainless steel is gaseous tritium that are trapped by defects, impurities, fractures, etc. within it. The gaseous tritium is several times more than the solid-dissolved tritium. (authors)

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  2. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  3. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  4. Distributed Workflow Service Composition Based on CTR Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhilin; Ye, Yanming

    Recently, WS-BPEL has gradually become the basis of a standard for web service description and composition. However, WS-BPEL cannot efficiently describe distributed workflow services for lacking of special expressive power and formal semantics. This paper presents a novel method for modeling distributed workflow service composition with Concurrent TRansaction logic (CTR). The syntactic structure of WS-BPEL and CTR are analyzed, and new rules of mapping WS-BPEL into CTR are given. A case study is put forward to show that the proposed method is appropriate for modeling workflow business services under distributed environments.

  5. Separating topographical and chemical analysis of nanostructure of polymer composite in low voltage SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Q; Plenderleith, R A; Claeyssens, F; Rodenburg, C; Dapor, M; Rimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of separating the topographical and chemical information in a polymer nano-composite using low-voltage SEM imaging is demonstrated, when images are acquired with a Concentric Backscattered (CBS) detector. This separation of chemical and topographical information is based on the different angular distribution of electron scattering which were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation based on angular restricted detection was applied to a semi-branched PNIPAM/PEGDA interpenetration network for which a linear relationship of topography SEM contrast and feature height data was observed. (paper)

  6. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  8. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  9. Bioactive carbon-PEEK composites prepared by chemical surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Matsunami, Chisato; Shirosaki, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much attention as an artificial intervertebral spacer for spinal reconstruction. Furthermore, PEEK plastic reinforced with carbon fiber has twice the bending strength of pure PEEK. However, the PEEK-based materials do not show ability for direct bone bonding, i.e., bioactivity. Although several trials have been conducted for enabling PEEK with bioactivity, few studies have reported on bioactive surface modification of carbon-PEEK composites. In the present study, we attempted the preparation of bioactive carbon-PEEK composites by chemical treatments with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 . Bioactivity was evaluated by in vitro apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite formation on the carbon-PEEK composite was compared with that of pure PEEK. Both pure PEEK and carbon-PEEK composite formed the apatite in SBF when they were treated with H 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 ; the latter showed higher apatite-forming ability than the former. It is conjectured that many functional groups able to induce the apatite nucleation, such as sulfo and carboxyl groups, are incorporated into the dispersed carbon phase in the carbon-PEEK composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmine A.B.S. Alves

    Full Text Available The Simaroubaceae family includes 32 genera and more than 170 species of trees and brushes of pantropical distribution. The main distribution hot spots are located at tropical areas of America, extending to Africa, Madagascar and regions of Australia bathed by the Pacific. This family is characterized by the presence of quassinoids, secondary metabolites responsible of a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antiviral, insecticide, feeding deterrent, amebicide, antiparasitic and herbicidal. Although the chemical and pharmacological potential of Simaroubaceae family as well as its participation in official compendia; such as British, German, French and Brazilian pharmacopoeias, and patent registration, many of its species have not been studied yet. In order to direct further investigation to approach detailed botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the Simaroubaceae, the present work reviews the information regarding the main genera of the family up to 2013.

  11. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  12. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level. PMID:25880223

  13. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  14. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Terrazas, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content) in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous) with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35%) of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  15. Dynamics of the chemical composition of rainwater throughout Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mullaugh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential sampling of rainwater from Hurricane Irene was carried out in Wilmington, NC, USA on 26 and 27 August 2011. Eleven samples were analyzed for pH, major ions (Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Hurricane Irene contributed 16% of the total rainwater and 18% of the total chloride wet deposition received in Wilmington NC during all of 2011. This work highlights the main physical factors influencing the chemical composition of tropical storm rainwater: wind speed, wind direction, back trajectory and vertical mixing, time of day and total rain volume. Samples collected early in the storm, when winds blew out of the east, contained dissolved components indicative of marine sources (salts from sea spray and low DOC. The sea-salt components in the samples had two maxima in concentration during the storm the first of which occurred before the volume of rain had sufficiently washed out sea salt from the atmosphere and the second when back trajectories showed large volumes of marine surface air were lifted. As the storm progressed and winds shifted to a westerly direction, the chemical composition of the rainwater became characteristic of terrestrial storms (high DOC and NH4+ and low sea salt. This work demonstrates that tropical storms are not only responsible for significant wet deposition of marine components to land, but terrestrial components can also become entrained in rainwater, which can then be delivered to coastal waters via wet deposition. This study also underscores why analysis of one composite sample can lead to an incomplete interpretation of the factors that influence the chemically divergent analytes in rainwater during extreme weather events.

  16. The chemical composition of the Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge of the chemical composition of PopI WR stars, concentrating on work carried out in this area since the last IAU, No. 49, symposium devoted to this stellar class (Bappu and Sahade 1973). Section 2 deals with an assessment of the atmospheric H/He ratio in both WN and WC stars: a parameter of fundamental importance in addressing their evolutionary status, as well as providing a base species with which to compare other derived chemical abundances. Section 3 briefly deals with the models generally employed and gives recent results for He, C and N abundances derived from both visible and UV line analyses. Section 4 summarises recent results from stellar evolutionary theory and in Section 5 these are compared with those derived from observation, assessing the significance of these new results and their implications for the evolutionary status of the WR stars. Some areas for further advancement are identified. (Auth.)

  17. Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na 2 O in dry air condition and liquid Na 2 O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling

  18. Model driven design of distribution patterns for web service compositions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, distributed systems are being constructed by composing a number of discrete components. This practice, termed composition, is particularly prevalent within the Web service domain. Here, enterprise systems are built from many existing discrete applications, often legacy applications exposed using Web service interfaces. There are a number of architectural configurations or distribution patterns, which express how a composed system is to be deployed. However, the amount o...

  19. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - chemical composition and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), currently investigated by many researchers, has been known and used for more than a thousand years indigenous tribes of South America, who called it "kaa-hee" ("sweet herb"). Thanks to its chemical composition and processability sweetleaf may be an alternative for synthetic sweeteners. Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of Stevia rebaudiana are presently being studied in many research centres. The aim of this study is to present nutritional and health-promoting value of the still-little known sweetleaf.

  20. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  1. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. Chemical composition of precipitation in adjacent forest and open plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madgwick, H A.I.; Ovington, J D

    1959-01-01

    The chemical composition of the precipitation in three open plots and under thirteen different forest canopies is compared for a 2-year period at an experimental forest in south-east England. The average contents of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the precipitation in the open are 19, 3, 11, and less than 4 kg./ha./annum respectively, compared with 33, 24, 24, and 10 under the forest canopies. Only very small quantities of phosphorus were present in the precipitation. The data are discussed with particular reference to the nutrient cycles of forest stands, the removal of nutrients by logging, and the maintenance of soil fertility.

  3. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  4. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Floristic composition and taxonomic distribution of plants in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic composition and taxonomic distribution of plants in the dryland of Northwestern Nigeria. ... Analysis of abundance and rarity of species reveals that 10% and 90% of the encountered species were abundant and rare respectively in the study area. These finding poses serious ecological concerns in the study area, ...

  6. Seasonal Variations in the Composition and Distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and distribution of planktonic fauna (adult form of zooplankton and planktonic juvenile forms of higher animals) within the eastern part of the Lagos Lagoon were investigated in July, 2008 and March, 2009 representing rainy and dry season respectively. Samples of water and planktonic fauna were ...

  7. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  8. Medium Resolution Spectroscopy and Chemical Composition of Galactic Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamidullina D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005, as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  9. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T.; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC 50 64.6 ± 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC 50 3.6 ± 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC 50 104.7 ± 0.2 and 34.7 ± 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  11. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  12. Medium resolution spectroscopy and chemical composition of Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, D. A.; Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Davoust, E.

    We used integrated-light medium-resolution spectra of six Galactic globular clusters and model stellar atmospheres to carry out population synthesis and to derive chemical composition and age of the clusters. We used medium-resolution spectra of globular clusters published by Schiavon et al. (2005), as well as our long-slit observations with the 1.93 m telescope of the Haute Provence Observatory. The observed spectra were fitted to the theoretical ones interactively. As an initial approach, we used masses, radii and log g of stars in the clusters corresponding to the best fitting isochrones in the observed color-magnitude diagrams. The computed synthetic blanketed spectra of stars were summed according to the Chabrier mass function. To improve the determination of age and helium content, the shape and depth of the Balmer absorption lines was analysed. The abundances of Mg, Ca, C and several other elements were derived. A reasonable agreement with the literature data both in chemical composition and in age of the clusters is found. Our method might be useful for the development of stellar population models and for a better understanding of extragalactic star clusters.

  13. Influences of chemical packing and the chemical composition in porcelain sintering: from theory to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, E.S.; Gouvea, D.; Romano, R.C.O.; Pileggi, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have been conducted using the size distribution particles as a tool to obtain maximum packing in porcelain bodies. However, little attention has been given for the maximum size of particles and its effect in the sintering. While some particles are relatively large (63 μ m) for some oxides in the porcelain composition, they could compromise the sintering if a liquid phase is formed during heat processing. In this work, a comparative analysis showed that compositions with a maximum green packing density does not always lead to a maximum final densification in sintering if there is no control of the maximum size of the particles. (author)

  14. Correlated Raman micro-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses of flame retardants in environmental samples: a micro-analytical tool for probing chemical composition, origin and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Wagner, Jeff

    2013-07-07

    We present correlated application of two micro-analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) for the non-invasive characterization and molecular identification of flame retardants (FRs) in environmental dusts and consumer products. The SEM/EDS-RMS technique offers correlated, morphological, molecular, spatial distribution and semi-quantitative elemental concentration information at the individual particle level with micrometer spatial resolution and minimal sample preparation. The presented methodology uses SEM/EDS analyses for rapid detection of particles containing FR specific elements as potential indicators of FR presence in a sample followed by correlated RMS analyses of the same particles for characterization of the FR sub-regions and surrounding matrices. The spatially resolved characterization enabled by this approach provides insights into the distributional heterogeneity as well as potential transfer and exposure mechanisms for FRs in the environment that is typically not available through traditional FR analysis. We have used this methodology to reveal a heterogeneous distribution of highly concentrated deca-BDE particles in environmental dust, sometimes in association with identifiable consumer materials. The observed coexistence of deca-BDE with consumer material in dust is strongly indicative of its release into the environment via weathering/abrasion of consumer products. Ingestion of such enriched FR particles in dust represents a potential for instantaneous exposure to high FR concentrations. Therefore, correlated SEM/RMS analysis offers a novel investigative tool for addressing an area of important environmental concern.

  15. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.

    1995-01-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  16. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Hayatsu, Kenji

    1995-08-01

    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  17. Chemical composition and fermentative parameters of heart of palm waste produced from Alexander Palm ensiled with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Fábio Viana Bayão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the fermentative parameters of heart of palm waste produced from Alexander Palm, ensiled with chemical additives. Treatments consisted of silage of the sheath with or without calcium oxide. In the silage without calcium oxide, we evaluated the control silage (without additive and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 urea (urea. In the silage with calcium oxide, we evaluated the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 calcium oxide (control and the silage enriched with 5.0 g kg−1 urea and 5.0 g kg−1 calcium oxide (urea. Experimental silos were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (inclusion or lack of lime × inclusion or lack of urea, with four replicates. Crude protein concentration was greater in the silages that received urea, whereas in the case of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, the lowest levels were found in the control silage. Control silage had the lowest pH (3.75 and the silages that received lime displayed the lowest lactic acid content. Effluent losses were greater in the control silage and in the silage with lime (56.1 kg t−1 and 58.4 kg t−1, respectively. Silages prepared with waste from heart of palm production and enriched only with urea showed a better chemical composition and improved fermentation parameter estimates. We recommend the use of this waste only with additives that can improve the chemical characteristics of the forage. Without additives, unwanted fermentation processes may occur and compromise the quality of the silage.

  18. Changes in the chemical composition of the light crude by short-term weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Ma, Q.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an oil spill, it is important to unambiguously identify the oil and link it to the known source in order to determine environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behaviour of spilled oil depends on several physical, chemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photooxidation. The chemical composition of the spilled oil changes with weathering. The changes can have a significant effect on the oil's toxicity and can add to the difficulty of identifying spilled oil. This paper presents the results of changes in chemical composition of light crude oil by weathering under natural environmental conditions. Oil samples were analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Light crude oil was obtained from the oil cabin of a tanker which spilled oil near the Dalian Sea near China in April 2005. It was shown that the saturated hydrocarbons of light crude oil distribute between n-C 8 and n-C 23 . The most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C 10 to n-C 16 . The main chemical compositions of the light crude oil are the n-alkanes and the isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical compositions of the light crude oil. A simulated weathering experiment showed that less than n-C 12 of the n-alkanes, toluene, 1,3-dimethyl benzene is lost after 1 day of weathering. The n-C 13 , n-C 14 , naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering. N-C 15 alkane composition indicates some weatherproof capability. The ratios of n-C 17 /pristine and n-C 18 /phytane were unchanged and useful in identifying the source of the light crude oil during the first 8-day weathering period. By the twenty-first day of weathering, the chemical composition underwent extreme alteration, and the source of the pollution could not be determined by the ratios of pristine/phytane. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  20. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  1. Developing a predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violi, Angela [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Michelsen, Hope [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, Nils [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-07

    In order to provide the scientific foundation to enable technology breakthroughs in transportation fuel, it is important to develop a combustion modeling capability to optimize the operation and design of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The goal of this proposal is to develop a validated predictive model to describe the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles in premixed and diffusion flames. Atomistic studies in conjunction with state-of-the-art experiments are the distinguishing characteristics of this unique interdisciplinary effort. The modeling effort has been conducted at the University of Michigan by Prof. A. Violi. The experimental work has entailed a series of studies using different techniques to analyze gas-phase soot precursor chemistry and soot particle production in premixed and diffusion flames. Measurements have provided spatial distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other gas-phase species and size and composition of incipient soot nanoparticles for comparison with model results. The experimental team includes Dr. N. Hansen and H. Michelsen at Sandia National Labs' Combustion Research Facility, and Dr. K. Wilson as collaborator at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab's Advanced Light Source. Our results show that the chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles affect the coagulation behavior in soot formation, and our results on an experimentally validated, predictive model for the chemical composition of soot nanoparticles will not only enhance our understanding of soot formation since but will also allow the prediction of particle size distributions under combustion conditions. These results provide a novel description of soot formation based on physical and chemical properties of the particles for use in the next generation of soot models and an enhanced capability for facilitating the design of alternative fuels and the engines they will power.

  2. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  3. Chemical methods for the determination of composition of cryolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarudrappa, V.; Patil, B.N.; Marathe, S.G.; Jain, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Preparation of uranium and plutonium alloys containing aluminium involves the use of cryolite and many times, cryolite which may be contaminated with alpha activity has to be analysed for its purity. In view of this, chemical methods for the determination of composition of commercial cryolite samples have been developed. Methods are standardised for the determination of individual constituents of cryolite viz., aluminium, sodium, fluoride and major impurities, calcium and magnesium. Studies on the dissolution of the sample, effect of one or more components on the determination of the other and their elimination are carried out. Aluminium and sodium are determined gravimetrically as oxinate and triple acetate respectively. Fluoride is determined by a volumetric procedure after cation exchange separtion of soluble fluoride. Calcium and magnesium are determined by a sequential pH-metri titration. This report describes the details of the procedures and the results of these studies for two commercial cryolite samples. (author). 7 tabs

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoubi M.J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  6. Quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mohamed; Kamal, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    The application of quantum mechanics contributes to the field of cryptography with very important advantage as it offers a mechanism for detecting the eavesdropper. The pioneering work of quantum key distribution uses mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) to prepare and measure qubits (or qudits). Weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) have weaker properties than MUBs properties, however, unlike MUBs, a complete set of WMUBs can be constructed for systems with composite dimensions. In this paper, we study the use of weak mutually unbiased bases (WMUBs) in quantum key distribution for composite dimensional finite systems. We prove that the security analysis of using a complete set of WMUBs to prepare and measure the quantum states in the generalized BB84 protocol, gives better results than using the maximum number of MUBs that can be constructed, when they are analyzed against the intercept and resend attack.

  7. Mineral and chemical composition of rock core and surface gas composition in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Naoto; Ishii, Eiichi

    2008-02-01

    The following three kinds of analyses were conducted for the 1st phase of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. Mineral composition analysis of core sample. Whole rock chemical composition analysis of core sample. Surface gas composition analysis. This document summarizes the results of these analyses. (author)

  8. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; James, E.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Butler, J.M.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Kahn, S.; Kotcher, J.; Protopopescu, S.; Rajagopalan, S.; Bantly, J.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cutts, D.; Guida, J.M.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.; Grinstein, S.; Piegaia, R.; Bloom, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Glenn, S.; Grim, G.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lander, R.; Mani, S.; Fahland, T.; Hall, R.E.; Boswell, C.; Choudhary, B.C.; Cochran, J.; Ellison, J.; Gartung, P.; Gounder, K.; Huehn, T.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Motta, H.; Nicola, M.; Santoro, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Adam, I.; Kotwal, A.V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Ahn, S.; Baldin, B.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bhat, P.C.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Bross, A.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Feher, S.; Fisk, H.E.; Flattum, E.; Fuess, S.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Haggerty, H.; Hansen, S.; Heintz, U.; Hobbs, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the dijet angular distribution in √(s)=1.8 TeV p bar p collisions using the D0 detector. Order α 3 s QCD predictions are in good agreement with the data. At 95% confidence limit the data exclude models of quark compositeness in which the contact interaction scale is below 2TeV. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  9. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  10. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  11. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut.

  12. Physical properties and chemical composition of Segamat Kaolin, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar Hamzah; Learn, K.K.; Sahibin Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Kaolin is a source of secondary mineral as a product of a weathering process of primary minerals. Its main component is fine grain kaolinite (< 2 μm) and it also contains other elements such as aluminium and iron phyllosilicate as the pigment. Aluminium rich kaolin is light in colour with high plasticity and is normally used in the ceramic, plastic, paint, paper, pesticide, pharmacology and cosmetic industries. The physical and chemical characteristics of kaolins are important for its potential application. In this study, about 25 kaolin samples were hand-augered from depths of 1-2 m at Buloh Kasap Segamat, Johor, Malaysia. Chemical analysis carried out included determination of oxides and types of minerals by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Shrinkage rate, rupture modulus and water absorption rate tests were carried out in the physical properties analysis. Plastic and liquid limits of the kaolin were also measured for plastic index. The Segamat kaolin was light in colour due to its high silicate composition. The highest mineral content in the kaolin was kaolinite and quartz occurred as impurities. The low shrinkage rate showed that the kaolin was dense with little voids, hence very suitable for use in the ceramic industry. This kaolin has low water absorption, plasticity and durable according to the rupture modulus test. (author)

  13. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  14. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Santariano Sant’Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure.

  15. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  16. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; de Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:29300307

  17. Silver distribution in crystals and intercrystalline space of YBa2Cu3O7-σ-Ag composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozakov, A.T.; Klevtsov, A.N.; Shevtsova, S.I.; Razumovskaya, O.N.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and phase composition is investigated of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ -Ag composite obtained by means of Ag diffusion in high-temperature superconductor and by sintering yttrium, barium and copper with Ag or Ag 2 O. In composite samples, obtained by sintering at 900 deg C during 24 h in air and oxygen, is found silver not only in intercrystalline gaps in the form of single formations with dimensions of 1-20 μm at small content of copper, but in the crystallite composition. In samples, obtained by Ag diffusion into high-density ceramics, are found conglomerates of silver, uniformly distributed in the all volume

  18. Phylogenetic or environmental control on the organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum mosses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of organic material is one of the key processes that determines the size of the soil-feedback to global warming, but it is also a process surrounded with one of the largest uncertainties, making understanding its mechanistic drivers of crucial importance. In organic soils decomposition is closely determined by the organo-chemical composition of the litter entering the soil. But what, in turn drives the organo-chemical composition? Is it an emergent feature of the environment the species producing the litter grow in, or is it an evolutionary trait that can be tracked through the species' phylogeny? We set out to answer this question for one of the most import peat-forming plants on earth: the genus Sphagnum. We sampled 18 Sphagnum species, about equally distributed over 6 sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions: most species were collected at multiple sites. For all species we characterised the chemical composition, focussing on three functional chemistry groups: (i) mineral elements, (ii) carbohydrate polymers (iii) non-carbohydrate polymers (aromatic and aliphatic compounds) . For each group of compounds we used multivariate statistical techniques to derive the degree of variation explained by environment: (site, position within site) and phylogeny (sections within genus Sphagnum). We found that the variation in mineral element concentrations was mostly explained by environment, with the biggest differences in the concentrations of basic cat-ions calcium and magnesium. In contrast, the variation in carbohydrates was mostly explained by phylogeny, with clear associations between sections and monosaccharides. The monosaccharide rhamnose was associated with species from the Acutifolia section known for their poor degradability, whereas xylose and galactose were closely associated with degradable species from the Cuspidata section. The composition non-carbohydrate polymers took an intermediate position: both environment and phylogeny

  19. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  20. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  1. Characterization of chemical composition of bee pollen in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Dan; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Sun, Peilong

    2013-01-23

    Bee pollen has been praised for its good nutrition and therapeutic values. China is the largest producer in the world. Twelve common varieties of monofloral bee pollen collected from China's main producing regions were selected for nutritional composition analysis, including proximate contents, dietary fibers, amino acid distribution, fatty acid composition, and mineral elements. The proximate compositions mostly met the specifications regulating pollen load quality of China. Proline and glutamic acids were found to be the predominant amino acids in the form of both total amino and free amino acids. Lysine was the relative limiting amino acid. The percentage of total essential amino acids (TEAA) to total amino acids (TAA) reached the nutrition recommendation of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The major fatty acids, presented as mean values, were C18:3 (25.1%), C16:0 (19.6%), C18:1 (17.3%), C18:2 (8.78%), C22:0 (4.07%), and C18:0 (2.96%) acids. The proportions of C18:3 were generally higher than those of C18:2, and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS) to total saturated fatty acids (TS) was >1.0, except for Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. pollen for the characteristic absence of C18:3 acids. High levels of beneficial elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn. and Cu were observed in pollen samples. The contents of detrimental trace elements of Cd, Pb, and Hg were primarily lower or not detected. However, more attention should be paid to a large amount of Al, with a concentration of >100 mg/kg DW in most samples. There were some significant differences between samples. On the whole, the Chinese bee pollen was evaluated as a good complement to diet.

  2. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  3. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  4. Chemical nature and distribution of calcium compounds in radiolucent gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, D.K.; Choudhuri, G.; Kumar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A high failure rate for radiolucent cholesterol gallstones to dissolve with oral bile acids may be due to the presence of insoluble calcium compounds. Twenty sets of radiolucent gallstones, 7-20 mm in diameter, obtained from 20 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, were cut, and the outer surface, outer rim, middle portion, and central core areas were scanned for calcium by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scrapings from the four areas of each stone were analysed by infrared spectroscopy. A sample of the crushed stone was used for chemical estimation of cholesterol. 11 of the 20 cholesterol stones showed presence of calcium by EDX; the distribution was peripheral in 5, homogeneous in 4, and central in 2. The chemical compound was calcium bilirubinate in 10 and calcium carbonate in 8 stones. Calcium compounds are present in a high proportion of radiolucent gallstones considered suitable for chemodissolution by conventional criteria. Their unrecognized presence may explain the high failure rate of such stones to respond to medical therapy. 20 refs., 3 figs

  5. Influence of chemical composition of precipitation on migration of radioactive caesium in natural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thørring, H.; Skuterud, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of the chemical composition of precipitation on radiocaesium mobility in natural soil. This was done through column studies. Three types of precipitation regimes were studied, representing a natural range found in Norway: Acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); precipitation rich in marine cations (highly oceanic coastal areas); and low concentrations of sea salts (slightly continental inland areas). After 50 weeks and a total precipitation supply of ∼10 000 L m −2 per column, results indicate that acidic precipitation increased the mobility of 134 Cs added during the experiment. However, depth distribution of already present Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs was not significantly affected by the chemical composition of precipitation. - Highlights: • Mobility of freshly added Cs-134 was higher in soil receiving acidic precipitation. • Depth penetration of Cs-134 was higher in soil profiles with a thicker humus layer. • Depth distribution of Chernobyl Cs-137 was not affected by precipitation type

  6. The Schiff angular bremsstrahlung distribution from composite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dalton, B.; Franich, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Schiff differential for the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung is widely employed, but calculations involving composite materials (i.e. compounds and mixtures) are often undertaken in a somewhat ad hoc fashion. In this work, we suggest an alternative approach to power-law estimates of the effective atomic number utilising Seltzer and Berger’s combined approach in order to generate single-valued effective atomic numbers applicable over a large energy range (in the worst case deviation from constancy of about 2% between 10 keV and 1 GeV). Differences with power-law estimates of Z for composites are potentially significant, particularly for low-Z media such as biological or surrogate materials as relevant within the context of medical physics. As an example, soft tissue differs by >70% and cortical bone differs by >85%, while for high-Z composites such as a tungsten–rhenium alloy the difference is of the order of 1%. Use of the normalised Schiff formula for shape only does not exhibit strong Z dependence. Consequently, in such contexts the differences are negligible – the power-law approach overestimates the magnitude by 1.05% in the case of water and underestimates it by <0.1% for the high-Z alloys. The differences in the distribution are most pronounced for small angles and where the bremsstrahlung quanta are low energy.

  7. Chemical, mechanical and biological properties of contemporary composite surface sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Maria; Mountouris, George; Silikas, Nick; Kletsas, Dimitris; Eliades, George

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the chemical, mechanical, and biological properties of modern composite surface sealers (CSS) having different compositions. The CSS products tested were Biscover LV (BC), Durafinish (DF), G-Coat Plus (GC), and Permaseal (PS). The tests performed were: (A): degree of conversion (DC%) by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; (B): thickness of O2-inhibition layer by transmission optical microscopy; (C): surface hardness, 10 min after irradiation and following 1 week water storage, employing a Vickers indenter (VHN); (D): color (ΔE*) and gloss changes (ΔGU) after toothbrush abrasion, using L*a*b* colorimetry and glossimetry; (E): accelerated wear (GC,PS only) by an OHSU wear simulator plus 3D profilometric analysis, and (F): cytotoxicity testing of aqueous CSS eluents on human gingival fibroblast cultures employing the methyl-(3)H thymidine DNA labeling method. Statistical analyses included 1-way (A, B, ΔE*, ΔGU) and 2-way (C, F) ANOVAs, plus Tukey post hoc tests. Student's t-test was used to evaluate the results of the accelerated wear test (α=0.05 for all). The rankings of the statistical significant differences were: (A) PS (64.9)>DF,BC,GC (56.1-53.9) DC%; (B) DF,PS (12.3,9.8)>GC,BC (5.2,4.8) μm; (C): GC (37.6)>BC,DF (32.6,31.1)>PS (26.6) VHN (10 min/dry) and BC,DF (29.3,28.7)>GC(26.5)>PS(21.6) VHN (1w/water), with no significant material/storage condition interaction; (D): no differences were found among GC,DF,BC,PS (0.67-1.11) ΔE*, with all values within the visually acceptable range and PS,BC (32.8,29.4)>GC,DF (19.4,12.9) ΔGU; (E): no differences were found between GC and PS in volume loss (0.10,0.11 mm(3)), maximum (113.9,130.5 μm) and mean wear depths (30.3,27.5 μm); (F): at 1% v/v concentration, DF showed toxicity (23% vital cells vs 95-102% for others). However, at 5% v/v concentration DF (0%) and BC (9%) were the most toxic, whereas GC (58%) and PS (56%) showed moderate toxicity. Important chemical, mechanical, and biological properties exist among

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHANGE OF SUBSURFACE SNOW IN EAST ANTARCTICA WITH DISTANCE FROM THE COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Golobokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on chemical composition of snow in theAntarcticasampled along the first tractor traverse during the 53th Russian Antarctic Expedition from Station Progress (the sea coast to Station Vostok (1,276 kmfrom Progress. Specific features of horizontal and depth distribution of chemical components in snow revealed differences in conditions of formation of snow cover along the traverse in both spatial and time scales. Chemical composition of snow depends on the sources of admixture inputs onto the surface of the ice sheet (marine, continental and volcanic. The influence of sea factor decreases with the distance from the coast. Calculated factor of element enrichment indicated that some ions in snow cover were of continental origin in the middle of the traverse. Elevated concentrations of sulphate ions were recorded in snow-firn cores at 130–150 cmfrom the surface. They were attributed to signals of the Pinatubo volcano eruption (1991. Accumulation rate of snow was calculated for the traverse sites based on the depth of the Pinatubo layer.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyrifera fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available Fruits of Broussonetia papyrifera from South China were analyzed for their total chemical composition, and antioxidant activities in ethanol and aqueous extracts. In the fruit of this plant, the crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates was 7.08%, 3.72% and 64.73% of dry weight, respectively. The crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates were 15.71%, 20.51% and 36.09% of dry weight, respectively. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of the fruit were analyzed. Unsaturated fatty acid concentration was 70.6% of the total fatty acids. The percentage of the essential amino acids (EAAs was 40.60% of the total amino acids. Furthermore, B. papyrifera fruit are rich in many mineral elements and vitamins. Total phenolic content was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, whereas antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring the ability of the two extracts to scavenge DPPH radicals, inhibit peroxidation, and chelate ferric ions. Their reducing power was also assessed. Results indicated that the aqueous extract of B. papyrifera was a more potent reducing agent and radical-scavenger than the ethanol extract. GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract showed the presence of some acid-containing compounds. The changes in total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in B. papyrifera from four different regions grown under normal conditions were assessed. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was positively associated with their total phenolic content. These results suggest that the fruit of B. papyrifera could be used in dietary supplement preparations, or as a food additive, for nutritional gain, or to prevent oxidation in food products.

  10. Chemical composition of felt-tip pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinario, Giulia; Garrappa, Silvia; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; van der Werf, Inez Dorothé; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2018-01-01

    Felt-tip pens are frequently used for the realization of sketches, drawings, architectural projects, and other technical designs. The formulations of these inks are usually rather complex and may be associated to those of modern paint materials where, next to the binding medium and pigments/dyes, solvents, fillers, emulsifiers, antioxidants, plasticizers, light stabilizers, biocides, and so on are commonly added. Felt-tip pen inks are extremely sensitive to degradation and especially exposure to light may cause chromatic changes and fading. In this study, we report on the complete chemical characterization of modern felt-tip pen inks that are commercially available and commonly used for the realization of artworks. Three brands of felt-tip pens (Faber-Castell, Edding, and Stabilo) were investigated with complementary analytical techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC), VIS-reflectance spectroscopy, μ-Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The use of TLC proved to be very powerful in the study of complex mixtures of synthetic dyes. First derivatives of the reflectance spectra acquired on the TLC spots were useful in the preliminary identification of the dye, followed by Raman spectroscopy and SERS, which allowed for the unambiguous determination of the chemical composition of the pigments (phthalocyanines, dioxazines, and azo pigments) and dyes (azo dyes, triarylmethanes, xanthenes). FTIR spectroscopy was used especially for the detection of additives, as well as for confirming the nature of solvents and dyes/pigments. Finally, (Py-)GC-MS data provided information on the binders (styrene-acrylic resins, plant gums), solvents, and additives, as well as on pigments and dyes.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of modified inter-polymer complexes and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Inter-polymer complexes (IC) are rather perspective and can occupy the important place in technology of materials, as find out a number of the most valuable properties. In essence, they are new polymeric materials with a complex of new qualities and operational characteristics. In the present work the influence of a nature and structure of cooperating components both on structure, and on properties of received final products is investigated. It is shown new opportunities of use of the IC for reception composite materials formed IC on the physical properties, rather close to amorphous compounds. The opportunity of reception polymeric composite materials with the given properties and structure is shown; the purposeful regulation of process of hardening inter-polymeric composite materials with disperse fillers of a various nature and contents is established. The properties of such composite materials are determined by amount of entered components, both their distribution and chemical nature of a filler, that allows to increase stability properties in 2.5-3 times. By using phenomenological analysis of the contact phenomena the differential equations are made which are used for the analysis of VAC sandwich-structures metal-IC-metal. In a range of voltage V=0 -1 -10 2 V the experimental VAC are described by dependences close to Ohmic J∼V n , n=1. It is shown that the presence of breaks σ=f(T) at temperature ∼ 300 K specifies on ionic character of conductivity of samples. The chemical resistance of inter-polymeric composites in relation to water, to a solution of NaCl and 'to aggressive environment' is comprehensively characterized. The optimum degree of filling of the fillers Cv=2-3 is determined at a specific surface of fillers 0.2-0.3 m 2 /g

  12. The Chemical Composition of Fogs and Clouds in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, James William

    Fog and clouds are frequent occurrences in Southern California. Their chemical composition is of interest due to their potential role in the transformation of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to sulfuric and nitric acid and in the subsequent deposition of those acids. In addition, cloud and fog droplets may be involved in the chemistry of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds. The major inorganic species in cloud and fogwater samples were NH_4^+, H ^+, NO_3^-, and SO_4^{2-}. Concentrations in fogwater samples were 1-10 times 10^ {-3} M; pH values ranged from ~eq2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of of NH_3 from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. The observations were consistent with the hypothesis that small droplets form on small secondary aerosol composed of H_2SO _4, HNO_3, and their NH_4^+ salts, while large droplets form on large sea-salt and soil-dust aerosol. Species that can exist in the gas phase, such as HCl and HNO _3, may be found in either droplet-size fraction. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH_2 O in the range 100-1000 μm were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH_2 O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH_2O. Direct measurement of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  13. Chemical composition separation of a propylene-ethylene random copolymer by high temperature solvent gradient interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Phiri, Mohau Justice; Ndiripo, Anthony; Pasch, Harald

    2017-11-03

    A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution. These components can only be detected after being separated and enriched by TREF followed by HPLC analysis. Chemical composition separations were achieved for TREF fractions with average ethylene contents between 2.1 and 22.0mol%, showing that copolymers with higher ethylene contents were adsorbed stronger in the Hypercarb column and eluted later. All TREF fractions, except the 40°C fraction, were relatively homogeneous in both molar mass and chemical composition. The 40°C fraction was rather broad in both molar mass and chemical composition distributions. 2D HPLC showed that the molar masses of the components containing more ethylene units were getting lower for the 40°C fraction. HPLC revealed and confirmed that co-crystallization influences the separation in TREF of the studied propylene-ethylene copolymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  15. Chemical composition of biomass generated in the guava tree pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Pedraza-Bucio, Fabiola Eugenia; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Herrera-Bucio, Rafael; Rutiaga-Quiñones, José Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is a native plant of Central America and is now widely cultivated in many tropical regions of the world for the fruit production. In Mexico, in the guava orchards common practices to control fruit production are: water stress, defoliation and pruning. In this study, we report the chemical composition of the biomass (branches and leaves) generated in the pruning practices. The results ranged as follows: pH (4.98-5.88), soda solubility (39.01-70.49 %), ash (1.87-8.20 %); potassium and calcium were the major inorganic elements in ash. No heavy metals were detected in the studied samples; total solubility (15.21-46.60 %), Runkel lignin (17.77-35.26 %), holocellulose (26.56 -69.49 %), α-cellulose (15.53-35.36 %), hemicelluloses (11.02-34.12 %), tannins in aqueous extracts (3.81-9.06 %), and tannins in ethanolic extracts (3.42-15.24 %). PMID:26417359

  16. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2008-01-01

    13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)

  17. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Campos, Cássia Roberta; Dragone, Giuliano; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5%) were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6%) and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%). Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates), Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates), Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates), Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates), Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates) and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates) were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long) cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml. PMID:24031681

  18. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir [Department of Physics, S.D.D.I.E.T., Barwala, District Panchkula, Haryana 134 118 (India)], E-mail: tejbir.s@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Naresh [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402 (India)], E-mail: naresh20dhiman@yahoo.com; Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002 (India)], E-mail: dr_parjit@hotmail.com

    2009-01-15

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number.

  19. Chemical composition dependence of exposure buildup factors for some polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejbir; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Parjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure buildup factors for some polymers such as poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN), poly-methyl-acrylate (PMA), poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC), synthetic rubber (SR), tetra-fluro-ethylene (Teflon) have been computed using the G.P. fitting method in the energy range of 0.015-15.0 MeV, up to the penetration of 40 mean free paths (mfp). The variation of exposure buildup factors for all the selected polymers with incident photon energy at the fixed penetration depths has been studied, mainly emphasizing on chemical composition (equivalent atomic number) of the selected polymers. It has been observed that for the lower penetration depths (below 10 mfp), the exposure buildup factor decreases with the increase in equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers at all the incident photon energies. However, at the penetration depth of 10 mfp and incident photon energy above 3 MeV, the exposure buildup factor becomes almost independent of the equivalent atomic number of the selected polymers. Further, above the fixed penetration depth of 15 mfp of the selected polymers and above the incident photon energy of 3 MeV, reversal in the trend has been observed, i.e., the exposure buildup factor increases with the increase in equivalent atomic number

  20. Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gharachorloo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.

  1. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Teixeira Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5% were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6% and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%. Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates, Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates, Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates, Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates, Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates, Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates, Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml.

  2. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chemical composition and biological properties of Satureja avromanica Maroofi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Elham; Javadi, Shima; Akhgari, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyran; Dastan, Dara

    2017-03-01

    Satureja avromanica is an indigenous plant which is frequently used as a spice in Avraman-Kurdistan region of Iran. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the S. avromanica . In addition, rosmarinic acid and total phenolic content of S. avromanica was assessed by spectrophotometric method and HPTLC. The essential oil and methanolic extract were isolated by hydrodistillation and maceration methods, respectively. A total of 32 compounds representing 98.6% of the essential oil were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. The main constituents were n -pentacosane (23.8%), spathulenol (11.5%), β-bourbonen (11.3%) and n -docosane (11.0%). The antibacterial activity of samples were carried out by disc diffusion method and evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) essential oil and methanolic extract were found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus . The highest scavenging activity was found for methanolic extract of S. avromanica (21.58 µg/mL) and the total phenolics of methanolic extract of S. avromanica was 95.3 mg GAE/g. The rosmarinic acid content of S. avromanica methanolic extract was 0.83 mg/g plant. Antioxidant activity and rosmarininc acid content of S. avromanica suggests that the essential oil and methanolic extract of S. avromanica has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent to preserve food.

  4. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  6. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Pinus Roxburghii essential oil anticancer activity and chemical composition evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Arfaa; Manzoor, Qaisar; Iqbal, Munawar; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Sajid, Anam

    2018-01-01

    The present study was conducted to appraise the anticancer activity of Pinus roxburghii essential oil along with chemical composition evaluation. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity induction in colon, leukemia, multiple myeloma, pancreatic, head and neck and lung cancer cells exposed to essential oil. Cancer cell death was also observed through live/dead cell viability assay and FACS analysis. Apoptosis induced by essential oil was confirmed by cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 that suppressed the colony-forming ability of tumor cells and 50 % inhibition occurred at a dose of 25 μg/mL. Moreover, essential oil inhibited the activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and inhibited expression of NF-κB regulated gene products linked to cell survival (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, c-Myc, c-IAP2), proliferation (Cyclin D1) and metastasis (MMP-9). P. roxburghii essential oil has considerable anticancer activity and could be used as anticancer agent, which needs further investigation to identify and purify the bioactive compounds followed by in vivo studies.

  8. Comparing Chemical Compositions of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies and Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2015-01-01

    Because of their abundance in cluster environments and fragility due to their low mass, dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are excellent specimens for studying the physical processes that occur inside galaxy clusters. These studies can be used to expand our understanding of the process of galaxy (specifically dE) formation and the role of dark matter in the Universe. To move closer to better understanding these topics, we present a study of the relationship between dEs and globular clusters (GCs) by using the largest sample of dEs and GC satellites to date. We focus on comparing the ages and chemical compositions of dE nuclei with those of satellite GCs by analyzing absorption lines in their spectra. To better view the spectral features of these relatively dim objects, we employ a spectral co-addition process, where we add the fluxes of several objects to produce a single spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. Our finding that dE nuclei are younger and more metal rich than globular clusters establishes important benchmarks that future dE formation theories will consider. We also establish a means to identify GCs whose parent galaxies are uncertain, which allows us to make comparisons between this GC group and the satellite GCs.

  9. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  10. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  11. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae) Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucèia Fàtima; Caputo, Lucia; Inchausti De Barros, Ingrid Bergman; Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-09-03

    The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL) and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g). The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY) expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  12. Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molkary Andrea López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral, geraniol (7% and trans-β-caryophyllene (7% for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%, limonene (33% and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8% for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

  13. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix

  15. Species composition and geographical distribution of Saharan scorpion fauna, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulaid Touloun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the species composition of scorpions and to study its geographical distribution in Laayoune-Sakia El Hamra and Dakhla-Oued Ed Dahab regions in July 2014. Methods: To locate scorpions, the ground was examined through searching the places under the stones, rocks and in burrows. The nocturnal missions were also conducted using portable ultraviolet lamps. The scorpions were subsequently identified in the laboratory. Results: The results of the investigations in these regions showed the presence of five scorpion species, two of which Androctonus gonneti and Buthus bonito were endemic in Morocco. Conclusions: This work is allowed to complete the inventory of the studied scorpion fauna and provides some considerations on the distribution patterns in the study area.

  16. Composition and distribution of elements and ultrastructural topography of a human cardiac calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Li; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Huang, Pei-Jung; Chu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Trace elements (TEs) may contribute to the formation of calculi or stones or be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of stone diseases. The compositions and spatial distribution of elements from the inner nucleus to outer crust of the cardiac calculus were investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The surface topograph, distribution map of elements, elemental and chemical compositions were also determined by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Twenty-five elements were identifiable from 18 positions on the cardiac calculus by EDXRF spectrometer, in which the highest concentrations of toxic TEs (Ni, Pt, Hg, Sn, Pb, W, Au, Al, Si) and higher levels of essential TEs (Ca, Sr, Cr, P) were detected. A moderate positive Pearson's correlation between TEs concentrations of Mg, Ca or P and location differences from centre to periphery in the cardiac calculus was observed. A positive correlation was also found for Ca/Zn and Ca/Cu, indicating the gradual increase of calcium concentration from inner nucleus to outer crust of cardiac calculus. The drop-like nodules/crystals on the surface of petrous part of cardiac calculus were observed from ESEM analysis. ESEM-EDX analysis determined the calculus to be predominantly composed of calcium hydroxyapatite and cholesterol, as indicated by the petrous surface and drop-like nodules/crystals, respectively. This composition was confirmed using a portable Raman analyser. The spatial distribution analysis indicated a gradual increase in Mg, P and Ca concentrations from the inner nucleus to the outer crust of the cardiac calculus. The major chemical compositions of calcium hydroxyapatite and cholesterol were detected on this cardiac calculus.

  17. Study on Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Myanmar Gems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyaw Myint Htoo; Tun Khin; Sein Htoon

    2004-05-01

    Physical properties of some Myanmar gems were studied by using refractometer, dichroscope, polariscope, SG test, UV test and microscope. Then, chemical composition were investigated by XRF-technique. After that, gem identification, evaluation, colour improvement were studied according to these physical properties and chemical composition

  18. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  19. Size distributions and chemical properties of aerosol at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, David S.; Heintzenberg, Jost

    Physical and chemical parameters of the arctic aerosol were investigated at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, in March and April 1989 in connection with the third Arctic Gas and Aerosol Project (AGASP III). The number size distribution of the particles was measured over the range of 0.02-1.0 μm. Filter samples were analysed for elemental composition and two integral chemical properties, hygroscopic growth and volatility, were measured. Along with the latter measurements, the distribution of these properties at specific particle sizes, i.e. the degree of internal mixing, was determined. Both clean, marine conditions and "arctic haze" episodes were included in the series of measurements. The number size distribution indicated that the aerosol was well aged based on its narrowness and the relative low concentration of nuclei mode particles. It had a number mode at 0.22 μm diameter and geometric standard deviation of 1.4. Generally the particles exhibited uniform hygroscopic growth properties, i.e. they were largely internally mixed. The growth factor was 1.45 at 90% relative humidity. Approximately 40% of the overall particulate mass was volatile at a temperature of 50°C. The volatile fraction varied form particle to particle, i.e. the particles were externally mixed with respect to volatility.

  20. COMPOSITION, DISTRIBUTION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALISIS OF THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC THERIOFAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batkhiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The Chechen Republic is a mountainous country with a very rich natural environment, a wide variety of wildlife in the region and the diversity of its fauna. Accordingly, the purpose of the work was to study the composition of the mammal fauna of the Chechen Republic, the habitat patterns of each species and selection of eco-faunal groups, types of mammal fauna of the Chechen republic, combining them into zoogeographical complexes. An attempt has been made to carry out an objective analysis of zoogeographical theriofauna of Chechen Republic on the basis of contemporary material. Methods. Zoogeographical method has been used as a main research method. We studied composition and distribution of species of theriofauna of Chechen Republic; determined the optimum habitat and the geometric center of the area, the environmental characteristics of each species and its compliance with the chosen optimum habitat conditions. On this basis and the history of the formation of the fauna and its genetic composition we identified ecological and faunal groups which served as the basis for identifying types of fauna and combining them into zoogeographical complexes. Results. The analysis revealed the full species composition, thus we obtained an objective picture of the distribution of species of mammals in Chechnya by established ecological and faunal groups based on the analysis of ecological features of species, identifying the places of their concentration and the optimum number within the range of the habitat. We identified three new eco-faunal groups of mammals in Chechen Republic; one of them is the North Caucasus mountain-steppe mammal, for the first time. We determined the list of endemic and relicts of theriofauna of Chechen Republic and prepared the basis for a complete zoogeographical analysis of theriofauna in the region. Conclusions. The research revealed habitation of up to 89 species of mammals in theChechenRepublic; we studied their

  1. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibla, O.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO 3 ''-''-), nitrite (No 2 ''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH 3 -N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO 4 ''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO 3 ''-''-,HCO 3 ''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from physical and chemical

  2. Characteristics and chemical composition of ground water in Bara basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibla, O A.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Graduate Studies, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-01-15

    In this study analysis was carried for forty five ground water samples from different areas within Bara basin, fifteen solid samples, three locally produced salt samples and one mixed rocks sample. The rocks were brought from the underground during hand digging of wells. The study include areas Um-Galgie, Bara, Saatah Shambool, Um-Sadoun El-Shareef, EI-Dair, EI-Murra, Taybah, Um-sadoun EI-Nazir, EI-Hodied Shareef, Um-Nabeg, Um-Gazira, Magror, Ma'afa, El-Kheiran, Dameerat Abdu, Sharshar East, Sharshar West, El-Gaa'a Um-Safari, and El-Gaa'a Um EL-Gora. Physical characteristics of ground water samples were determined including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and total dissolved solids, using pH-meter, conductivity-meter, and ultra- meter. Many other analytical techniques were used. Spectrophotometric analysis was used for determination of nitrate(NO{sub 3}''-''-), nitrite (No{sub 2}''-), ammonia-nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), fluoride(F), sulphide(S''-''-) and sulphate(SO{sub 4}''-''-) ions. Chloride (Cl''-) and total alkalinity(OH''-,CO{sub 3}''-''-,HCO{sub 3}''-) were determined titrametrically. X-ray diffraction technique was used for determination of chemical composition of solid samples (soils,salts and rocks). X-ray fluorescence technique was used to measure the concentration of some metals in the solid samples. Radioactivity was measured using gamma-spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the measurement of cations concentration in ground water samples as well as soil samples, this include macro-cations: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micro cations (trace): Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), silver (Ag), lead (Pb) and barium (Ba). The results obtained were statistically treated, using SPSS program, discussed and further future research was suggested. The analysis show general suitability of fresh ground water at section A and C samples from

  3. Chemical composition of aerosol measurements in the air pollution plume during KORUS-AQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Park, J. S.; Soo, C. J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.; Lee, Y.; Desyaterik, Y.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean peninsula is a great place to study different sources of the aerosols: urban, rural and marine. In addition, Seoul is one of the large metropolitan areas in the world and has a variety of sources because half of the Korean population lives in Seoul, which comprises only 12% of the country's area. To understand the chemical composition of aerosol form long-range transport and local sources better, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on an airborne platform (NASA DC-8 aircraft). The HR-ToF-AMS is capable of measuring non-refractory size resolved chemical composition of submicron particle(NR-PM1) in the air pollution plume, including mass concentration of organic carbon, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium with 10 seconds time resolution. The measurements were performed twenty times research flight for understanding characteristic of the air pollution from May to June, 2016 on the South Korean peninsula during KORUS-AQ 2016 campaign. The scientific goal of this study is to characterize aerosol chemical properties and mass concentration in order to understand the role of the long-range transport from northeast Asia to South Korea, and influence of the local sources. To brief, organics dominated during all of flights. Also, organics and nitrate were dominant around energy industrial complex near by Taean, South Korea. The presentation will provide an overview of the composition of NR-PM1 measured in air pollution plumes, and deliver detail information about width, depth and spatial distribution of the pollutant in the air pollution plumes. The results of this study will provide high temporal and spatial resolved details on the air pollution plumes, which are valuable input parameters of aerosol properties for the current air quality models.

  4. A Multi-Variate Fit to the Chemical Composition of the Cosmic-Ray Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, Jonathan

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays over a century ago, evidence of their origins has remained elusive. Deflected by galactic magnetic fields, the only direct evidence of their origin and propagation remain encoded in their energy distribution and chemical composition. Current models of galactic cosmic rays predict variations of the energy distribution of individual elements in an energy region around 3x1015 eV known as the knee. This work presents a method to measure the energy distribution of individual elemental groups in the knee region and its application to a year of data from the IceCube detector. The method uses cosmic rays detected by both IceTop, the surface-array component, and the deep-ice component of IceCube during the 2009-2010 operation of the IC-59 detector. IceTop is used to measure the energy and the relative likelihood of the mass composition using the signal from the cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower reaching the surface. IceCube, 1.5 km below the surface, measures the energy of the high-energy bundle of muons created in the very first interactions after the cosmic ray enters the atmosphere. These event distributions are fit by a constrained model derived from detailed simulations of cosmic rays representing five chemical elements. The results of this analysis are evaluated in terms of the theoretical uncertainties in cosmic-ray interactions and seasonal variations in the atmosphere. The improvements in high-energy cosmic ray hadronic-interaction models informed by this analysis, combined with increased data from subsequent operation of the IceCube detector, could provide crucial limits on the origin of cosmic rays and their propagation through the galaxy. In the course of developing this method, a number of analysis and statistical techniques were developed to deal with the difficulties inherent in this type of measurement. These include a composition-sensitive air shower reconstruction technique, a method to model simulated event

  5. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Iranian Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzan, Houshang; Tahghighi, Azar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Es-haghi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: With considering the importance of natural products for their remedial and therapeutic value, this research was aimed to analyze the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples from different areas of Iran (Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh) with various climates and flora. Methods: Ethanolic (70% EtOH) and dichlromethane (DCM) extracts of Iranian propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, and antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion antimicrobial method. Results: The results of GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenes, aromatic-aliphatic acids, and their related esters. The total flavonoids in DCM extract of Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh propolis were pinocembrin and pinostrobin chalcone. The common phenolic and terpene compounds detected in all four tested EtOH extracts were P-cumaric acid and dimethyl -1,3,5,6-tetramethyl-[1,3-(13C2)] bicycloce [5.5.0] dodeca-1,3,5,6,8,10-hexaene-9,10-dicarboxylate, respectively. The highest inhibitory diameter zone of the Iranian propolis against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aureus was for DCM extract of Kalaleh propolis (13.33 mm), Morad Beyg propolis (12 mm), and Kalaleh (11.67 mm), respectively. Conclusion: Iranian propolis showed antimicrobial activities against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aurous, perhaps due to the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes as active components that can be used alone or in combination with the selected antibiotics to synergize antibiotic effect, as well as to prevent microbial resistance to available antimicrobial drugs. PMID:28558440

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  10. Classification Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Chemical Vapor Detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinshaw, Huynh A

    2006-01-01

    .... This is accomplished by the detection and identification of chemical agents. The Air Force has several instruments to detect chemical vapors, but is always looking for lighter, faster, and more accurate technology for a better capability...

  11. [The characteristics of chemical composition of content of unicameral bone cysts depending on their growth stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Mitrofanov, A I; Tkachuk, E A

    2012-11-01

    The article deals with the results of study of chemical composition of solitary cysts and blood serum of 27 patients. The results demonstrated that qualitative composition of f content of unicameral bone cysts is identical to chemical composition of blood serum. The results of analysis of total proteolysis activity and acid phosphatase activity in content of cysts can be used as criteria to determine the stage of cyst growth and to evaluate the effectiveness of applied treatment.

  12. 3.4. Chemical additives and granulometric composition influence on soils armed by cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to evaluate an influence of various chemical additives on soils armed by portland cement. Experimental research of kinetics of soil cements structure formation after adding the chemicals was carried out. According to the investigations it was determined that structure formation process of soil cements depended on granulometric composition of armed soil, cement quantity, type and quantity of chemical additives.

  13. Mass and chemically speciated size distribution of Prague aerosol using an aerosol dryer - The influence of air mass origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Štefancová, Lucia; Maenhaut, W.; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 437, OCT 15 (2012), s. 348-362 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2055; GA ČR GAP209/11/1342; GA MŠk ME 941 Grant - others:SRF GU(BE) 01S01306 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : atmospheric aerosols * mass size distribution * chemical composition Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.258, year: 2012

  14. Land use-related chemical composition of street sediments in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Cen; Neumann, Thomas; Norra, Stefan; Stüben, Doris

    2004-01-01

    More than 10 million people are currently living in Beijing. This city faces severe anthropogenic air pollution caused by an intense vehicle increase (11% per year in China), coal combusting power plants, heavy industry, huge numbers of household and restaurant cookers, and domestic heating stoves. Additionally, each year dust storms are carrying particulate matter from the deserts of Gobi and Takla Makan towards Beijing, especially in spring. Other geogenic sources of particulate matter which contribute to the air pollution are bare soils, coal heaps and construction sites occurring in and around Beijing. Streets function as receptor surfaces for atmospheric dusts. Thus, street sediments consist of particles of different chemical compositions from many different sources, such as traffic, road side soils and industry. Distributions and concentrations of various chemical elements in street sediments were investigated along a rural-urban transect in Beijing, China. Chemical elements were determined with X-ray fluorescence analysis. Factor analysis was used to extract most important element sources contributing to particulate pollution along a main arterial route of the Chinese capital. The statistical evaluation of the data by factor analysis identifies three main anthropogenic sources responsible for the contamination of Beijing street sediments. The first source is a steel factory in the western part of Beijing. From this source, Mn, Fe, and Ti were emitted into the atmosphere through chimneys and by wind from coal heaps used as the primary energy source for the factory. The second source is a combination of traffic, domestic heating and some small factories in the center of Beijing discharging Cu, Pb, Zn and Sn. Calcium and Cr characterize a third anthropogenic element source of construction materials such as concrete and mortar. Beside the anthropogenic contamination, some elements like Y, Zr, Nb, Ce, and Rb are mainly derived from natural soils and from the

  15. Material Distribution Optimization for the Shell Aircraft Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, S.; Zhilyaev, I.; Oganesyan, P.; Axenov, V.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main goal in aircraft structures designing isweight decreasing and stiffness increasing. Composite structures recently became popular in aircraft because of their mechanical properties and wide range of optimization possibilities.Weight distribution and lay-up are keys to creating lightweight stiff strictures. In this paperwe discuss optimization of specific structure that undergoes the non-uniform air pressure at the different flight conditions and reduce a level of noise caused by the airflowinduced vibrations at the constrained weight of the part. Initial model was created with CAD tool Siemens NX, finite element analysis and post processing were performed with COMSOL Multiphysicsr and MATLABr. Numerical solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations supplemented by k-w turbulence model provide the spatial distributions of air pressure applied to the shell surface. At the formulation of optimization problem the global strain energy calculated within the optimized shell was assumed as the objective. Wall thickness has been changed using parametric approach by an initiation of auxiliary sphere with varied radius and coordinates of the center, which were the design variables. To avoid a local stress concentration, wall thickness increment was defined as smooth function on the shell surface dependent of auxiliary sphere position and size. Our study consists of multiple steps: CAD/CAE transformation of the model, determining wind pressure for different flow angles, optimizing wall thickness distribution for specific flow angles, designing a lay-up for optimal material distribution. The studied structure was improved in terms of maximum and average strain energy at the constrained expense ofweight growth. Developed methods and tools can be applied to wide range of shell-like structures made of multilayered quasi-isotropic laminates.

  16. Composites Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene and Detonation Nanodiamonds: Filler-Matrix Chemical Interaction and Its Effect on a Composite's Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshcheev, A. P.; Perov, A. A.; Gorokhov, P. V.; Zaripov, N. V.; Tereshenkov, A. V.; Khatipov, S. A.

    2018-06-01

    Specific properties of PTFE composites filled with ultradisperse detonation diamonds (UDDs) with different surface chemistries are studied. It is found for the first time that filler in the form of UDDs affects not only the rate of PTFE thermal decomposition in vacuum pyrolysis, but also the chemical composition of the products of degradation. The wear resistance of UDD/PTFE composites is shown to depend strongly on the UDD surface chemistry. The presence of UDDs in a PTFE composite is found to result in perfluorocarbon telomeres, released as a readily condensable fraction upon composite pyrolysis. The chemical interaction between PTFE and UDDs, characterized by an increase in the rate of gas evolution and a change in the desorbed gas's composition, is found to occur at temperature as low as 380°C. It is shown that the intensity of this interaction depends on the concentration of oxygen-containing surface groups, the efficiency of UDDs in terms of the composite's wear resistance being reduced due to the presence of these groups. Based on the experimental data, a conclusion is reached about the chemical interaction between UDDs and a PTFE matrix, its dependence on the nanodiamond surface chemistry, and its effect on a composite's tribology.

  17. Using multiple criteria for fingerprinting unknown oil samples having very similar chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Sigouin, L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 3 mystery oil samples from Quebec were fingerprinted using a multi-criterion approach. The three objectives of the study were to determine the nature and the type of product, to obtain the detailed hydrocarbon composition of the samples, and to determine if the samples came from the same source. The product type was first determined by identifying the hydrocarbon distribution patterns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles were then compared and then the conclusions were verified by quantifying biomarkers and by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds. Additives in the oil were also identified. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was determined that the 3 oils were probably hydraulic-fluid type oil. They were very pure, and composed mostly of saturated hydrocarbons with the total aromatics being 4 to 10 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon. Although it was determined that the oils were mixtures of 2 different hydraulic fluids, there was no clear indication if they had been weathered. The PAH concentration was very low, while the biomarker concentration was very high. Three unknown compounds (antioxidants) were positively identified. Two of the samples came from the same source. One of the samples had similar group hydrocarbon composition but it was not identical in chemical composition and did not come from the same source. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  19. Long-Term Chemical Resistance of Ecological Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Debska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resin concretes belong to a small group of building materials which, besides high strength parameters, also have a very good chemical resistance. This is confirmed by the studies carried out by various research institutions around the world. However, there is little data on the behaviour of composite resin exposed to corrosive solutions for an extended period of time. This article presents the results of the research on weight changes in samples of epoxy mortar modified with poly(ethylene terephthalate glycolysates, immersed for 5 years in four different aggressive media i.e. 10% aqueous solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids, sodium hydroxide, and sodium chloride. The actual average weight changes obtained were compared with the data calculated on the basis of the regression functions fitted to the data recorded after 3.5 years of exposure. This allowed verification of the model selection correctness and evaluation of the effectiveness of the fitted regression curve. In the case of aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride solutions, it can be assumed that the logarithmic model describes weight changes well. It was observed that the weight of the samples exposed to NaCl solutions and NaOH stabilizes over prolonged monitoring time and reaches a plateau. However, the weight changes in mortar samples immersed for 5 years in aqueous solution of sulphuric and nitric acids quite significantly differ from the data calculated on the basis of the trend line fitted to the results of the tests carried out after 3.5 years of exposure. It seems that the better solution in this case is the selection of an exponential model. In addition, placing the logarithmic trendlines for all corrosive media together on a chart allows to note which of the solutions is the most aggressive. It was found that after 5 years of immersion in aqueous solutions of acids, mortar samples became brittle, and the observation of their fractures confirmed the weakness of the

  20. The impact of infield biomass burning on PM levels and its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambruoso, P; de Gennaro, G; Di Gilio, A; Palmisani, J; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In the South of Italy, it is common for farmers to burn pruning waste from olive trees in spring. In order to evaluate the impact of the biomass burning source on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) emitted by these fires, a PM monitoring campaign was carried out in an olive grove. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 week, when there were no open fires, and when biomass was being burned, and at two different distances from the fires. Moreover, an optical particle counter and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyzer were used to measure the high time-resolved dimensional distribution of particles emitted and total PAHs concentrations, respectively. Chemical analysis of PM10 samples identified organic and inorganic components such as PAHs, ions, elements, and carbonaceous fractions (OC, EC). Analysis of the collected data showed the usefulness of organic and inorganic tracer species and of PAH diagnostic ratios for interpreting the impact of biomass fires on PM levels and on its chemical composition. Finally, high time-resolved monitoring of particle numbers and PAH concentrations was performed before, during, and after biomass burning, and these concentrations were seen to be very dependent on factors such as weather conditions, combustion efficiency, and temperature (smoldering versus flaming conditions), and moisture content of the wood burned.

  1. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  2. Modeling of an improved chemical vapor infiltration process for ceramic composites fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, N.H.; Chou, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state approach is applied to model the pressure-driven, temperature-gradient chemical vapor infiltration (improved CVI process) for ceramic matrix composites fabrication. The deposited matrix in this study is SiC which is converted from the thermal decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane gas under excess hydrogen. A three-dimensional unit cell is adopted to simulate the spatial arrangements of reinforcements in discontinuous fiber mats and three-dimensionally woven fabrics. The objectives of this paper are to predict the temperature and density distributions in a fibrous preform during processing, the advancement of the solidified front, the total fabrication period, and the vapor inlet pressure variation for maintaining a constant flow rate

  3. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  4. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8.21 %), bornene (8.02 %), and β-thujone (7.31 %) [10]. This suggests that the oil composition of these plants differs according to location and growth stage [10,11]. Thus, the composition of this essential oil must be standardized prior to its.

  5. Designing of the chemical composition of steels basing on the hardenability of constructional steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the original method of modelling of the relationships between chemical composition of alloy constructional steel and its hardenability, employing neural networks. Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. (author)

  6. Chemical composition, crystal size and lattice structural changes after incorporation of strontium into biomimetic apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Yang, C; Xu, B; Ni, G X; Abbah, S A; Cheung, K M C; Luk, K D K; Lu, W W

    2007-03-01

    Recently, strontium (Sr) as ranelate compound has become increasingly popular in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the lattice structure of bone crystal after Sr incorporation is yet to be extensively reported. In this study, we synthesized strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) with different Sr content (0.3%, 1.5% and 15% Sr-HA in mole ratio) to simulate bone crystals incorporated with Sr. The changes in chemical composition and lattice structure of apetite after synthetic incorporation of Sr were evaluated to gain insight into bone crystal changes after incorporation of Sr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA exhibited single phase spectrum, which was similar to that of HA. However, 15% Sr-HA induced the incorporation of HPO4(2-) and more CO3(2-), the crystallinity reduced dramatically. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the crystal length and width of 0.3% and 1.5% Sr-HA increased slightly. Meanwhile, the length and width distribution were broadened and the aspect ratio decreased from 10.68+/-4.00 to 7.28+/-2.80. The crystal size and crystallinity of 15% Sr-HA dropped rapidly, which may suggest that the fundamental crystal structure is changed. The findings from this work indicate that current clinical dosage which usually results in Sr incorporation of below 1.5% may not change chemical composition and lattice structure of bone, while it will broaden the bone crystal size distribution and strengthen the bone.

  7. [Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun-hai; Lv, Shan; Gu, Wen-biao; Liu, He-xiang; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. From August 2012 to October 2013, all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City, namely Jiading, Qingpu, Baoshan, Minhang, Songjiang, Jinshan, Chongming, Pudong, were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system, and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classified by morphological identification. Meanwhile, the species composition, habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. A total of 5,211 specimens were collected, which belonged to 2 classes, 14 families, 18 genera and 25 species, including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, Pomacea canaliculata, Parafossarulus striatulus, Alocinma longicornis, Physa acuta, Galba pervia, Hippeutis cantori, etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming, Jinshan, Pudong new area and Qingpu districts (counties) were 22, 22, 21 and 20, respectively, which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most, both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City, but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail-related parasitic diseases, so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.

  8. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  9. QACD: A method for the quantitative assessment of compositional distribution in geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, J. C. J.; MacLeod, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    In order to fully understand the petrogenetic history of a rock, it is critical to obtain a thorough characterization of the chemical and textural relationships of its mineral constituents. Element mapping combines the microanalytical techniques that allow for the analysis of major- and minor elements at high spatial resolutions (e.g., electron microbeam analysis) with 2D mapping of samples in order to provide unprecedented detail regarding the growth histories and compositional distributions of minerals within a sample. We present a method for the acquisition and processing of large area X-ray element maps obtained by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to produce a quantitative assessment of compositional distribution (QACD) of mineral populations within geologic materials. By optimizing the conditions at which the EDS X-ray element maps are acquired, we are able to obtain full thin section quantitative element maps for most major elements in relatively short amounts of time. Such maps can be used to not only accurately identify all phases and calculate mineral modes for a sample (e.g., a petrographic thin section), but, critically, enable a complete quantitative assessment of their compositions. The QACD method has been incorporated into a python-based, easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) called Quack. The Quack software facilitates the generation of mineral modes, element and molar ratio maps and the quantification of full-sample compositional distributions. The open-source nature of the Quack software provides a versatile platform which can be easily adapted and modified to suit the needs of the user.

  10. α-Pinene secondary organic aerosol at low temperature: chemical composition and implications for particle viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Saathoff, Harald; Pajunoja, Aki; Shen, Xiaoli; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Wagner, Robert; Virtanen, Annele; Leisner, Thomas; Mohr, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    Chemical composition, size distributions, and degree of oligomerization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from α-pinene (C10H16) ozonolysis were investigated for low-temperature conditions (223 K). Two types of experiments were performed using two simulation chambers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology: the Aerosol Preparation and Characterization (APC) chamber, and the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber. Experiment type 1 simulated SOA formation at upper tropospheric conditions: SOA was generated in the AIDA chamber directly at 223 K at 61 % relative humidity (RH; experiment termed cold humid, CH) and for comparison at 6 % RH (experiment termed cold dry, CD) conditions. Experiment type 2 simulated SOA uplifting: SOA was formed in the APC chamber at room temperature (296 K) and warm dry, WD) or 21 % RH (experiment termed warm humid, WH) conditions, and then partially transferred to the AIDA chamber kept at 223 K, and 61 % RH (WDtoCH) or 30 % RH (WHtoCH), respectively. Precursor concentrations varied between 0.7 and 2.2 ppm α-pinene, and between 2.3 and 1.8 ppm ozone for type 1 and type 2 experiments, respectively. Among other instrumentation, a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) coupled to a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO), deploying I- as reagent ion, was used for SOA chemical composition analysis. For type 1 experiments with lower α-pinene concentrations and cold SOA formation temperature (223 K), smaller particles of 100-300 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) and higher mass fractions (> 40 %) of adducts (molecules with more than 10 carbon atoms) of α-pinene oxidation products were observed. For type 2 experiments with higher α-pinene concentrations and warm SOA formation temperature (296 K), larger particles ( ˜ 500 nm dva) with smaller mass fractions of adducts (models.

  11. COMPOSITION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALS OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batchiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Subject, theme, aim of the work. The Caucasus is a mountainous country with very rich natural environment, which defines a large variety of wildlife in the region, the complexity of its fauna. On this basis, the aim of the work was to study the composition of each mammal species fauna and selection on this basis mammals of the Caucasus, the structure of each species area and selection on this basis the ecological and faunal groups, types of mammalian fauna of the Caucasus, in the integration of them in zoogeographical complexes. It was made the attempt to conduct an objective zoogeographical analysis of Caucasus theriofauna at the present material.Methods. The main research method was a zoogeographical method. We studied the composition, distribution of Caucasus theriofauna species, determined the habitat optimum and the geometric center of the area, the ecological specificity of each species, and its compliance with the optimum selected habitat conditions. On this basis and taking into account the history of the fauna formation and its genetic makeup, we distinguished the ecological faunal groups that served as the basis for the allocation of fauna types and combining them into zoogeographical complexes.Results. It has been identified a total species composition and it has been obtained an objective picture of the Caucasus mammals distribution on the established ecological and faunal groups on the basis of the environmental features analysis of the species needs, revealing their locations and the optimum concentration of population in the area of distribution. Three new ecological and faunal groups of mammals has been proposed to use in the Caucasus, one of which is a Caucasian mountain-steppe, for the first time. The list of endemic and relict theriofauna of the Caucasus has been defined. The basis for a complete analysis of theriofauna zoogeographical region has been prepared. The area of results application. The

  12. Fabrication of Cf/SiC composite by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2003-07-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the chemical vapor infiltration process, and applications for C f /SiC composite to develop a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite. Infiltration process was performed by the chemical vapor infiltration process using methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen gas as a source and a diluent, respectively. Infiltration behavior, phase analysis, microstructure observation were carried out. Parameter study results of C f /SiC composite fabricated with some variables such as reaction pressure, reaction temperature, input gas ratio and preform thickness were described

  13. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  14. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  15. Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Seed, nutrition, composition, screening. INTRODUCTION ... of food stuffs which play a basic role in nutrition and healthy body .... hemoglobin. Lysine insures .... WHF (2005). World Hunger Facts, education service.

  16. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The composition of petroleum ether extract was analyzed by gas ... acids, sterides, pregnanones, terpenes, alkaloids, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and other compounds. .... and mass spectra with those obtained from the.

  17. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... fruit parts with low level of anti nutrient, high elemental composition, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid could ... stored in airtight plastic containers inside the refrigerator. B. glabra .... vitamin and mineral availability.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial ... was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ..... autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion.

  19. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  20. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Spicer

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  1. Chemical composition and antinociceptive effects of essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive effect of EOGT in rats was carried out using chemical (formalin and acetic acid) and .... rat using a microsyringe with a 27 gauge needle. Immediately after formalin ... SEM, and were analyzed using GraphPad Prism. Statistically ...

  2. Volume 10 No. 2 February 2010 2124 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Dept of Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, University of Hawassa, Ethiopia. 2. Department of Chemical ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the ..... Management, 2nd edition. Gaitherburg ...

  3. The Influential of Physico-chemical Parameters on the Distributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    importance to aquatic biologists because they can indicate ... pollution. The changes which take place in benthic species composition with polluted conditions form the basis on ... The worms were placed in plastic bottles and were preserved ...

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  5. Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  7. Hygroscopic Properties and Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles at the High Alpine Site Jungfraujoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingarter, E.; Gysel, M.; Sjoegren, S.; Baltesperger, U.; Alfarra, R.; Bower, K.; Coe, H.

    2004-03-01

    The hygroscopic properties of aerosols play a significant role in atmospheric phenomena such as acid deposition, visibility degradation and climate change. Due to the hygroscopic growth of the particles, water is often the dominant component of the ambient aerosol at high relative humidity (RH) conditions. The ability to absorb water depends on the particle chemical composition, dry size, and shape. The aim of this study is to link the chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol to its hygroscopic properties. (author)

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pinus pinaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nouara Ait Mimoune; Djouher Ait Mimoune; Aziza Yataghene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus pinaster. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from the needles by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the obtained essential oils was analyzed using GC-MS technique. The antimicrobial potential has been tested against six microorganisms performing the disc diffusion assay. Results: Twenty-three components have been identified. β-caryophyllene (30.9%) and β-seli...

  9. The method of modelling of relationships between hardenability and chemical composition of the constructional alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, L.A.; Sitek, W.

    1998-01-01

    Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. The practical usability of the models developed is presented. (author)

  10. Direct aerosol chemical composition measurements to evaluate the physicochemical differences between controlled sea spray aerosol generation schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Collins

    2014-11-01

    -enriched seawater, the continuous operation of the plunging waterfall resulted in the accumulation of surface foam and an over-expression of organic matter in SSA particles compared to those produced by a pulsed plunging waterfall. Throughout this set of experiments, comparative differences in the SSA number size distribution were coincident with differences in aerosol particle composition, indicating that the production mechanism of SSA exerts important controls on both the physical and chemical properties of the resulting aerosol with respect to both the internal and external mixing state of particles. This study provides insight into the inextricable physicochemical differences between each of the bubble-mediated SSA generation mechanisms tested and the aerosol particles that they produce, and also serves as a guideline for future laboratory studies of SSA particles.

  11. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  12. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  13. The distribution of lead concentrations and isotope compositions in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; Rehkämper, Mark; van de Flierdt, Tina; Paul, Maxence; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have dominated marine Pb sources during the past century. Here we present Pb concentrations and isotope compositions for ocean depth profiles collected in the eastern Tropical Atlantic Ocean (GEOTRACES section GA06), to trace the transfer of anthropogenic Pb into the ocean interior. Variations in Pb concentration and isotope composition were associated with changes in hydrography. Water masses ventilated in the southern hemisphere generally featured lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios than those ventilated in the northern hemisphere, in accordance with Pb isotope data of historic anthropogenic Pb emissions. The distributions of Pb concentrations and isotope compositions in northern sourced waters were consistent with differences in their ventilation timescales. For example, a Pb concentration maximum at intermediate depth (600-900 m, 35 pmol kg-1) in waters sourced from the Irminger/Labrador Seas, is associated with Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1818-1.1824, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4472-2.4483) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1950s and 1960s close to peak leaded petrol usage, and a transit time of ∼50-60 years. In contrast, North Atlantic Deep Water (2000-4000 m water depth) featured lower Pb concentrations and isotope compositions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.1762-1.184, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.4482-2.4545) indicative of northern hemispheric emissions during the 1910s and 1930s and a transit time of ∼80-100 years. This supports the notion that transient anthropogenic Pb inputs are predominantly transferred into the ocean interior by water mass transport. However, the interpretation of Pb concentration and isotope composition distributions in terms of ventilation timescales and pathways is complicated by (1) the chemical reactivity of Pb in the ocean, and (2) mixing of waters ventilated during different time periods. The complex effects of water mass mixing on Pb distributions is particularly apparent in seawater in the

  14. The Brittleness and Chemical Stability of Optimized Geopolymer Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinerová, Michaela; Matulová, Lenka; Vermach, P.; Kotas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 396. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP104/12/P477 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : metakaolin * interfacial transition zone * compressive * flexural strength * elastic modulus * impact strength * acid leaching * porosity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/4/396

  15. Marine litter in the Nordic Seas: Distribution composition and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål

    2017-12-15

    Litter has been found in all marine environments and is accumulating in seabirds and mammals in the Nordic Seas. These ecosystems are under pressure from climatic change and fisheries while the human population is small. The marine landscapes in the area range from shallow fishing banks to deep-sea canyons. We present density, distribution and composition of litter from the first large-scale mapping of sea bed litter in arctic and subarctic waters. Litter was registered from 1778 video transects, of which 27% contained litter. The background density of litter in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea is 202 and 279 items/km 2 respectively, and highest densities were found close to coast and in canyons. Most of the litter originated from the fishing industry and plastic was the second most common litter. Background levels were comparable to European records and areas with most littering had higher densities than in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the influence of chemical composition on the pozzolanicity of soda-lime glass microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, R.B.C.; Mohallem, N.D.S.; Aguilar, M.T.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of residues presents interesting possibilities for obtaining eco-efficient concretes. Research has investigated the use of glass residue in Portland cement composite, whether as an aggregate or a supplementary material. However, there is still no consensus on the influence of the chemical composition of glass on the behaviour of the composites in which it is used. This paper aims to analyse the influence of this composition on the performance of cement composites produced with microparticles of colourless and amber glass. Pozzolanicity was assessed by means of direct tests (modified Chapelle and electrical conductivity) and indirect tests (chemical characterization, X-ray diffraction, thermo analysis and pozzolanic activity index). Most of the results show that microparticles of both types of glass display pozzolanic activity, with no significant differences between them. This indicates the potential for the use of glass microparticles as a supplementary material in cement composites. (author)

  17. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  19. Biological resistance of polyethylene composites made with chemically modified fiber or flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene and either chemically modified fiber or flour, or untreated fiber or flour...

  20. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  1. Chemical composition and utilization of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B

    1968-01-01

    A review on the composition of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor and on its possible utilization, e.g., for the manufacturing of vanillin, yeast protein, or ethanol, as well as its direct utilization as a plasticizer for cement, additive for insecticides, or in adhesives.

  2. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  3. Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Araceli

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... composition of the raw materials, ratio of C/N and the environmental ... levels. On the other hand, in the cider production, Vidrich and Hribar .... Afr. J. Biotechnol. the total .... mezcal producer (Figure 1) and as the main objective.

  4. Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... purpose. Key words: Arachis hypogaea, groundnut, protein, oil, minerals. INTRODUCTION ... absence of flowers on main stem, flower arrangement on leaf axils: (1) hypogaea ..... growing location and their interaction on the fatty acid composition of peanuts. J. Food Sci. ... Analysis of groundnuts content by ...

  5. Polypropylene-modified kaolinite composites: Effect of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PP/kaolinite compounds were prepared by the melt intercalation method. The effects of modified clay on properties of the prepared composites were studied. The XRD results showed that the treatment with the ammonium salt caused the return to the initial state of the clay. The thermogravimetric analysis thermograms (TGA) ...

  6. Thalassiosira spp. community composition shifts in response to chemical and physical forcing in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe Dreux Chappell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms are genetically diverse unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes that are key primary producers in the ocean. Many of the over 100 extant diatom species in the cosmopolitan genus Thalassiosira are difficult to distinguish in mixed populations using light microscopy. Here we examine shifts in Thalassiosira spp. composition along a coastal to open ocean transect that encountered a three-month-old Haida eddy in the northeast Pacific Ocean. To quantify shifts in Thalassiosira species composition, we developed a targeted automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA method to identify Thalassiosira spp. in environmental samples. As many specific fragment lengths are indicative of individual Thalassiosira spp., the ARISA method is a useful screening tool to identify changes in the relative abundance and distribution of specific species. The method also enabled us to assess changes in Thalassiosira community composition in response to chemical and physical forcing. Thalassiosira spp. community composition in the core of a three-month-old Haida eddy remained largely (>80% similar over a two-week period, despite moving 24 km southwestward. Shifts in Thalassiosira species correlated with changes in dissolved iron (Fe and temperature throughout the sampling period. Simultaneously tracking community composition and relative abundance of Thalassiosira species within the physical and chemical context they occurred allowed us to identify quantitative linkages between environmental conditions and community response.

  7. Chemical composition and bioactive properties of the lichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  8. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooled carcasses were dissected into primal cuts. Breast and leg muscle (thigh and drumstick) samples were used for chemical analyses. The obtained results suggested that free range rearing system was more favourable than extensive indoor system, as it resulted in a significantly higher protein content and a lower fat ...

  9. The Chemical Composition of Different Sources of Liming Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some liming materials on soil chemical properties. The treatments comprised Cocoa Husk Pod Ash (CPHA), Oyster Shell Ash (OSA), Palm Bunch Ash (PBA), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Kitchen Residues Ash (KRA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) at five levels ...

  10. Effect of drying methods on the chemical composition of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three methods of drying (oven, sun and smoke) were used to dry Bonga spp., Sardinella spp. and Heterotis niloticus. The physico-chemical and minerals contents of the sample were determined using standard methods. Oven dried H. niloticus recorded the highest (16.42%) moisture content while the least moisture content ...

  11. Physico-chemical composition of unripe (green) plantain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post harvest characteristics are important selection criteria in the genetic improvement of starchy staple food crops. This study aimed at determining the proximate chemical constituents of thirteen clones of new plantain and banana hybrids at harvest. Flour was produced and analysed for starch and sugar contents. The pulp ...

  12. The chemical composition of tertiary Indian coal ash and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 1 of the present investigation, 37 representative Eocene coal samples of Meghalaya, India were analyzed and their physico-chemical characteristics and the major oxides and minerals present in ash samples were studied for assessing the genesis of these coals. Various statistical tools were also applied to study ...

  13. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patrick

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... A. sp and F. sp were screwed using food poisoning technique. (Grover and ... of the fungi colonies of the sets of treatment and diameter of positive ..... Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of sour orange. Flav.

  14. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  15. A rapid method for the computation of equilibrium chemical composition of air to 15000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid computational method has been developed to determine the chemical composition of equilibrium air to 15000 K. Eleven chemically reacting species, i.e., O2, N2, O, NO, N, NO+, e-, N+, O+, Ar, and Ar+ are included. The method involves combining algebraically seven nonlinear equilibrium equations and four linear elemental mass balance and charge neutrality equations. Computational speeds for determining the equilibrium chemical composition are significantly faster than the often used free energy minimization procedure. Data are also included from which the thermodynamic properties of air can be computed. A listing of the computer program together with a set of sample results are included.

  16. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae: distribution, secretion composition, anatomy and relationship to visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Araújo Nery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaf glands are common structures in Malpighiaceae and exhibit great morphological diversity, yet information on their anatomy, secretion and type of visitors remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution, anatomical development and chemical and functional properties of leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae. Leaves at different stages of development were collected and processed according to standard techniques for light and scanning electron microscopy. Secretion composition was determined by histochemical tests and test-strips, while gland funciton was determined by field observation of interactions with visitors. Leaf glands were located on the petiole and on the abaxial base of the leaf blade. The gland secretion was found to be a protein-rich nectar that was foraged upon by ants ( Solenopsis; it was found accumulated in subcuticular spaces without pores or stomata for its release. Leaf glands were found to develop from protoderm and ground meristem, and consisted of typical secretory epidermis, nectariferous parenchyma and vascularized subnectariferous parenchyma. Therefore, it can be concluded that the distribution, chemical nature of secretion and anatomy of leaf glands of B. muricata characterize them as EFNs, while foraging by ants indicate a mutualistic relationship that possibly protects the plant against herbivores.

  18. Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    To describe the consumption, distribution, production and chemical composition of alcohol, including cuxa (pronounced 'coo sha'), in Nahualá, a highland Mayan municipality in Guatemala. Cuxa is a sugarcane-derived spirit, in part produced clandestinely, that has been distributed in the community for several decades. Key informant interviews with alcohol distributors and consumers, cuxa producers and health professionals, as well as analyses of questionnaires from a sample of 47 spouses who came to the local health centre for problems related to their husband's drinking. Sampling and chemical analysis of cuxa from 12 of 13 identified sales points in the head-town of Nahualá and its nearby settlements (10 km radius). Fieldwork was conducted between November 2007 and March 2008. Alcohol consumption was found to be integrated culturally in this community. The overall drinking culture was marked by irregular heavy drinking occasions, especially around market days, with substantial inebriation and health problems, especially among street inhabiting drinkers. Cuxa contributed to these problems, and cuxa drinking was socially stigmatized. Cuxa was produced both clandestinely and industrially, and sold legally by taverns and illegally by clandestine distributors. The alcoholic strength of the samples was typically between 17 and 19% vol.; clandestinely produced cuxa samples showed acetaldehyde contamination. Measures should be taken to reduce the harm associated with alcohol in this community, including efforts to reduce acetaldehyde levels in cuxa.

  19. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  20. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  1. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxi Wei

    Full Text Available Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (HCl hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  2. Surface Chemical Compositions and Dispersity of Starch Nanocrystals Formed by Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were −23.1 and −5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to −32.3 and −10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to −24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample. PMID:24586246

  3. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  4. Chemical composition and effective temperatures of metallic line white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Model atmosphere techniques have been employed to determine the composition, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities of white dwarfs Ross 640 and van Maanen 2. The non-gray, LTE, convective, constant flux models employed collisional damping constants for the Ca II H and K lines that were measured in a laboratory device that simulated white dwarf atmospheric conditions. Ross 640 was found to have an extremely helium-rich composition and T/sub eff/ = 8500K, while the observed properties of van Maanen 2 were fitted best by a model with 91 percent helium, 9 percent hydrogen and T/sub eff/ = 6100K. The laboratory measurements of pressure shifts for the Ca II lines casts some doubt on the interpretation of recent radial velocity determinations for van Maanen 2. (U.S.)

  5. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT BASIL OILS

    OpenAIRE

    H.C. Srivastava, Pankaj Shukla, Ajay Singh Maurya and Sonia Tripathi*

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aerial parts essential oils of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Togo were steam-distilled and investigated for their percentage composition (GC and GC/MS) and in vitro antimicrobial activities. Five oil chemotypes were identified and classified as follows in line with their principal components: estragole type; linalool/estragole type; methyleugenol type; methyleugenol/t-anethole type; tanethole type. The in vitro microbiological experiments revealed that only the methyleugenol...

  7. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  8. Chemical composition of F-stars in the solar neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsakov, V.A.; Suchkov, A.A.; Shevelev, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    The normal deltamsub(1), deltacsub(1) indices and metallicities have been calculated for 2472 F-stars from the uvby and Hsub(β) photometry. It is found that, as the effective temperature grows+ the heavy elements abundance of nearby F-dwarfs increases suddenly near the spectral class F5; the abundance dispersion simultaneously decreases. It is shown that the metallicity distribution of F6-G0 dwarfs is not a Gaussian one, but may be considered as a sum of two normal distributions. At the centre, the distribution shows a gap which subdivides all the stars into two metallicity groups. The early F-dwarfs do not have such a gap. It is found that the reddened (''distant'') F-stars of the southern sky have a greater metallicity then the unreddened (''nearby'') ones

  9. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds of ill-defined components in decane plus fraction. In order to develop...... and tested for such measurements. The mutual solubility of two North Sea condensates, MEG and water has been measured in the temperature range of 275-326 K at atmospheric pressure. The detailed composition of condensates is measured by GC analysis and 85 components are identified up to n-nonane and hundreds...... the mutual solubility of condensate/oil, MEG and water is predicted satisfactorily using the same average kij for MEG-HC pairs and water-HC kij from a generalized correlation as a function of carbon number. The experimental trends in mutual solubility as a function of temperature and MEG content in polar...

  10. Chemical weathering from the CoDA (Compositional Data Analysis) point of view: new insights for the Alpine rivers geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Caterina; Buccianti, Antonella; Frondini, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to explore the relationship among weathering reactions, the sample space of compositional data and fractals by means of distributional analysis. Weathering reactions represent the transfer of heat and entropy to the environment in geochemical cycles. Chemical weathering is a key process for understanding the global cycle of elements, both on long and short-terms and chemical weathering rates are complex functions of many factors including dissolution kinetics of minerals, mechanical erosion, lithology. Compositional data express the relative (proportional) abundance of chemical elements/species in a given total (i.e. volume or weight) so that compositions pertaining to the peculiar geometry of the simplex sample space. Fractals are temporal or spatial objects with self-similarity and scale invariance, so that internal structures repeat themselves over multiple levels of magnification or scales of measurement. Gibbs's free energy and the application of the Law Mass Action can be used to model weathering reactions, under the hypothesis of chemical equilibrium. Compositional data are obtained in the analytical phase after the determination of the concentrations of chemicals in sampled solid, liquid or gaseous materials. Fractals can be measured by using their fractal dimensions. The presence of fractal structures can be observed when the frequency distribution of isometric log-ratio coordinates is investigated, showing the logarithm of the cumulative number of samples exceeding a certain coordinate value plotted against the coordinate value itself. Isometric log-ratio coordinates (or balances) can be constructed by using the sequential binary partition (SBP) method. The balances can be identified to maintain, as far as possible, the similarity with a corresponding weathering reaction (Buccianti & Zuo, 2016). As an alternative, balances can be derived after the multivariate investigation of the variance-covariance structure of the

  11. Critical Conditions for Liquid Chromatography of Statistical Copolymers: Functionality Type and Composition Distribution Characterization by UP-LCCC/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Ruben; Panne, Ulrich; Falkenhagen, Jana

    2017-02-07

    Statistical ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) copolymers of different monomer compositions and different average molar masses additionally containing two kinds of end groups (FTD) were investigated by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography under critical conditions (UP-LCCC) combined with electrospray ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Theoretical predictions of the existence of a critical adsorption point (CPA) for statistical copolymers with a given chemical and sequence distribution1 could be studied and confirmed. A fundamentally new approach to determine these critical conditions in a copolymer, alongside the inevitable chemical composition distribution (CCD), with mass spectrometric detection, is described. The shift of the critical eluent composition with the monomer composition of the polymers was determined. Due to the broad molar mass distribution (MMD) and the presumed existence of different end group functionalities as well as monomer sequence distribution (MSD), gradient separation only by CCD was not possible. Therefore, isocratic separation conditions at the CPA of definite CCD fractions were developed. Although the various present distributions partly superimposed the separation process, the goal of separation by end group functionality was still achieved on the basis of the additional dimension of ESI-TOF-MS. The existence of HO-H besides the desired allylO-H end group functionalities was confirmed and their amount estimated. Furthermore, indications for a MSD were found by UPLC/MS/MS measurements. This approach offers for the first time the possibility to obtain a fingerprint of a broad distributed statistical copolymer including MMD, FTD, CCD, and MSD.

  12. Distribution of gaseous and particulate organic composition during dark α-pinene ozonolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rickard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA affects atmospheric composition, air quality and radiative transfer, however major difficulties are encountered in the development of reliable models for SOA formation. Constraints on processes involved in SOA formation can be obtained by interpreting the speciation and evolution of organics in the gaseous and condensed phase simultaneously. In this study we investigate SOA formation from dark α-pinene ozonolysis with particular emphasis upon the mass distribution of gaseous and particulate organic species. A detailed model for SOA formation is compared with the results from experiments performed in the EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE simulation chamber, including on-line gas-phase composition obtained from Chemical-Ionization-Reaction Time-Of-Flight Mass-Spectrometry measurements, and off-line analysis of SOA samples performed by Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography. The temporal profile of SOA mass concentration is relatively well reproduced by the model. Sensitivity analysis highlights the importance of the choice of vapour pressure estimation method, and the potential influence of condensed phase chemistry. Comparisons of the simulated gaseous- and condensed-phase mass distributions with those observed show a generally good agreement. The simulated speciation has been used to (i propose a chemical structure for the principal gaseous semi-volatile organic compounds and condensed monomer organic species, (ii provide evidence for the occurrence of recently suggested radical isomerisation channels not included in the basic model, and (iii explore the possible contribution of a range of accretion reactions occurring in the condensed phase. We find that oligomer formation through esterification reactions gives the best agreement between the observed and simulated mass spectra.

  13. Herb yield and chemical composition of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as sweet basil, is an important aromatic plant cultivated in many parts of the world for its essential oil. Basil does not show natural distribution in Turkey but they are cultivated as medicinal, seasoning or oil plants especially in the western and southern Anatolia.

  14. Morphological and chemical composition characterization of commercial sepia melanin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available granules with different size distributions that have been determined using image-J software. The small granule diameter obtained from different TEM and SEM micrographs were 100-200nm. EDS reveals that C and O were the most abundant in sepia melanin...

  15. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  16. Chemically imaging the effects of the addition of nanofibrillated cellulose on the distribution of poly(acrylic acid) in poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons; Julia Sedlmair; Barbara Illman; Rebecca Ibach; Carol Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in model laminates of nanocellulose and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) was investigated by FTIR chemical imaging. The method was effective in spatially discerning the three components of the composite. PAA can potentially improve the performance of nanocellulose reinforced PVOH by not only crosslinking the PVOH matrix but also...

  17. Tailoring Copolymer Properties by Gradual Changes in the Distribution of the Chains Composition Using Semicontinuous Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Jasso-Gastinel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To design the properties of a copolymer using free radical polymerization, a semicontinuous process can be applied to vary the instantaneous copolymer composition along the conversion searching for a specific composition spectrum of copolymer chains, which can be termed as weight composition distribution (WCD of copolymer chains. Here, the styrene-n-butyl acrylate (S/BA system was polymerized by means of a semicontinuous emulsion process, varying the composition of the comonomer feed to obtain forced composition copolymers (FCCs. Five different feeding profiles were used, searching for a scheme to obtain chains rich in S (looking for considerable modulus, and chains rich in BA (looking for large deformation as a technique to achieve synergy in copolymer properties; the mechanostatic and dynamic characterization discloses the correspondence between WCD and the bulk properties. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis enabled the determination of the cumulative copolymer composition characterization, required to estimate the WCD. The static test (stress-strain and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA were performed following normed procedures. This is the first report that shows very diverse mechanostatic performances of copolymers obtained using the same chemical system and global comonomer composition, forming a comprehensive failure envelope, even though the tests were carried out at the same temperature and cross head speed. The principles for synergic performance can be applied to controlled radical copolymerization, designing the composition variation in individual molecules along the conversion.

  18. Effects of chemical composition on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Rocha, Luís Augusto; de Mattos, Maria da Glória Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the oral environment on the corrosion of dental alloys with different compositions, using electrochemical methods. The corrosion rates were obtained from the current-potential curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of artificial saliva on the corrosion of dental alloys was dependent on alloy composition. Dissolution of the ions occurred in all tested dental alloys and the results were strongly dependent on the general alloy composition. Regarding the alloys containing nickel, the Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Ti alloys released 0.62 mg/L of Ni on average, while the Co-Cr dental alloy released ions between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/L of Co and Cr, respectively.The open-circuit potential stabilized at a higher level with lower deviation (standard deviation: Ni-Cr-6Ti = 32 mV/SCE and Co-Cr = 54 mV/SCE). The potenciodynamic curves of the dental alloys showed that the Ni-based dental alloy with >70 wt% of Ni had a similar curve and the Co-Cr dental alloy showed a low current density and hence a high resistance to corrosion compared with the Ni-based dental alloys. Some changes in microstructure were observed and this fact influenced the corrosion behavior for the alloys. The lower corrosion resistance also led to greater release of nickel ions to the medium. The quantity of Co ions released from the Co-Cr-Mo alloy was relatively small in the solutions. In addition, the quantity of Cr ions released into the artificial saliva from the Co-Cr alloy was lower than Cr release from the Ni-based dental alloys.

  19. Isotopic composition of chemical elements in natural cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, K.

    1977-12-01

    Mathematical models developed for planning and evaluating tracer experiments have been applied in investigations of the isotopic composition of carbon in its natural cycle through various periods of the last billion years. The influence on the natural isotope ratio due to industrial combustion of fossil fuels is shown. In order to describe regional differences from the global behaviour of carbon a parameter has been introduced, which represents the time needed for one total exchange of the atmosphere in a certain region with the global atmosphere

  20. Chemical composition of fogwater collected along the California coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Fogwater collected at both urban and nonurban coastal sites in California ws found to be consistently acidic. Millimolar concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, and fogwater pH values below 3, were observed at sites downwind of the Los Angeles basin. Fogwater composition at remote sites showed evidence of substantial continental and anthropogenic contributions. Acid-neutralizing capacities in coastal air were found to be very low and insufficient to neutralize even small acid inputs. Chloride loss relative to its sea salt contribution was observed at sites furthest from anthropogenic sources.

  1. Chemical bonding and charge density distribution analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tice and the electron density distributions in the unit cell of the samples were investigated. Structural ... titanium and oxygen ions and predominant ionic nature between barium and oxygen ions. Average grain sizes ... trations (at <1%) is responsible for the formation of .... indicated by dots and calculated powder patterns are.

  2. Quantitative mapping of chemical compositions with MRI using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Harbou, Erik; Fabich, Hilary T; Benning, Martin; Tayler, Alexander B; Sederman, Andrew J; Gladden, Lynn F; Holland, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method for accelerating the acquisition time of two dimensional concentration maps of different chemical species in mixtures by the use of compressed sensing (CS) is presented. Whilst 2D-concentration maps with a high spatial resolution are prohibitively time-consuming to acquire using full k-space sampling techniques, CS enables the reconstruction of quantitative concentration maps from sub-sampled k-space data. First, the method was tested by reconstructing simulated data. Then, the CS algorithm was used to reconstruct concentration maps of binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane and cyclooctane in different samples with a field-of-view of 22mm and a spatial resolution of 344μm×344μm. Spiral based trajectories were used as sampling schemes. For the data acquisition, eight scans with slightly different trajectories were applied resulting in a total acquisition time of about 8min. In contrast, a conventional chemical shift imaging experiment at the same resolution would require about 17h. To get quantitative results, a careful weighting of the regularisation parameter (via the L-curve approach) or contrast-enhancing Bregman iterations are applied for the reconstruction of the concentration maps. Both approaches yield relative errors of the concentration map of less than 2mol-% without any calibration prior to the measurement. The accuracy of the reconstructed concentration maps deteriorates when the reconstruction model is biased by systematic errors such as large inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field. The presented method is a powerful tool for the fast acquisition of concentration maps that can provide valuable information for the investigation of many phenomena in chemical engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  4. New composite distributions for modeling industrial income and wealth per employee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Martin; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2018-02-01

    Forbes Magazine offers an annual list of the 2000 largest publicly traded companies, shedding light on four different measurements: Sales, profits, market value and assets held. Soriano-Hernández et al. (2017) modeled these wealth metrics using composite distributions made up of two parts. In this note, we introduce different composite distributions to more accurately describe the spread of these wealth metrics.

  5. A model study of the size and composition distribution of aerosols in an aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, A.A. [SRC `ECOLEN`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A two-dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model which includes water and sulphate aerosol formation represented by moments of the size and composition distribution function is used to calculate the effect of radial turbulent jet mixing on the aerosol size distribution and mean modal composition. (author) 6 refs.

  6. A search for quark compositeness at the LHC. Dijet angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubov, Z.U.; Abdinov, O.B.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of dijet angular distributions coming from a model of quark compositeness are considered. The influence of the parton distribution function, calorimeter non-linearity and energy resolution is investigated. The data sensitivity to the quark compositeness scale for low and high LHC luminosity is studied

  7. A model study of the size and composition distribution of aerosols in an aircraft exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, A A [SRC ` ECOLEN` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    A two-dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model which includes water and sulphate aerosol formation represented by moments of the size and composition distribution function is used to calculate the effect of radial turbulent jet mixing on the aerosol size distribution and mean modal composition. (author) 6 refs.

  8. Chemical composition of different muscle zones in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Galvão MARTINS

    Full Text Available Abstract Identifying potential patterns in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas composition, as a function of the different fish muscle zones (dorse, venter, ventrecha and tail, was the main objective of this research. For such, the different pirarucu muscle zones were evaluated, in order to obtain proximate composition and minerals content. It was also determined amino acids and fatty acids contents in fish muscle. The dorsal, ventral and tail muscle zones presented similar moisture (76.5-78.2%, protein (17.8-18.9%, total lipids (1.0-1.5% and ash (0.9-1.2% contents. On the other hand, the ventrecha zone presented 25.8% of protein and the major total lipids content (17.1%. The main minerals found in fish muscle were K (183.5-288.6 mg/100 g muscle and Na (65.1-175.5 mg/100 g. Glutamic acid (3027.6 mg/100 g muscle was the main amino acid found in fish muscle, which presented 48% of essential amino acids in the protein fraction. Lipids content showed 57.3% of unsaturated fatty acids and 42.7% of saturated fatty acids.

  9. Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  10. In situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of chemical compositions in stainless steels during tungsten inert gas welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparli, Ugur Alp; Jacobsen, Lars; Griesche, Axel; Michalik, Katarzyna; Mory, David; Kannengiesser, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was combined with a bead-on-plate Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process for the in situ measurement of chemical compositions in austenitic stainless steels during welding. Monitoring the weld pool's chemical composition allows governing the weld pool solidification behavior, and thus enables the reduction of susceptibility to weld defects. Conventional inspection methods for weld seams (e.g. ultrasonic inspection) cannot be performed during the welding process. The analysis system also allows in situ study of the correlation between the occurrence of weld defects and changes in the chemical composition in the weld pool or in the two-phase region where solid and liquid phase coexist. First experiments showed that both the shielding Ar gas and the welding arc plasma have a significant effect on the selected Cr II, Ni II and Mn II characteristic emissions, namely an artificial increase of intensity values via unspecific emission in the spectra. In situ investigations showed that this artificial intensity increase reached a maximum in presence of weld plume. Moreover, an explicit decay has been observed with the termination of the welding plume due to infrared radiation during sample cooling. Furthermore, LIBS can be used after welding to map element distribution. For austenitic stainless steels, Mn accumulations on both sides of the weld could be detected between the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base material.

  11. Influence of the chemical composition on steel casting performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Eduardo Lino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of steel and the steelmaking process has been a matter of routine for metallurgical engineers and steelmaking companies in a demanding market for quality products at highly competitive price. The chemical and temperature adjustment are made during the secondary refining process, as well as the inclusion modification required to product quality, and also the demand for castability accuracy. Continuous casting process is the most used solidification casting process, in which the flow of pouring liquid metal through the submerged entry nozzle is assured by the correct temperature and the formation of liquid inclusion in the casting temperature. Thermocalc and CEQCSI were the software used in this work to assess the effect of carbon, silicon and sulphur in the castability window of the aluminium vs calcium phase diagrams. They have proved to be highly suitable and effective and the results showed that the chemical elements used directly affected the position of the castability window of carbon steel. An analysis of a 0.2%C billet sample using Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that there is a great heterogeneity of inclusions in aluminium-killed and calcium-treated steel.

  12. Chemical composition of water from roofs in Gdansk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakovski, Stefan; Tobiszewski, Marek; Simeonov, Vasil; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the assessment of roof runoff waters from the region of Gdansk collected during the winter season (2007/2008). The chemical analysis includes 16 chemical variables: major ions, PAHs and PCBs measured at 3 sampling sites for 6-14 rain events. Although the data set is of limited volume the statistical data treatment using self-organizing maps (SOM) reveals the main factors controlling roof runoff water quality even for a data set with small dimension. This effort for explanation of the identified factors by the possible emission sources of the urban environment and air-particulate formation seems to be very reliable. Additionally to the roof runoff water quality factors the rain events patterns are found: 'background' group of events and groups formally named 'PAHs', 'PCBs' and 'air-borne particles' - dominated events. The SOM classification results give an opportunity to uncover the role of roof 'impact' on the runoff waters. Rain runoff water quality is described by four latent factors and the 'roof' impact is uncovered. - Identification of the urban roof runoff water quality factors and 'roof' impact by self-organizing map classification.

  13. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  14. Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Roman and Late Antique Glass from Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Silvestri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the importance of measuring the oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions of ancient glass, in order to constrain some features such as age, raw materials, and production technologies and to identify the “fingerprint” of local productions. In this context, thirty-nine Roman and late Antique glass samples and eight chert samples from northern Greece were selected and analysed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions. Results show that the majority of glass samples are produced using natron as flux and have δ18O values of about 15.5‰, plus or minus a few tenths of one per mil, suggesting that raw materials probably come from Levantine area. Four samples are heavily enriched in 18O, and their chemical composition clearly shows that they were made with soda plant ash as flux. Isotopic and chemical data of Greek chert samples support the hypothesis of local production of the above samples. About half of the glass samples have chemical compositions, which allow their age to be constrained to the late Antique period. For the remaining glass, similarities with literature compositional groups are reported and discussed.

  15. Unravelling the mechanisms for plant survival on gypsum soils: an analysis of the chemical composition of gypsum plants from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, A; Kurt, L; Palacio, S

    2016-03-01

    Depending on their specificity to gypsum, plants can be classified as gypsophiles (gypsum exclusive) and gypsovags (non-exclusive). The former may further be segregated into wide and narrow gypsophiles, depending on the breadth of their distribution area. Narrow gypsum endemics have a putative similar chemical composition to plants non-exclusive to gypsum (i.e. gypsovags), which may indicate their similar ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plant refugees on gypsum. However, this hypothesis awaits testing in different regions of the world. We compared the chemical composition of four narrow gypsum endemics, one widely distributed gypsophile and six gypsovags from Turkey. Further, we explored the plasticity in chemical composition of Turkish gypsovags growing on high- and low-gypsum content soils. Differences were explored with multivariate analyses (RDA) and mixed models (REML). Narrow gypsum endemics segregated from gypsovags in their chemical composition according to RDAs (mainly due to higher K and ash content in the former). Nevertheless, differences were small and disappeared when different nutrients were analysed individually. All the gypsovags studied accumulated more S and ash when growing on high-gypsum than on low-gypsum soils. Similar to narrow gypsum endemics from other regions of the world, most local gypsum endemics from Turkey show a similar chemical composition to gypsovags. This may indicate a shared ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plants not specifically adapted to gypsum. Nevertheless, the narrow gypsum endemic Gypsophila parva showed a chemical composition typical of gypsum specialists, indicating that various strategies are feasible within narrowly distributed gypsophiles. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Assessment of elemental composition and distribution of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physics ... The MOP fertilizer has the highest mean concentration levels for both As and Pb, followed by SSP fertilizer, which recorded As and Pb concentration level s of 161±50 ppm and 231±68 ppm, respectively. ... Keywords: chemical elements, fertilizers, concentration levels, PBTs, chemical toxicity ...

  17. Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth: Seasonal Characterization of the Essential Oil Chemical Composition of Leaves and Reproductive Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schindler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes a comparative analysis of the essential oil (EO chemical composition of leaves and reproductive organs (inflorescences and fruits of Piper gaudichaudianum during the seasons of a year in order to determine the best collection time and the most suitable plant organ to obtain this extractive. The chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh leaves was compared to the dried ones, to verify if the drying process interferes in the extractive quality. The leaves were collected from a native population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, twice in each season, in triplicate, while inflorescences and fruits were sampled when they were present. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of the different plant organs for 3 h. The 20 EO samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC coupled to mass spectrometry and GC with flame ionization detector, in triplicate. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to verify a possible formation of chemical groups (CG and the cohesion among them. The phenylpropanoid dillapiole was the major constituent of the EO in all seasons and in all plant organs, and myristicin was observed only in reproductive organs. The EO samples of this population were divided into two CG by HCA and PCA, showing the variability in chemical composition between different plant organs, however there was no chemical variability due to seasonality and phenophases. Since the drying of the leaves did not alter the EO chemical composition, this post-harvest procedure can be used without compromising the extrative quality.

  18. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, The Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, A. A.; Holzinger, R.; Otjes, R.; Trimborn, A.; Mentel, Th. F.; ten Brink, H.; Henzing, B.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2012-05-01

    Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and is compared to observations from aerosol size distribution measurements as well as composition measurements with a Monitor for AeRosol and GAses (MARGA) based instrument and a Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS). An overview of the data is presented and the data quality is discussed. In May 2008 enhanced pollution was observed with organics contributing 40% to the PM1 mass. In contrast the observed average mass loading was lower in March 2009 and a dominance of ammonium nitrate (42%) was observed. The semi-volatile nature of ammonium nitrate is evident in the diurnal cycles with maximum concentrations observed in the morning hours in May 2008 and little diurnal variation observed in March 2009. Size dependent composition data from AMS measurements are presented and show a dominance of organics in the size range below 200 nm. A higher O:C ratio of the organics is observed for May 2008 than for March 2009. Together with the time series of individual tracer ions this shows the dominance of OOA over HOA in May 2008.

  19. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, The Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mensah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and is compared to observations from aerosol size distribution measurements as well as composition measurements with a Monitor for AeRosol and GAses (MARGA based instrument and a Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometer (TD-PTR-MS. An overview of the data is presented and the data quality is discussed. In May 2008 enhanced pollution was observed with organics contributing 40% to the PM1 mass. In contrast the observed average mass loading was lower in March 2009 and a dominance of ammonium nitrate (42% was observed. The semi-volatile nature of ammonium nitrate is evident in the diurnal cycles with maximum concentrations observed in the morning hours in May 2008 and little diurnal variation observed in March 2009. Size dependent composition data from AMS measurements are presented and show a dominance of organics in the size range below 200 nm. A higher O:C ratio of the organics is observed for May 2008 than for March 2009. Together with the time series of individual tracer ions this shows the dominance of OOA over HOA in May 2008.

  20. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Chemical Production and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the chemical production & distribution industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, click on the links below.

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Beebread – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina URCAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Beebread is a product of the hive obtained from pollen collected by bees, to which they add honey, digestive enzymes and subsequently is stored in the combs. The bees transform the bee pollen in beebread by an anaerobic fermentation process. A proper hive management promotes beebread collection, aimed at marketing it for human consumption since it can be considered a valuable food supplement due to its content of a wide range of nutrients. Its value is given by the content in protein, amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, mineral salts, polyphenols and flavonoids, which depends on the botanical source of bee pollen. The nutritional and functional composition of beebread is widely reported; nevertheless, few studies on transformation processes of the pollen to improve the availability of the compounds present in this product were found. Overall, beebread is a recent collected and consumed bee product and at this stage it can be used as a food supplement.

  2. Radiation chemical treatment of cement mortar - polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the hardened cement pastes,mortars and concretes which contain polymers has progressed rapidly in years. Developmental work has identified a number of applications where the high strength and excellent durability of the composite materials will provide definite advantages over conventional mortars and concretes. The first investigations of polymer - impregnated concrete tried mainly to increase the quantity of absorbed and polymerised monomer because this gave a greater decrease in the original of concrete and a subsequent improvement in physico - mechanical properties. However, the production costs which is due mainly to the organic polymer, becomes the most important item. In this respect recent research showed the possibility of obtaining with a very compact concrete, of relative low porosity, a compound material with high performances after impregnation 26 tabs.,28 figs.,109 refs

  3. The chemical composition of fogs and clouds in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The major inorganic species in cloud and fog water samples were NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Concentrations in fog water samples were 1 - 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M; pH values ranged from {approx equal} 2 to 6. Nitrate usually exceeded sulfate. Acidity depended on the availability of NH{sub 3} from agricultural operations. Stratus cloudwater had somewhat lower concentrations; pH values were in the range 3-4. The major factors accounting for variation in fog- or cloudwater composition were the preexisting aerosol and gas concentrations and variations in liquid water content. Deposition and entrainment or advection of different air masses were also important during extended cloud or fog episodes. The droplet size dependence of cloudwater composition was investigated on one occasion in an intercepted coastal stratus clouds. Concentrations of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O in the range 100-1000 {mu}M were observed in fogwater from urban sites in Southern California. Lower concentrations were observed in stratus clouds. The high levels of S(IV) and CH{sub 2}O were attributed to the formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMSA), the S(IV) adduct of CH{sub 2}O. Direct measurements of HMSA in fogwater samples from Bakersfield, CA were made by ion-pairing chromatography. Glyoxal and methyglyoxal were observed at concentrations comparable to CH{sub 2}O in fogwater samples from Riverside, CA and in stratus cloudwater samples from sites along the Santa Barbara Channel.

  4. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. In vivo ultrasound and biometric measurements predict the empty body chemical composition in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, A M; Francisco, C L; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Mercadante, M E Z; Meirelles, P R L; Pariz, C M; Jorge, A M

    2018-05-04

    Evaluation of the body chemical composition of beef cattle can only be measured postmortem and those data cannot be used in real production scenarios to adjust nutritional plans. The objective of this study was to develop multiple linear regression equations from in vivo measurements, such as ultrasound parameters [backfat thickness (uBFT, mm), rump fat thickness (uRF, mm), and ribeye area (uLMA, cm2)], shrunk body weight (SBW, kg), age (AG, d), hip height (HH, m), as well as from postmortem measurements (composition of the 9th to 11th rib section) to predict the empty body and carcass chemical composition for Nellore cattle. Thirty-three young bulls were used (339 ± 36.15 kg and 448 ± 17.78 d for initial weight and age, respectively). Empty body chemical composition (protein, fat, water, and ash in kg) was obtained by combining noncarcass and carcass components. Data were analyzed using the PROC REG procedure of SAS software. Mallows' Cp values were close to the ideal value of number of independent variables in the prediction equations plus one. Equations to predict chemical components of both empty body and carcass using in vivo measurements presented higher R2 values than those determined by postmortem measurements. Chemical composition of the empty body using in vivo measurements was predicted with R2 > 0.73. Equations to predict chemical composition of the carcass from in vivo measurements showed R2 lower (R2Chemical compounds from components of the empty body of Nellore cattle can be calculated by the following equations: protein (kg) = 47.92 + 0.18 × SBW - 1.46 × uRF - 30.72 × HH (R2 = 0.94, RMSPE = 1.79); fat (kg) = 11.33 + 0.16 × SBW + 2.09 × uRF - 0.06 × AG (R2 = 0.74, RMSPE = 4.18); water (kg) = - 34.00 + 0.55 × SBW + 0.10 × AG - 2.34 × uRF (R2 = 0.96, RMSPE = 5.47). In conclusion, the coefficients of determination (for determining the chemical composition of the empty body) of the equations derived from in vivo measures were higher than those

  6. Chemical composition and trophic state of shallow saline steppe lakes in central Asia (North Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Emil; Jurecska, Laura; Tatár, Enikő; Vörös, Lajos; Kolpakova, Marina

    2017-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (SO 4 and Na-Cl (n = 16; 64%); the Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , and SO 4 ions precipitate with increasing salinity (2-322 g L -1 ); and ion composition shifts from Na>Mg-Cl>SO 4 to Na-Cl. The most of the chemical variables positively, but chlorophyll a negatively, correlated with total dissolved solids, and the total phosphorus had no significant correlation with any variables. The trophic state of these lakes in most cases exceeded the hypertrophic level. The increase in salinity causes change in chemical composition and effects on the phytoplankton development independently from the size of water surface, and the human disturbances had negligible effect on the trophic state of shallow saline lakes in this region of Kazakhstan.

  7. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  8. Antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and chemical composition of selected Thai spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraithip Wungsintaweekul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine volatile oils and six methanol extracts from Ocimum americanum, O. basilicum, O. sanctum, Citrus hystrix,Alpinia galanga, Curcuma zedoaria, Kaempferia parviflora and Zingiber cassumunar were assessed for antimicrobial andantioxidant activities. The volatile oils and extracts were investigated against eight bacteria and three fungi. The resultsillustrated that O. americanum volatile oil exhibited broad spectrum activity against tested bacteria with the MICs ranging1.4-3.6 mg/ml and Candida spp. with the MICs ranging from 0.5-0.6 mg/ml. The O. sanctum volatile oil showed a considerableactivity against only Candida spp. with the MICs ranging from 0.8-1.4 mg/ml. Interestingly, growth of Mycobacteriumphlei was inhibited by the volatiles of O. americanum, C. hystrix peel, and C. zedoaria with MIC of 1.7, 3.5 and 1.2 mg/ml,respectively. For antioxidant activity evaluation, the methanol extracts of C. hystrix (leaf and peel and K. parviflora hadpotent antioxidant activity by the radical-scavenging DPPH method with IC50 of 24.6, 66.3 and 61.5 mg/ml, respectively.GC-MS analysis revealed the typical chemical profiles of the volatile oils. The major component showed the characteristicsof the volatile oils and was probably responsible for the antimicrobial effect.

  9. Chemical modelling of pore water composition from PFBC residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of trace elements varies depending on the source of the coal and also due to the combustion process used. Mercury is one important element among the trace elements in the coal residues, generally recognised as potentially harmful to the biological system. To predict the pore water concentrations of mercury and other important constituents leached from coal combustion residues disposal sites, mechanistic data on chemical reactions are required. The present study is an application of a basially thermodynamical approach using the geochemical code EQ3NR. The presence of discrete solid phases that control the aqueous concentrations of major elements such as aluminium, calcium and silicon are identified. Solid phases are modelled in equilibrium with a hypothetical pore water at a pH range of 7-11. In this study the thermodynamic database of EQ3NR has been complemented with data for cadmium, mercury and lead taken from the OECD/NEA Thermodynamic Database and from a compilation made by Lindsay. Possible solubility limiting phases for the important trace elements arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel and lead have been identified. Concentrations of these trace elements as a function of pH in the hypothetical pore water were calculated using mechanistic thermodynamial data. The thermodynamical approach in this study seems justified because most solid residues that are either present or expected to form during weathering have relatively fast precipitation/dissolution kinetics. (21 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.)

  10. Chemical composition of precipitation in a Mexican Maya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, H. A.; Saavedra, M. I. R.; Sánchez, P. A.; Torres, R. J.; Granada, L. M. M.

    The chemical characteristics of wet precipitation in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo State, Mexico, were measured from April 1994 to December 1995. Puerto Morelos is located in the Caribbean Mayan coastal region of the Peninsula of Yucatan, and is normally exposed to winds from the Caribbean region. Wetfall was analyzed for pH, conductivity and Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ion concentrations. Volume-weighted mean pH for the whole sampling period was 5.35, although values as low as 4.6 were measured in several rain samples. Concentrations of all species correlated negatively with rain volume. Sea-salt aerosols contributed with most of the Na +, Cl -, Mg 2+, K + and SO 42- found in wet precipitation. The mean [SO 42-excess] was 9.7 μEq l -1, which agrees with the background hemispheric values of ≈10 μEq l -1 reported elsewhere. The mean [NO 3-] was 11.4 μEq l -1, almost four times higher than the background hemispheric value of ≈2.5 μEq l -1 reported elsewhere. However, a major component causing the slight acidity character of rain in Puerto Morelos seems to be H 2SO 4.

  11. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  12. Chemical composition of fogwater in an urban area: Strasbourg (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, M; Sanusi, A; Wortham, H

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the acidity and to identify the predominant compounds, this work presents the chemical analysis of 18 fogwater samples collected during the year 1991 in Strasbourg, in the east of France. For each fog event, two droplet size categories (2-6 microm and 5-8 microm) have been separately collected and 16 ionic components have been analysed. These two fraction sizes were chosen because they correspond approximately to the size range that can penetrate the human lung and they may have possible health effects. The dominant species were NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Cl-, with a maximum level of 12,640, 17,270, 21,620 and 13,540 microeq litre(-1), respectively. For most of the fog events the highest concentrations of all analysed species were observed in the 2-6 microm droplets. pH values ranged between 2.79 and 5.70 and the fogwater acidity was governed by three strong acids, H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl and was partially neutralised by NH3 and probably by the presence of CaCO3 in the 'loess', which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. In other respects the acetate/formate ratio (methanoate/ethanoate), generally lower than 1, indicates an important pollution due to automobile exhaust, although the Pb concentrations are moderate due to the general use of unleaded gasoline in France since 1989.

  13. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V. (Polyrad Research and Production Co., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author).

  14. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V.

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author)

  15. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  16. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics and chemical compositions of particulate matter collected at the selected metro stations of Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li; Hu, Yunjie; Hu, Qingqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, Jun [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Chunlin; Chen, Jianmin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Lina [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fu, Hongbo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-15

    A campaign was conducted to assess and compare the air quality at the different metro platforms at Shanghai City, focusing on particulate matter (PM) levels, chemical compositions, morphology and mineralogy, as well as species of iron. Our results indicated that the average PM{sub 2.5} concentrations for the three metro lines were 177.7 μg/m{sup 3}, 105.7 μg/m{sup 3} and 82.5 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, and the average PM{sub 1} concentrations for the three lines were 122.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 84.1 μg/m{sup 3} and 59.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in all of the sampling sites were significantly higher than that in the urban ambient air, implicating that these trace metals may be associated with the metro systems working. Individual airborne dusts were studied for morphology and mineralogy characteristics. The results revealed that the presence of most individual particles were with no definite shape and most of them were with a large metal content. Furthermore, Fe-rich particles had significantly higher abundance in the metro systems, which were more frequently encountered in the underground lines than the aboveground line. The 2D distribution map of an interested Fe-rich particle showed an uneven Fe distribution, implying that a hollow or core of other substance exists in the particle center during the formation process. Cluster analysis revealed that Fe-rich particles were possibly a mixture of Fe species. Fitting of X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectra (XANES) showed the main iron species within the particles collected from the three contrasting metro lines of Shanghai to be hematite, magnetite, iron-metal and mineral Fe. Hematite and mineral Fe were all found in three lines, while magnetite only existed in aboveground metro line. Iron-metal was determined in both the older and younger underground lines, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. As diverse Fe species have different physical–chemical

  18. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines: Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G. M.

    2018-02-01

    highly acidic brines is controlled by the distribution of dissolved chlorine species, which changes from Cl- to HClo dominance with the progressive pH decline. The Kawah Ijen lake acquired its extreme composition through influx of sulphur and halogen-rich magmatic gas components and extensive rock dissolution. If hyperacid brines with comparable chemical composition existed on Mars, evaporation processes up to the extent reported here (aH2O = 0.85), were likely accompanied by losses of gaseous HCl. The resulting changes in Cl isotope compositions, Br/Cl, S/Cl and other ratios in the residual brine might be potentially recorded in assemblages of halogen-bearing secondary evaporation minerals. Also, volcanic-hydrothermal brines as these would extend the stability of liquid water on the Martian surface down to a temperature of -90 °C.

  19. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E δ , with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E −α with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the implications of

  20. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E{sup δ}, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E{sup −α} with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the

  1. Model nebulae and determination of the chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D; Czyzak, S J

    1979-04-01

    An analysis of previously presented photoelectric spectrophotometry of HII regions (emission-line diffuse nebulae) in the two Magellanic Clouds is carried out with the aid of theoretical nebular models, which are used primarily as interpolation devices. Some advantages and limitations of such theoretical models are discussed. A comparison of the finally obtained chemical compositions with those found by other observers shows generally a good agreement, suggesting that it is possible to obtain reliable chemical compositions from low excitation gaseous nebulae in our own galaxy as well as in distant stellar systems.

  2. Proximate chemical composition of giant ipil-ipil wood from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolano, E U; Gonzales, E V; Semana, J A

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the chemical composition of seven samples of giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) yielded holocellulose, 69.8 to 73.9%; pentosans, 8.9 to 20.1%; lignin, 21.8 to 26%; alcohol-benzene solubles, 1.4 to 3.0%; caustic soda solubles, 13.0 to 16.4%; and ash, 0.7 to 0.9%. Based on chemical composition, this should be a suitable species for pulp and paper. (Refs. 11).

  3. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  4. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jean W H; Ge, Liya; Ng, Yan Fei; Tan, Swee Ngin

    2009-12-09

    Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world's most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water.

  5. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. [Distribution of HCB discharged from a chemical plant in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-Ling; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Song-Hu; Liu, Xi-Xiang; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Qian; Mei, Ling-Fang

    2009-04-15

    The distribution characteristics of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in plant and rhizosphere soil in contamination conduit, a nearby river and a cropland were studied and the impact factors were also discussed. The results are summarized as follows: the range of the HCB concentration in plant and rhizosphere soil in investigation area were respectively from 4.45 microg x kg(-1) to 1,189.89 microg x kg(-1) (dw) and from 27.93 microg x kg(-1) to 3,480.71 microg x kg(-1) (dw). Higher enrichment of HCB in woodplant than herbs due to higher fat concentration in woodplant in the contamination conduit and the rich concentrtion factor of woodplant and herbs were 0.41-2.55 and 0.01-1.34. The range of HCB concentrations in plants in nearby croplands was significantly wide (4.45-333.1 microg x kg(-1)) while HCB concentrations in different parts of plant were various, e.g. HCB concentrations in fruit, root and shoot of taro were 318.77 microg x kg(-1), 281.02 microg x kg(-1) and 10.94 microg x kg(-1). There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant while no relativity between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils in the contamination conduit and cropland. The concentration levels of HCB in plant and rhizosphere soil in river were dramatically decreased with increasing distance from contaminated conduit. There was a remarkable positive relation between the concentrations of HCB in plant and those in ground soils but no relation between concentrations of HCB in plant and fat concentration of plant in river. The distribution characteristics of HCB in plants were influenced by contaminated levels, fat concentration and Partition-transfer model.

  7. Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Cintia Miranda; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; dos Santos, Helder Freitas; Balestieri, José Benedito Perrella; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; dos Santos, Edson Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl...

  8. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Ana; Martins, M. Rosário; Arantes, Silvia; Lopes, Violeta; Bettencourt, Eliseu; Pombal, Sofia; Gomes, Arlindo; Silva, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of Portugal. Composition of essential oils was established by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly ...

  9. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  10. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hanford enhanced waste glass characterization. Influence of composition on chemical durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a review of the complete high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) data sets for the glasses recently fabricated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and characterized at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The review is from the perspective of relating the chemical durability performance to the compositions of these study glasses, since the characterization work at SRNL focused on chemical analysis and ASTM Product Consistency Test (PCT) performance.

  12. African peppermint (Mentha piperita) from Morocco: Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa, Chraibi; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Ou-Yahia, Douae; Farah, Abdellah

    2017-01-01

    To replace and avoid synthetic chemicals toxicity, there is a growing interest in the investigation of natural products from plant origin for the discovery of active compounds with antimicrobial properties. This work was devoted to determine chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the EO of M. piperita harvested in the garden of the National Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Morocco. Experiments have been conducted at the Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory at the Scie...

  13. Chemical composition and sources of atmospheric aerosols at Djougou (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouafo-Leumbe, Marie-Roumy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Liousse, Catherine; Pont, Veronique; Akpo, Aristide; Doumbia, Thierno; Gardrat, Eric; Zouiten, Cyril; Sigha-Nkamdjou, Luc; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    In the framework of the INDAAF (International Network to study Deposition and Atmospheric chemistry in AFrica) program, atmospheric aerosols were collected in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions at Djougou, Benin, in the West Africa, from November, 2005 to October, 2009. Particulate carbon, ionic species, and trace metals were analyzed. Weekly PM2.5 and PM10 total mass concentrations varied between 0.7 and 47.3 µg m-3 and 1.4-148.3 µg m-3, respectively. We grouped the aerosol chemical compounds into four classes: dust, particulate organic matter (POM), elemental carbon (EC), and ions. We studied the annual variation of each class to determine their contribution in the total aerosol mass concentration and finally to investigate their potential emission sources. On an annual basis, the species presented a well-marked seasonality, with the peak of mass concentration for both sizes registered in dry season, 67 ± 2 to 86 ± 9 versus 14 ± 9 to 34 ± 5% in wet season. These values emphasized the seasonality of the emissions and the relative weak interannual standard deviation indicates the low variability of the seasonality. At the seasonal scale, major contributions to the aerosol chemistry in the dry season are: dust (26-59%), POM (30-59%), EC (5-9%), and ions (3-5%), suggesting a predominance of Sahelian and Saharan dust emissions and biomass burning source in this season. In the wet season, POM is predominant, followed by dust, EC, and ions. These results point out the contribution of surrounded biofuel combustion used for cooking and biogenic emissions during the wet season.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract of Gloiopeltis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaojiao; Chen, Yicun; Yao, Fen; Chen, Weizhou; Shi, Ganggang

    2012-12-01

    Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax) is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO₂-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction), and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical), compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.9 mg/mL), Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL), and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO₂-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN SITU EVALUATION OF FRESH AND ENSILED SUGARCANE (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Reyes Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated chemical composition and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and ruminal pH of fresh (FSC and ensiled (SCS sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum forage diets. In situ digestibility was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows fitted with a rumen cannula. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugar cane and supplemented with 1 kg of commercial dairy concentrate (18% CP. Ground sample (5g for each sugar cane (FSC, and SCS were incubated in rumen for 0, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates. ESC showed significant changes (P0.05 was noted. In situ digestibility of organic matter (ISDOM, % was higher (P0.05 at 12 and 76 h of incubation. The ruminal pH showed no differences (P>0.05 between treatments. It is concluded that the silage of sugar cane is an alternative to provide forage in the season of low growth and quality of the grass. Â

  16. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant/Antimicrobial Activities in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Gloiopeltis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Zheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gloiopeltis tenax (G. tenax is widely distributed along the Chinese coastal areas and is commonly used in the treatment of diarrhea and colitis. This study aimed at investigating the bioactivities of the volatile constituents in G. tenax. We extracted the essential constituents of G. tenax by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (CO2-SFE, then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In total, 30 components were identified in the G. tenax extract. The components showed remarkable antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (in a β-carotene/linoleic acid-coupled oxidation reaction, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (by deoxyribose degradation by iron-dependent hydroxyl radical, compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. In microdilution assays, G. tenax extracts showed a moderate inhibitory effects on Staphyloccocus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 3.9 mg/mL, Enterococcus faecalis (7.8 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.6 mg/mL, and Escherichia coli (3.9 mg/mL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of G. tenax were related to the active chemical composition. These results suggest that the CO2-SFE extract from G. tenax has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Verbenaceae Species Growing in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Pérez Zamora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials. The information gathered comprises the last twenty years of research within the South American region and is summarized taking into consideration the most representative species in terms of their essential oils. These species belong to Aloysia, Lantana, Lippia, Phyla, and Stachytarpheta genera, and the main essential oils they contain are monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, such as β-caryophyllene, thymol, citral, 1,8-cineole, carvone, and limonene. These compounds have been found to possess antimicrobial activities. The synergism of these essential oils with antibiotics is being studied by several research groups. It constitutes a resource of interest for the potential use of combinations of essential oils and antibiotics in infection treatments.

  19. Chemical composition of sediments from the Patos Lagoon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisch, P.R.M.; Asmus, H.E.; Jounneau, J.-M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of major elements (Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Mn,Ca,Ti,K,Na), trace elements (Pb,Cu,Zn,Ni,Cr,Zr,Ba,Rb,Sr,Co,Ga) and organic matter (C-org.; N-org., S and P), and of bottom sediments from the Patos Lagoon, aim to define the regional geochemical variables of this lagoon. The results identified three main groups of trace elements: 1) trace elements associated with argillo-mineral and with organic matter: Zn, Ni, Cr, Rb; 2) trace elements of detrital origin: Ti, Za, Ba; and 3) trace elements connected exclusively to organic matter: Mn, Cu, Co. The results of this study also demonstrate the main regional variations of the major and trace elements, of the organic matter and of the sedimentary grain size along a north-south profile in the lagoon. Organic matter is the most important factor for the distribution of trace elements. The Guaiba hydrographic system is the main source for the detrital and non-detrital trace elements in the lagoon. Gradual sedimentation along the Patos Lagoon can be pointed to as the cause of higher concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cr (partial fraction) in the southern part of the lagoon. (author) [pt

  20. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  1. Apxs Chemical Composition of the Kimberley Sandstone in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; VanBommel, S.; Thompson, L. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Berger, J. A.; Clark, B. C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Yen, A. S.; Fisk, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Kimberley was chosen as a major waypoint of the MSL rover Curiosity on its way to Mount Sharp. APXS data before drilling showed interestingly high K, Fe and Zn. This warranted drilling of the fine-grained sandstone for detailed investigations with SAM and Chemin. With significantly lower Na, Al and higher K, Mg and Fe, the composition of the drill target Windjana is very distinct from the previous ones in the mudstones at Yellowknife Bay. Up to 2000 ppm Br and 4000 ppm Zn post-brush were among the highest measured values in Gale Crater. The excavated fines, stemming from about 6cm, showed lower Br, but even higher Zn. Preliminary Chemin results indicate K-feldspar and magnetite being major mineral phases in Windjana, which is consistent with the pre drill APXS result and derived CIPW norms. Inside the accessible work volume of the arm at the drill site ChemCam exposed a greyish, shinier patch of rock underneath the dust, dubbed Stephen. ChemCam sees a high Mn signal in most of the spots. An APXS integration revealed high MnO as well (~4%), in addition to high Mg, Cl,K,Ni,Zn,Br,Cu,Ge and for the first time an APXS detectable amount of ~300 ppm Co. The surface might reflect a thin surface layer and may underestimate the higher Z elemental concentration since the APXS analysis assumes an infinite sample. Important elemental correlations are likely not impacted. A four spot daytime raster of Stephen before leaving the drill site showed a good correlation of Mn with Zn, Cu and Ni. All spots have 3-3.5% Cl, the highest values measured on Mars so far. While the stratigraphic setting of the Stephen sample is discussed elsewhere, the similarity with Mn deep-sea nodules is striking, e.g. the APXS calibration sample GBW07296. Whatever process formed Stephen, the process of Mn scavenging high Z trace metals from solutions seems to have happened similarly at this site on Mars.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)–(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)–(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%–(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)–(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±.22)–(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)–(576±7.37), (260±3.86)–(280±3.50), and (24±3.51)–(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  3. Effects of age condition on the distribution and integrity of inorganic fillers in dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Svizero, Nádia da Rocha; Bim Júnior, Odair; Valduga, Claudete Justina; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the distribution of the filler size along with the zeta potential, and the integrity of silane-bonded filler surface in different types of restorative dental composites as a function of the material age condition. Filtek P60 (hybrid composite), Filtek Z250 (small-particle filled composite), Filtek Z350XT (nanofilled composite), and Filtek Silorane (silorane composite) (3M ESPE) were tested at different stage condition (i.e., fresh/new, aged, and expired). Composites were submitted to an accelerated aging protocol (Arrhenius model). Specimens were obtained by first diluting each composite specimen in ethanol and then dispersed in potassium chloride solution (0.001 mol%). Composite fillers were characterized for their zeta potential, mean particle size, size distribution, via poly-dispersion dynamic light scattering. The integrity of the silane-bonded surface of the fillers was characterized by FTIR. The material age influenced significantly the outcomes; Zeta potential, filler characteristics, and silane integrity varied both after aging and expiration. Silorane presented the broadest filler distribution and lowest zeta potential. Nanofilled and silorane composites exhibited decreased peak intensities in the FTIR analysis, indicating a deficiency of the silane integrity after aging or expiry time. Regardless to the material condition, the hybrid and the small-particle-filled composites were more stable overtime as no significant alteration in filler size distribution, diameter, and zeta potential occurred. A deficiency in the silane integrity in the nanofilled and silorane composites seems to be affected by the material stage condition. The materials conditions tested in this study influenced the filler size distribution, the zeta potential, and integrity of the silane adsorbed on fillers in the nanofilled and silorane composites. Thus, this may result in a decrease of the clinical performance of aforementioned composites, in

  4. Chemical mixtures in untreated water from public-supply wells in the U.S.--occurrence, composition, and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L; Norman, Julia E; Scott, Jonathon C

    2012-08-01

    Chemical mixtures are prevalent in groundwater used for public water supply, but little is known about their potential health effects. As part of a large-scale ambient groundwater study, we evaluated chemical mixtures across multiple chemical classes, and included more chemical contaminants than in previous studies of mixtures in public-supply wells. We (1) assessed the occurrence of chemical mixtures in untreated source-water samples from public-supply wells, (2) determined the composition of the most frequently occurring mixtures, and (3) characterized the potential toxicity of mixtures using a new screening approach. The U.S. Geological Survey collected one untreated water sample from each of 383 public wells distributed across 35 states, and analyzed the samples for as many as 91 chemical contaminants. Concentrations of mixture components were compared to individual human-health benchmarks; the potential toxicity of mixtures was characterized by addition of benchmark-normalized component concentrations. Most samples (84%) contained mixtures of two or more contaminants, each at concentrations greater than one-tenth of individual benchmarks. The chemical mixtures that most frequently occurred and had the greatest potential toxicity primarily were composed of trace elements (including arsenic, strontium, or uranium), radon, or nitrate. Herbicides, disinfection by-products, and solvents were the most common organic contaminants in mixtures. The sum of benchmark-normalized concentrations was greater than 1 for 58% of samples, suggesting that there could be potential for mixtures toxicity in more than half of the public-well samples. Our findings can be used to help set priorities for groundwater monitoring and suggest future research directions for drinking-water treatment studies and for toxicity assessments of chemical mixtures in water resources. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    tThe large variability in the mechanical properties of hemp fibers is an issue in relation to their use inhigh-grade composites. The objective of the present study was to determine the optimal growth stage forharvesting hemp fibers for use in composites and to evaluate the effect of field retting......% at seed maturity.A highly significant reduction in cellulose deposition in fiber cell walls was reflected by reduced fiberwall thickness with plant maturity and was related to the development and ripening of hemp seeds.A statistically significant increase in lignin deposition and a slight decrease...... in pectins in hemp fibercell walls were also noted with stem maturity. Microscopy observations and histochemical analyzescorroborated the results from the chemical analyzes and revealed variations in morphological aspectsand spatial micro-distributions of carbohydrates and lignin within the cell structure...

  6. Compaction of an Oxisol and chemical composition of palisadegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico Lucas de Sousa Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Compaction is an important problem in soils under pastoral land use, and can make livestock systems unsustainable. The objective of this research was to study the impact of soil compaction on yield and quality of palisade (UROCHLOA BRIZANTHA cv. Marandu. The experiment was conducted on an Oxisol in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Treatments consisted of four levels of soil compaction: no compaction (NC, slight compaction (SC, medium compaction (MC and high compaction (HC. The following soil properties were evaluated (layers 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m: aggregate size distribution, bulk density (BD, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity (TP, relative compaction (RC, and the characteristics of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and dry matter yield (DMY of the forage. Highly compacted soil had high BD and RC, and low TP (0-0.05 m. Both DMY and CP were affected by HC, and both were strongly related to BD. Higher DMY (6.96 Mg ha-1 and CP (7.8 % were observed in the MC treatment (BD 1.57 Mg m-3 and RC 0.91 Mg m-3, in 0-0.05 m. A high BD of 1.57 Mg m-3 (0-0.05 m did not inhibit plant growth. The N concentration in the palisade biomass differed significantly among compaction treatments, and was 8.72, 11.20, 12.48 and 10.98 g kg-1 in NC, SC, MC and HC treatments, respectively. Increase in DMY and CP at the MC level may be attributed to more absorption of N in this coarse-textured soil.

  7. Distribution of Fish in the Upper Citarum River: an Adaptive Response to Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    SUNARDI,; KANIAWATI, KEUKEU; HUSODO, TEGUH; MALINI, DESAK MADE; ASTARI, ANNISA JOVIANI

    2012-01-01

    Distribution of fish in river is controlled by physico-chemical properties of the water which is affected by land-use complexity and intensity of human intervention. A study on fish distribution was carried out in the upper Citarum River to map the effects of physio-chemical properties on habitat use. A survey was conducted to collect fish and to measure the water quality both on dry and rainy season. The result showed that distribution of the fish, in general, represented their adaptive resp...

  8. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  9. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Lu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50-400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm-3) due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100-400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm-3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ = 450 and 530 nm). The single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006) because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100-400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  10. The effect of chemically adjusting cement compositions on leachabilities of waste ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Scheetz, B.E.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The chemical composition of both portland and aluminate cements was adjusted by adding amorphous silica. In the case of portland cement, the object was to react with excess portlandite and obtain an overall composition compatible with C-S-H gel or C-S-H gel + silica at low temperatures, and to obtain the tobermorite composition in order to be in equilibrium with this phase at temperatures above normal ambient. In the case of aluminate cement, the object was to be in equilibrium with more silica-rich phases. These silica-adjusted cements were used to make composites with nuclear waste forms. Leach tests showed that the silica-adjusted composites were chemically more stable than those made with as-received cement. Leach rates were lower in the case of the adjusted cements for Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Gd, Al, and Si. Only Na in the case of both portland and aluminate cements, and Mg and U in the case of aluminate cements, had greater leach rates in adjusted cements. Adjusting the composition of cements with silica is concluded to be beneficial when making composites to encapsulate nuclear waste forms

  11. Chemical-vapor-infiltrated silicon nitride, boron nitride, and silicon carbide matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventri, R.D.; Galasso, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports composites of carbon/chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) Si 3 N 4 , carbon/CVD BN, mullite/CVD SiC, and SiC yarn/CVD SiC prepared to determine if there were inherent toughness in these systems. The matrices were deposited at high enough temperatures to ensure that they were crystalline, which should make them more stable at high temperatures. The fiber-matrix bonding in the C/Si 3 N 4 composite appeared to be too strong; the layers of BN in the matrix of the C/BN were too weakly bonded; and the mullite/SiC composite was not as tough as the SiC/SiC composites. Only the SiC yarn/CVD SiC composite exhibited both strength and toughness

  12. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  13. The distribution, composition and abundance of fish species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish composition and abundance of two Gold mine reservoir were investigated between May, 2008 and May, 2009. Seven fish families comprising of twelve species of fish were caught during the period of study. The families of fish caught included Anabantidae, Channidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Melanopluridae, Mormyridae ...

  14. The bacteriological composition of biomass recovered by flushing an operational drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Husband, S; Boxall, J B

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the influence of pipe characteristics on the bacteriological composition of material mobilised from a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) and the impact of biofilm removal on water quality. Hydrants in a single UK Distribution Management Area (DMA) with both polyethylene and cast iron pipe sections were subjected to incremental increases in flow to mobilise material from the pipe walls. Turbidity was monitored during these operations and water samples were collected for physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. DNA was extracted from the material mobilised into the bulk water before and during flushing. Bacterial tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing was then used to characterize the bacterial communities present in this material. Turbidity values were high in the samples from cast iron pipes. Iron, aluminium, manganese and phosphate concentrations were found to correlate to observed turbidity. The bacterial community composition of the material mobilised from the pipes was significantly different between plastic and cast iron pipe sections (p < 0.5). High relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria (23.3%), Clostridia (10.3%) and Actinobacteria (10.3%) were detected in the material removed from plastic pipes. Sequences related to Alphaproteobacteria (22.8%), Bacilli (16.6%), and Gammaproteobacteria (1.4%) were predominant in the samples obtained from cast iron pipes. The highest species richness and diversity were found in the samples from material mobilised from plastic pipes. Spirochaeta spp., Methylobacterium spp. Clostridium spp. and Desulfobacterium spp., were the most represented genera in the material obtained prior to and during the flushing of the plastic pipes. In cast iron pipes a high relative abundance of bacteria able to utilise different iron and manganese compounds were found such as Lysinibacillus spp., Geobacillus spp. and Magnetobacterium spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of compost organic amendments on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following fertiliser treatments were compared during the years 2002 and 2003 on alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.: compost obtained from the organic fraction of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW; olive pomace compost (OPC; mineral fertiliser (Min. All the treatments allowed a distribution of 75kg ha-1 of P2O5. Three cuttings occurred: at 168, 206 and 351 days after compost application (DAA in 2002; 119, 152 and 320 DAA in 2003. Cumulative biomass and dry matter yields were measured during each experimental year. Furthermore, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMd, organic matter (OMd, crude protein (CPd and NDF (NDFd were determined. MSW treatment showed a significantly (P<0.01 higher content of ADL than OPC and Min (77.0, 66.0 and 65.0g kg-1 DM, respectively. Fertiliser treatments also affected (P<0.01 digestibility parameters. In fact, DMd and OMd values showed the same trend with lower percentages in MSW treatment than in the OPC and Min ones. The NDFd differed in all treatments having the highest value in OPC (40.1%. The results indicated that the soil distribution of organic materials offer the possibility to reduce the application of mineral fertilisers and production costs without decreasing alfalfa yield, forage chemical composition and in vitro digestibility.

  16. Effects of Graphene Oxide and Chemically-Reduced Graphene Oxide on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Amine Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Monteserín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on epoxy/graphene oxide (GO and epoxy/reduced graphene oxide (rGO were investigated for thermal-mechanical performance focusing on the effects of the chemical groups present on nanoadditive-enhanced surfaces. GO and rGO obtained in the present study have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD demonstrating that materials with different oxidation degrees have been obtained. Thereafter, GO/epoxy and rGO/epoxy nanocomposites were successfully prepared and thoroughly characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A significant increase in the glass transition temperature was found in comparison with the neat epoxy. The presence of functional groups on the graphene surface leads to chemical interactions between these functional groups on GO and rGO surfaces with the epoxy, contributing to the possible formation of covalent bonds between GO and rGO with the matrix. The presence of oxidation groups on GO also contributes to an improved exfoliation, intercalation, and distribution of the GO sheets in the composites with respect to the rGO based composites.

  17. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  18. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and. Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried.

  19. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried ...

  20. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes,

  1. Thermo-chemical simulation of a composite offshore vertical axis wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study three dimensional steady state thermo-chemical simulation of a pultrusion process is investigated by using the finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique. Pultrusion simulation of a composite having a C-shaped cross section is performed as a validation case. The o...

  2. Thermo-chemical simultion of a composite offshore vertical axis wind turbine blade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study three dimensional steady state thermo-chemical simulation of a pultrusion process is investigated by using the finite element/nodal control volume (FE/NCV) technique. Pultrusion simulation of a composite having a C-shaped cross section is performed as a validation case. The

  3. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  4. Phoenix dactylifera L. spathe essential oil: Chemical composition and repellent activity against the yellow fever mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae), grows commonly in the Arabian Peninsula and is traditionally used to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil and to investigate the repellent activity. The essential oil of P. dacty...

  5. Monitoring chemical degradation of thermally cycled glass-fibre composites using hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadakis, V.; Muller, B.; Hagenbeek, M.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R.M.; Yu, T.; Gyekenyesi, A.L.; Shull, P.J.; Wu, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the application of glass-fibre composites in light-weight structures is growing. Although mechanical characterizations of those structures are commonly performed in testing, chemical changes of materials under stresses have not yet been well documented. In the present work coupon tests and

  6. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and colour of broiler meat as affected by organic and conventional rearing systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... A lower protein, but higher fat content was measured in the thigh meat of slow-growing broilers reared both in the organic and conventional systems, ...

  7. The chemical composition of two supergiants in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, K. A.; Tolstoy, E.; Kaufer, A.; Skillman, E. D.; Clarkson, S. M.; Smartt, S. J.; Lennon, D. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.

    The chemical composition of two stars in WLM has been determined from high-quality Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) data obtained at the VLT-UT2. The model atmospheres analysis shows that they have the same metallicity, [Fe/H] = - 0.38 +/- 0.20 (+/- 0.29). Reliable magnesium abundances

  8. Composite biomaterials with chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite filler particles and PEG/PBT copolymer matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qing; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to make composites from hydroxyapatite and a PEG/PBT copolymer (PolyactiveTM 70/30), chemical linkages were introduced between the filler particles and polymer matrix using hexamethylene diisocyanate as a coupling agent. Infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)

  9. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  10. Wood chemical composition as related to properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin

    1969-01-01

    Burst and tear strengths of handsheets made from 48 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying chemical composition decreased with incressing extractive content after the independent effects of fiber morphology were specified. This result was attributed to lessened bond strength caused by reduced surface tension forces and blocking of reactive sites on the fiber surfaces...

  11. Chemical composition and anti-bacterial activity of essential oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work assesses the chemical compositions and in vitro anti-bacterial activities of seed essential oil from Cedrela sinesis (A. Juss.) Roem. seed. which has abundant mineral elements such as K, Ca, Fe. The fatty acid profiles of seed essential oil are characterized by considerable unsaturated fatty acids (90.39%) ...

  12. Chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil from Cladanthus arabicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cladanthus arabicus (L.) Cass was studied for its chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. The essential oil (EO) was analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty seven compounds representing 94.2% of the oil were identified. The m...

  13. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  14. Influence of mechanical and chemical degradation on surface gloss of resin composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Braut, V.; Uhac, I.; Benbachir, N.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the changes in surface gloss of different composite materials after simulation of mechanical and chemical aging mechanisms. Methods: 36 specimens were fabricated for each material and polished with 120-, 220-, 500-, 1200-, 2400- and 4000- grit SiC abrasive paper, respectively.

  15. Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM David G. Nashab, Esra Mutluc, William T. Prestond, Michael D. Haysb, Sarah H. Warrenc, Charly Kingc, William P. Linakb, M. lan Gilmourc, and David M. DeMarinic aOak Ridge Institute for Science and Ed...

  16. Experimental evaporation of hyperacid brines : Effects on chemical composition and chlorine isotope fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Eggenkamp, H. G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperacid brines from active volcanic lakes are some of the chemically most complex aqueous solutions on Earth. Their compositions provide valuable insights into processes of elemental transfer from a magma body to the surface and interactions with solid rocks and the atmosphere. This paper

  17. Effect of chemical treatment of Kevlar fibers on mechanical interfacial properties of composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Min-Kang; Ma, Tae-Jun; Lee, Douk-Rae

    2002-08-01

    In this work, the effects of chemical treatment on Kevlar 29 fibers have been studied in a composite system. The surface characteristics of Kevlar 29 fibers were characterized by pH, acid-base value, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FT-IR. The mechanical interfacial properties of the final composites were studied by interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), critical stress intensity factor (K(IC)), and specific fracture energy (G(IC)). Also, impact properties of the composites were investigated in the context of differentiating between initiation and propagation energies and ductile index (DI) along with maximum force and total energy. As a result, it was found that chemical treatment with phosphoric acid solution significantly affected the degree of adhesion at interfaces between fibers and resin matrix, resulting in improved mechanical interfacial strength in the composites. This was probably due to the presence of chemical polar groups on Kevlar surfaces, leading to an increment of interfacial binding force between fibers and matrix in a composite system.

  18. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned CNT Composite for Membrane Applications Using Chemical Vapor Deposition through In Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT composite using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A forest of vertically aligned CNTs was grown using catalytic CVD. Fluorocarbon polymer, films were deposited in the spaces between vertically aligned MWCNTs using thermal CVD apparatus developed in-house. The excessive polymer top layer was etched by exposing the sample to water plasma. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the attachment of functional groups to CNTs. Alignment of CNTs, deposition of polymer and postetched specimens were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Uniform distribution of monomodel vertically aligned CNTs embedded in the deposited polymer matrix was observed in the micrograph. Observed uniform distribution otherwise is not possible using conventional techniques such as spin coating.

  19. A global survey of the stable isotope and chemical compositions of bottled and canned beers as a guide to authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J F; Yates, H S A; Tinggi, U

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a dataset, derived from the analysis of 162 bottled and canned beers from around the globe, which may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. The data comprise δ2H and δ18O compositions of the whole beer and δ13C compositions of the dry residue (mostly sugar) together with the concentrations of five anions (F, Cl, NO3, SO4, PO4) and seven cations (Ca, K, Mg, SiO2, V, Mn, Sr). A strong correlation, consistent with natural waters but offset from the Global Meteoric Water Line, was observed between the δ2H/δ18O composition of the beers. The extent of the offset could be explained by the brewing process and the alcohol and sugars present in the beers. Correlations between inorganic analytes were consistent with the addition of salts in the brewing process. Beers were classified as follows: ale, lager, stout or wheat-beer and the chemical composition was found to be characteristic of the assigned type, with lagers being the most readily classified. A combination of chemical and isotopic data was found to be characteristic of the geographical origin (on a continental scale) and could most easily identify beers from Australasia or Europe. A global map of δ18O data revealed a geo-spatial distribution that mirrored existing maps of the isotopic composition of annual precipitation. This confirmed a commonsense view that local precipitation will be the primary source for the water used in brewing. Using this isoscape (or alcoscape) it may be possible to assess the geographical origins of samples for which genuine comparative samples cannot be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano

  1. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmora, Adilson C.; Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Teixeira, Elba C.; Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  3. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  4. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  5. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  6. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  7. Sensory assessment and chemical measurement of astringency of Greek wines: Correlations with analytical polyphenolic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallithraka, S; Kim, D; Tsakiris, A; Paraskevopoulos, I; Soleas, G

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the astringency of selected Greek red wines and to assess the relationship between sensory and chemical data. Nine red wines produced by three native Greek grape varieties (agiorgitiko, xinomavro and mavrodafni) were used and their astringency and bitterness was assessed by a trained panel. In addition, their astringency was estimated chemically employing the ovalbumin precipitation method. Their polyphenolic composition was also determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The sensory data showed that mandilaria was the most astringent variety whereas agiorgitiko was the least. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that the chemical data obtained for astringency significantly correlated with the sensory determinations. In addition, significant correlations were obtained between the sensory data and the wine polyphenolic composition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  9. Toxicological characterization of chemicals produced from laser irradiation of graphite composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.

    1990-11-01

    One of the major potential hazards associated with laser machining of graphite composite materials is the toxic fumes and gases that are generated. When exposed to the intense energy of the laser beam, the organic polymer matrix of the composite material may decompose into various toxic by-products. To advance the understanding of the laser machining process from a health and safety viewpoint, this particular study consisted of the following steps: collect and analyze gaseous by-products generated during laser machining; collect particulates generated during laser machining and chemically extract them to determine the chemical species that may have absorbed or recondensed onto these particles; and review and evaluate the toxicity of the identified chemical species

  10. Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour, Maharashtra, India were investigated during 1984-1985. Twenty six species belonging to 19 genera were obtained from this area...

  11. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...

  12. Aerosol size and chemical composition measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Lab (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Tremblay, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Leaitch, R.; Kolonjari, F.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; AboEl Fetouh, Y.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian High Arctic (80N, 86W). The current aerosol measurement program at PEARL has been ongoing for more than a year providing long-term observations of Arctic aerosol size distributions for both coarse and fine modes. Particle nucleation events were frequently observed during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The size distribution data are also compared against similar measurements taken at the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory (82N, 62W) for July and August 2015. The nucleation events are correlated at the two sites, despite a distance of approximately 500 km, suggesting regional conditions favorable for particle nucleation and growth during this period. Size resolved chemical composition measurements were also carried out using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The smallest measured particles between 40 and 60 nm are almost entirely organic aerosol (OA) indicating that the condensation of organic vapors is responsible for particle growth events and possibly particle nucleation. This conclusion is further supported by the relatively high oxygen content of the OA, which is consistent with secondary formation of OA via atmospheric oxidation.Lastly, surface measurements of the aerosol scattering coefficient are compared against the coefficient values calculated using Mie theory and the measured aerosol size distribution. Both the actual and the calculated scattering coefficients are then compared to sun photometer measurements to understand the relationship between surface and columnar aerosol optical properties. The measurements at PEARL provide a unique combination of surface and columnar data sets on aerosols in the High Arctic, a region where such measurements are scarce despite the important impact of aerosols on Arctic climate.PEARL research is supported by the Natural Sciences and

  13. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  14. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer

  15. An Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Composites at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu; Li, Yu-Yu; Lu, Can; Liu, Jian

    2018-05-21

    In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared. The results show that when the Si/P ratio was 1.2, and magnesia content in the CBPC was 15%, CBPC reached its maximum flexural strength. The fiber reinforced CBPC composites were prepared by mixing short polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or unidirectional continuous carbon fiber sheets. Flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined, and the microstructures of specimens were analyzed by scanning electron micrography, X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray computed tomography. The flexural performance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced CBPC composites was better than that of PVA fiber composites. The elastic modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the fiber composites were measured through dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that fiber reinforced CBPC composites are an inorganic polymer viscoelastic material with excellent damping properties. The reaction of magnesia and phosphate in the matrix of CBPC formed a different mineral, newberyite, which was beneficial to the development of the CBPC.

  16. Fabrication of Nanocarbon Composites Using In Situ Chemical Vapor Deposition and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun

    2015-09-23

    Nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN)) composites attract considerable research interest due to their fascinating applications in many fields. Here, recent developments in the field of in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the design and controlled preparation of advanced nanocarbon composites are highlighted, specifically, CNT-reinforced bulk structural composites, as well as CNT, GN, and CNT/GN functional composites, together with their practical and potential applications. In situ CVD is a very attractive approach for the fabrication of composites because of its engaging features, such as its simplicity, low-cost, versatility, and tunability. The morphologies, structures, dispersion, and interface of the resulting nanocarbon composites can be easily modulated by varying the experimental parameters (such as temperature, catalysts, carbon sources, templates or template catalysts, etc.), which enables a great potential for the in situ synthesis of high-quality nanocarbons with tailored size and dimension for constructing high-performance composites, which has not yet been achieved by conventional methods. In addition, new trends of the in situ CVD toward nanocarbon composites are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  18. Abundance, distribution and species composition of fish larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improving our knowledge of the abundance, distribution and species diversity ... banks as well as in the mid-channel, thus eliminating any bias that might have .... cond method (Table 2) may bias the importance of a single species due to one, ...

  19. The taxonomic composition, distribution and abundance of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the abundance and distribution of phytoplankton flora of an impoundment in the Agricultural Teaching and Research Farm of ObafemiAwolowo University (O.A.U), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out over an annual cycle from September 2006- August 2007, Phytoplankton and water ...

  20. Chemical homogeneity and particle size distribution of dairy cow TMR along the feeding alley with different mixing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the concepts of precision feeding, the right components balance (Sova et al., 2014 and the correct particle size distribution (PSD, Khan et al., 2014 of total mixed ration (TMR are essential for a complete homogeneity of the diet and are strongly influenced by adopted mixing time (MT, Humer et al., 2018, Schingoethe et al.,2017. The aim of the trial was to determine the influence of two MTs (MT1≤7min and MT2>7min on the chemical homogeneity and PSD along the feeding alley. Diets were performed with a horizontal cutter-mixer wagon (Gulliver 4016, Sgariboldi, and TMR samples were collected from the beginning, middle and end of the feeding alley after discharge. Triplicate samples of the diet were collected for chemical composition analyses (moisture, CP, Ash, EE, NDF and ADF and PSD evaluation (Heinrichs and Kononoff, 2002 over two months (two sampling/week. Statistical analysis was performed by a PROC MIXED for repeated measurements of SAS. MT1 evidenced a non-uniform distribution of moisture content along the feeding alley (P=0.05: lower moisture was found at the end than at the beginning and in the middle (47.55 vs 51.13 and 51.00%, respectively; P<0.01. No significant effects of MTs were recorded for other chemical parameters. The PSD showed trend to a higher retained amount of fibre in MT1 upper sieve (14.79 vs. 10.14%; P=0.06, while lower amount of feed was found in middle and bottom sieve than MT2 (38.9 and 12.81 vs 42.17 and 14.32%, respectively; P=0.08 and P=0.06. With respect to TMR distribution along the feeding alley, no differences were found between MT1 and MT2. Day of sampling evidenced significant variation both in chemical and physical composition (P<0.05. Obtained preliminary data evidenced the influence of MTs on composition and on PSD of the provided diet; results suggest to daily measure moisture of raw material in order to avoid negative changes in dry matter intake.

  1. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutraceutical distribution of crude palm oil and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Kumar, P. K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude palm oil (CRPO was dry fractionated at 25 °C to get crude palm olein (CRPOL, 77% and crude palm stearin (CRPS, 23%. Low and high melting crude palm stearin (LMCRPS 14.3% and HMCRPS 8.7% were separated by further fractionation of CRPS with acetone. The physico-chemical parameters and nutraceutical distribution showed variation in different fractions. The CRPO contained 514.7 mg·Kg−1 of β-carotene and 82.6%, 16.1%, 12.5% and 3.1% of it was distributed in CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. The distribution of phytosterols in fraction was 1870.2, 1996.8, 1190.9, 1290.4 and 115.4 mg·Kg−1 for CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. Total tocopherol composition was 535.5, 587.1, 308.0, 305.6 and 36.2 mg·Kg−1 for CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS and HMCRPS respectively. The results show that the fractionation of CRPO may be helpful in the preparation of nutraceutical-rich fractions.Aceite de palma crudo (CRPO fue fraccionado en seco a 25 °C para obtener oleína de palma cruda (CRPOL, 77% y estearinas de palma cruda (CRPS, el 23%. Estearinas con bajo y alto punto de fusión (LMCRPS 14,3% y HMCRPS 8,7% se separan por fraccionamiento adicional de CRPS con acetona. Los parámetros físico- químicos y la distribución de nutracéuticos muestra diferencias entre las fracciones. El CRPO contenía 514,7 mg·Kg−1 de β-caroteno y el 82,6%, 16,1%, 12,5% y 3,1% de este se distribuye en CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. Los fitosteroles en las fracciones fue de: 1870,2, 1996,8, 1190.9, 1290,4 y 115,4 mg·Kg−1 para CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. La composición total de tocoferol fue 535,5, 587,1 308,0, 305,6 y 36,2 mg·Kg−1, para CRPO, CRPOL, CRPS, LMCRPS y HMCRPS respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que el fraccionamiento de CRPO puede ser útil en la preparación de fracciones ricas en nutracéuticos.

  3. Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I, An individual component model for southern pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy; P. K. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we develop models for predicting loss in bending strength of clear, straight-grained pine from changes in chemical composition. Although significant work needs to be done before truly universal predictive models are developed, a quantitative fundamental relationship between changes in chemical composition and strength loss for pine was demonstrated. In...

  4. Aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, the Netherlands as observed in two intensive periods in May 2008 and March 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensah, A.A.; Holzinger, R.; Otjes, R.; Trimborn, A.; Mentel, T.F.; Brink, H. ten; Henzing, B.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of aerosol chemical composition in Cabauw, the Netherlands, are presented for two intensive measurement periods in May 2008 and March 2009. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and is compared to observations from aerosol

  5. Evaluation of Chemical and Physical-morphological Factors as Potential Determinants of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848 Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in five sites along a small perennial river system in south-central Tanzania, which had been identified as the focus for transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the area. Malacological surveys preceding the study showed a focal distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host snail of Schistosoma mansoni, the snails being present in three sites but absent from the other two sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate to what extent chemical and/or physical-morphological factors determine the distribution of B. pfeifferi between these five sites. It was found that none of the chemical constituents in the waters examined were outside the tolerance range of B. pfeifferi snails. Moreover, the composition of water from B. pfeifferi-free sites was not different from that in those sites where snails occurred. Furthermore, none of the physical-morphological constituents seemed likely to be a determinant for the absence of B. pfeifferi. In view of these findings, and those of previous studies, it is concluded that the focal distribution of B. pfeifferi cannot be associated with a single environmental factor and is rather the result of more complex interactions of habitat factors

  6. Enamels in stained glass windows: Preparation, chemical composition, microstructure and causes of deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, O.; Van der Linden, V.; Frederickx, P.; Luyten, S.; Van der Snickt, G.; Caen, J.; Schryvers, D.; Janssens, K.; Cornelis, E.; Van Dyck, D.; Schreiner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Stained glass windows incorporating dark blue and purple enamel paint layers are in some cases subject to severe degradation while others from the same period survived the ravages of time. A series of dark blue, green-blue and purple enamel glass paints from the same region (Northwestern Europe) and from the same period (16-early 20th centuries) has been studied by means of a combination of microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis, electron probe micro analysis and transmission electron microscopy with the aim of better understanding the causes of the degradation. The chemical composition of the enamels diverges from the average chemical composition of window glass. Some of the compositions appear to be unstable, for example those with a high concentration of K 2 O and a low content of CaO and PbO. In other cases, the deterioration of the paint layers was caused by the less than optimal vitrification of the enamel during the firing process. Recipes and chemical compositions indicate that glassmakers of the 16-17th century had full control over the color of the enamel glass paints they made. They mainly used three types of coloring agents, based on Co (dark blue), Mn (purple) and Cu (light-blue or green-blue) as coloring elements. Blue-purple enamel paints were obtained by mixing two different coloring agents. The coloring agent for red-purple enamel, introduced during the 19th century, was colloidal gold embedded in grains of lead glass.

  7. Chemical composition dispersion in bi-metallic nanoparticles: semi-automated analysis using HAADF-STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epicier, T.; Sato, K.; Tournus, F.; Konno, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) to determine the chemical composition of bi-metallic nanoparticles. This method, which can be applied in a semi-automated way, allows large scale analysis with a statistical number of particles (several hundreds) in a short time. Once a calibration curve has been obtained, e.g., using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements on a few particles, the HAADF integrated intensity of each particle can indeed be directly related to its chemical composition. After a theoretical description, this approach is applied to the case of iron–palladium nanoparticles (expected to be nearly stoichiometric) with a mean size of 8.3 nm. It will be shown that an accurate chemical composition histogram is obtained, i.e., the Fe content has been determined to be 49.0 at.% with a dispersion of 10.4 %. HAADF-STEM analysis represents a powerful alternative to fastidious single particle EDX measurements, for the compositional dispersion in alloy nanoparticles.

  8. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Stability fields of smectites and illites as a function of temperature and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardy, Y.; Duplay, J.; Fritz, B.; Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67

    1987-04-01

    A thermodynamic ideal solid solution analogue is proposed which accounts the correlations which clearly reflect the temperatures at which the nonmineralic population are supposed to have been formed. The solid solution is considered, at a particle scale, as an ideal mixture of individual layers, weakly bent each to the next. Each layer presents the chemical composition of a given end member, so that the proportions of the different end members change from one particle to another. Considering one particle of a given chemical composition, the multipole solid solution theory allows to calculate the wheighted contributions of each end member into the ideal clay solid solution along with the chemical composition of the aqueous solutions in equilibrium with the considered particle in its independent microenvironment. This model is able to predict the nature of the chemical correlations which are expected, at a given temperature, within a given population. This model is also applied to the prediction of the temperature required for the conversion of smectite into illite during the burial diagenesis. (orig./HP)

  10. Influences of Thermo-Vacuum Treatment on Colors and Chemical Compositions of Alder Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With high temperature-heat treatment, the dimensional stability and durability of wood is improved and wood color is darkened as well. In this paper, alder birch wood (Betula alnoides was treated by the Thermo-Vacuum Treatment (TVT. The changes of wood color parameters and the chemical composition were determined by the CIE1976 L*a*b* method and the chemical analysis method, respectively. The results were revealed as follows: (1 A lower value of lightness, L*, and a higher value of total color difference, △E*, were obtained at the higher heat-treatment temperatures and longer treatment time. (2 The higher the heat-treatment temperatures and the longer the heat-treatment times were, the lower the contents of hemicellulose and cellulose were and the higher the content of lignin was. Moreover, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis demonstrated that the characteristic absorption peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin diminished. The acetylation reaction of hemicellulose and the degradation reaction of groups of lignin side chain occurred during TVT. (3 TVT degraded the chemical composition of cell walls, which resulted in further changes of the wood color. A significant correlation existed between the differences of color indices and the differences of the chemical composition after TVT.

  11. Electrical Conductivity and Chemical Composition of Soil Solution: Comparison of Solution Samplers in Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.

  12. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and oncological disease mortality in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Fajčíková, K; Dietzová, Z; Stehlíková, B

    2017-02-01

    This study deals with the analysis of relationship between chemical composition of the groundwater/drinking water and the data on mortality from oncological diseases (MOD) in the Slovak Republic. Primary data consist of the Slovak national database of groundwater analyses (20,339 chemical analyses, 34 chemical elements/compounds) and data on MOD (17 health indicators) collected for the 10-year period (1994-2003). The chemical and health data were unified in the same form and expressed as the mean values for each of 2883 municipalities within the Slovak Republic. Pearson and Spearman correlation as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods were used for analysis of the relationship between chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water and MOD. The most significant chemical elements having influence on MOD were identified together with their limit values (limit and optimal contents). Based on the results of calculations, made through the neural networks, the following eight chemical elements/parameters in the groundwater were defined as the most significant for MOD: Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca, Mg, TDS, Cl, HCO 3 , SO 4 and NO 3 . The results document the highest relationship between MOD and groundwater contents of Ca + Mg (mmol l -1 ), Ca and Mg. We observe increased MOD with low (deficit) contents of these three parameters of groundwater/drinking water. The following limit values were set for the most significant groundwater chemicals/parameters: Ca + Mg 1.73-5.85 mmol l -1 , Ca 60.5-196.8 mg l -1 and Mg 25.6-35.8 mg l -1 . At these concentration ranges, the mortality for oncological diseases in the Slovak Republic is at the lowest levels. These limit values are about twice higher in comparison with the current Slovak valid guideline values for the drinking water.

  14. Vibration suppression of composite laminated beams using distributed piezoelectric patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, M A; Almajed, A A; ElMadany, M M

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to develop an analytical and straightforward approach to suppress the steady state transverse vibration of a symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beam that is excited by an external harmonic force. This is achieved by bonding patches of piezoelectric material at selected locations along the beam. The governing equations for the system are formulated and the dynamic Green's functions are used to obtain an exact solution for the problem. A scheme is proposed for determining the values of the driving voltages, the dimensions of the PZT patches and their locations along the beam, in order to confine the vibration in a certain chosen region where the vibration is not harmful and leave the other chosen region stationary or vibrating with very small amplitudes. Beams with different boundary conditions are considered. Numerical case studies are presented to verify the utility of the proposed scheme

  15. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Leo; Nelson, Alan E.; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W.

    2008-08-01

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found ( p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength.

  16. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Leo [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada); Nelson, Alan E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)], E-mail: aenelson@dow.com; Heo, Giseon [Department of Statistics, Department of Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada); Major, Paul W. [Orthodontic Graduate Program, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2008-08-30

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found (p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength.

  17. Surface chemical composition of human maxillary first premolar as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Leo; Nelson, Alan E.; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface chemical composition of dental enamel has been postulated as a contributing factor in the variation of bond strength of brackets bonded to teeth, and hence, the probability of bracket failure during orthodontic treatment. This study systematically investigated the chemical composition of 98 bonding surfaces of human maxillary premolars using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to ascertain compositional differences between right and left first premolars. The major elements detected in all samples were calcium, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Surface compositions were highly variable between samples and several elements were found to be highly correlated. No statistical significant difference in the chemical composition of the maxillary right and left first premolars was found (p > 0.05). Knowledge of the chemical composition of enamel surfaces will facilitate future studies that relate this information to the variations in dental enamel bond strength

  18. Low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, S. Venkata; Rao, N. Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was evaluated for the treatment of low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater (low BOD/COD ratio ∼0.3, high sulfate content: 1.75 g/l) in aerobic metabolic function. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h [fill: 15 min; reaction: 23 h (aeration along with recirculation); settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min] and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.92, 1.50, 3.07 and 4.76 kg COD/cum-day. Substrate utilization showed a steady increase with increase in OLR and system performance sustained at higher loading rates. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization was observed after 4 h of the cycle operation. Sulfate removal efficiency of 20% was observed due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm matrix. Biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed comparatively higher efficiency to the corresponding suspended growth and granular activated carbon (GAC) configured systems studied with same wastewater. Periodic discontinuous batch mode operation of the biofilm reactors results in a more even distribution of the biomass throughout the reactor and was able to treat large shock loads than the continuous flow process. Biofilm configured system coupled with periodic discontinuous batch mode operation imposes regular variations in the substrate concentration on biofilm organisms. As a result, organisms throughout the film achieve maximum growth rates resulting in improved reaction potential leading to stable and robust system which is well suited for treating highly variable wastes

  19. Low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, S. Venkata [Bioengineering and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)]. E-mail: vmohan_s@yahoo.com; Rao, N. Chandrasekhara [Bioengineering and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Biotechnologies and Process Engineering for the Environment, Universite de Savoie Technolac, Chambery, 73376 Le Bourget Du Lac Cedex (France); Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)

    2007-06-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was evaluated for the treatment of low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater (low BOD/COD ratio {approx}0.3, high sulfate content: 1.75 g/l) in aerobic metabolic function. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h [fill: 15 min; reaction: 23 h (aeration along with recirculation); settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min] and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.92, 1.50, 3.07 and 4.76 kg COD/cum-day. Substrate utilization showed a steady increase with increase in OLR and system performance sustained at higher loading rates. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization was observed after 4 h of the cycle operation. Sulfate removal efficiency of 20% was observed due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm matrix. Biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed comparatively higher efficiency to the corresponding suspended growth and granular activated carbon (GAC) configured systems studied with same wastewater. Periodic discontinuous batch mode operation of the biofilm reactors results in a more even distribution of the biomass throughout the reactor and was able to treat large shock loads than the continuous flow process. Biofilm configured system coupled with periodic discontinuous batch mode operation imposes regular variations in the substrate concentration on biofilm organisms. As a result, organisms throughout the film achieve maximum growth rates resulting in improved reaction potential leading to stable and robust system which is well suited for treating highly variable wastes.

  20. Carcass physical composition and physic-chemical characteristics of meat from Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Kellermann de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of carcass physical composition and physicochemical characteristics of meat from Nellore males distributed randomly into three treatments: males castrated at 13 months of age at puberty (n=26; castrated at 18 months of age, 15 days before confinement (n=26; and young bulls (n=25. For the evaluation of meat chemical characteristics, we used samples of 12 animals taken at random from each treatment. The experimental design was completely randomized. Animals were slaughtered at 22 months of age after 100 days of confinement. The carcasses of young bulls showed higher contents of muscle (66.46 % and bone (16.03 %, and lower fat content (17.66 %, in relation to that of steers castrated at 13 (62.83,15.28, and 22.11 %, respectively or 18 months (63.99, 15.29, and 21.53%, respectively, which did not differ amongst themselves. The meat of young bulls was darker (3.07 points than the meat from those castrated at 13 months of age (3.43 points, while the meat from those castrated at 18 months displayed an intermediate color (3.29 points, not differing from the others. Young bulls yielded meat with lower content of intramuscular fat (3.18 points and lipids (3.81% in relation to those castrated at 13 (4.58 points and 6.77%, respectively or 18 months (4.52 points and 5.66%, respectively. Protein content was higher (P 0.05 by the age of castration, with young bulls having lower values in relation to the castrated males. Castration of Nellore young bulls in early puberty increases the edible portion of the carcass due to the higher body fat deposit.

  1. Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Leslie; Chowdhury, Nabil; Wang, John; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure. PMID:28773496

  2. Mechanical Properties and Chemical Resistance of New Composites for Oil Pump Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyus I. Chukov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of high-performance composites and a method of their production based on the carbonization of an elastomeric matrix are proposed. The use of elastomeric matrix makes it possible to manufacture products with complex shapes, while the subsequent carbonization can significantly improve their properties by changing the chemical nature of the elastomeric matrix. Such an approach can reduce the products’ machining cost, especially for composites reinforced with super hard fillers such as silicon carbide at high filling degrees. Low-temperature carbonization makes it possible to obtain composites with mechanical behavior similar to that of ceramics. In contrast to classical elastomeric materials, the nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR-based compounds were highly filled (300 parts per hundred rubber-PHR with different carbon fillers and silicon carbide; then cured and carbonized at low-temperature 360 °C with the carbonization cycle of 12 h. The feasibility of the production method was validated through the manufacturing of products with complex shapes—impellers for electric centrifugal pumps. It was found that the carbonized composites have good chemical resistance and low water absorption. The composites have high Shore D hardnesses (93–96, ultimate tensile strengths (62–85 MPa, Young’s moduli (17–24 GPa, and compressive strengths (155–181 MPa.

  3. Theory study of global density influence and soils chemical composition at neutron probes response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispino, M.L.

    1980-06-01

    Three energy group diffusion theory is applied to calculate the thermal neutron flux through a soil-water mixture at the neutron source. The soils studies are taken from two horizons of different composition, of a representative soil of the Litoral-Mata Zone of Pernambuco State. The thermal flux is obtained taking into consideration increasing values of the water volume percent, H, and the bulk density of the soil. The cross-sections of the mixture are calculated from the chemical composition of the soils. (author)

  4. Chemical and phase composition of powders obtained by electroerosion dispersion from alloys WC-Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putintseva, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    A consideration is given to the dependence of chemical and phase compositions of dispersed powders on the conditions, the medium of electroerosion dispersing and the content of cobalt in an initial alloy. It is shown that dissociation of carbon from tungsten carbide proceeds even on dispersing in liquid hydrocarbon-containing media (kerosene and machine oil). The phase composition is determined to a large extent by a medium of dispersing and a cobalt content in the initial alloy. In all powders complex tungsten-cobalt carbides and even Co 7 W 6 intermetallic compounds are found [ru

  5. Chemical and Phase Composition of Powders Obtained by Electroerosion Dispersion from WC - Co Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putintseva, M. N.

    2004-03-01

    The dependence of the chemical and phase composition of dispersed powders on the mode and medium of electroerosion dispersion and the content of cobalt in the initial alloy is considered. It is shown that the dissociation of carbon from tungsten carbide occurs even in dispersion in liquid hydrocarbon-bearing media (kerosene and industrial oils). The phase composition is primarily determined by the dispersion medium and the content of cobalt in the initial alloy. Compound tungsten-cobalt carbides and even a Co7W6 intermetallic are determined in all the powders.

  6. X-ray fluorescence control of chemical composition of cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prekina, I.M.; Rozova, O.F.; Loran, A.V.; Teplitskaya, G.A.; Smagunova, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    A method of x-ray fluorescence analysis developed for analytical set (KRF-18 diffractometer/DVK-3 computer) is used to control cast iron composition. A quantitative evaluation of errors attributed to the violation of conditions of cast iron sampling from the flow and to the quality of preparing samples for XFA is obtained. It is shown that the main component of the integral experimental error is attributed to nonuniformity of chemical composition of cast iron. Metrological studies show that reproductibility, convergence, accuracy, and sensitivity of the method match the requirements characteristic of the control process. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  7. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nano materials and Nano composites 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Jiao, T.; Balan, L.; Chen, X.; Hu, M.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interests in nano materials and nano composites call for the development of processing techniques to obtain multiple functionalization nano structures and achieve the tailoring of specific features of the nanometer size. Functional nano materials and nano composites will expand the applied range of the original material and at the same time promote the development of inter discipline. Thus, the chemical functionalization and bottom-up assemblies of nano materials and subsequent applications will accelerate the development of nano science and nano technology.

  8. Composition models for the viscosity and chemical durability of West Valley related nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Saad, E.E.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Sassoon, R.E.; Barkatt, A.; Finger, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    There are two important criteria that must be satisfied by a nuclear waste glass durability and processability. The chemical composition of the glass must be such that it does not dissolve or erode appreciably faster than the decay of the radioactive materials embedded in it. The second criterion, processability, means that the glass must melt with ease, must be easily pourable, and must not crystallize appreciably. This paper summarizes the development of simple models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses from their composition

  9. Diffusion in plasma: The Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urpin, V., E-mail: Vadim.urpin@uv.es [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and Hall effect is considered, and it is argued that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of a chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type of waves in which the impurity number density oscillates alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure.

  10. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. I. Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Yong, D.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.; Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Meléndez, J.; D'Ercole, A.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is key importance to constraining the different candidates for intracluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a wide range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric models, together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis, we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al, and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.07 and [ α/ Fe ] = 0.34 ± 0.03 in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but including NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behavior of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence of an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Programmes 084.B-0810 and 086.B-0237).Full Tables 2, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A108Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. The APHH China Research Programme: Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, T.; Shi, Z.; Liu, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Wu, X.; Brean, J.; Fu, P.

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that atmospheric particles have adverse effects on human health due to their high toxic properties. Consequently, atmospheric particles are getting much attention from the public, especially from developing megacities which have a large population and high air pollution levels. Beijing, which is one of largest megacities of the world with more than 20 million inhabitants living under very poor air quality conditions is an ideal metropolitan region to study the processes and sources of atmospheric particles in order to improve strategies for air pollution management. This study is aimed to investigate comprehensively the sources of particles in Beijing by application of a wide range of instruments, techniques and modelling approaches. Two intensive sampling campaigns were carried out during the winter 2016 and the summer 2017 at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP, the urban site) and Pinggu (the rural site) in Beijing. Online instruments including Api-TOF, PSM, and SMPS systems were deployed to investigate the size distribution and chemical composition of particles. Contemporaneously, both fine and coarse particles were collected on PTFE and quartz fibre filters using high and medium volume air samplers. Those filters were then analysed for quantification of inorganic ions by ion chromatography, elemental composition using XRF, PIXE and ICP-MS techniques, and EC/OC using a Sunset OC-EC aerosol analyser, organic markers using GC-MS techniques. The mean daily concentration of PM2.5 at the urban site of Beijing was 92.0±66.4 µg/m3 and 31.2±14.7 µg/m3 for winter and summer campaigns, while those levels measured at the rural site were 86.7±58.9 and 27.6±13.3 µg/m3. The concentration of OC and EC measured during the winter campaign was 22.3 and 3.4 µg/m3 respectively. By using a mass closure model, it was found that secondary inorganic aerosols and soil dust accounted for 32.6% and 9.7% of fine particles at IAP. High

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  13. Chemical composition of δ Scuti stars: 1. AO CVn, CP Boo, KW Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeev, A. I.; Ivanova, D. V.; Shimansky, V. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.

    2012-11-01

    We used high-resolution echelle spectra acquired with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope to determine the fundamental atmospheric parameters and abundances of 30 chemical elements for three δ Scuti stars: AOCVn, CP Boo, and KWAur. The chemical compositions we find for these stars are similar to those for Am-star atmospheres, though some anomalies of up to 0.6-0.7 dex are observed for light and heavy elements. We consider the effect of the adopted stellar parameters (effective temperature, log g, microturbulent velocity) and the amplitude of pulsational variations on the derived elemental abundances.

  14. Fish species composition, density-distribution patterns, and impingement during upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Sharma, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of cooling system intakes and discharges on Lake Michigan fishes are highly dependent on inshore species composition and spatial distribution which, in turn, are affected by natural hydrological conditions. Significant (5 to 10 C) short-term decreases in water temperature (due to upwelling) could cause cold shock in fish equilibrated to either ambient or plume temperatures; substantial changes in distribution due to avoidance or attraction responses; and resultant changes in susceptibility to impingement. The objectives of this study are to characterize the changes in fish species composition, density, and thermal distribution as a result of natural upwellings, and to relate these factors to intake and discharge effects. Day and night sampling was conducted in ambient (reference) and thermal plume waters near the Zion Nuclear Plant on four occasions between 17 July and 11 September 1975. Density-distribution patterns and species composition of fish were determined by means of gill nets, bottom trawls, seines, and a sonic fish locater

  15. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, PT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -chemical properties studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques suggested the uniform and homogeneous distribution of TiO2 at 2.5wt. % loading, and negligible agglomeration at 10wt % loading, also indicated enhancement of crystalline character of these membranes...

  16. Distribution and Fractional Composition of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Roadside Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Mykhailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations and their fractional composition (medium fraction: n-alkane chain-length C15 to C27, heavy fraction: >C27 were determined at distances from 1 to 60 m from roads and at soil depths from 0.5 to 15 cm. The traffic intensities were up to 25000 vehicles per day. Soil TPH concentrations were highest within 15 m distance (665 and 3198 mg kg−1 at the windward and leeward sides, resp., followed by a rapid drop to background values beyond (196 and 115 mg kg−1 in 60 m distance at the windward and leeward sides, resp.. The data variability was lowest at distances of 1 m and highest within tree plantations at distances of 15 m from the road. The TPH concentrations decreased with depth but were significantly higher than the background at all depths investigated. A principal component analysis revealed a positive relation between the medium-to-heavy fraction ratio and soil depth. A fractional differentiation of hydrocarbons with distance from road was not observed. It was concluded that the assessment of the potential of hydrocarbons to translocate, accumulate, or degrade in soil necessitates their subdivision into fractions based on their physicochemical and metabolic properties.

  17. Chemical and geochemical composition of spring-summer Arctic aerosol collected at Ny Alesund, Svalbard Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Giardi, Fabio; Grotti, Marco; Lucarelli, Franco; Moroni, Beatrice; Nava, Silvia; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Since March 2010, spring-summer (usually March - September) campaigns were continuously carried out at the Italian Gruvebadet Observatory, Ny Alesund, Svalbard Island. Aerosol was sampled by PM10 (daily) and 4-stage (4-day resolution) collector devices and size distribution was evaluated at 10 min resolution in the range 10 nm - 20 um (106 size classes by a TSI SMPS-APS integrated system). Six-year (2010-2015) PM10 and size-segregated (>10, 10-2.5, 2.5-1, metal content (major and trace metals, including Rare Earth Elements - REEs, by PIXE and ICP-MS), Pb isotopic composition (by ICP-MS) and Elemental and Organic Carbon (EC-OC) concentrations. The data set was elaborated by multi-parametric statistical analysis (Positive Matrix Factorization - PMF), in order to identifying and quantifying the contribution of the main anthropic and natural aerosol sources. Particular attention was spent in evaluating the anthropic contribution of nss-sulphate, nitrate, EC and heavy metals during the Arctic Haze in spring. The isotopic composition of Pb was used in identifying the source areas (North America, Greenland, North Europe, Siberia, Iceland) of anthropic emissions as a function of seasonality (different atmospheric circulation pathway). Crustal metals and, especially, REEs anomalies (with respect to the Chondrite-normalized profile) allowed characterizing the dust emissions from their Potential Source Areas (PSA). Biogenic markers (especially methane sulfonic acid - MSA - and bio-nss-sulphate) was used to obtain relevant information about the relationship between marine biogenic activity (primary productivity) and sea ice coverage and atmospheric conditions (irradiance, temperature, circulation pathways). The seasonal pattern of the nitrate deposition was also investigated. Chemical and geochemical measurements were compared with high-resolution size distribution and back-trajectory cluster analysis in order to understand the seasonal pattern of the contributions of long

  18. Effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Leman, Z.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of woven kenaf/Kevlar hybrid composites were analysed. • The layering sequences affect the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. • Treated kenaf improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. - Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on mechanical properties of woven kenaf–Kevlar composites. Woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites fabricated through hand lay-up techniques by arranging woven kenaf and Kevlar fabrics in different layering sequences and by using treated kenaf mat. To evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on hybrid composites, the woven kenaf mat was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) diluted solution and compared mechanical properties with untreated kenaf hybrid composites. Results shows that the tensile properties of hybrid composites improved in 3-layer composites compared to 4-layer composites. Hybrid composite with Kevlar as outer layers display a better mechanical properties as compared to other hybrid composites. Tensile and flexural properties of treated hybrid composites are better than non-treated hybrid composites. The fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This study is a part of exploration of potential application of the hybrid composite in high velocity impact application

  19. Influence of the precursor chemical composition on heavy metal adsorption properties of hemp (Cannabis Sativa fibers based biocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste hemp (Cannabis sativa fibers were used as sustainable and renewable raw materials for production of low-cost biocarbon sorbent for heavy metals removal. Carbon precursors of different chemical composition were obtained by oxidative and alkaline treatments of hemp fibers. Influence of lignocellulosic precursor chemical composition on hemp fibers-based biocarbon (HFB characteristics was examined by BET surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy and mass titration. It was found that lignin content and polymorphic transformation of cellulose increase the SBET of microporous HFBs, while hemicelluloses induce more homogeneous distribution of adsorption active sites. Heavy metal ions adsorption onto HFBs is primarily influenced by the amount of surface oxygen groups, while specific surface area plays a secondary role. Equilibrium data obtained for lead ions adsorption were analyzed by different nonlinear adsorption isotherms, and the best fitting model was chosen using standard deviation and Akaike information criterion (AICC. The maximum adsorption capacities of HFBs ranged from 103.1 to 116.3 mg Pb/g. Thermodynamic parameters showed that Pb2+ adsorption onto HFBs is a spontaneous and complex endothermic process, suggesting the coexistence of physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172007 and Grant no. 172029

  20. Change with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rock in geothermal areas in central Kyushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1986-10-01

    Changes with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rocks in central Kyushu are studied to provide basic data required for evaluation of geothermal resources. Distribution of volcanic rocks in successive 1Ma (10/sup 6/ year) periods and the average thickness of volcanic rock layers in each period are determined, from which the volume of volcanic rocks in each 1Ma period is calculated. Results indicate that volcanos in central Kyushu extruded about 3,000 km/sup 3//Ma of volcanic rocks during the early periods (about 5Ma), followed by a series of declining periods up to the present. Comparison of volcanic extrusive rocks of each 1Ma period shows that lava of hornblende andesite and pyroxenic andesite has been extruded in great quantities in every period. Chemical composition is studied based on diagrams showing changes in SiO/sub 2/ content. The K/sub 2/O content is relatively high in most volcanos younger than 1.6Ma, compared to those older than 1.6Ma. the K/sub 2/O content in extruded rocks has been high during the latest 0.4Ma in the Aso volcanic area, unlike other island arc conjunction areas. (4 figs, 5 tabs, 28 refs)