WorldWideScience

Sample records for distribution amplitude shape

  1. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  2. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  3. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  4. Distribution amplitudes of vector mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Results are presented for the lowest moment of the distribution amplitude for the K{sup *} vector meson. Both longitudinal and transverse moments are investigated. We use two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, together with a non-perturbative renormalisation of the matrix element. (orig.)

  5. Interpretation of the shape of electron diffraction spots from small polyhedral crystals by means of the crystal shape amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Heydenreich, J.; Komrska, J.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the crystal shape on the fine structure of transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns described by the crystal shape amplitude is discussed. A general algebraic expression for the crystal shape amplitude of any crystal polyhedron is used for computing the intensity distribution of TED reflections. The computer simulation method is applied to the analysis of the fine structure of TED patterns of small gold and palladium crystals having octahedral and tetrahedral habits. (orig.)

  6. Probabilistic Amplitude Shaping With Hard Decision Decoding and Staircase Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Alireza; Amat, Alexandre Graell i.; Liva, Gianluigi; Steiner, Fabian

    2018-05-01

    We consider probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) as a means of increasing the spectral efficiency of fiber-optic communication systems. In contrast to previous works in the literature, we consider probabilistic shaping with hard decision decoding (HDD). In particular, we apply the PAS recently introduced by B\\"ocherer \\emph{et al.} to a coded modulation (CM) scheme with bit-wise HDD that uses a staircase code as the forward error correction code. We show that the CM scheme with PAS and staircase codes yields significant gains in spectral efficiency with respect to the baseline scheme using a staircase code and a standard constellation with uniformly distributed signal points. Using a single staircase code, the proposed scheme achieves performance within $0.57$--$1.44$ dB of the corresponding achievable information rate for a wide range of spectral efficiencies.

  7. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  8. Light-cone distribution amplitudes of the baryon octet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, Gunnar S. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Braun, Vladimir M.; Göckeler, Meinulf; Gruber, Michael; Hutzler, Fabian; Schäfer, Andreas; Schiel, Rainer W.; Simeth, Jakob; Söldner, Wolfgang [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Sternbeck, Andre [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena,Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wein, Philipp [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-02-10

    We present results of the first ab initio lattice QCD calculation of the normalization constants and first moments of the leading twist distribution amplitudes of the full baryon octet, corresponding to the small transverse distance limit of the associated S-wave light-cone wave functions. The P-wave (higher twist) normalization constants are evaluated as well. The calculation is done using N{sub f}=2+1 flavors of dynamical (clover) fermions on lattices of different volumes and pion masses down to 222 MeV. Significant SU(3) flavor symmetry violation effects in the shape of the distribution amplitudes are observed.

  9. Light-cone distribution amplitudes of the baryon octet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, Gunnar S.; Braun, Vladimir M.; Göckeler, Meinulf; Gruber, Michael; Hutzler, Fabian; Schäfer, Andreas; Schiel, Rainer W.; Simeth, Jakob; Söldner, Wolfgang; Sternbeck, Andre; Wein, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the first ab initio lattice QCD calculation of the normalization constants and first moments of the leading twist distribution amplitudes of the full baryon octet, corresponding to the small transverse distance limit of the associated S-wave light-cone wave functions. The P-wave (higher twist) normalization constants are evaluated as well. The calculation is done using N_f=2+1 flavors of dynamical (clover) fermions on lattices of different volumes and pion masses down to 222 MeV. Significant SU(3) flavor symmetry violation effects in the shape of the distribution amplitudes are observed.

  10. 3D shaping of electron beams using amplitude masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Arie, Ady

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electron beams are shaped in 3D with examples of curves and lattices. • Computer generated holograms are manifested as binary amplitude masks. • Applications in electron-optical particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. • Electron beam lithography fabrication scheme explained in detail. • Measurement paradigms of 3D shaped beams are discussed. - Abstract: Shaping the electron wavefunction in three dimensions may prove to be an indispensable tool for research involving atomic-sized particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. We utilize computer-generated holograms to sculpt electron wavefunctions in a standard transmission electron microscope in 3D, and demonstrate the formation of electron beams exhibiting high intensity along specific trajectories as well as shaping the beam into a 3D lattice of hot-spots. The concepts presented here are similar to those used in light optics for trapping and tweezing of particles, but at atomic scale resolutions.

  11. QCD-based pion distribution amplitudes confronting experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.; Stefanis, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    We use QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates to recalculate more accurately the moments and their confidence intervals of the twist-2 pion distribution amplitude including radiative corrections. We are thus able to construct an admissible set of pion distribution amplitudes which define a reliability region in the a 2 , a 4 plane of the Gegenbauer polynomial expansion coefficients. We emphasize that models like that of Chernyak and Zhitnitsky, as well as the asymptotic solution, are excluded from this set. We show that the determined a 2 , a 4 region strongly overlaps with that extracted from the CLEO data by Schmedding and Yakovlev and that this region is also not far from the results of the first direct measurement of the pion valence quark momentum distribution by the Fermilab E791 collaboration. Comparisons with recent lattice calculations and instanton-based models are briefly discussed

  12. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  13. Optimisation of amplitude distribution of magnetic Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'a, Jozef; Jančárik, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurement method is a widely used non-destructive evaluation technique used for inspection of ferromagnetic materials. Besides other influences, the excitation yoke lift-off is a significant issue of this method deteriorating the measurement accuracy. In this paper, the lift-off effect is analysed mainly on grain oriented Fe-3%Si steel subjected to various heat treatment conditions. Based on investigation of relationship between the amplitude distribution of MBN and lift-off, an approach to suppress the lift-off effect is proposed. Proposed approach utilizes the digital feedback optimising the measurement based on the amplitude distribution of MBN. The results demonstrated that the approach can highly suppress the lift-off effect up to 2 mm.

  14. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Distribution amplitudes (DAs) are the basic functions that contain information about the quark momentum. DAs are necessary to describe hard exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics. We describe a method of analytic evolution of DAs that have singularities such as nonzero values at the end points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a at (constant) DA, antisymmetric at DA, and then use the method for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach to DA evolution has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials [1, 2] and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. Expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials requires an infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points. Straightforward iteration of an initial distribution produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration. In our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve. Afterwards, in order to get precise results, only one or two iterations are needed.

  15. Renormalization of three-quark operators for baryon distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we design and study three-quark operators that are essential for the calculation of baryon distribution amplitudes. These nonperturbative objects grant insight into the internal structure of hadrons, but their renormalization patterns are nontrivial and need to be treated with care. With the application to lattice simulations in mind we discuss two renormalization schemes, MS and RI ' /SMOM, and connect them by calculating conversion factors. Armed with this knowledge we are able to extract phenomenologically relevant results from an accompanying lattice analysis.

  16. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-07-17

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N{sup *}(1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N{sup *} distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  17. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-07-17

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N{sup *}(1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N* distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  18. Lattice results for low moments of light meson distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Boyle, P.A. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA, School of Physics; Broemmel, D.; Flynn, J.M.; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.C. [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Donnellan, M.A. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen (Germany); Juettner, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.

    2010-12-15

    As part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' N{sub f} = 2+1 domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme, we calculate the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes of the pseudoscalar mesons {pi} and K and the (longitudinally-polarised) vector mesons {rho}, K{sup *} and {phi}. We obtain the desired quantities with good precision and are able to discern the expected quark-mass dependence of SU(3)-flavour breaking effects. An important ingredient of the calculation is the nonperturbative renormalisation of lattice operators using the RI{sup '}/MOM technique. (orig.)

  19. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-01-01

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N * (1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N* distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  20. Renormalization and applications of baryon distribution amplitudes QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrwild, Juergen Holger

    2009-01-01

    Higher-twist effects are relevant for precision calculations of hard exclusive reactions. Furthermore, they reveal fine details of the hadron structure. In this work we construct an operator basis for arbitrary twist respecting the conformal symmetry of QCD (which is realized on 1-loop level). Using this basis the 1-loop renormalization kernels of twist 4 are constructed for baryon operators. The full spectrum of anomalous dimensions and the multiplicatively renormalizable operators is obtained. As an application of these results the radiative N * (1535) decay is discussed. Employing light-cone sum rule, the transition form factors can be directly related to the N * distribution amplitudes. (orig.)

  1. Renormalization of three-quark operators for baryon distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Michael

    2017-07-01

    In this thesis we design and study three-quark operators that are essential for the calculation of baryon distribution amplitudes. These nonperturbative objects grant insight into the internal structure of hadrons, but their renormalization patterns are nontrivial and need to be treated with care. With the application to lattice simulations in mind we discuss two renormalization schemes, MS and RI{sup '}/SMOM, and connect them by calculating conversion factors. Armed with this knowledge we are able to extract phenomenologically relevant results from an accompanying lattice analysis.

  2. Lattice Results for Low Moments of Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R; Brommel, D; Donnellan, M A; Flynn, J M; Juttner, A; Rae, T D; Sachrajda, C T.C

    2011-01-01

    As part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' N_f=2+1 domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme, we calculate the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes of the pseudoscalar mesons pion and kaon and the (longitudinally-polarised) vector mesons rho, K-star and phi. We obtain the desired quantities with good precision and are able to discern the expected quark-mass dependence of SU(3)-flavour breaking effects. An important ingredient of the calculation is the nonperturbative renormalisation of lattice operators using the RI'/MOM technique.

  3. Lattice results for low moments of light meson distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.; Boyle, P.A.; Juettner, A.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' N f = 2+1 domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme, we calculate the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes of the pseudoscalar mesons π and K and the (longitudinally-polarised) vector mesons ρ, K * and φ. We obtain the desired quantities with good precision and are able to discern the expected quark-mass dependence of SU(3)-flavour breaking effects. An important ingredient of the calculation is the nonperturbative renormalisation of lattice operators using the RI ' /MOM technique. (orig.)

  4. Some important aspects of the amplitude, charge and shape analog signals digitization in nuclear physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulka, Z.

    1995-01-01

    One of the fundamental reasons of the special requirements concerning analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) used in nuclear experimental physics, especially in nuclear spectroscopy, in comparison to the conventional ADC's is a fact that they are utilized for continuous distribution measurements which are the nuclear radiation spectra. The ADC's used for distribution registration in form of amplitude or charge histogram spectra should have the differential linearity of two orders of magnitude better than that for conventional ADC's. Moreover, the problem of achievement the acceptable differential linearity (as well as stability) in nuclear spectroscopy is much more complicated because high resolution and high speed of the converters are also required. The first requirement comes out from application of semiconductor detectors, the second one comes from the statistical character of the nuclear processes, as well as, a necessity of collection of huge amount of nuclear data - often in a short time. In this report the influence of the specific needs of the nuclear experiments on the conversion methods selection and construction principles of the pulse ADC's is analyzed. Focus is taken on these ADC's which are used mainly to digital amplitude and charge detector signals measurements in nuclear spectroscopy. Based on the chosen examples of different types of ADC's it is shown how to obtain the required metrological parameters by using enlarged converter's structures and proper choice of the electronics components. In addition, a problem of the detector signals shape measurements in particle physics using the high speed flash ADC's is also discussed. (author). 196 refs, 99 figs, 7 tabs

  5. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y. [Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Hartjes@nikhef.nl; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-11

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10{sup 16} hadrons/cm{sup 2}. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO{sub 2}/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  6. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  7. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2 . The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2 /DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4 H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature

  8. Reconstruction of far-field tsunami amplitude distributions from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  9. The ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bing Fu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we suggest a convenient model for the vector ρ-meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude ϕ2;ρ‖, whose distribution is controlled by a single parameter B2;ρ‖. By choosing proper chiral current in the correlator, we obtain new light-cone sum rules (LCSR for the B→ρ TFFs A1, A2 and V, in which the δ1-order ϕ2;ρ‖ provides dominant contributions. Then we make a detailed discussion on the ϕ2;ρ‖ properties via those B→ρ TFFs. A proper choice of B2;ρ‖ can make all the TFFs agree with the lattice QCD predictions. A prediction of |Vub| has also been presented by using the extrapolated TFFs, which indicates that a larger B2;ρ‖ leads to a larger |Vub|. To compare with the BABAR data on |Vub|, the longitudinal leading-twist DA ϕ2;ρ‖ prefers a doubly-humped behavior.

  10. Endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude in QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates for the pion distribution amplitude, we derive another sum rule for its derivative and its ''integral derivatives''--defined in this work. We use this new sum rule to analyze the fine details of the pion distribution amplitude in the endpoint region x∼0. The results for endpoint-suppressed and flattop (or flatlike) pion distribution amplitudes are compared with those we obtained with differential sum rules by employing two different models for the distribution of vacuum-quark virtualities. We determine the range of values of the derivatives of the pion distribution amplitude and show that endpoint-suppressed distribution amplitudes lie within this range, while those with endpoint enhancement--flat-type or Chernyak-Zhitnitsky like--yield values outside this range.

  11. Chimera distribution amplitudes for the pion and the longitudinally polarized ρ-meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanis, N.G., E-mail: stefanis@tp2.ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pimikov, A.V., E-mail: pimikov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Using QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates, we show that the distribution amplitude of the longitudinally polarized ρ-meson may have a shorttailed platykurtic profile in close analogy to our recently proposed platykurtic distribution amplitude for the pion. Such a chimera distribution de facto amalgamates the broad unimodal profile of the distribution amplitude, obtained with a Dyson–Schwinger equations-based computational scheme, with the suppressed tails characterizing the bimodal distribution amplitudes derived from QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. We argue that pattern formation, emerging from the collective synchronization of coupled oscillators, can provide a single theoretical scaffolding to study unimodal and bimodal distribution amplitudes of light mesons without recourse to particular computational schemes and the reasons for them.

  12. Shaped input distributions for structural damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2018-01-01

    localization method is cast that operates on the premise of shaping inputs—whose spatial distribution is fixed—by use of a model, such that these inputs, in one structural subdomain at a time, suppress certain steady-state vibration quantities (depending on the type of damage one seeks to interrogate for......). Accordingly, damage is localized when the vibration signature induced by the shaped inputs in the damaged state corresponds to that in the reference state, hereby implying that the approach does not point directly to damage. Instead, it operates with interrogation based on postulated damage patterns...

  13. Chiral perturbation theory for generalized parton distributions and baryon distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, Philipp

    2016-05-06

    In this thesis we apply low-energy effective field theory to the first moments of generalized parton distributions and to baryon distribution amplitudes, which are both highly relevant for the parametrization of the nonperturbative part in hard processes. These quantities yield complementary information on hadron structure, since the former treat hadrons as a whole and, thus, give information about the (angular) momentum carried by an entire parton species on average, while the latter parametrize the momentum distribution within an individual Fock state. By performing one-loop calculations within covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory, we obtain sensible parametrizations of the quark mass dependence that are ideally suited for the subsequent analysis of lattice QCD data.

  14. Light-cone distribution amplitudes of the ground state bottom baryons in HQET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.; Wang, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hambrock, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany); Parkhomenko, A.Ya. [P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State Univ., Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    We provide the definition of the complete set of light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) for the ground state heavy bottom baryons with the spin-parities J{sup P}=1/2{sup +} and J{sup P}=3/2{sup +} in the heavy quark limit. We present the renormalization effects on the twist-2 light-cone distribution amplitudes and use the QCD sum rules to compute the moments of twist-2, twist-3, and twist-4 LCDAs. Simple models for the heavy baryon distribution amplitudes are analyzed with account of their scale dependence.

  15. Fast EEG spike detection via eigenvalue analysis and clustering of spatial amplitude distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Bunnoshin

    2018-06-01

    Objective. In the current study, we tested a proposed method for fast spike detection in electroencephalography (EEG). Approach. We performed eigenvalue analysis in two-dimensional space spanned by gradients calculated from two neighboring samples to detect high-amplitude negative peaks. We extracted the spike candidates by imposing restrictions on parameters regarding spike shape and eigenvalues reflecting detection characteristics of individual medical doctors. We subsequently performed clustering, classifying detected peaks by considering the amplitude distribution at 19 scalp electrodes. Clusters with a small number of candidates were excluded. We then defined a score for eliminating spike candidates for which the pattern of detected electrodes differed from the overall pattern in a cluster. Spikes were detected by setting the score threshold. Main results. Based on visual inspection by a psychiatrist experienced in EEG, we evaluated the proposed method using two statistical measures of precision and recall with respect to detection performance. We found that precision and recall exhibited a trade-off relationship. The average recall value was 0.708 in eight subjects with the score threshold that maximized the F-measure, with 58.6  ±  36.2 spikes per subject. Under this condition, the average precision was 0.390, corresponding to a false positive rate 2.09 times higher than the true positive rate. Analysis of the required processing time revealed that, using a general-purpose computer, our method could be used to perform spike detection in 12.1% of the recording time. The process of narrowing down spike candidates based on shape occupied most of the processing time. Significance. Although the average recall value was comparable with that of other studies, the proposed method significantly shortened the processing time.

  16. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...

  17. Higher-Twist Distribution Amplitudes of the K Meson in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, P; Lenz, A; Ball, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic study of twist-3 and twist-4 light-cone distribution amplitudes of the K meson in QCD. The structure of SU(3)-breaking corrections is studied in detail. Non-perturbative input parameters are estimated from QCD sum rules and renormalons. As a by-product, we give a complete reanalysis of the twist-3 and -4 parameters of the pi-meson distribution amplitudes; some of the results differ from those usually quoted in the literature.

  18. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  19. On the joint distribution of excursion duration and amplitude of a narrow-band Gaussian process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Gao, Zhen; Blanke, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    of amplitude and period are limited to excursion through a mean-level or to describe the asymptotic behavior of high level excursions. This paper extends the knowledge by presenting a theoretical derivation of probability of wave exceedance amplitude and duration, for a narrow-band Gaussian process......The probability density of crest amplitude and of duration of exceeding a given level are used in many theoretical and practical problems in engineering. The joint density is essential for design of constructions that are subjected to waves and wind. The presently available joint distributions...... distribution, as expected, and that the marginal distribution of excursion duration works both for asymptotic and non-asymptotic cases. The suggested model is found to be a good replacement for the empirical distributions that are widely used. Results from simulations of narrow-band Gaussian processes, real...

  20. CLEO and E791 data: a smoking gun for the pion distribution amplitude?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhailov, S.V.; Stefanis, N.G

    2004-01-01

    The CLEO experimental data on the {pi}{gamma} transition are analyzed to next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD perturbation theory using light-cone QCD sum rules. By processing these data along the lines proposed by Schmedding and Yakovlev, and recently revised by us, we obtain new constraints for the Gegenbauer coefficients a{sub 2} and a{sub 4}, as well as for the inverse moment {sub {pi}} of the pion distribution amplitude (DA). The former determine the pion DA at low momentum scale, the latter is crucial in calculating pion form factors. From the results of our analysis we conclude that the data confirm the end-point suppressed shape of the pion DA we previously obtained with QCD sum rules and nonlocal condensates, while the exclusion of both the asymptotic and the Chernyak-Zhitnitsky DAs is reinforced at the 3{sigma}- and 4{sigma}-level, respectively. The reliability of the main results of our updated CLEO data analysis is demonstrated. Our pion DA is checked against the di-jets data from the E791 experiment, providing credible evidence for our results far more broadly.

  1. CLEO and E791 Data A Smoking Gun for the Pion Distribution Amplitude?

    CERN Document Server

    Bakulev, A P; Stefanis, N G

    2003-01-01

    The CLEO experimental data on the \\pi\\gamma transition are analyzed to NLO in QCD perturbation theory using light-cone QCD sum rules. By processing the data along the lines proposed by Khodjamiryan, Schmedding and Yakovlev, and recently revised by us, we obtain new constraints for the Gegenbauer coefficients a_2 and a_4, as well as for the inverse moment \\langle{x^{-1}\\rangle of the pion distribution amplitude (DA). The former determine the pion DA at low momentum scale, the latter is crucial in calculating pion form factors. From the results of our analysis we conclude that the data confirm the shape of the pion DA we previously obtained with QCD sum rules and nonlocal condensates, while the exclusion of the asymptotic and the Chernyak-Zhitnitsky DA is reinforced. We also investigate the sensitivity of the calculated coefficients in this analysis to the twist-4 contribution and check out pion DA against the di-jets data of the E791 experiment, providing credible evidence for our results far more broadly. Thu...

  2. A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high temperatures and variable amplitude vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Hong, Jie; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide variable stiffness and damping characteristics with temperature, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high temperatures and large amplitude vibrations. (paper)

  3. Analysis of stationary power/amplitude distributions for multiple channels of sampled FBGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ya; Zou, Xihua; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan; Luo, Bin; Shao, Liyang

    2015-08-10

    Stationary power/amplitude distributions for multiple channels of the sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) along the grating length are analyzed. Unlike a uniform FBG, the SFBG has multiple channels in the reflection spectrum, not a single channel. Thus, the stationary power/amplitude distributions for these multiple channels are analyzed by using two different theoretical models. In the first model, the SFBG is regarded as a set of grating sections and non-grating sections, which are alternately stacked. A step-like distribution is obtained for the corresponding power/amplitude of each channel along the grating length. While, in the second model, the SFBG is decomposed into multiple uniform "ghost" gratings, and a continuous distribution is obtained for each ghost grating (i.e., each channel). After a comparison, the distributions obtained in the two models are identical, and the equivalence between the two models is demonstrated. In addition, the impacts of the duty cycle on the power/amplitude distributions of multiple channels of SFBG are presented.

  4. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe-Salpeter wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA) can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  5. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe–Salpeter wave function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe–Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM. The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  6. Scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.; Ferreira, Clé cio S.; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a broad and flexible class of multivariate distributions obtained by both scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions. We present the probabilistic properties of this family of distributions in detail and lay down

  7. Selection of a LGp0-shaped fundamental mode in a laser cavity: Phase versus amplitude masks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hasnaoui, A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser beams of a single high-order transverse mode have been of interest to the laser community for several years now. In order to achieve such a mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity, mode selecting elements in the form of a phase or amplitude...

  8. The calculation of the quark distribution amplitudes of decuplet baryons by means of QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonekamp, J.

    1994-11-01

    Using the QCD sum rule technique, we derive the quark distribution amplitudes of the decuplet memebers Δ(1232), Σ * (1385), Ξ * (1530) and Ω(1672). Generalizing the treatment of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, we can distinguish spin- and orbital- angular momentum parts of the quark distributions and establish separate sum rules for the contributions. Projecting out the angular momentum 1/2 contributions, we obtain sum rules which are saturated by the lowest resonance in the given iso spin channel, thus resolving deficiencies of the standard approach. We find that for helicity 1/2 the spin part of the quark distributions is asymmetric. Also the orbital angular momentum contributions are extremely asymmetric and tend to decrease the asymmetry of the spin part. As a result of SU(3) symmetry breaking, configuration mixing occurs and the decuplet baryons Σ * and Ξ * receive octet contributions. The antisymmetric part of these octet contributions is calculated. (orig.)

  9. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E S; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-27

    Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown because of the numerous sorting mechanisms that take place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, we used cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel KvAP or the water channel AQP0 to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. Whereas the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On probabilistic shaping of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation for the nonlinear fiber channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehenberger, T.; Alvarado, A.; Böcherer, G.; Hanik, N.

    2016-01-01

    Different aspects of probabilistic shaping for a multispan optical communication system are studied. First, a numerical analysis of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel investigates the effect of using a small number of input probability mass functions (PMFs) for a range of

  11. Prediction of signal amplitude and shape for the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Collard, C; Henrot-Versillé, S; Serin, L

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative description of calibration pulses is made,using measured properties of detector cells,and preamplifiers and shaping amplifier characteristics.The calculations are compared to commissioning data taken with the electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter installed in the Atlas pit.

  12. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  13. SHAPE EFFECT OF ANNULAR CONCENTRATOR IN ULTRASONIC SYSTEM ON AMPLIFICATION FACTOR OF VIBRATIONS AMPLITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Stepanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a theoretical underpinning on creation of ultrasonic vibration concentrators based on annular elastic elements with non-circular (ellipse-like eccentric shape of internal contour. Shape of internal contour in polar coordinates is described by Fourier series relative to angular coordinate that consists of a constant term and first and second harmonics. An effect of geometric parameters of the concentrator on amplification factor and natural vibration frequencies has been investigated with the help of a finite element method. The paper reveals the possibility to control an amplification factor of annular concentrators while varying eccentricity of internal contour and mean value of cross-section thickness. The amplification factor satisfies a condition K < N, where N is thickness ratio of amplifier input and output sections, and it is decreasing with increase of vibration mode order. The similar condition has been satisfied for conical bar concentrator with the difference that in the case of bar concentrators an amplification is ensured due to variation of diameter and N will represent ratio of diameters. It has been proved that modification of internal contour shape makes it possible to carry out a wide-band tuning of natural frequencies of concentrator vibrations without alteration of its overall dimensions and substantial change of amplification factor, which is important for frequency matching of the concentrator and ultrasonic vibratory system. Advantages of the proposed concentrators include simplicity of design and manufacturing, small overall dimensions, possibility for natural frequency tuning by means of static load variation. The developed concentrators can find their application in ultrasonic devices and instruments for technological and medical purposes.

  14. The nucleon's transversity and the photon's distribution amplitude probed in lepton pair photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We describe a new way to access the chiral odd transversity parton distribution in the proton through the photoproduction of lepton pairs. The basic ingredient is the interference of the usual Bethe Heitler or Drell-Yan amplitudes with the amplitude of a process, where the photon couples to quarks through its chiral-odd distribution amplitude, which is normalized to the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum. A phenomenology of single and double spin observables emerges from the unusual features of this amplitude (Phys.Rev.Lett.103:072002,2009). (authors)

  15. Generalized conditions for the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Generalized conditions (rules) are set up for the existence of the distributional zero-mass limit of renormalized Feynman amplitudes in Minkowski space. These rules are generalizations of rules that have been set up earlier by us and hence are applicable to a larger class of graphs. The study is very general as the vanishing masses are led to vanish at different rates. All subtractions of renormalization are carried out directly in momentum space, about the origin, with the degree of divergence of a subtraction coinciding with the dimensionality of the corresponding subdiagram

  16. Higher order light-cone distribution amplitudes of the Lambda baryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu; Cui, Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The improved light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) of the Λ baryon are examined on the basis of the QCD conformal partial wave expansion approach. The calculations are carried out to the next-to-leading order of conformal spin accuracy with consideration of twist 6. The next leading order conformal expansion coefficients are related to the nonperturbative parameters defined by the local three-quark operator matrix elements with different Lorentz structures with a covariant derivative. The nonperturbative parameters are determined with the QCD sum rule method. The explicit expressions of the LCDAs are provided as the main results. (orig.)

  17. Higher order light-cone distribution amplitudes of the Lambda baryon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science, Hunan (China); Cui, Chun-Yu [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China)

    2014-09-15

    The improved light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) of the Λ baryon are examined on the basis of the QCD conformal partial wave expansion approach. The calculations are carried out to the next-to-leading order of conformal spin accuracy with consideration of twist 6. The next leading order conformal expansion coefficients are related to the nonperturbative parameters defined by the local three-quark operator matrix elements with different Lorentz structures with a covariant derivative. The nonperturbative parameters are determined with the QCD sum rule method. The explicit expressions of the LCDAs are provided as the main results. (orig.)

  18. Single-particle motion in large-amplitude quadrupole shape transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuya

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic structure of the single-particle motion for the spherical-deformed transitional nuclei is analysed by using the self-consistent collective-coordinate method (SCC method). The single-particle motion in the moving-frame of reference called the collective vibrating coordinate frame is introduced by the generalized Bogoliubov transformation depending on the collective coordinate. The numerical calculations of the single-particle (quasi-particle) energy level diagrams and their occupation probabilities for the static deformation are carried out for the Sm isotopes. A clear change of the single-particle distribution structure appears in the course of deformation. (author)

  19. Record values from a family of J-shaped distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Zghoul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A family of J-shaped distributions has applications in life testing modeling. In this paper we study record values from this family of distributions. Based on lower records, recurrence relations and bounds as well as expressions for moments and product moments of record values are obtained, the maximum likelihood estimator of the shape parameter is derived and shown to be consistent, sufficient, complete and UMVU estimator. In addition, an application in reliability is given.

  20. Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavergne, C.; Madec, G.; Roquet, F.; Holmes, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows—referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation—is key to quantifying the ocean’s ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32° S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southern-origin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.

  1. Fibre optical measuring network based on quasi-distributed amplitude sensors for detecting deformation loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chin, Yurii N; Kolchinskiy, V A; Kamenev, O T; Petrov, Yu S

    2013-01-01

    A new design of a sensitive element for a fibre optical sensor of deformation loads is proposed. A distributed fibre optical measuring network, aimed at determining both the load application point and the load mass, has been developed based on these elements. It is shown that neural network methods of data processing make it possible to combine quasi-distributed amplitude sensors of different types into a unified network. The results of the experimental study of a breadboard of a fibre optical measuring network are reported, which demonstrate successful reconstruction of the trajectory of a moving object (load) with a spatial resolution of 8 cm, as well as the load mass in the range of 1 – 10 kg with a sensitivity of 0.043 kg -1 . (laser optics 2012)

  2. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kümmel, M.; Kuhl, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Leyhe, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Kaiser, D.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Vasile, M. E.; Patel, B.; Kaplan, D.; Brandys, P.; Czyzewski, T.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Filo, G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kliczewski, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Malgorzata, K.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Psyzniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wrońska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Al-Turany, M.; Cahit, U.; Capozza, L.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Kunkel, J.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Lühning, J.; Maas, F.; Morales Morales, C.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Nerling, F.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.; Sánchez Lorente, A.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Valente, R.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Stancari, G.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kulakov, I.; Zyzak, M.; Arora, R.; Bel, T.; Gromliuk, A.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Patsyuk, M.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bianco, S.; Bremer, D.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Eissner, T.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Gutz, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Kröck, B.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Mülhheim, D.; Münchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schnell, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wasem, T.; Werner, M.; Zaunick, H. G.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Tiemens, M.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Kalita, K.; Mohanta, D. P.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sohlbach, H.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Georgadze, I.; Gillitzer, A.; Goerres, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Leiber, S.; Maier, R.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Schumann, J.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schröder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Deiseroth, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Hoek, M.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Leithoff, H.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Motzko, C.; Müller, U.; Noll, O.; Plueger, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Steinen, M.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzihik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, P.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Dash, S.; Jadhav, M.; Kumar, S.; Sarin, P.; Varma, R.; Chandratre, V. B.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Roy, B.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pornrad, S.; Barnyakov, A. Y.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Sokolov, A. A.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Atomssa, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Van de Wiele, J.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Yabsley, B.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makónyi, K.; Tegnér, P. E.; von Würtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhadanov, A.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S. S.; Duchat, R.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mingnore, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Gålnander, B.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Díaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Vinodkumar, P. C.; Parmar, A.; Chlopik, A.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Fröhlich, B.; Khaneft, D.; Lin, D.; Zimmermann, I.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.

    2015-08-01

    Baryon-to-meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) encoding valuable new information on hadron structure appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description for several types of hard exclusive reactions. In this paper, we address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion ( πN) TDAs from reaction with the future P¯ANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center-of-mass energy and high invariant mass squared of the lepton pair q 2, the amplitude of the signal channel admits a QCD factorized description in terms of πN TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward and backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring with the P¯ANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. were performed for the center-of-mass energy squared s = 5 GeV2 and s = 10 GeV2, in the kinematic regions 3.0 < q 2 < 4.3 GeV2 and 5 < q 2 GeV2, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone in the proton-antiproton center-of-mass frame. Results of the simulation show that the particle identification capabilities of the P¯ANDA detector will allow to achieve a background rejection factor of 5 · 107 (1 · 107) at low (high) q 2 for s = 5 GeV2, and of 1 · 108 (6 · 106) at low (high) q 2 for s = 10 GeV2, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at around 40%. At both energies, a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with the expected statistics corresponding to 2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained from the simulations are used to show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with P¯ANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard

  3. The WS transform for the Kuramoto model with distributed amplitudes, phase lag and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz (WS) transform to a generalized Kuramoto model with distributed parameters describing the amplitude of oscillation, phase lag, and time delay at each node of the system. The model has global coupling and identical frequencies, but allows for repulsive interactions at arbitrary nodes leading to conformist-contrarian phenomena together with variable amplitude and time-delay effects. We show how to determine the initial values of the WS system for any initial conditions for the Kuramoto system, and investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the WS variables. For the case of zero time delay the possible asymptotic configurations are determined by the sign of a single parameter μ which measures whether or not the attractive nodes dominate the repulsive nodes. If μ>0 the system completely synchronizes from general initial conditions, whereas if μ<0 one of two types of phase-locked synchronization occurs, depending on the initial values, while for μ=0 periodic solutions can occur. For the case of arbitrary non-uniform time delays we derive a stability condition for completely synchronized solutions.

  4. Scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2018-02-26

    We introduce a broad and flexible class of multivariate distributions obtained by both scale and shape mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions. We present the probabilistic properties of this family of distributions in detail and lay down the theoretical foundations for subsequent inference with this model. In particular, we study linear transformations, marginal distributions, selection representations, stochastic representations and hierarchical representations. We also describe an EM-type algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters of the model and demonstrate its implementation on a wind dataset. Our family of multivariate distributions unifies and extends many existing models of the literature that can be seen as submodels of our proposal.

  5. Performances of Hybrid Amplitude Shape Modulation for UWB Communications Systems over AWGN Channel in a Single and Multi-User Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herceg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the performance of the hybrid Amplitude Shape Modulation (h-ASM scheme for the time-hopping ultra-wideband (TH-UWB communication systems in the single and multi-user environment. h-ASM is the combination of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM and Pulse Shape Modulation (PSM based on modified Hermite pulses (MHP. This scheme is suitable for high rate data transmission applications because b = log2(MN bits can be mapped with one waveform. The channel capacity and error probability over AWGN channel are derived and compared with other modulation schemes.

  6. 3D shape representation with spatial probabilistic distribution of intrinsic shape keypoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Vijaya K.; Checchin, Paul; Malaterre, Laurent; Trassoudaine, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated advancement in modeling, digitizing, and visualizing techniques for 3D shapes has led to an increasing amount of 3D models creation and usage, thanks to the 3D sensors which are readily available and easy to utilize. As a result, determining the similarity between 3D shapes has become consequential and is a fundamental task in shape-based recognition, retrieval, clustering, and classification. Several decades of research in Content-Based Information Retrieval (CBIR) has resulted in diverse techniques for 2D and 3D shape or object classification/retrieval and many benchmark data sets. In this article, a novel technique for 3D shape representation and object classification has been proposed based on analyses of spatial, geometric distributions of 3D keypoints. These distributions capture the intrinsic geometric structure of 3D objects. The result of the approach is a probability distribution function (PDF) produced from spatial disposition of 3D keypoints, keypoints which are stable on object surface and invariant to pose changes. Each class/instance of an object can be uniquely represented by a PDF. This shape representation is robust yet with a simple idea, easy to implement but fast enough to compute. Both Euclidean and topological space on object's surface are considered to build the PDFs. Topology-based geodesic distances between keypoints exploit the non-planar surface properties of the object. The performance of the novel shape signature is tested with object classification accuracy. The classification efficacy of the new shape analysis method is evaluated on a new dataset acquired with a Time-of-Flight camera, and also, a comparative evaluation on a standard benchmark dataset with state-of-the-art methods is performed. Experimental results demonstrate superior classification performance of the new approach on RGB-D dataset and depth data.

  7. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana, Manuel; Ahmed, Samer; Deiseroth, Malte; Froehlich, Bertold; Khaneft, Dmitry; Lin, Dexu; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zimmermann, Iris [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Ahmadi, Heybat; Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Prisma Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We address the feasibility of accessing proton to pion Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the future PANDA detector at the FAIR facility. Assuming a factorized cross section, feasibility studies of measuring anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -}π{sup 0} with PANDA have been performed at the center of mass energy squared s = 5 GeV{sup 2} and s = 10 GeV{sup 2}, in the kinematic region of four-momentum transfer 3.0 < q{sup 2} < 4.3 GeV{sup 2} and 5 < q{sup 2} < 9 GeV{sup 2}, respectively,with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone vertical stroke cosθ{sub π{sup 0}} vertical stroke > 0.5 in the anti pp center of mass frame. These include detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency, rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}, and the feasibility of the measurement using a sample of 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained with the simulations are used to test QCD factorization at the leading order by measuring scaling laws and fitting angular distributions.

  8. The ρ-meson light-cone distribution amplitudes from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Vladimir M.; Bruns, Peter C.; Collins, Sara [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Gracey, John A. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Gruber, Michael; Göckeler, Meinulf; Hutzler, Fabian; Pérez-Rubio, Paula; Schäfer, Andreas; Söldner, Wolfgang [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Sternbeck, André [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena,Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Wein, Philipp [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,Universitätsstraße 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-04-13

    We present the results of a lattice study of the normalization constants and second moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes of longitudinally and transversely polarized ρ mesons. The calculation is performed using two flavors of dynamical clover fermions at lattice spacings between 0.060 fm and 0.081 fm, different lattice volumes up to m{sub π}L=6.7 and pion masses down to m{sub π}=150 MeV. Bare lattice results are renormalized non-perturbatively using a variant of the RI{sup ′}-MOM scheme and converted to the (MS)-bar scheme. The necessary conversion coefficients, which are not available in the literature, are calculated. The chiral extrapolation for the relevant decay constants is worked out in detail. We obtain for the ratio of the tensor and vector coupling constants f{sub ρ}{sup T}/f{sub ρ}=0.629(8) and the values of the second Gegenbauer moments a{sub 2}{sup ∥}=0.132(27) and a{sub 2}{sup ⊥}=0.101(22) at the scale μ=2 GeV for the longitudinally and transversely polarized ρ mesons, respectively. The errors include the statistical uncertainty and estimates of the systematics arising from renormalization. Discretization errors cannot be estimated reliably and are not included. In this calculation the possibility of ρ→ππ decay at the smaller pion masses is not taken into account.

  9. Evolution equation for the higher-twist B-meson distribution amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.M.; Offen, N.; Manashov, A.N.; Regensburg Univ.; Sankt-Petersburg State Univ.

    2015-07-01

    We find that the evolution equation for the three-particle quark-gluon B-meson light-cone distribution amplitude (DA) of subleading twist is completely integrable in the large N c limit and can be solved exactly. The lowest anomalous dimension is separated from the remaining, continuous, spectrum by a finite gap. The corresponding eigenfunction coincides with the contribution of quark-gluon states to the two-particle DA φ - (ω) so that the evolution equation for the latter is the same as for the leading-twist DA φ + (ω) up to a constant shift in the anomalous dimension. Thus, ''genuine'' three-particle states that belong to the continuous spectrum effectively decouple from φ - (ω) to the leading-order accuracy. In turn, the scale dependence of the full three-particle DA turns out to be nontrivial so that the contribution with the lowest anomalous dimension does not become leading at any scale. The results are illustrated on a simple model that can be used in studies of 1/m b corrections to heavy-meson decays in the framework of QCD factorization or light-cone sum rules.

  10. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R., E-mail: alan.denton@ndsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments.

  11. Polymer crowding and shape distributions in polymer-nanoparticle mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wei Kang; Denton, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular crowding can influence polymer shapes, which is important for understanding the thermodynamic stability of polymer solutions and the structure and function of biopolymers (proteins, RNA, DNA) under confinement. We explore the influence of nanoparticle crowding on polymer shapes via Monte Carlo simulations and free-volume theory of a coarse-grained model of polymer-nanoparticle mixtures. Exploiting the geometry of random walks, we model polymer coils as effective penetrable ellipsoids, whose shapes fluctuate according to the probability distributions of the eigenvalues of the gyration tensor. Accounting for the entropic cost of a nanoparticle penetrating a larger polymer coil, we compute the crowding-induced shift in the shape distributions, radius of gyration, and asphericity of ideal polymers in a theta solvent. With increased nanoparticle crowding, we find that polymers become more compact (smaller, more spherical), in agreement with predictions of free-volume theory. Our approach can be easily extended to nonideal polymers in good solvents and used to model conformations of biopolymers in crowded environments

  12. Factorization, the light-cone distribution amplitude of the B-meson and the radiative decay $B \\to \\gamma l \

    CERN Document Server

    Descotes-Genon, S

    2003-01-01

    We study the radiative decay B -> gamma l nu_l in the framework of QCD factorization. We demonstrate explicitly that, in the heavy-quark limit and at one-loop order in perturbation theory, the amplitude does factorize, i.e. that it can be written as a convolution of a perturbatively calculable hard-scattering amplitude with the (non-perturbative) light-cone distribution amplitude of the B-meson. We evaluate the hard-scattering amplitude at one-loop order and verify that the large logarithms are those expected from a study of the b->u transition in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. Assuming that this is also the case at higher orders, we resum the large logarithms and perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis. The questions addressed in this study are also relevant for the applications of the QCD factorization formalism to two-body non-leptonic B-decays, in particular to the component of the amplitude arising from hard spectator interactions.

  13. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S. [CNRS, ENS, UPMC, Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Paris (France); Debu, P. [CEA-Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble (France); Voronin, A.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the freefall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms (H). The precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution.We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of the vertical velocities of H, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing H with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk.We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and we show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration g of H could be pushed below 10{sup -3} under realistic experimental conditions. (orig.)

  14. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Reynaud, S.; Voronin, A.Yu.

    2014-01-30

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the free fall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms ($\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$). Precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution. We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk. We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration $\\overline{g}$ of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ could be pushed below $10^{-3}$ under realistic experimental conditions.

  15. XRD characterisation of nanoparticle size and shape distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.; Bonevich, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The form of XRD lines and the extent of their broadening provide useful structural information about the shape, size distribution, and modal characteristics of the nanoparticles comprising the specimen. Also, the defect content of the nanoparticles can be determined, including the type, dislocation density, and stacking faults/twinning. This information is convoluted together and can be grouped into 'size' and 'defect' broadening contributions. Modern X-ray diffraction analysis techniques have concentrated on quantifying the broadening arising from the size and defect contributions, while accounting for overlapping of profiles, instrumental broadening, background scattering and noise components. We report on a combined Bayesian/Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) technique developed for use in the certification of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) for size-broadened line profiles. The approach used was chosen because of its generality in removing instrumental broadening from the observed line profiles, and its ability to determine not only the average crystallite size, but also the distribution of sizes and the average shape of crystallites. Moverover, this Bayesian/MaxEnt technique is fully quantitative, in that it also determines uncertainties in the crystallite-size distribution and other parameters. Both experimental and numerical simulations of size broadened line-profiles modelled on a range of specimens with spherical and non-spherical morphologies are presented to demonstrate how this information can be retrieved from the line profile data. The sensitivity of the Bayesian/MaxEnt method to determining the size distribution using varying a priori information are emphasised and discussed

  16. Shape, size, and distribution of magnetic particles in Bjurbole chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole chondritic meteorite (L4) exhibit saturation remanence magnetization (SIRM) values which vary over three orders of magnitude. REM values (Natural Remanence Magnetization/SIRM) for Allende (C3V) and Chainpur (LL3) are less than 0.01 but in Bjurbole some chondrules were found to have REM values greater than 0.1 with several greater than 0.2. REM values greater than 0.1 are abnormal and cannot be acquired during weak field cooling. If exposure to a strong field (whatever the source) during the chondrules' history is responsible for the high REM values, was such history associated with a different processing which might have resulted in different shape, size, and distribution of metal particles compared to chondrules having REM values of less than 0.01? Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis results show a broad range of magnetic hardness and other intrinsic magnetic properties. These features must be related to (1) size and amount of metal; and (2) properties of, and amount of, tetrataenite in the chondrules (all chondrules thus far subjected to thermomagnetic analysis show the presence of tetrataenite). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is underway to determine the relationship between the shape, size, and distribution of metal particles within individual chondrules and the magnetic properties of these chondrules. Results from the SEM study in conjunction with magnetic property data may also help to discern effects from possible lightning strikes in the nebula prior to incorporation of the chondrules into the parent body.

  17. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastman, Erik K; Kamelamela, Noelani; Norville, Josh W; Cosetta, Casey M; Dutton, Rachel J; Wolfe, Benjamin E

    2016-10-18

    Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum) is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes. Decades of culture-based studies and more recent metagenomic studies have demonstrated that bacterial species in agriculture, medicine, industry, and nature are unevenly distributed across time and space. The ecological processes and molecular mechanisms that shape these distributions are not well understood because it is challenging to connect in situ patterns of diversity with mechanistic in vitro studies in the laboratory. Using tractable cheese rind biofilms and a focus on coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS

  18. Determination of the influence of asymmetry of the electric field distribution in gaseous proportional counters on their signal amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagusztyn, W.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of establishing the influence of the asymmetry of the electric field distribution in gaseous proportional counters on the amplitude of their voltage signal. A numerical evaluation of this effect demands performing calculations of the electric field in the vicinity of the anode. Using the described method of numerical solution of the Laplace equation in polar coordinates with logarythmically scaled radial dimension, it is possible to achieve the required accuracy. In the calculations of differences in amplitudes of voltage signals, for chosen trajektories of electrons liberated in the process of primary ionization, changes in the gaseous amplification factors and drift velocities of positive ions are taken into account. Experimental results prove the validity of presented theory. The results obtained are accurate enough to be applied to the design of proportional counters of non-cylindrical geometries. (author)

  19. Analysis of the spectrum distribution of oscillation amplitudes of the concrete mix at shock vibration molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of concrete structures widespread shaking tables of various designs. The effectiveness of vibroforming concrete items largely depends on the choice of rational modes of vibroeffect to the compacting mixture. The article discusses the propagation of a wave packet in the concrete mixture under shock and vibration molding. Studies have shown that the spectrum of a wave packet contains a large number of harmonics. The main parameter influencing the amplitude-frequency spectrum is the stiffness of elastic gaskets between mold and forming machine vibrating table. By varying the stiffness of the elastic gaskets can widely change the spectrum of the oscillations propagating in the concrete mix. Thus, it is possible to adjust the intensity of the process of vibroforming.

  20. Small amplitude two dimensional electrostatic excitations in a magnetized dusty plasma with q-distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahab Ullah; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in magnetized dusty plasma with stationary negatively or positively charged dust, cold mobile ions and non-extensive electrons. Two normal modes are predicted in the linear regime, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of electrons non-extensivity, dust charge polarity, concentration of dust and magnetic field strength. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived which governs the dynamics of small-amplitude solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasma. The properties of the solitary wave structures are analyzed numerically with the system parameters i.e. electrons non-extensivity, concentration of dust, polarity of dust and magnetic field strength. Following Allen and Rowlands (J. Plasma Phys. 53:63, 1995), we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on the nonextensive parameter q for electrons, dust charge polarity and magnetic field strength. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DIA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  1. B→ππ form factors from light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shan; Khodjamirian, Alexander [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultät,Department Physik, Universität Siegen,Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Virto, Javier [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-05-30

    We study B→ππ form factors using QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. These form factors describe the semileptonic decay B→ππℓν̄{sub ℓ}, and constitute an essential input in B→ππℓ{sup +}ℓ{sup −} and B→πππ decays. We employ the correlation functions where a dipion isospin-one state is interpolated by the vector light-quark current. We obtain sum rules where convolutions of the P-wave B̄{sup 0}→π{sup +}π{sup 0} form factors with the timelike pion vector form factor are related to universal B-meson distribution amplitudes. These sum rules are valid in the kinematic regime where the dipion state has a large energy and a low invariant mass, and reproduce analytically the known light-cone sum rules for B→ρ form factors in the limit of ρ-dominance and zero width, thus providing a systematics for so far unaccounted corrections to B→ρ transitions. Using data for the pion vector form factor, we estimate finite-width effects and the contribution of excited ρ-resonances to the B→ππ form factors. We find that these contributions amount up to ∼20% in the small dipion mass region where they can be effectively regarded as a nonresonant (P-wave) background to the B→ρ transition.

  2. b-baryon light-cone distribution amplitudes and a dynamical theory for [bq] [ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrock, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In my thesis I present our work on the bottom-baryon light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) and on the [bq][ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks. For the former we extended the known LCDAs for the ground state baryon Λ b to the entire b-baryon ground state multiplets and included s-quark mass-breaking effects. The LCDAs form crucial input for the calculations of characteristic properties of b-baryon decays. In this context they can for example be used in the calculation of form factors for semileptonic flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) decays. For the [bq][ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks, we calculated the tetraquark mass spectrum for all quarks q=u,d,s,c in a constituent Hamiltonian quark model. We estimated the electronic width by introducing a generalized Van Royen-Weisskopf formula for the tetraquarks, and evaluated the partial hadronic two-body and total decay widths for the tetraquarks with quantum numbers J PC =1 -- . With this input, we performed a Breit-Wigner fit, including the tetraquark contributions, to the inclusive R b -spectrum measured by BaBar. The obtained χ 2 /d.o.f. of the BaBar R b -scan data is fairly good. The resulting fits are suggestive of tetraquark states but not conclusive. We developed a model to describe the transitions e + e - →Y b →Υ(nS)(π + π - ,K + K - ,ηπ 0 ), in which Y b is a 1 -- tetraquark state. The model includes the exchange of light tetraquark and meson states. We used this model to fit the invariant-mass and helicity spectra for the dipionic final state measured by Belle and used the results to estimate the spectra of the channels e + e - →Y b →Υ(nS)(K + K - ,ηπ 0 ). The spectra are enigmatic in shape and magnitude and defy an interpretation in the framework of the standard bottomonia, requesting either an interpretation in terms of exotic states, such as tetraquarks, or a radical alteration of the, otherwise successful, QCD-based bottomonium-model. The tetraquark hypothesis describes the current data well

  3. b-baryon light-cone distribution amplitudes and a dynamical theory for [bq] [ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambrock, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In my thesis I present our work on the bottom-baryon light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) and on the [bq][ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks. For the former we extended the known LCDAs for the ground state baryon {lambda}{sub b} to the entire b-baryon ground state multiplets and included s-quark mass-breaking effects. The LCDAs form crucial input for the calculations of characteristic properties of b-baryon decays. In this context they can for example be used in the calculation of form factors for semileptonic flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) decays. For the [bq][ anti b anti q]-tetraquarks, we calculated the tetraquark mass spectrum for all quarks q=u,d,s,c in a constituent Hamiltonian quark model. We estimated the electronic width by introducing a generalized Van Royen-Weisskopf formula for the tetraquarks, and evaluated the partial hadronic two-body and total decay widths for the tetraquarks with quantum numbers J{sup PC}=1{sup --}. With this input, we performed a Breit-Wigner fit, including the tetraquark contributions, to the inclusive R{sub b}-spectrum measured by BaBar. The obtained {chi}{sup 2}/d.o.f. of the BaBar R{sub b}-scan data is fairly good. The resulting fits are suggestive of tetraquark states but not conclusive. We developed a model to describe the transitions e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}Y{sub b}{yields}{upsilon}(nS)({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -},K{sup +}K{sup -},{eta}{pi}{sup 0}), in which Y{sub b} is a 1{sup --} tetraquark state. The model includes the exchange of light tetraquark and meson states. We used this model to fit the invariant-mass and helicity spectra for the dipionic final state measured by Belle and used the results to estimate the spectra of the channels e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}Y{sub b}{yields}{upsilon}(nS)(K{sup +}K{sup -},{eta}{pi}{sup 0}). The spectra are enigmatic in shape and magnitude and defy an interpretation in the framework of the standard bottomonia, requesting either an interpretation in terms of exotic states, such as

  4. An Application of Artificial Intelligence for the Joint Estimation of Amplitude and Two-Dimensional Direction of Arrival of Far Field Sources Using 2-L-Shape Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An easy and efficient approach, based on artificial intelligence technique, is proposed to jointly estimate the amplitude, elevation, and azimuth angles of far field sources impinging on 2-L-shape array. In these proposed artificial intelligence techniques, the metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are used as global optimizers assisted with rapid local version of pattern search for optimization of the adaptive parameters. The performance metric is employed on a fitness evaluation function depending on mean square error which is optimum and requires single snapshot to converge. The proposed approaches are easy to understand, and simple to implement; the genetic algorithm specifically hybridized with pattern search generates fairly good results. The comparison of the given schemes is carried out with 1-L-shape array, as well as, with parallel-shape array and is found to be in good agreement in terms of accuracy, convergence rate, computational complexity, and mean square error. The effectiveness and efficiency of the given schemes are examined through Monte Carlo simulations and their inclusive statistical analysis.

  5. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2018-04-01

    Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

  6. A monolithic constant-fraction discriminator using distributed R-C delay-line shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R.; Xu, M.

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic, CMOS, constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) was fabricated in the Orbit Semiconductor, 1.2 μ N-well process. This circuit uses an on-chip, distributed, R-C delay-line to realize the constant-fraction shaping. The delay-line is constructed from a narrow, 500-μ serpentine layer of polysilicon above a wide, grounded, second layer of polysilicon. This R-C delay-line generates about 1.1 ns of delay for 5 ns risetime signals with a slope degradation of only ≅ 15% and an amplitude reduction of about 6.1%. The CFD also features an automatic walk adjustment. The entire circuit, including the delay line, has a 200 μ pitch and is 950 μ long. The walk for a 5 ns risetime signal was measured as ± 100 ps over the 100:1 dynamic range from -15 mV to -1.5 mV. to -1.5 V. The CFD consumes 15 mW

  7. Temperature distributions in cladded configurations of complicated boundary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura, P.A.A.; Gutierrez, R.H.; Sarmiento, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    This pape deals with an approximate analytical solution of certain cladded shapes of basic interest in nuclear engineering technology. In one case a solution of Laplace's equation is obtained. In the other, a solution to a system of partial differential equations (Poisson's and Laplace's) is attained. A approximate conformal mapping approach is also used in both situation, and it is shown that the analytical predictions are in good agreement with the values obtained by means of a finite element code. (orig.)

  8. Estimation of the shape parameter of a generalized Pareto distribution based on a transformation to Pareto distributed variables

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Random variables of the generalized Pareto distribution, can be transformed to that of the Pareto distribution. Explicit expressions exist for the maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters of the Pareto distribution. The performance of the estimation of the shape parameter of generalized Pareto distributed using transformed observations, based on the probability weighted method is tested. It was found to improve the performance of the probability weighted estimator and performs good wit...

  9. Distributed force simulation for arbitrarily shaped IPMC actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M; Lumia, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model that predicts the force output of arbitrarily shaped ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuators. Theoretical and experimental force measurements are compared for a triangular IPMC actuator with a tip length of 11 mm. The results show that the simulated tip force is within 80% of the experimentally determined value. Simulated electrical results for an artificial shark pectoral fin and a 7 mm × 17 mm actuator are also presented. In each case, the voltage is shown to decrease exponentially from the input point. The results of an ion migration simulation for a 180 μm cubic element of Nafion are presented for both a constant 2 V input and a 2 V 0.25 Hz sine signal. Finally, the simulated deformation of an IPMC shark fin is shown. (paper)

  10. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  11. Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and conductivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hyvö nen, Nuutti

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model

  12. Evolution equation for the B-meson distribution amplitude in the heavy-quark effective theory in coordinate space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The B-meson distribution amplitude (DA) is defined as the matrix element of a quark-antiquark bilocal light-cone operator in the heavy-quark effective theory, corresponding to a long-distance component in the factorization formula for exclusive B-meson decays. The evolution equation for the B-meson DA is governed by the cusp anomalous dimension as well as the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-type anomalous dimension, and these anomalous dimensions give the ''quasilocal'' kernel in the coordinate-space representation. We show that this evolution equation can be solved analytically in the coordinate space, accomplishing the relevant Sudakov resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The quasilocal nature leads to a quite simple form of our solution which determines the B-meson DA with a quark-antiquark light-cone separation t in terms of the DA at a lower renormalization scale μ with smaller interquark separations zt (z≤1). This formula allows us to present rigorous calculation of the B-meson DA at the factorization scale ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for t less than ∼1 GeV -1 , using the recently obtained operator product expansion of the DA as the input at μ∼1 GeV. We also derive the master formula, which reexpresses the integrals of the DA at μ∼√(m b Λ QCD ) for the factorization formula by the compact integrals of the DA at μ∼1 GeV.

  13. Impact of fat mass distribution body shapes on muscles strength and the joints pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on fat mass distribution body shapes type as measured to determine their effect on skeletal muscle strengthening lumbar extensors (upper and lower limbs where our background confirms that every girl has a natural body type of rectangle, apple, pear, or hourglass. It is good for her to know which type of body shape she is, so she can learn what exercises to do, whereas similar studies suggest that it is much better to challenge weight problems with exercise and dietary measures before resorting to figure shaping. For this purpose, our study was carried out with a total of thirty students, females listed in the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, University of Mostaganem, aged between 20 and 23 years; their homogeneity was based on age, sex, and academic specialty, classified based on the body mass index (BMI into two groups (normal and overweight and based on their body shape′s type into three groups (9 pear shape, 10 rectangle shape, and 11 hourglass shape as a protocol experimental to examine the impact of fat mass distribution body shapes type on lumbar extensor strength. Based on our data analysis, we confirm that the pear and the rectangle shape affect the strength lumbar extensors due to body weight distribution which increases the risks relating to the skeletal muscles. Weight gain is a factor contributing to the weakness of skeletal muscles. However, the body shape explains the anomalies of the distribution of fat mass and BMI risk observed in our sample in the lower and upper part of the body recorded by the values of Killy test and endurance of trunk, the case of the pear and the rectangle shape back pain, which are consisting in excess of the body fat distributed in comparison with less percentage of muscle mass. Whereas this difference can affect the pelvic position.

  14. Probability distributions of placental morphological measurements and origins of variability of placental shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, M; Salafia, C M; Shlakhter, O

    2013-06-01

    While the mean shape of human placenta is round with centrally inserted umbilical cord, significant deviations from this ideal are fairly common, and may be clinically meaningful. Traditionally, they are explained by trophotropism. We have proposed a hypothesis explaining typical variations in placental shape by randomly determined fluctuations in the growth process of the vascular tree. It has been recently reported that umbilical cord displacement in a birth cohort has a log-normal probability distribution, which indicates that the displacement between an initial point of origin and the centroid of the mature shape is a result of accumulation of random fluctuations of the dynamic growth of the placenta. To confirm this, we investigate statistical distributions of other features of placental morphology. In a cohort of 1023 births at term digital photographs of placentas were recorded at delivery. Excluding cases with velamentous cord insertion, or missing clinical data left 1001 (97.8%) for which placental surface morphology features were measured. Best-fit statistical distributions for them were obtained using EasyFit. The best-fit distributions of umbilical cord displacement, placental disk diameter, area, perimeter, and maximal radius calculated from the cord insertion point are of heavy-tailed type, similar in shape to log-normal distributions. This is consistent with a stochastic origin of deviations of placental shape from normal. Deviations of placental shape descriptors from average have heavy-tailed distributions similar in shape to log-normal. This evidence points away from trophotropism, and towards a spontaneous stochastic evolution of the variants of placental surface shape features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  16. Uncertainties of the B → D transition form factor from the D-meson leading-twist distribution amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhong, Tao; Li, Ke [Henan Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science, Xinxiang (China); Wu, Xing-Gang [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China); Fu, Hai-Bing [Guizhou Minzu University, School of Science, Guiyang (China); Huang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    The B → D transition form factor (TFF) f{sub +}{sup B→D}(q{sup 2}) is determined mainly by the D-meson leading-twist distribution amplitude (DA), φ{sub 2;D}, if the proper chiral current correlation function is adopted within the light-cone QCD sum rules. It is therefore significant to make a comprehensive study of DA φ{sub 2;D} and its impact on f{sub +}{sup B→D}(q{sup 2}). In this paper, we calculate the moments of φ{sub 2;D} with the QCD sum rules under the framework of the background field theory. New sum rules for the leading-twist DA moments left angle ξ{sup n} right angle {sub D} up to fourth order and up to dimension-six condensates are presented. At the scale μ = 2 GeV, the values of the first four moments are: left angle ξ{sup 1} right angle {sub D} = -0.418{sup +0.021}{sub -0.022}, left angle ξ{sup 2} right angle {sub D} = 0.289{sup +0.023}{sub -0.022}, left angle ξ{sup 3} right angle {sub D} = -0.178 ± 0.010 and left angle ξ{sup 4} right angle {sub D} = 0.142{sup +0.013}{sub -0.012}. Basing on the values of left angle ξ{sup n} right angle {sub D} (n = 1, 2, 3, 4), a better model of φ{sub 2;D} is constructed. Applying this model for the TFF f{sub +}{sup B→D}(q{sup 2}) under the light cone sum rules, we obtain f{sub +}{sup B→D}(0) = 0.673{sup +0.038}{sub -0.041} and f{sub +}{sup B→D}(q{sup 2}{sub max}) = 1.117{sup +0.051}{sub -0.054}. The uncertainty of f{sub +}{sup B→D}(q{sup 2}) from φ{sub 2;D} is estimated and we find its impact should be taken into account, especially in low and central energy region. The branching ratio B(B → Dl anti ν{sub l}) is calculated, which is consistent with experimental data. (orig.)

  17. A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

  18. Confounding environmental colour and distribution shape leads to underestimation of population extinction risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike S Fowler

    Full Text Available The colour of environmental variability influences the size of population fluctuations when filtered through density dependent dynamics, driving extinction risk through dynamical resonance. Slow fluctuations (low frequencies dominate in red environments, rapid fluctuations (high frequencies in blue environments and white environments are purely random (no frequencies dominate. Two methods are commonly employed to generate the coloured spatial and/or temporal stochastic (environmental series used in combination with population (dynamical feedback models: autoregressive [AR(1] and sinusoidal (1/f models. We show that changing environmental colour from white to red with 1/f models, and from white to red or blue with AR(1 models, generates coloured environmental series that are not normally distributed at finite time-scales, potentially confounding comparison with normally distributed white noise models. Increasing variability of sample Skewness and Kurtosis and decreasing mean Kurtosis of these series alter the frequency distribution shape of the realised values of the coloured stochastic processes. These changes in distribution shape alter patterns in the probability of single and series of extreme conditions. We show that the reduced extinction risk for undercompensating (slow growing populations in red environments previously predicted with traditional 1/f methods is an artefact of changes in the distribution shapes of the environmental series. This is demonstrated by comparison with coloured series controlled to be normally distributed using spectral mimicry. Changes in the distribution shape that arise using traditional methods lead to underestimation of extinction risk in normally distributed, red 1/f environments. AR(1 methods also underestimate extinction risks in traditionally generated red environments. This work synthesises previous results and provides further insight into the processes driving extinction risk in model populations. We

  19. Confounding environmental colour and distribution shape leads to underestimation of population extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mike S; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The colour of environmental variability influences the size of population fluctuations when filtered through density dependent dynamics, driving extinction risk through dynamical resonance. Slow fluctuations (low frequencies) dominate in red environments, rapid fluctuations (high frequencies) in blue environments and white environments are purely random (no frequencies dominate). Two methods are commonly employed to generate the coloured spatial and/or temporal stochastic (environmental) series used in combination with population (dynamical feedback) models: autoregressive [AR(1)] and sinusoidal (1/f) models. We show that changing environmental colour from white to red with 1/f models, and from white to red or blue with AR(1) models, generates coloured environmental series that are not normally distributed at finite time-scales, potentially confounding comparison with normally distributed white noise models. Increasing variability of sample Skewness and Kurtosis and decreasing mean Kurtosis of these series alter the frequency distribution shape of the realised values of the coloured stochastic processes. These changes in distribution shape alter patterns in the probability of single and series of extreme conditions. We show that the reduced extinction risk for undercompensating (slow growing) populations in red environments previously predicted with traditional 1/f methods is an artefact of changes in the distribution shapes of the environmental series. This is demonstrated by comparison with coloured series controlled to be normally distributed using spectral mimicry. Changes in the distribution shape that arise using traditional methods lead to underestimation of extinction risk in normally distributed, red 1/f environments. AR(1) methods also underestimate extinction risks in traditionally generated red environments. This work synthesises previous results and provides further insight into the processes driving extinction risk in model populations. We must let

  20. The discrete additive Weibull distribution: A bathtub-shaped hazard for discontinuous failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebbington, Mark; Lai, Chin-Diew; Wellington, Morgan; Zitikis, Ričardas

    2012-01-01

    Although failure data are usually treated as being continuous, they may have been collected in a discrete manner, or in fact be discrete in nature. Reliability models with bathtub-shaped hazard rate are fundamental to the concepts of burn-in and maintenance, but how well do they incorporate discrete data? We explore discrete versions of the additive Weibull distribution, which has the twin virtues of mathematical tractability and the ability to produce bathtub-shaped hazard rate functions. We derive conditions on the parameters for the hazard rate function to be increasing, decreasing, or bathtub shaped. While discrete versions may have the same shaped hazard rate for the same parameter values, we find that when fitted to data the fitted hazard rate shapes can vary between versions. Our results are illustrated using several real-life data sets, and the implications of using continuous models for discrete data discussed.

  1. Automatic generation of 3D statistical shape models with optimal landmark distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, T; Wolf, I; Meinzer, H-P

    2007-01-01

    To point out the problem of non-uniform landmark placement in statistical shape modeling, to present an improved method for generating landmarks in the 3D case and to propose an unbiased evaluation metric to determine model quality. Our approach minimizes a cost function based on the minimum description length (MDL) of the shape model to optimize landmark correspondences over the training set. In addition to the standard technique, we employ an extended remeshing method to change the landmark distribution without losing correspondences, thus ensuring a uniform distribution over all training samples. To break the dependency of the established evaluation measures generalization and specificity from the landmark distribution, we change the internal metric from landmark distance to volumetric overlap. Redistributing landmarks to an equally spaced distribution during the model construction phase improves the quality of the resulting models significantly if the shapes feature prominent bulges or other complex geometry. The distribution of landmarks on the training shapes is -- beyond the correspondence issue -- a crucial point in model construction.

  2. Determination of size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, DI.

    1961-01-01

    For testing the size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic uranium oxide powders the following method for analysing the grain size of powders were developed and implemented: microscopic analysis and sedimentation method. A gravimetry absorption device was constructed for determining the specific surfaces of powders

  3. Vortex distribution in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, The Dang, E-mail: vu-dang@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC (Viet Nam); Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Hiroki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC (Viet Nam); Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Mathematical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We found the general feature of vortex configuration in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates such as the appearance of symmetric line, the rule of shell filling and the existence of a magic number in both theoretical predictions and experimental results. • We found that the vortex distribution in a concave decagon tends to adapt to one of the five symmetric axes of the star-shaped plate expected in confining vortices in a restricted sample geometry. • The numerical results of Ginzburg–Landau equation confirmed that the filling rules for a vortex configuration and the existence of a magic number for small star-shaped plates are in good agreement with experiment results. - Abstract: We investigated vortex states in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates both theoretically and experimentally. The numerical calculations of the Ginzburg–Landau equation have been carried out with the aid of the finite element method, which is convenient to treat an arbitrarily shaped superconductor. The experimental results were observed by using a scanning SQUID microscope. Through systematic measurements, we figured out how vortices form symmetric configuration with increasing the magnetic field. The vortex distribution tends to adapt to one of five mirror symmetric lines when vortices were located at the five triangular horns of a star-shaped plate. The crystalline homogeneity of a sample was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and the superconducting properties so that vortices are easily able to move for accommodating vortices in the geometric symmetry of the star-shaped plate. The experimental vortex configurations obtained for a star-shaped plate are in good agreement with theoretical predictions from the nonlinear Ginzburg–Landau equation.

  4. Comparison of Two Methods Used to Model Shape Parameters of Pareto Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Charpentier, R.R.; Su, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two methods are compared for estimating the shape parameters of Pareto field-size (or pool-size) distributions for petroleum resource assessment. Both methods assume mature exploration in which most of the larger fields have been discovered. Both methods use the sizes of larger discovered fields to estimate the numbers and sizes of smaller fields: (1) the tail-truncated method uses a plot of field size versus size rank, and (2) the log-geometric method uses data binned in field-size classes and the ratios of adjacent bin counts. Simulation experiments were conducted using discovered oil and gas pool-size distributions from four petroleum systems in Alberta, Canada and using Pareto distributions generated by Monte Carlo simulation. The estimates of the shape parameters of the Pareto distributions, calculated by both the tail-truncated and log-geometric methods, generally stabilize where discovered pool numbers are greater than 100. However, with fewer than 100 discoveries, these estimates can vary greatly with each new discovery. The estimated shape parameters of the tail-truncated method are more stable and larger than those of the log-geometric method where the number of discovered pools is more than 100. Both methods, however, tend to underestimate the shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulation was also used to create sequences of discovered pool sizes by sampling from a Pareto distribution with a discovery process model using a defined exploration efficiency (in order to show how biased the sampling was in favor of larger fields being discovered first). A higher (more biased) exploration efficiency gives better estimates of the Pareto shape parameters. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  5. Generalised extreme value distributions provide a natural hypothesis for the shape of seed mass distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Edwards

    Full Text Available Among co-occurring species, values for functionally important plant traits span orders of magnitude, are uni-modal, and generally positively skewed. Such data are usually log-transformed "for normality" but no convincing mechanistic explanation for a log-normal expectation exists. Here we propose a hypothesis for the distribution of seed masses based on generalised extreme value distributions (GEVs, a class of probability distributions used in climatology to characterise the impact of event magnitudes and frequencies; events that impose strong directional selection on biological traits. In tests involving datasets from 34 locations across the globe, GEVs described log10 seed mass distributions as well or better than conventional normalising statistics in 79% of cases, and revealed a systematic tendency for an overabundance of small seed sizes associated with low latitudes. GEVs characterise disturbance events experienced in a location to which individual species' life histories could respond, providing a natural, biological explanation for trait expression that is lacking from all previous hypotheses attempting to describe trait distributions in multispecies assemblages. We suggest that GEVs could provide a mechanistic explanation for plant trait distributions and potentially link biology and climatology under a single paradigm.

  6. Design of a collector shape for uniform flow distribution in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Ayyaz; Agrawal, Amit; Saha, Sandip K; Medhi, Bhaskar J; Singh, Anugrah

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study is the design of a collector with the objective of achieving uniform flow in multiple parallel microchannels. This objective is achieved by understanding the limitations of current designs and a novel design is proposed, which is further carefully optimized. The existing collector shape considered is U-type, which is investigated numerically. The creation of a stagnation zone, growth of a boundary layer along the collector wall and low/high velocity zones in the collector are identified as the prime causes of flow maldistribution. A novel design, a dumbbell shape collector, is proposed to overcome the limitations of the earlier designs. The dumbbell shape is evaluated quantitatively and is found to perform better than all existing shapes. This dumbbell shape collector provides a uniform flow distribution with less than 0.4% relative difference from the average flow rate in different channels, which is substantially better than existing collectors with 2.3% relative difference from the average flow rate for Re ch   =  32. The uniformity is further confirmed using micro-particle image velocimetry measurements. The dumbbell shape collector is generalized and optimized to cater to heat sinks of different dimensions and to broaden its applicability in both micro and macro dimensions. (paper)

  7. Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and conductivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hyvönen, Nuutti

    2016-01-05

    The simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model and it is based on the Frechet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the body shape. The reconstruction problem is cast into the Bayesian framework, and maximum a posteriori estimates for the admittivity and the boundary geometry are computed. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements.

  8. Using GRACE Amplitude Data in Conjunction with the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Recharge to Estimate the Components of the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly across the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Reitz, M.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    The GRACE satellite project by NASA has been mapping the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) across the globe since 2002. To date most of the studies using this data have focused on estimating long-term storage declines in groundwater aquifers or the cryosphere. In this study we are focusing on using the amplitude of the seasonal storage signal to estimate the sources and values of the different water components that are contributing to the TWSA signal across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Across the CONUS the TWSA seasonal amplitude observed by GRACE varies by a factor of ten or more (from 1 to 10+ cm of liquid water equivalent). For a seasonal sinusoidal recharge rate, the change in storage in either the soil (unsaturated zone beneath the root zone) or groundwater (by water-table fluctuation) is limited to the amplitude of the recharge rate divided by π or 2π, respectively. We compiled the GRACE signal for the 18 major HUC watersheds across the CONUS and compared them to estimates of seasonal recharge-rate amplitudes based on a recent map of recharge rates generated by the USGS. The ratios of the recharge to GRACE amplitudes suggest that all but two of the HUCs must have other substantial sources of storage change in addition to soil or groundwater. The most likely additional sources are (1) winter snowpack, (2) seasonal irrigation withdrawals, and/or (3) surface water (rivers or reservoirs). Estimates of the seasonal amplitudes of these three signals across the CONUS suggest they can explain the remaining GRACE seasonal signal that cannot be explained by soil or groundwater fluctuations. Each of these signals has its own unique spatial distribution, with snowpack limited to the northern states, surface water limited to large rivers or reservoirs, and irrigation as a dominant signal limited to arid to semi-arid agricultural regions. Use of the GRACE seasonal signal shows promise in constraining the hydraulic diffusivities of surficial aquifer

  9. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  10. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  11. Comparison of Different Turbulence Models for Numerical Simulation of Pressure Distribution in V-Shaped Stepped Spillway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoliang Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available V-shaped stepped spillway is a new shaped stepped spillway, and the pressure distribution is quite different from that of the traditional stepped spillway. In this paper, five turbulence models were used to simulate the pressure distribution in the skimming flow regimes. Through comparing with the physical value, the realizable k-ε model had better precision in simulating the pressure distribution. Then, the flow pattern of V-shaped and traditional stepped spillways was given to illustrate the unique pressure distribution using realizable k-ε turbulence model.

  12. Distribution of shape elongations of main belt asteroids derived from Pan-STARRS1 photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Nortunen, H.; Ďurech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Vereš, P.; Jedicke, R.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Schunová-Lilly, E.; Magnier, E. A.; Waters, C.; Flewelling, H.

    2018-04-01

    Context. A considerable amount of photometric data is produced by surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LONEOS, WISE, or Catalina. These data are a rich source of information about the physical properties of asteroids. There are several possible approaches for using these data. Light curve inversion is a typical method that works with individual asteroids. Our approach in focusing on large groups of asteroids, such as dynamical families and taxonomic classes, is statistical; the data are not sufficient for individual models. Aim. Our aim is to study the distributions of shape elongation b/a and the spin axis latitude β for various subpopulations of asteroids and to compare our results, based on Pan-STARRS1 survey, with statistics previously carried out using various photometric databases, such as Lowell and WISE. Methods: We used the LEADER algorithm to compare the b/a and β distributions for various subpopulations of asteroids. The algorithm creates a cumulative distributive function (CDF) of observed brightness variations, and computes the b/a and β distributions with analytical basis functions that yield the observed CDF. A variant of LEADER is used to solve the joint distributions for synthetic populations to test the validity of the method. Results: When comparing distributions of shape elongation for groups of asteroids with different diameters D, we found that there are no differences for D < 25 km. We also constructed distributions for asteroids with different rotation periods and revealed that the fastest rotators with P = 0 - 4 h are more spheroidal than the population with P = 4-8 h.

  13. Cosmophysical Factors in the Fluctuation Amplitude Spectrum of Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminsky A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of the regular variability of the fine structure of the fluctuation in the amplitude distributions (shapes of related histograms for the case of Brownian motion was investigated. We took an advantage of the dynamic light scattering method (DLS to get a stochastically fluctuated signal determined by Brownian motion. Shape of the histograms is most likely to vary, synchronous, in two proximally located independent cells containing Brownian particles. The synchronism persists in the cells distant at 2m from each other, and positioned meridionally. With a parallel-wise positioning of the cells, high probability of the synchronous variation in the shape of the histograms by local time has been observed. This result meets the previous conclusion about the dependency of histogram shapes ("fluctuation amplitudes" of the spectra of stochastic processes upon rotation of the Earth.

  14. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  15. The role of biotic interactions in shaping distributions and realised assemblages of species: implications for species distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisz, Mary Susanne; Pottier, Julien; Kissling, W Daniel; Pellissier, Loïc; Lenoir, Jonathan; Damgaard, Christian F; Dormann, Carsten F; Forchhammer, Mads C; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Guisan, Antoine; Heikkinen, Risto K; Høye, Toke T; Kühn, Ingolf; Luoto, Miska; Maiorano, Luigi; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Normand, Signe; Öckinger, Erik; Schmidt, Niels M; Termansen, Mette; Timmermann, Allan; Wardle, David A; Aastrup, Peter; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-02-01

    Predicting which species will occur together in the future, and where, remains one of the greatest challenges in ecology, and requires a sound understanding of how the abiotic and biotic environments interact with dispersal processes and history across scales. Biotic interactions and their dynamics influence species' relationships to climate, and this also has important implications for predicting future distributions of species. It is already well accepted that biotic interactions shape species' spatial distributions at local spatial extents, but the role of these interactions beyond local extents (e.g. 10 km(2) to global extents) are usually dismissed as unimportant. In this review we consolidate evidence for how biotic interactions shape species distributions beyond local extents and review methods for integrating biotic interactions into species distribution modelling tools. Drawing upon evidence from contemporary and palaeoecological studies of individual species ranges, functional groups, and species richness patterns, we show that biotic interactions have clearly left their mark on species distributions and realised assemblages of species across all spatial extents. We demonstrate this with examples from within and across trophic groups. A range of species distribution modelling tools is available to quantify species environmental relationships and predict species occurrence, such as: (i) integrating pairwise dependencies, (ii) using integrative predictors, and (iii) hybridising species distribution models (SDMs) with dynamic models. These methods have typically only been applied to interacting pairs of species at a single time, require a priori ecological knowledge about which species interact, and due to data paucity must assume that biotic interactions are constant in space and time. To better inform the future development of these models across spatial scales, we call for accelerated collection of spatially and temporally explicit species data. Ideally

  16. Shape Distributions of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems for Video-Based Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a shape-theoretic framework for dynamical analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems which appear frequently in several video-based inference tasks. Traditional approaches to dynamical modeling have included linear and nonlinear methods with their respective drawbacks. A novel approach we propose is the use of descriptors of the shape of the dynamical attractor as a feature representation of nature of dynamics. The proposed framework has two main advantages over traditional approaches: a) representation of the dynamical system is derived directly from the observational data, without any inherent assumptions, and b) the proposed features show stability under different time-series lengths where traditional dynamical invariants fail. We illustrate our idea using nonlinear dynamical models such as Lorenz and Rossler systems, where our feature representations (shape distribution) support our hypothesis that the local shape of the reconstructed phase space can be used as a discriminative feature. Our experimental analyses on these models also indicate that the proposed framework show stability for different time-series lengths, which is useful when the available number of samples are small/variable. The specific applications of interest in this paper are: 1) activity recognition using motion capture and RGBD sensors, 2) activity quality assessment for applications in stroke rehabilitation, and 3) dynamical scene classification. We provide experimental validation through action and gesture recognition experiments on motion capture and Kinect datasets. In all these scenarios, we show experimental evidence of the favorable properties of the proposed representation.

  17. Macroscopic electrical field distribution and field-induced surface stresses of needle-shaped field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Charles K.S., E-mail: charles.moy@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ranzi, Gianluca [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Petersen, Timothy C. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    One major concern since the development of the field ion microscope is the mechanical strength of the specimens. The macroscopic shape of the imaging tip greatly influences field-induced stresses and there is merit in further study of this phenomenon from a classical perspective. Understanding the geometrical, as opposed to localized electronic, factors that affect the stress might improve the quality and success rate of atom probe experiments. This study uses macroscopic electrostatic principles and finite element modelling to investigate field-induced stresses in relation to the shape of the tip. Three two-dimensional idealized models are considered, namely hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone; the shapes of which are compared to experimental tips prepared by electro-polishing. Three dimensional morphologies of both a nano-porous and single-crystal aluminium tip are measured using electron tomography to quantitatively test the assumption of cylindrical symmetry for electro-polished tips. The porous tip was prepared and studied to demonstrate a fragile specimen for which such finite element studies could determine potential mechanical failure, prior to any exhaustive atom probe investigation. -- Research highlights: {yields} We use electrostatic principles and finite element to model field-induced stresses. {yields} We study two-dimensional idealized needle-shaped field emitters. {yields} Stress distribution of hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone tips mapped. {yields} Electron tomography to obtain the morphology of three-dimensional aluminium tips. {yields} Studies of the morphology of the porous tip demonstrate a fragile specimen.

  18. Using a Neural Network Approach to Find Unusual Butterfly Pitch Angle Distribution Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Vieira, L.; Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A special kind of neural network referred to as a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was previously adopted to identify, in pitch angle-resolved relativistic electron flux data provided by the REPT instrument onboard the Van Allen Probes, three major types of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs), namely 90o-peaked, butterfly and flattop (Souza et al., 2016), following the classification scheme employed by Gannon et al. (2007). Previous studies show that butterfly distribution can be found in more than one shape. They usually exhibit an intense decrease near 90° pitch angles compared to the peaks usually around 30° and 150°. Sometimes unusual butterfly PAD shapes with peaks near 45° and 135° pitch angles can be observed. These could be correlated with different physical processes that govern the production and loss of energetic particles in the Van Allen radiation belt. A neural network approach allows the distinction of different kinds of butterfly PADs which were not analyzed in detail by Souza et al. (2016). This study uses SOM methodology to find these unusual butterfly PAD shape during the interval between January 1, 2014 and October 1, 2015, during which Van Allen Probes orbit covered all MLT. The spatial and temporal occurrence of these events were investigated as well as their solar wind and magnetospheric drivers.

  19. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dellicour

    Full Text Available Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal

  20. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Gerard, Maxence; Prunier, Jérôme G; Dewulf, Alexandre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size) variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal/structure within the

  1. Effect of Contour Shape of Nervous System Electromagnetic Stimulation Coils on the Induced Electrical Field Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Ivan K

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromagnetic stimulation of the nervous system has the advantage of reduced discomfort in activating nerves. For brain structures stimulation, it has become a clinically accepted modality. Coil designs usually consider factors such as optimization of induced power, focussing, field shape etc. In this study we are attempting to find the effect of the coil contour shape on the electrical field distribution for magnetic stimulation. Method and results We use the maximum of the induced electric field stimulation in the region of interest as the optimization criterion. This choice required the application of the calculus of variation, with the contour perimeter taken as a pre-set condition. Four types of coils are studied and compared: circular, square, triangular and an 'optimally' shaped contour. The latter yields higher values of the induced electrical field in depths up to about 30 mm, but for depths around 100 mm, the circular shape has a slight advantage. The validity of the model results was checked by experimental measurements in a tank with saline solution, where differences of about 12% were found. In view the accuracy limitations of the computational and measurement methods used, such differences are considered acceptable. Conclusion We applied an optimization approach, using the calculus of variation, which allows to obtain a coil contour shape corresponding to a selected criterion. In this case, the optimal contour showed higher intensities for a longer line along the depth-axis. The method allows modifying the induced field structure and focussing the field to a selected zone or line.

  2. The role of degree distribution in shaping the dynamics in networks of sparsely connected spiking neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eRoxin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal network models often assume a fixed probability of connectionbetween neurons. This assumption leads to random networks withbinomial in-degree and out-degree distributions which are relatively narrow. Here I study the effect of broaddegree distributions on network dynamics by interpolating between abinomial and a truncated powerlaw distribution for the in-degree andout-degree independently. This is done both for an inhibitory network(I network as well as for the recurrent excitatory connections in anetwork of excitatory and inhibitory neurons (EI network. In bothcases increasing the width of the in-degree distribution affects theglobal state of the network by driving transitions betweenasynchronous behavior and oscillations. This effect is reproduced ina simplified rate model which includes the heterogeneity in neuronalinput due to the in-degree of cells. On the other hand, broadeningthe out-degree distribution is shown to increase the fraction ofcommon inputs to pairs of neurons. This leads to increases in theamplitude of the cross-correlation (CC of synaptic currents. In thecase of the I network, despite strong oscillatory CCs in the currents, CCs of the membrane potential are low due to filtering and reset effects, leading to very weak CCs of the spikecount. In the asynchronous regime ofthe EI network, broadening the out-degree increases the amplitude ofCCs in the recurrent excitatory currents, while CC of the totalcurrent is essentially unaffected as are pairwise spikingcorrelations. This is due to a dynamic balance between excitatoryand inhibitory synaptic currents. In the oscillatory regime, changesin the out-degree can have a large effect on spiking correlations andeven on the qualitative dynamical state of the network.

  3. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaygorsky, J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States); Słysz, W., E-mail: wslysz@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, PL-02 668 Warsaw (Poland); Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sobolewski, Roman [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0231 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). • A better understanding of the origin of dark counts generated by the detector. • A promise of PNR functionality in SSPD measurements. - Abstract: We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  4. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this paper shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Improved Shape Parameter Estimation in Pareto Distributed Clutter with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raúl Machado-Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem faced by naval radars is the elimination of the clutter input which is a distortion signal appearing mixed with target reflections. Recently, the Pareto distribution has been related to sea clutter measurements suggesting that it may provide a better fit than other traditional distributions. The authors propose a new method for estimating the Pareto shape parameter based on artificial neural networks. The solution achieves a precise estimation of the parameter, having a low computational cost, and outperforming the classic method which uses Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE. The presented scheme contributes to the development of the NATE detector for Pareto clutter, which uses the knowledge of clutter statistics for improving the stability of the detection, among other applications.

  6. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gerken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line

  7. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, F; Yamada, O; Ohya, S; Kobayashi, O; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH) max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m 3 , and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  8. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is less than 10%. Long-term silting measurements of three small reservoirs were used to evaluate the method described by Rahmanian and Banihashemi for predicting sediment distributions in small reservoirs. Rahmanian and Banihashemi stated that their model of distribution of sediment deposition in water reservoir works well for a long duration operation. In the presented study, the silting rate was used in order to determine the long duration operation. Silting rate is a quotient of volume of the sediment deposited in the reservoir and its original volume. It was stated that when the silting rate had reached 50%, the sediment deposition in the reservoir may be described by an empirical reservoir depth shape function (RDSF.

  9. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-09-12

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.

  10. Exploiting Molecular Weight Distribution Shape to Tune Domain Spacing in Block Copolymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentekos, Dillon T; Jia, Junteng; Tirado, Erika S; Barteau, Katherine P; Smilgies, Detlef-M; DiStasio, Robert A; Fors, Brett P

    2018-04-04

    We report a method for tuning the domain spacing ( D sp ) of self-assembled block copolymer thin films of poly(styrene- block-methyl methacrylate) (PS- b-PMMA) over a large range of lamellar periods. By modifying the molecular weight distribution (MWD) shape (including both the breadth and skew) of the PS block via temporal control of polymer chain initiation in anionic polymerization, we observe increases of up to 41% in D sp for polymers with the same overall molecular weight ( M n ≈ 125 kg mol -1 ) without significantly changing the overall morphology or chemical composition of the final material. In conjunction with our experimental efforts, we have utilized concepts from population statistics and least-squares analysis to develop a model for predicting D sp based on the first three moments of the MWDs. This statistical model reproduces experimental D sp values with high fidelity (with mean absolute errors of 1.2 nm or 1.8%) and provides novel physical insight into the individual and collective roles played by the MWD moments in determining this property of interest. This work demonstrates that both MWD breadth and skew have a profound influence over D sp , thereby providing an experimental and conceptual platform for exploiting MWD shape as a simple and modular handle for fine-tuning D sp in block copolymer thin films.

  11. Particle shape accounts for instrumental discrepancy in ice core dust size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folden Simonsen, Marius; Cremonesi, Llorenç; Baccolo, Giovanni; Bosch, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Erhardt, Tobias; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Potenza, Marco; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The Klotz Abakus laser sensor and the Coulter counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the Coulter counter measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent Abakus instrument measurement deviates substantially from the Coulter counter. We show that the difference between the Abakus and the Coulter counter measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples. The irregular shape means that a new calibration routine based on standard spheres is necessary for obtaining fully comparable data. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy to Abakus measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons. We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between Abakus and Coulter counter data. For verification, we measured the aspect ratio of the same samples directly using a single-particle extinction and scattering instrument. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0.3 and 0.4 using only the comparison of Abakus and Coulter counter data.

  12. Status of the ITER full-tungsten divertor shaping and heat load distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Hirai, T; Escourbiac, F; Durocher, A; Fedosov, A; Ferrand, L; Kocan, M; Kukushkin, A S; Jokinen, T; Komarov, V; Lehnen, M; Merola, M; Mitteau, R; Pitts, R A; Sugihara, M; Firdaouss, M; Stangeby, P C

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011, the ITER Organization (IO) proposed to begin operation with a full-tungsten (W) armoured divertor, with the objective of taking a decision on the final target material (carbon fibre composite or W) by the end of 2013. This period of 2 years would enable the development of a full-W divertor design compatible with nuclear operations, the investigation of further several physics R and D aspects associated with the use of W targets and the completion of technology qualification. Beginning with a brief overview of the reference heat load specifications which have been defined for the full-W engineering activity, this paper will report on the current status of the ITER divertor shaping and will summarize the results of related three-dimensional heat load distribution analysis performed as part of the design validation. (paper)

  13. Effects of monomer shape on the formation of aggregates from a power law monomer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, J; Kimery, J; Matthews, L S; Hyde, T W

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation of dust aggregates is an important process in many physical systems such as the Earth's upper atmosphere, comet tails and protoplanetary discs. Numerical models which study the aggregation in these systems typically involve spherical monomers. There is evidence, however, via the polarization of sunlight in the interstellar medium, as well as optical and LIDAR observations of high-altitude particles in Earth's atmosphere (70–100 km), which indicate that dust monomers may not necessarily be spherical. This study investigates the influence of different ellipsoidal monomer shapes on the morphology of aggregates given various distributions of monomer sizes. Populations of aggregates are grown from a single monomer using a combination of ballistic particle–cluster aggregation and ballistic cluster–cluster aggregation regimes incorporating the rotation of monomers and aggregates. The resulting structures of the aggregates are then compared via the compactness factor, geometric cross-section and friction time. (paper)

  14. A Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of a shape-free groundwater age distribution using multiple tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoudieh, A.; Visser, A.; Sharifi, S.; Broers, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the

  15. Transoceanic Dispersal and Plate Tectonics Shaped Global Cockroach Distributions: Evidence from Mitochondrial Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Tang, Qian; Ho, Simon Y W; Juna, Frantisek; Wang, Zongqing; Arab, Daej A; Cameron, Stephen L; Walker, James; Rentz, David; Evans, Theodore A; Lo, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    Following the acceptance of plate tectonics theory in the latter half of the 20th century, vicariance became the dominant explanation for the distributions of many plant and animal groups. In recent years, however, molecular-clock analyses have challenged a number of well-accepted hypotheses of vicariance. As a widespread group of insects with a fossil record dating back 300 My, cockroaches provide an ideal model for testing hypotheses of vicariance through plate tectonics versus transoceanic dispersal. However, their evolutionary history remains poorly understood, in part due to unresolved relationships among the nine recognized families. Here, we present a phylogenetic estimate of all extant cockroach families, as well as a timescale for their evolution, based on the complete mitochondrial genomes of 119 cockroach species. Divergence dating analyses indicated that the last common ancestor of all extant cockroaches appeared ∼235 Ma, ∼95 My prior to the appearance of fossils that can be assigned to extant families, and before the breakup of Pangaea began. We reconstructed the geographic ranges of ancestral cockroaches and found tentative support for vicariance through plate tectonics within and between several major lineages. We also found evidence of transoceanic dispersal in lineages found across the Australian, Indo-Malayan, African, and Madagascan regions. Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal have played important roles in shaping the distribution and diversity of these insects.

  16. Effects of Shape and Strain Distribution of Quantum Dots on Optical Transition in the Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a systemic theoretical study of the electronic properties of the quantum dots inserted in quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs. The strain distribution of three different shaped quantum dots (QDs with a same ratio of the base to the vertical aspect is calculated by using the short-range valence-force-field (VFF approach. The calculated results show that the hydrostatic strain ɛHvaries little with change of the shape, while the biaxial strain ɛBchanges a lot for different shapes of QDs. The recursion method is used to calculate the energy levels of the bound states in QDs. Compared with the strain, the shape plays a key role in the difference of electronic bound energy levels. The numerical results show that the deference of bound energy levels of lenslike InAs QD matches well with the experimental results. Moreover, the pyramid-shaped QD has the greatest difference from the measured experimental data.

  17. Fat Mass Follows a U-Shaped Distribution Based on Estradiol Levels in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Colleluori

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveEstradiol (E2 regulates adipose tissue resulting in increased fat mass (FM with declining E2. However, increased visceral fat and hyperestrogenemia are features of obese individuals. It is possible that adipocytes in obese individuals are less sensitive to E2 resulting in higher FM. Our objective is to identify the range of serum E2 for which postmenopausal women have the lowest FM and best body composition.MethodsCross-sectional data from 252 community-dwelling postmenopausal women, 42–90 years old. Subjects were stratified into categories of E2 (pg/ml: (1 ≤10.5; (2 10.6–13.9; (3 14.0–17.4; and (4 ≥17.5. Body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum E2 by radioimmunoassay. Between-group comparisons by analysis of covariance.ResultsE2 linearly increased with increasing body weight and body mass index (r = 0.15 and p = 0.01 for both, but not with total FM (kg or % FM (r = 0.07, p = 0.34 and r = −0.04, p = 0.56, respectively. However, total FM (kg followed a U-shaped distribution and was significantly lower in group 3 (27.6 ± 10.6, compared with groups 1: (34.6 ± 12.5, 2: (34.0 ± 12.4, and 4: (37.0 ± 10.6, p = 0.005. % FM was also lowest in group 3. While fat-free mass (FFM, kg increased with increasing E2 (p < 0.001, % FFM was highest in group 3.ConclusionIn our population of postmenopausal women, FM followed a U-shaped distribution according to E2 levels. E2 between 14.0 and 17.4 pg/ml is associated with the best body composition, i.e., lowest total and % FM and highest % FFM. Given the role of E2 in regulating body fat, high FM at the high end of the E2 spectrum may suggest reduced E2 sensitivity in adipocytes among obese postmenopausal women.Clinical TrialsClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00146107.

  18. Minimizing the energy spread within a single bunch by shaping its charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.

    1984-06-01

    When electrons or positrons in a bunch pass through the periodic structure of a linear accelerator, they leave behind them energy in the form of longitudinal wake fields. The longitudinal fields left behind by early particles in a bunch decrease the energy of later particles. For a linear collider, the energy spread introduced within the bunches by this beam loading effect must be minimized because it limits the degree to which the particles can be focused to a small spot due to chromatic effects in the final focus system. For example, for the SLC, the allowable energy spread is +-0.5%. It has been known for some time that partial compensation of the longitudinal wake field effects can be obtained for any bunch by placing it ahead of the accelerating crest (in space), thereby letting the positive rising sinusoidal field offset the negative beam loading field. The work presented in this report shows that it is possible to obtain complete compensation, i.e., to reduce the energy spread essentially to zero by properly shaping the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and by placing it at the correct position on the wave

  19. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  20. Predators shape distribution and promote diversification of morphological defenses in Leucorrhinia , Odonata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrin, Zlatko; Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, Cyndy; Johansson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Predators strongly influence species assemblages and shape morphological defenses of prey. Interestingly, adaptations that constitute effective defenses against one type of predator may render the prey susceptible to other types of predators. Hence, prey may evolve different strategies to escape predation, which may facilitate adaptive radiation of prey organisms. Larvae of different species in the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia have various morphological defenses. We studied the distribution of these larvae in relation to the presence of predatory fish. In addition, we examined the variation in morphological defenses within species with respect to the occurrence of fish. We found that well-defended species, those with more and longer spines, were more closely associated with habitats inhabited by predatory fish and that species with weakly developed morphological defenses were more abundant in habitats without fish. The species predominantly connected to lakes with or without fish, respectively, were not restricted to a single clade in the phylogeny of the genus. Our data is suggestive of phenotypic plasticity in morphological defense in three of the studied species since these species showed longer spines in lakes with fish. We suggest that adaptive phenotypic plasticity may have broadened the range of habitats accessible to Leucorrhinia. It may have facilitated colonization of new habitats with different types of predators, and ultimately, speciation through adaptive radiation.

  1. Effect of laser beam on temperature distribution on artificial cylindrical shaped hard tissue bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akhras, M.-Ali H.; Qaseer, Mohammad-Khair; Albiss, B. A.; Gezawa, Umar S.

    2018-02-01

    Samples from fresh lamb chest bones were made in cylindrical shapes to study the time variation of temperature T as functions of the cylindrical radius and depth when its front surface exposed to a laser beam of 110Mw power and 642nm wavelength. The laser beam was directed at the center of the front surface of the horizontal cylinder. The measurements were done in vacuum and at atmospheric pressure. Our data reveal the linear variation of T with time, followed by a gradual increase before it reaches a plateau value at higher time. This sort of behavior independent of the radius or the depth where the temperature was measured. Moreover, the maximum variation occurs on the front surface where the laser beam was hitting and diminishes gradually with depth deep inside the cylinder. Data at atmospheric pressure showed less changes in temperature. The temperature distribution in bone due to laser irradiation is very important for a rational use of laser therapy as well as in the surgery to minimizes the thermal tissue damage.

  2. Five and four-parameter lifetime distributions for bathtub-shaped failure rate using Perks mortality equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hongtao; Lan, Tian; Chen, Qiming

    2016-01-01

    Two lifetime distributions derived from Perks' mortality rate function, one with 4 parameters and the other with 5 parameters, for the modeling of bathtub-shaped failure rates are proposed in this paper. The Perks' mortality/failure rate functions have historically been used for human life modeling in life insurance industry. Although this distribution is no longer used in insurance industry, considering many nice and some unique features of this function, it is necessary to revisit it and introduce it to the reliability community. The parameters of the distributions can control the scale, shape, and location of the PDF. The 4-parameter distribution can be used to model the bathtub failure rate. This model is applied to three previously published groups of lifetime data. This study shows they fit very well. The 5-parameter version can potentially model constant hazard rates of the later life of some devices in addition to the good features of 4-parameter version. Both the 4 and 5-parameter versions have closed form PDF and CDF. The truncated distributions of both versions stay within the original distribution family with simple parameter transformation. This nice feature is normally considered to be only possessed by the simple exponential distribution - Highlights: • Two new distributions are proposed to model bathtub shaped hazard rate. • Derive the close-form PDF, CDF and feature of scalability and truncatability. • Perks4 is verified to be good to model common bathtub shapes through comparison. • Perks5 has the potential to model the stabilization of hazard rate at later life.

  3. In the eye of the beholder: Inhomogeneous distribution of high-resolution shapes within the random-walk ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian L.; Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.; Žagrović, Bojan; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2009-06-01

    The concept of high-resolution shapes (also referred to as folds or states, depending on the context) of a polymer chain plays a central role in polymer science, structural biology, bioinformatics, and biopolymer dynamics. However, although the idea of shape is intuitively very useful, there is no unambiguous mathematical definition for this concept. In the present work, the distributions of high-resolution shapes within the ideal random-walk ensembles with N =3,…,6 beads (or up to N =10 for some properties) are investigated using a systematic (grid-based) approach based on a simple working definition of shapes relying on the root-mean-square atomic positional deviation as a metric (i.e., to define the distance between pairs of structures) and a single cutoff criterion for the shape assignment. Although the random-walk ensemble appears to represent the paramount of homogeneity and randomness, this analysis reveals that the distribution of shapes within this ensemble, i.e., in the total absence of interatomic interactions characteristic of a specific polymer (beyond the generic connectivity constraint), is significantly inhomogeneous. In particular, a specific (densest) shape occurs with a local probability that is 1.28, 1.79, 2.94, and 10.05 times (N =3,…,6) higher than the corresponding average over all possible shapes (these results can tentatively be extrapolated to a factor as large as about 1028 for N =100). The qualitative results of this analysis lead to a few rather counterintuitive suggestions, namely, that, e.g., (i) a fold classification analysis applied to the random-walk ensemble would lead to the identification of random-walk "folds;" (ii) a clustering analysis applied to the random-walk ensemble would also lead to the identification random-walk "states" and associated relative free energies; and (iii) a random-walk ensemble of polymer chains could lead to well-defined diffraction patterns in hypothetical fiber or crystal diffraction experiments

  4. Highly efficient and reliable high power LEDs with patterned sapphire substrate and strip-shaped distributed current blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengjun [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yuan, Shu; Liu, Yingce [Quantum Wafer Inc., Foshan 528251 (China); Guo, L. Jay [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Sheng, E-mail: victor_liu63@126.com [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ding, Han [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TEM is used to characterize threading dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer. • Effect of threading dislocation on optical and electrical of LEDs is discussed. • Strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL is designed to improve current spreading performance of LEDs. - Abstract: We demonstrated that the improvement in optical and electrical performance of high power LEDs was achieved using cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) and strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} distributed current blocking layer (DCBL). We found through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation that densities of both the screw dislocation and edge dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer grown on PSS were much less than that of GaN epitaxial layer grown on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). Compared to LED grown on FSS, LED grown on PSS showed higher sub-threshold forward-bias voltage and lower reverse leakage current, resulting in an enhancement in device reliability. We also designed a strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL beneath a strip-shaped p-electrode, which prevents the current from being concentrated on regions immediately adjacent the strip-shaped p-electrode, thereby facilitating uniform current spreading into the active region. By implementing strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL, light output power of high power PSS-LED chip could be further increased by 13%.

  5. Ceramic microsieves: influence of perforation shape and distribution on flow resistance and membrane strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; Brink, R.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic microsieves with slit-shaped perforations were compared to sieves with circular-shaped perforations, regarding flow resistance and membrane strength. Destructive tests show that the highest strength is obtained if the perforations are placed in a non-alternating pattern. Especially for

  6. Calibration and fluctuation of the secular frequency peak amplitude versus initial condition distribution of the ion cloud confined into a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap using a fourier transform operating mode and a steady ion flow injection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Carette, M.; Mercury, M.; Reynard, C; Zerega, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A specific Fourier transform operating mode is applied to a 3-dimensional quadrupolar ion trap for mass analysis (Fourier Transform Quadrupolar Ion Trap (FTQIT) Operating Mode or Mass Spectrometer). With this operating mode, an image signal, which is representative of the collective motion of simultaneously confined ions, is made up from a set of recorded time-of-flight histograms. In an ion trap, the secular frequency of ion motion depends on m/Z ratio of the ion. By Fourier transformation of the image signal, one observes the frequency peak of each confined ionic species. When only one ionic species is confined, the peak amplitude is proportional to the maximal amplitude of the image signal. The maximal amplitude of the image signal is expressed according to the operating parameters, the initial conditions of the ions and the number of ions. Simulation tools lead to fluctuation calculation of the maximal amplitude of the image signal. Two origins are explored: (1) the fluctuation of the numbers of ions according to the steady ion flow injection mode (SIFIM) used with this operating mode and (2) the distribution fluctuation of the initial positions and velocities. Initial confinement conditions, obtained with SIFIM injection mode, lead to optimal detection with small fluctuations of the peak amplitude for Fourier transform operating mode applied to an ion trap. (authors)

  7. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  8. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10...

  9. Examining the interplay of climate and low amplitude sea-level change on the distribution and volume of massive dolomitization: Zebbag Formation, Cretaceous, Southern Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newport, Richard; Hollis, Cathy; Bodin, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    During the Cretaceous, a humid global climate, calcitic seas, high relative sea-level and low amplitude changes in relative sea-level largely prevented large-scale dolomitization in many carbonate successions. However, the well-exposed shallow-water carbonate sediments of the Upper Albian–Lower T...

  10. Basic characteristics of new shape formed coke in burden distribution; Shingata seikei cokes no sonyu bunpu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, M; Yamamoto, T; Komaki, I; Oda, H; Matsunaga, S; Matsuzaki, S; Deno, T; Konno, N [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    Basic characteristics in burden distribution and charging pattern of new shape formed coke developed in order to improve the properties of small size and low void fraction that pillow-type formed coke h s were conducted by 1/3 scale charging model and mathematical model of blast furnace. Basic characteristics, those are, inclination angle, coke-collapse and trajectory of new shape formed coke are almost the same as those of conventional coke. In the case of wall charging of new shape formed coke, until 60% of total charged coke, new shape formed coke is able to be charged without it`s rolling to the center. It is possible to apply RABIT model to new shape formed coke charging without it`s major modification. In the case of new shape formed coke wall charging, the fluctuation in furnace is supposed to be smaller than that in the case of pillow-type formed coke wall charging. Moreover, it`s center charging is supposed to be applied to actual blast furnace. More accurate estimation of in-furnace phenomena by mathematical model considering coke reactivity, is a subject to be worked out in future. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Investigation of an He-Ne laser generating a beam with a ring-shaped intensity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, I I; Troitskii, IU V; Iakushkin, S V

    1987-02-01

    The paper examines an He-Ne laser regime with the simultaneous generation of TEM(01) and TEM(10) modes, forming a beam with a ring-shaped intensity distribution with total suppression of the TEM(00) mode. The ratio of the intensity at the ring crest to the intensity at the axis reached a value of 200 and was limited by scattering in the optical components of the resonator. A regime of mutual frequency locking of the TEM(01) and TEM(10) modes was achieved with total spatial coherence of the ring-shaped beam. 14 references.

  12. Wireless and Distributed Sensing of Shape and Health Monitoring of Morphing Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smoker, Jason; Baz, Amr

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the theoretical basis for the design of sensor networks for determining the 2-dimensional shape of morphing structures by monitoring simultaneously the bending...

  13. The Diagnostics of the Shape of the Electron Distribution Function during the Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Kulinová, A.; Kašparová, J.

    2011-12-01

    The non-thermal electrons accelerated during the flares interact with surrounding plasma and the electron distribution of the flaring plasma becomes non-Maxwellian. X-ray spectrometers RESIK and RHESSI with high energy resolution give an opportunity to diagnose the presence of the non-thermal electron distribution. RESIK X-line spectra with high fluxes of satellite lines can be explained by presence of the non-thermal n-distribution in a plasma bulk in the 2-2.5 keV range. The RHESSI spectrometer enables us to diagnose the non-thermal high-energy tail of the electron distribution in deka-keV energy range. This high-energy tail can be described by a power-law distribution. We have analyzed three solar flares to get non-thermal characteristics of both non-thermal parts of the electron distribution. The ratios of the intensities of allowed to satellite lines have been used to estimate the parameters of the n-distribution. RHESSI data has been used to obtain the temporal changes of the parameters of Maxwellian and power-law distributions and also for determination of the parameters of n-distribution in two specific cases. The parameters of n-distribution obtained from RHESSI analysis agree within the errors with those derived from RESIK observations. Finally, the synthetic soft X-ray line spectra has been computed for diagnosed parameters of distributions and have been compared with RESIK X-ray observations.

  14. Three-dimensional static shape control analysis of composite plates using distributed piezoelectric actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik Dawood, M S I; Iannucci, L; Greenhalgh, E S

    2008-01-01

    In this work, based on a linear piezoelectric constitutive model, a three-dimensional finite element code using an eight-node brick element that includes the anisotropic and coupled field effects of piezoelectric actuators has been developed for the static shape control analysis of fibre reinforced composite laminates. The code was used to study voltage sensing and actuation capabilities of piezoelectric actuators on composite laminates. The required input voltages to the actuators in order to achieve a specified structural shape were determined using a weighted shape control method. The code was validated using two test cases obtained from the literature. The results were found to show good correlation for voltage actuation. However, since determining input voltages to achieve the desired structural shape is a type of inverse problem, there are no explicit solutions and hence the results obtained from the present model were not similar to those reported in the literature. The second validation also suggests that the anisotropic and coupled field effects of the piezoelectric actuators cannot be neglected as this has been shown to underestimate the required control voltages. The effects of different lamination angles, boundary conditions, plate length-to-thickness ratios and actuator dimensions on the control voltages have also been reported

  15. Spectral line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional spectroscopy with skewed frequency distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Hoenders, Bernhard J.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Gaussian dynamics on the line shapes in linear absorption and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy is well understood as the second-order cumulant expansion provides exact spectra. Gaussian solvent dynamics can be well analyzed using slope line analysis of two-dimensional

  16. Numerical experiments on the determination of unsteady state temperature distribution in domains of complicated boundary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura, P.A.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper compares analytical and finite element results for an unsteady heat-conduction problem in simply and doubly connected plates of regular polygonal shape. A numerical solution is obtained by means of the powerful finite element method and the results are shown to agree with an approximate conformal mapping-variational technique previously developed by the first author and coworkers. (Auth.)

  17. Exposure levels due to WLAN devices in indoor environments corrected by a time-amplitude factor of distribution of the quasi-stochastic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclaus, Simona; Bechet, Paul; Stratakis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    With the development of radiofrequency technology, radiating quasi-stochastic signals like the wireless local area networks (WLAN), a proper procedure of exposure level assessment is needed. No standardised procedure exists at the moment. While channel power measurement proved to overestimate the field strength, weighting techniques were proposed. The paper compares the exposure levels determined by three different procedures, two of them correcting the field level by weighting. Twenty-three experimental cases of WLAN traffic load are analysed in an indoor environment in controlled conditions. The results show the differences obtained when the duty cycle (DC) method is applied comparatively with the application of weighting based on an amplitude-time correction. Significant exposure level reductions of 52.6-79.2 % from the field determined by frequency domain method and of 36.5-72.8 % from the field determined by the DC weighting method were obtained by time-amplitude method. Specificities of weighting factors probability density functions were investigated and regression analysis was applied for a detailed characterisation of this procedure. (authors)

  18. Internal and external factors shaping movement and distributions of trans-Saharan migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Marta Lomas

    and thrush nightingales Luscinia luscinia. It also looks at how the migration routes can be affected by future climate change. Results indicate that insectivore long-distance migrants temporally adjust migration schedules with seasonal surplus of vegetation greenness during the annual cycle. Climate......he migratory programme provides birds with the capacity to seasonally migrate thousands of kilometres during their annual breeding cycle. This programme is governed by endogenous, and environmentally-shaped, exogenous, processes. Using a diverse set of tracking methods, this thesis investigates...... (vectororientation) and possibly includes a simple navigation capability that enables juveniles to compensate for crosswind en route, but not to compensate for experimental displacement. To study exogenous influence, paper III and IV investigate how environmental factors shape movements of migratory birds at local...

  19. Measurements of current density distribution in shaped e-beam writers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Horáček, Miroslav; Kolařík, Vladimír; Urbánek, Michal; Matějka, Milan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 149, JAN 5 (2016), s. 117-124 ISSN 0167-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : shaped e-beam writer * electron beam * current density Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2016

  20. Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution

  1. Insights into the biological source and environmental gradients shaping the distribution of H-shaped glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Yellowstone National Park geothermal springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C.; Xie, W.; Wang, J.; Boyd, E. S.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are ubiquitous in natural environments. The unique tetraether lipids in archaeal membranes enable the maintenance of ion permeability across broad environmental gradients. H-shaped isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (H-GDGTs), in which the two biphytanyl carbon skeletons are covalently bound by a carbon-carbon bond, have been recently identified in both marine and geothermal environments. Here we report the core H-GDGTs (C-H-GDGTs) and polar H-GDGTs (P-H-GDGTs) associated with sediments sampled from geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park and investigate their abundance in relation to environmental gradients. The abundance of C- and P-H-GDGTs exhibit strong and negative correlation with pH (P = 0.007), suggesting that H-shaped GDGTs help to maintain cell membrane fluidity in acidic environments. Reanalysis of archaeal 16S rRNA gene pyrotags published previously from (Boyd E. Hamilton T. L., Wang J., He L., Zhang C. L. 2013. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity. Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology. 4: doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00062) indicates that these H-GDGTs are associated with environments dominanted by Thermoplasmatales, which are thermoacidiphiles. Two equations were established to define the relationships between the abundance of H-GDGTs, the abundance of archaeal taxa based on 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic affiliations, and pH. Both equations have high predictive capacity in predicting the distribution of archaeal lipids in the geothermal system. These observations provide new insight into the biological source of H-GDGTs and suggest a prominent role for these lipids in the diversification of archaea into or out of acidic high temperature environments.

  2. Spacecraft observations of a Maxwell Demon coating the separatrix of asymmetric magnetic reconnection with crescent-shaped electron distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Wetherton, B.; Cassak, Pa; Chen, Lj; Lavraud, B.; Dorell, J.; Avanov, L.; Gershman, D.

    2016-10-01

    During asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause in situ spacecraft mea- surements show that electrons from the high density inflow penetrate some distance into the low density inflow. Supported by a kinetic simulation, we present a general derivation of an exclusion energy parameter, which provides a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to jump across the reconnection region from one inflow region to the other. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, strongly impacting the form of the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix. The dynamics produce two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions in a thin boundary layer along the separatrix between the magnetospheric inflow and the reconnection exhaust. The analytical model presented relates these salient details of the distribution function to the electron dynamics in the inner reconnection region.

  3. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  4. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  5. New shapes of light-cone distributions of the transversely polarized ρ-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The leading twist light-cone distributions for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ ' - and b 1 mesons are reanalyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. Using different kinds of sum rules to obtain reliable predictions, we estimate the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-th moments for transversely polarized ρ- and ρ ' -meson distributions and reestimate tensor couplings f ρ,ρ ' ,b 1 T . It is stressed that the results of standard sum rules also support our estimation of the second moment of the transversely polarized ρ-meson distribution. New models for light-cone distributions are briefly discussed. Our results are compared with those found by Ball and Braun (1996), and the latter is shown to be incomplete

  6. Joint Scheduling Optimization of Virtual Power Plants and Equitable Profit Distribution Using Shapely Value Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-fu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The installation capacity of wind and solar photovoltaic power is continually increasing, which makes renewable energy grid connection and power generation an important link of China’s power structure optimization. A virtual power plant (VPP is an important way to help distributed energy resource grid connection and promote renewable energy industry development. To study the economic scheduling problem of various distributed energy resources and the profit distribution problem of VPP alliance, this study builds a separate operation scheduling model for individual VPP and a joint operation scheduling model for VPP alliance, as well as the profit distribution model. The case study verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. The sensitivity analysis provides information about VPP decision-making in accordance with the policy environment development trend.

  7. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  9. The Visualization of the Space Probability Distribution for a Particle Moving in a Double Ring-Shaped Coulomb Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical solutions to a double ring-shaped Coulomb potential (RSCP are presented. The visualizations of the space probability distribution (SPD are illustrated for the two- (contour and three-dimensional (isosurface cases. The quantum numbers (n,l,m are mainly relevant for those quasi-quantum numbers (n′,l′,m′ via the double RSCP parameter c. The SPDs are of circular ring shape in spherical coordinates. The properties for the relative probability values (RPVs P are also discussed. For example, when we consider the special case (n,l,m=(6,5,0, the SPD moves towards two poles of z-axis when P increases. Finally, we discuss the different cases for the potential parameter b, which is taken as negative and positive values for c>0. Compared with the particular case b=0, the SPDs are shrunk for b=-0.5, while they are spread out for b=0.5.

  10. Stress distribution in a transversely loaded cross-shaped single fiber SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.G.; Gundel, D.B.; Majumdar, B.S.; Miracle, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    In most structural applications utilizing fiber reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs), the mechanical response normal to the fiber direction has to be considered. The transverse response is very sensitive to the interface bond strength, which has commonly been determined by testing straight-sided 90 degree specimens and interpreting debond initiation from the knee in the stress-strain curve as well as from a sudden drop in the Poisson's ratio. In an attempt to modify the debond initiation site to an internal location free of uncharacteristic states of stress, a cross-shaped specimen has been developed. Experiments conducted by Gundel et al. indicated that this geometry was successful in obtaining the appropriate crack initiation site. In the present study, finite element analysis (FEA) was done on the cross-shaped specimen to obtain the stress distribution in the composite under transverse loading, in an effort to corroborate the success of this geometry in determining the true transverse response of the composite

  11. Controlling the Laser Guide Star power density distribution at Sodium layer by combining Pre-correction and Beam-shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wei, Kai; Jin, Kai; Li, Min; Zhang, YuDong

    2018-06-01

    The Sodium laser guide star (LGS) plays a key role in modern astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems (AOSs). The spot size and photon return of the Sodium LGS depend strongly on the laser power density distribution at the Sodium layer and thus affect the performance of the AOS. The power density distribution is degraded by turbulence in the uplink path, launch system aberrations, the beam quality of the laser, and so forth. Even without any aberrations, the TE00 Gaussian type is still not the optimal power density distribution to obtain the best balance between the measurement error and temporal error. To optimize and control the LGS power density distribution at the Sodium layer to an expected distribution type, a method that combines pre-correction and beam-shaping is proposed. A typical result shows that under strong turbulence (Fried parameter (r0) of 5 cm) and for a quasi-continuous wave Sodium laser (power (P) of 15 W), in the best case, our method can effectively optimize the distribution from the Gaussian type to the "top-hat" type and enhance the photon return flux of the Sodium LGS; at the same time, the total error of the AOS is decreased by 36% with our technique for a high power laser and poor seeing.

  12. Host-specific interactions with environmental factors shape the distribution of symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tonk

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST. To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR were compiled.The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions.Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding of the drivers behind the complexity of Symbiodinium

  13. Emittance control of a beam by shaping the transverse charge distribution, using a tomography diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.J.

    1998-06-01

    A high-brightness beam is very important for many applications. A diagnostic that measures the multi-dimensional phase-space density-distribution of the electron bunch is a must for obtaining such beams. Measurement of a slice emittance has been achieved. Tomographic reconstruction of phase space was suggested and implemented using a single quadrupole scan. In the present work the authors give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This diagnostic, coupled with control of the radial charge distribution of presents an opportunity to improve the beam brightness. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics lead to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections

  14. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Public Limited Company Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" >Komarov, V M; Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Public Limited Company Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Leningrad region (Russian Federation))" >Charukhchev, A V; S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Andreev, A A; S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Platonov, K Yu

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10 18 W cm -2 . Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, V M; Charukhchev, A V [Public Limited Company " Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering" , Leningrad region (Russian Federation); Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Scientific Center " S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute" (FSUE GOI), St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  16. [Correlation of fine structures of distributions of amplitudes of a photomultiplier dark current fluctuations with the Earth rotations about its axis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, M V; Belousov, L V; Voeĭkov, V L; Zenchenko, K I; Zenchenko, T A; Konradov, A A; Shnol', S E

    2001-01-01

    The fine structures of distributions of photomultiplier dark current fluctuations measured in two laboratories 2000 km distant from other: in the international Institute of Biophysics (Neuss, Germany) and in the Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia) were compared. It is shown that similar forms of appropriate histograms are apparently more often realized at both locations at the same local time. This confirms the previous conclusion that the fine structure of distributions correlates with rotation of the Earth about its axis.

  17. The influence of the statistical distributed parameters of the shape of the magneto-resistive transition of a HTc superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobnic, D.; Popescu, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of their granular structure the conductance of ceramic high temperature superconductors depends strongly on the characteristics of the parameter distribution. To study the influence of these distributions of the magneto-resistive transition from normal to superconductive state, a mathematical model was used. This model simulates the superconductor sample, considered as large three-dimensional collection of Josephson tunnel junctions. Each individual junction, according to the values of the parameters that define it, in a given environment (temperature, magnetic field and current density) allows or not the supercurrent to flow with a given probability. The bond percolation problem was solved using a Monte Carlo procedure. To solve the random resistor network formed, a sparse matrix package was used. As parameters that defined Josephson junction which choose the resistance of the normal junction state and the critical temperature of the grain. We considered the normal junction resistance as obeying a log normal distribution and the critical temperature, a Gaussian one. The influences of the relative dispersion of the first distribution and the dispersion of the critical temperature distribution on the shape of the resistivity versus magnetic field was studied. (Author)

  18. Radar meteors range distribution model. III. Ablation, shape-density and self-similarity parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Drahomíra; Pecina, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2007), s. 147-160 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : physics of meteors * radar meteors * range distribution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Spectral shaping of a randomized PWM DC-DC converter using maximum entropy probability distributions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dove, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available maintaining constraints in a DC-DC converter is investigated. A probability distribution whose aim is to ensure maximal harmonic spreading and yet mainaint constraints is presented. The PDFs are determined from a direct application of the method of Maximum...

  20. Longitudinal and vertical spatial gradients in the distribution of fish within a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, J.; Peterka, Jiří; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Hladík, Milan; Prchalová, Marie; Frouzová, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2004), s. 352-362 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Keywords : fish distribution * spatial heterogeneity * reservoirs Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2004

  1. Right on Target, or Is it? The Role of Distributional Shape in Variance Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Anatolyev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of GARCH models can be simplified by augmenting quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation with variance targeting, which reduces the degree of parameterization and facilitates estimation. We compare the two approaches and investigate, via simulations, how non-normality features of the return distribution affect the quality of estimation of the volatility equation and corresponding value-at-risk predictions. We find that most GARCH coefficients and associated predictions are more precisely estimated when no variance targeting is employed. Bias properties are exacerbated for a heavier-tailed distribution of standardized returns, while the distributional asymmetry has little or moderate impact, these phenomena tending to be more pronounced under variance targeting. Some effects further intensify if one uses ML based on a leptokurtic distribution in place of normal QML. The sample size has also a more favorable effect on estimation precision when no variance targeting is used. Thus, if computational costs are not prohibitive, variance targeting should probably be avoided.

  2. What Are the Shapes of Response Time Distributions in Visual Search?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Evan M.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Torralba, Antonio; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    Many visual search experiments measure response time (RT) as their primary dependent variable. Analyses typically focus on mean (or median) RT. However, given enough data, the RT distribution can be a rich source of information. For this paper, we collected about 500 trials per cell per observer for both target-present and target-absent displays…

  3. Nonlinear Acoustics: Periodic Waveguide, Finite-Amplitude Propagation in a Medium Having a Distribution of Relaxation Processes, and Production of an Isolated Negative Pulse in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-24

    T. Blackstock, "Shock wave propagation and shape of the waveform," Conference on Lithotripsy (Extra-Corporeal Shock Wave Applications - Technical and...83, S5 (1988). 0574 0 b4 . D. T. Blackstock, "Physical aspects of lithotripsy ," Paper GG1, 115th Meeting, Acoustical Society of America, Seattle, 16...1991). kAlso supported in part by Grant NAG-1-1204 and University of Southampton , Eng- land. 23 1992 ONR Contract Code 1109 0 𔃻. James A. Ten Cate

  4. Foraging Habitat Distributions Affect Territory Size and Shape in the Tuamotu Kingfisher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C. Kesler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I studied factors influencing territory configuration in the Tuamotu kingfisher (Todiramphus gambieri. Radiotelemetry data were used to define territory boundaries, and I tested for effects on territory size and shape of landscape habitat composition and foraging patch configuration. Tuamotu kingfisher territories were larger in areas with reduced densities of coconut plantation foraging habitat, and territories were less circular in the study site that had a single slender patch of foraging habitat. Maximum territory length did not differ between study sites, however, which suggested that the size of Tuamotu kingfisher territories might be bounded by the combined influence of maximum travel distances and habitat configurations. Results also suggested that birds enlarge territories as they age. Together, results supported previous work indicating that territory configurations represent a balance between the costs of defending a territory and gains from territory ownership.

  5. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  6. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  7. Assessment of optimum threshold and particle shape parameter for the image analysis of aggregate size distribution of concrete sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Murat; Guler, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Aggregate gradation is one of the key design parameters affecting the workability and strength properties of concrete mixtures. Estimating aggregate gradation from hardened concrete samples can offer valuable insights into the quality of mixtures in terms of the degree of segregation and the amount of deviation from the specified gradation limits. In this study, a methodology is introduced to determine the particle size distribution of aggregates from 2D cross sectional images of concrete samples. The samples used in the study were fabricated from six mix designs by varying the aggregate gradation, aggregate source and maximum aggregate size with five replicates of each design combination. Each sample was cut into three pieces using a diamond saw and then scanned to obtain the cross sectional images using a desktop flatbed scanner. An algorithm is proposed to determine the optimum threshold for the image analysis of the cross sections. A procedure was also suggested to determine a suitable particle shape parameter to be used in the analysis of aggregate size distribution within each cross section. Results of analyses indicated that the optimum threshold hence the pixel distribution functions may be different even for the cross sections of an identical concrete sample. Besides, the maximum ferret diameter is the most suitable shape parameter to estimate the size distribution of aggregates when computed based on the diagonal sieve opening. The outcome of this study can be of practical value for the practitioners to evaluate concrete in terms of the degree of segregation and the bounds of mixture's gradation achieved during manufacturing.

  8. BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF THE SHAPE PARAMETER OF THE GENERALISED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION UNDER DIFFERENT LOSS FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANKU DEY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The generalized exponential (GE distribution proposed by Gupta and Kundu (1999 is an important lifetime distribution in survival analysis. In this article, we propose to obtain Bayes estimators and its associated risk based on a class of  non-informative prior under the assumption of three loss functions, namely, quadratic loss function (QLF, squared log-error loss function (SLELF and general entropy loss function (GELF. The motivation is to explore the most appropriate loss function among these three loss functions. The performances of the estimators are, therefore, compared on the basis of their risks obtained under QLF, SLELF and GELF separately. The relative efficiency of the estimators is also obtained. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of the Bayes estimates under different situations.

  9. The link between the baryonic mass distribution and the rotation curve shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaters, R. A.; Sancisi, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Albada, T. S.

    2012-09-01

    The observed rotation curves of disc galaxies, ranging from late-type dwarf galaxies to early-type spirals, can be fitted remarkably well simply by scaling up the contributions of the stellar and H I discs. This 'baryonic scaling model' can explain the full breadth of observed rotation curves with only two free parameters. For a small fraction of galaxies, in particular early-type spiral galaxies, H I scaling appears to fail in the outer parts, possibly due to observational effects or ionization of H I. The overall success of the baryonic scaling model suggests that the well-known global coupling between the baryonic mass of a galaxy and its rotation velocity (known as the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation) applies at a more local level as well, and it seems to imply a link between the baryonic mass distribution and the distribution of total mass (including dark matter).

  10. Seedling establishment and distribution of direct radiation in slit-shaped openings of Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brang, P.

    1996-01-01

    Direct radiation is crucial for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling establishment in high-montane and subalpine spruce forests. Fisheye photography was used to estimate the daily distribution of direct radiation in small forest openings on a north-northwest and a south facing slope near Sedrun (Grisons, Switzerland). In slit-shaped openings on the north-northwest facing slope long sunflecks mostly occurred in the afternoon, when the sun shines parallel to the slit axis. This is in accordance to the silvicultural intention. However, since the stands are clumpy and therefore pervious to sunlight, the daily sunfleck distribution is fairly even notwithstanding the slit orientation, and direct radiation at noon is the dominant form of incident energy. In small circular to rectangular openings on the south facing slope direct radiation peaks at noontide. A seeding trial imitating natural seedling establishment was set in place in openings on both slopes. Based on this trial, the relations among seedling establishment, aspect, slit shape, size, and orientation are discussed for Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps. The directional weather factors such as radiation and precipitation can be highly influenced by slits, which is why suitable microclimate for seedling establishment can be promoted provided the slits are oriented appropriately. Slits in which the most insolated edges are oriented windward are especially favourable

  11. A study of the energy evolution of event shape distributions and their means with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined in e+e− collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 45 and 202 GeV. A phenomenological analysis based on power correction models including hadron mass e ects for both differential distributions and mean values is presented. Using power corrections, s is extracted from the mean values and shapes. In an alternative approach, renormalisation group invariance (RGI) is used as an explicit constraint, leading to a consistent description of mean values without the need for sizeable power corrections. The QCD beta-function is precisely measured using this approach. From the DELPHI data on Thrust, including data from low energy experiments, one finds beta0 = 7:86 +- 0:32 for the one loop coefficient of the beta-function or, assuming QCD, nf = 4:75 +- 0:44 for the number of active flavours. These values agree well with the QCD expectation of beta0 = 7:67 and nf = 5. A direct measurement of the full logarithmic energy ...

  12. Spatially distributed patterns of oscillatory coupling between high-frequency amplitudes and low-frequency phases in human iEEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, Eric; van Vugt, Marieke; Kahana, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spatially distributed coherent oscillations provide temporal windows of excitability that allow for interactions between distinct neuronal groups. It has been hypothesized that this mechanism for neuronal communication is realized by bursts of high-frequency oscillations that are phase-coupled to a

  13. Amplitude correlations for inelastic proton scattering from 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitudes and relative signs of inelastic proton channel amplitudes were determined for three decay channels for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. The reduced widths in each channel follow a Porter-Thomas distribution, but extremely large amplitude correlations are observed - for one pair of channel amplitudes the relative sign is positive for 43 of 45 resonances. These results provide the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter reduced width amplitude distribution. (orig.)

  14. Historical biome distribution and recent human disturbance shape the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärtel, Meelis; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Tedersoo, Leho; Szava-Kovats, Robert; Rosendahl, Søren; Rillig, Matthias C; Lekberg, Ylva; Kreft, Holger; Helgason, Thorunn; Eriksson, Ove; Davison, John; de Bello, Francesco; Caruso, Tancredi; Zobel, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The availability of global microbial diversity data, collected using standardized metabarcoding techniques, makes microorganisms promising models for investigating the role of regional and local factors in driving biodiversity. Here we modelled the global diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi using currently available data on AM fungal molecular diversity (small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences) in field samples. To differentiate between regional and local effects, we estimated species pools (sets of potentially suitable taxa) for each site, which are expected to reflect regional processes. We then calculated community completeness, an index showing the fraction of the species pool present, which is expected to reflect local processes. We found significant spatial variation, globally in species pool size, as well as in local and dark diversity (absent members of the species pool). Species pool size was larger close to areas containing tropical grasslands during the last glacial maximum, which are possible centres of diversification. Community completeness was greater in regions of high wilderness (remoteness from human disturbance). Local diversity was correlated with wilderness and current connectivity to mountain grasslands. Applying the species pool concept to symbiotic fungi facilitated a better understanding of how biodiversity can be jointly shaped by large-scale historical processes and recent human disturbance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Efficient temporal shaping of electron distributions for high-brightness photoemission electron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the lowest emittance electron bunches from photoemission electron guns, it is essential to limit the uncorrelated emittance growth due to space charge forces acting on the bunch in the vicinity of the photocathode through appropriate temporal shaping of the optical pulses illuminating the photocathode. We present measurements of the temporal profile of electron bunches from a bulk crystal GaAs photocathode illuminated with 520 nm wavelength pulses from a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser. A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to make these measurements. The measured laser pulse temporal profile and the corresponding electron beam temporal profile have about 30 ps FWHM duration, with rise and fall times of a few ps. GaAs illuminated by 520 nm optical pulses is a prompt emitter within our measurement uncertainty of ∼1  ps rms. Combined with the low thermal emittance of negative electron affinity photocathodes, GaAs is a very suitable photocathode for high-brightness photoinjectors. We also report measurements of the photoemission response time for GaAsP, which show a strong dependence on the quantum efficiency of the photocathode.

  16. In-plane modal frequencies and mode shapes of two stay cables interconnected by uniformly distributed cross-ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haiquan; He, Xuhui; Zou, Yunfeng; Wang, Hanfeng

    2018-03-01

    Stay cables are important load-bearing structural elements of cable-stayed bridges. Suppressing the large vibrations of the stay cables under the external excitations is of worldwide concern for the bridge engineers and researchers. Over the past decade, the use of crosstie has become one of the most practical and effective methods. Extensive research has led to a better understanding of the mechanics of cable networks, and the effects of different parameters, such as length ratio, mass-tension ratio, and segment ratio on the effectiveness of the crosstie have been investigated. In this study, uniformly distributed elastic crossties serve to replace the traditional single, or several cross-ties, aiming to delay "mode localization." A numerical method is developed by replacing the uniformly distributed, discrete elastic cross-tie model with an equivalent, continuously distributed, elastic cross-tie model in order to calculate the modal frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-crosstie system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by comparing the elicited results with those obtained using the previous method. The uniformly distributed elastic cross-ties are shown to significantly delay "mode localization."

  17. Measurement of the Shape of the Transverse Momentum Distribution of W Bosons Produced in p bar p Collisions at √(s) =1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Babukhadia, L.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; James, E.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Butler, J.M.; Fisyak, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Kahn, S.; Kotcher, J.; Protopopescu, S.; Rajagopalan, S.; Bantly, J.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cutts, D.; Guida, J.M.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.; Grinstein, S.; Piegaia, R.; Bloom, P.; Glenn, S.; Klopfenstein, C.; Mani, S.; Fahland, T.; Hall, R.E.; Boswell, C.; Choudhary, B.C.; Cochran, J.; Ellison, J.; Gartung, P.; Gounder, K.; Heinson, A.P.; Huehn, T.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Da Motta, H.; Oliveira, E.; Santoro, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Adam, I.; Kotwal, A.V.; Shivpuri, R.K.; Ahn, S.; Baldin, B.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bhat, P.C.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Bross, A.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Feher, S.; Fisk, H.E.; Flattum, E.; Fuess, S.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hansen, S.; Heintz, U.

    1998-01-01

    The shape of the transverse momentum distribution of W bosons (p W T ) produced in p bar p collisions at √(s)=1.8 TeV is measured with the D0 detector at Fermilab. The result is compared with QCD perturbative and resummation calculations over the p W T range from 0 to 200 GeV/c . The shape of the distribution is consistent with the theoretical prediction. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Imaged brine inclusions in young sea ice—Shape, distribution and formation timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, R.J.; Else, B.G.T.; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Liquid inclusions in sea ice are variable and dependent on the myriad of physical conditions of the atmosphere– sea ice environment in which the sea ice was grown, and whether or not melting processes affected the sea ice. In that light, there exist relatively few observations and resultant quant...... in the context of the environment in which it grew. Finally, we show that a vertical brine volume distribution profile can be calculated using MR image data, extend- ing the (non-imaging) nuclear magnetic resonance work of others in this vein....

  19. Ion distribution near a mask edge with arbitrary shape for VLSI IC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsch, A.G.K.; Oosthuizen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The profile of the mask edge during ion implantation determines the electrical field in the critical drain region of a MOS-transistor. Equal ion density lines are computed for various mask edges for the example of boron implanted into silicon at 70 keV. Four moments of the impurity depth distribution (without mask material are taken into consideration. Homogenisation and, therefore a higher noise immunity, can be obtained by the proper choice of the mask etching process. The influence of a too-thin mask material is also shown. (author)

  20. Distributional modeling and short-term forecasting of electricity prices by Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serinaldi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the liberalized and deregulated electricity markets, price forecasting has become increasingly important for energy company's plans and market strategies. Within the class of the time series models that are used to perform price forecasting, the subclasses of methods based on stochastic time series and causal models commonly provide point forecasts, whereas the corresponding uncertainty is quantified by approximate or simulation-based confidence intervals. Aiming to improve the uncertainty assessment, this study introduces the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the dynamically varying distribution of prices. The GAMLSS allow fitting a variety of distributions whose parameters change according to covariates via a number of linear and nonlinear relationships. In this way, price periodicities, trends and abrupt changes characterizing both the position parameter (linked to the expected value of prices), and the scale and shape parameters (related to price volatility, skewness, and kurtosis) can be explicitly incorporated in the model setup. Relying on the past behavior of the prices and exogenous variables, the GAMLSS enable the short-term (one-day ahead) forecast of the entire distribution of prices. The approach was tested on two datasets from the widely studied California Power Exchange (CalPX) market, and the less mature Italian Power Exchange (IPEX). CalPX data allow comparing the GAMLSS forecasting performance with published results obtained by different models. The study points out that the GAMLSS framework can be a flexible alternative to several linear and nonlinear stochastic models. - Research Highlights: ► Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) are used to model electricity prices' time series. ► GAMLSS provide the entire dynamicaly varying distribution function of prices resorting to a suitable set of covariates that drive the instantaneous values of the parameters

  1. Role of Environmental Factors in Shaping Spatial Distribution of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Ruklanthi; Watson, Conall; Nikolay, Birgit; Lowry, John H; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Van, Tan Trinh; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Rawalai, Kitione; Taufa, Mere; Coriakula, Jerimaia; Lau, Colleen L; Nilles, Eric J; Edmunds, W John; Kama, Mike; Baker, Stephen; Cano, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1.26/quintile increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.42), and decreased with increased distance from major rivers and creeks (OR 0.89/km increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99) and distance to modeled flood-risk areas (OR 0.80/quintile increase, 95% CI 0.69-0.92) after being adjusted for age, typhoid fever vaccination, and home toilet type. Risk for exposure to Salmonella Typhi and its spatial distribution in Fiji are driven by environmental factors. Our findings can directly affect typhoid fever control efforts in Fiji.

  2. From ratites to rats: the size of fleshy fruits shapes species' distributions and continental rainforest assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maurizio; Kooyman, Robert; Yap, Jia-Yee S; Laffan, Shawn W

    2015-12-07

    Seed dispersal is a key process in plant spatial dynamics. However, consistently applicable generalizations about dispersal across scales are mostly absent because of the constraints on measuring propagule dispersal distances for many species. Here, we focus on fleshy-fruited taxa, specifically taxa with large fleshy fruits and their dispersers across an entire continental rainforest biome. We compare species-level results of whole-chloroplast DNA analyses in sister taxa with large and small fruits, to regional plot-based samples (310 plots), and whole-continent patterns for the distribution of woody species with either large (more than 30 mm) or smaller fleshy fruits (1093 taxa). The pairwise genomic comparison found higher genetic distances between populations and between regions in the large-fruited species (Endiandra globosa), but higher overall diversity within the small-fruited species (Endiandra discolor). Floristic comparisons among plots confirmed lower numbers of large-fruited species in areas where more extreme rainforest contraction occurred, and re-colonization by small-fruited species readily dispersed by the available fauna. Species' distribution patterns showed that larger-fruited species had smaller geographical ranges than smaller-fruited species and locations with stable refugia (and high endemism) aligned with concentrations of large fleshy-fruited taxa, making them a potentially valuable conservation-planning indicator. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone-size distribution of immune repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desponds, Jonathan; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2016-01-12

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B- and T cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power-law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regard for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments, we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth signals in different tissues and organisms. Our results generalize to any evolving population in a fluctuating environment.

  4. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gonzalez, Angélica L; Crawford, Kerri M; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect-a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3-5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density.

  5. A new head phantom with realistic shape and spatially varying skull resistivity distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Tang, Chi; Dai, Meng; Liu, Geng; Shi, Xue-Tao; Yang, Bin; Xu, Can-Hua; Fu, Feng; You, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Meng-Xing; Dong, Xiu-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging method for monitoring brain injuries. To effectively evaluate brain EIT systems and reconstruction algorithms, we have developed a novel head phantom that features realistic anatomy and spatially varying skull resistivity. The head phantom was created with three layers, representing scalp, skull, and brain tissues. The fabrication process entailed 3-D printing of the anatomical geometry for mold creation followed by casting to ensure high geometrical precision and accuracy of the resistivity distribution. We evaluated the accuracy and stability of the phantom. Results showed that the head phantom achieved high geometric accuracy, accurate skull resistivity values, and good stability over time and in the frequency domain. Experimental impedance reconstructions performed using the head phantom and computer simulations were found to be consistent for the same perturbation object. In conclusion, this new phantom could provide a more accurate test platform for brain EIT research.

  6. Ecological consequences of human niche construction: Examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Nicole L; Zeder, Melinda A; Fuller, Dorian Q; Crowther, Alison; Larson, Greger; Erlandson, Jon M; Denham, Tim; Petraglia, Michael D

    2016-06-07

    The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. Such data suggest that, by the Late Pleistocene, humans had begun to engage in activities that have led to alterations in the distributions of a vast array of species across most, if not all, taxonomic groups. Changes to biodiversity have included extinctions, extirpations, and shifts in species composition, diversity, and community structure. We outline key examples of these changes, highlighting findings from the study of new datasets, like ancient DNA (aDNA), stable isotopes, and microfossils, as well as the application of new statistical and computational methods to datasets that have accumulated significantly in recent decades. We focus on four major phases that witnessed broad anthropogenic alterations to biodiversity-the Late Pleistocene global human expansion, the Neolithic spread of agriculture, the era of island colonization, and the emergence of early urbanized societies and commercial networks. Archaeological evidence documents millennia of anthropogenic transformations that have created novel ecosystems around the world. This record has implications for ecological and evolutionary research, conservation strategies, and the maintenance of ecosystem services, pointing to a significant need for broader cross-disciplinary engagement between archaeology and the biological and environmental sciences.

  7. Microscopic prediction of speech intelligibility in spatially distributed speech-shaped noise for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravanchizadeh, Masoud; Fallah, Ali

    2015-12-01

    A binaural and psychoacoustically motivated intelligibility model, based on a well-known monaural microscopic model is proposed. This model simulates a phoneme recognition task in the presence of spatially distributed speech-shaped noise in anechoic scenarios. In the proposed model, binaural advantage effects are considered by generating a feature vector for a dynamic-time-warping speech recognizer. This vector consists of three subvectors incorporating two monaural subvectors to model the better-ear hearing, and a binaural subvector to simulate the binaural unmasking effect. The binaural unit of the model is based on equalization-cancellation theory. This model operates blindly, which means separate recordings of speech and noise are not required for the predictions. Speech intelligibility tests were conducted with 12 normal hearing listeners by collecting speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in the presence of single and multiple sources of speech-shaped noise. The comparison of the model predictions with the measured binaural SRTs, and with the predictions of a macroscopic binaural model called extended equalization-cancellation, shows that this approach predicts the intelligibility in anechoic scenarios with good precision. The square of the correlation coefficient (r(2)) and the mean-absolute error between the model predictions and the measurements are 0.98 and 0.62 dB, respectively.

  8. Amplitude and Ascoli analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)

  9. Misfolded SOD1 associated with motor neuron mitochondria alters mitochondrial shape and distribution prior to clinical onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vande Velde

    Full Text Available Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are causative for inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A proportion of SOD1 mutant protein is misfolded onto the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria in one or more spinal cord cell types. By construction of mice in which mitochondrially targeted enhanced green fluorescent protein is selectively expressed in motor neurons, we demonstrate that axonal mitochondria of motor neurons are primary in vivo targets for misfolded SOD1. Mutant SOD1 alters axonal mitochondrial morphology and distribution, with dismutase active SOD1 causing mitochondrial clustering at the proximal side of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures within motor axons and dismutase inactive SOD1 producing aberrantly elongated axonal mitochondria beginning pre-symptomatically and increasing in severity as disease progresses. Somal mitochondria are altered by mutant SOD1, with loss of the characteristic cylindrical, networked morphology and its replacement by a less elongated, more spherical shape. These data indicate that mutant SOD1 binding to mitochondria disrupts normal mitochondrial distribution and size homeostasis as early pathogenic features of SOD1 mutant-mediated ALS.

  10. Experimental Comparison of Probabilistic Shaping Methods for Unrepeated Fiber Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renner, Julian; Fehenberger, Tobias; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of probabilistic shaping on effective signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and achievable information rates (AIRs) in a back-to-back configuration and in unrepeated nonlinear fiber transmissions. For back-to-back, various shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM......) distributions are found to have the same implementation penalty as uniform input. By demonstrating in transmission experiments that shaped QAM input leads to lower effective SNR than uniform input at a fixed average launch power, we experimentally confirm that shaping enhances the fiber nonlinearities. However......, shaping is ultimately found to increase the AIR, which is the most relevant figure of merit as it is directly related to spectral efficiency. In a detailed study of these shaping gains for the nonlinear fiber channel, four strategies for optimizing QAM input distributions are evaluated and experimentally...

  11. Testing the shape-similarity hypothesis between particle-size distribution and water retention for Sicilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Antinoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Arya and Paris (AP model to estimate the soil water retention curve requires a detailed description of the particlesize distribution (PSD but limited experimental PSD data are generally determined by the conventional sieve-hydrometer (SH method. Detailed PSDs can be obtained by fitting a continuous model to SH data or performing measurements by the laser diffraction (LD method. The AP model was applied to 40 Sicilian soils for which the PSD was measured by both the SH and LD methods. The scale factor was set equal to 1.38 (procedure AP1 or estimated by a logistical model with parameters gathered from literature (procedure AP2. For both SH and LD data, procedure AP2 allowed a more accurate prediction of the water retention than procedure AP1, confirming that it is not convenient to use a unique value of  for soils that are very different in texture. Despite the differences in PSDs obtained by the SH and LD methods, the water retention predicted by a given procedure (AP1 or AP2 using SH or LD data was characterized by the same level of accuracy. Discrepancies in the estimated water retention from the two PSD measurement methods were attributed to underestimation of the finest diameter frequency obtained by the LD method. Analysis also showed that the soil water retention estimated using the SH method was affected by an estimation bias that could be corrected by an optimization procedure (OPT. Comparison of a-distributions and water retention shape indices obtained by the two methods (SH or LD indicated that the shape-similarity hypothesis is better verified if the traditional sieve-hydrometer data are used to apply the AP model. The optimization procedure allowed more accurate predictions of the water retention curves than the traditional AP1 and AP2 procedures. Therefore, OPT can be considered a valid alternative to the more complex logistical model for estimating the water retention curve of Sicilian soils.

  12. Modeling single-scattering properties of small cirrus particles by use of a size-shape distribution of ice spheroids and cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Cairns, Brian; Carlson, Barbara E.; Travis, Larry D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we model single-scattering properties of small cirrus crystals using mixtures of polydisperse, randomly oriented spheroids and cylinders with varying aspect ratios and with a refractive index representative of water ice at a wavelength of 1.88 μm. The Stokes scattering matrix elements averaged over wide shape distributions of spheroids and cylinders are compared with those computed for polydisperse surface-equivalent spheres. The shape-averaged phase function for a mixture of oblate and prolate spheroids is smooth, featureless, and nearly flat at side-scattering angles and closely resembles those typically measured for cirrus. Compared with the ensemble-averaged phase function for spheroids, that for a shape distribution of cylinders shows a relatively deeper minimum at side-scattering angles. This may indicate that light scattering from realistic cirrus crystals can be better represented by a shape mixture of ice spheroids. Interestingly, the single-scattering properties of shape-averaged oblate and prolate cylinders are very similar to those of compact cylinders with a diameter-to-length ratio of unity. The differences in the optical cross sections, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter between the spherical and the nonspherical particles studied appear to be relatively small. This may suggest that for a given optical thickness, the influence of particle shape on the radiative forcing caused by a cloud composed of small ice crystals can be negligible

  13. Poisson-like shape and shoulder structure of hadron multiplicity distributions in e+e- annihilation at Z0 energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yigang; Chai Yong

    1994-01-01

    The charged multiplicity distributions of hadron final states in the e + e - annihilation at the 91.2 GeV Z 0 energy region are fitted with Poisson shape in different rapidity windows for double and single hemisphere. The multiplicities which are in Poisson-like shapes can be got according to the parameter /D and fitting qualities are compared with the results derived from the relevant theoretical models. The relationship between the Poisson-like shape and KNO scaling is discussed. The connection between the parameters expressing the deviation from the Poisson shape and non-independent particle emission and multiplicity correlation strength is analyzed. The 'shoulder structure' is observed in the central rapidity region and analyzed with multi-jets by using the JADE jet analysis algorithm

  14. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  15. Anti-3D Weapon Model Detection for Safe 3D Printing Based on Convolutional Neural Networks and D2 Shape Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of 3D printing, weapons are easily printed without any restriction from the production managers. Therefore, anti-3D weapon model detection is necessary issue in safe 3D printing to prevent the printing of 3D weapon models. In this paper, we would like to propose an anti-3D weapon model detection algorithm to prevent the printing of anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing based on the D2 shape distribution and an improved convolutional neural networks (CNNs. The purpose of the proposed algorithm is to detect anti-3D weapon models when they are used in 3D printing. The D2 shape distribution is computed from random points on the surface of a 3D weapon model and their geometric features in order to construct a D2 vector. The D2 vector is then trained by improved CNNs. The CNNs are used to detect anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing by training D2 vectors which have been constructed from the D2 shape distribution of 3D weapon models. Experiments with 3D weapon models proved that the D2 shape distribution of 3D weapon models in the same class is the same. Training and testing results also verified that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is higher than the conventional works. The proposed algorithm is applied in a small application, and it could detect anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing.

  16. Determination of size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic powders; Odredjivanje raspodele velicina, specificne povrsine i oblika metalnih i keramickih prahova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, DI [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za termotehniku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    For testing the size and shape distributions of metal and ceramic uranium oxide powders the following method for analysing the grain size of powders were developed and implemented: microscopic analysis and sedimentation method. A gravimetry absorption device was constructed for determining the specific surfaces of powders.

  17. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...

  18. Measurement of shape property distributions of quartzite aggregate from different crushers using 3D laser scanning system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available four crushers. In this paper, a description is provided on the quantification of particle shapes using data from a 3-D laser scanning device. The images from the laser were fully utilized in quantifying the shape descriptors in order to identify...

  19. Amplitude growth due to random, correlated kicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.; Mills, F.

    1989-03-01

    Historically, stochastic processes, such as gas scattering or stochastic cooling, have been treated by the Fokker-Planck equation. In this approach, usually considered for one dimension only, the equation can be considered as a continuity equation for a variable which would be a constant of the motion in the absence of the stochastic process, for example, the action variable, I = ε/2π for betatron oscillations, where ε is the area of the Courant-Snyder ellipse, or energy in the case of unbunched beams, or the action variable for phase oscillations in case the beam is bunched. A flux, /Phi/, including diffusive terms can be defined, usually to second order. /Phi/ = M 1 F(I) + M 2 ∂F/∂I + /hor ellipsis/. M 1 and M 2 are the expectation values of δI and (δI) 2 due to the individual stochastic kicks over some period of time, long enough that the variance of these quantities is sufficiently small. Then the Fokker-Planck equation is just ∂F/∂I + ∂/Phi//∂I = 0. In many cases those where the beam distribution has already achieved its final shape, it is sufficient to find the rate of increase of by taking simple averages over the Fokker-Planck equation. At the time this work was begun, there was good knowledge of the second moment for general stochastic processes due to stochastic cooling theory, but the form of the first moment was known only for extremely wideband processes. The purposes of this note are to derive an expression relating the expected single particle amplitude growth to the noise autocorrelation function and to obtain, thereby, the form of M 1 for narrow band processes. 4 refs

  20. Detection of cardiac wall motion defects with combined amplitude/phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Pace, L.; Brunetti, A.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier phase images have been used with some success to detect and quantify left ventricular (LV) wall motion defects. In abnormal regions of the LV, wall motion asynchronies often cause the time activity curve (TAC) to be shifted in phase. Such regional shifts are detected by analysis of the distribution function of phase values over the LV. However, not all wall motion defects result in detectable regional phase abnormalities. Such abnormalities may cause a reduction in the magnitude of contraction (and hence TAC amplitude) without any appreciable change in TAC shape(and hence phase). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the Fourier phase method for the detection of wall motion defects the authors analyzed the distribution function of Fourier amplitude as well as phase. 26 individuals with normal cardiac function and no history of cardiac disease served as controls. The goal was to detect and quantify wall motion as compared to the consensus of 3 independent observers viewing the scintigraphic cines. 26 subjects with coronary artery disease and mild wall motion defects (22 with normal EF) were studied ate rest. They found that analysis of the skew of thew amplitude distribution function improved the sensitivity for the detection of wall motion abnormalities at rest in the group from 65% to 85% (17/26 detected by phase alone, 22/26 by combined phase and amplitude analysis) while retaining a 0 false positive rate in the normal group. The authors conclude that analysis of Fourier amplitude distribution functions can significantly increase the sensitivity of phase imaging for detection of wall motion abnormalities

  1. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Rebecca; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces.

  2. Understanding S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of organic solar cells: Direct measurement of potential distributions by scanning Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saive, Rebecca; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Mueller, Christian; Schinke, Janusz; Lovrincic, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present a comparison of the potential distribution along the cross section of bilayer poly(3-hexylthiophene)/1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (P3HT/PCBM) solar cells, which show normal and anomalous, S-shaped current-voltage (IV) characteristics. We expose the cross sections of the devices with a focussed ion beam and measure them with scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. We find that in the case of S-shaped IV-characteristics, there is a huge potential drop at the PCBM/Al top contact, which does not occur in solar cells with normal IV-characteristics. This behavior confirms the assumption that S-shaped curves are caused by hindered charge transport at interfaces

  3. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  4. Measurement of event shape distributions and moments in $e^{+}e^{-} \\to$ hadrons at 91-209 GeV and a determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Roeck, A.De; Wolf, E.A.De; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; Krogh, J.von; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We have studied hadronic events from e+e- annihilation data at centre-of-mass energies from 91 to 209 GeV. We present distributions of event shape observables and their moments at each energy and compare with QCD Monte Carlo models. From the event shape distributions we extract the strong coupling alpha_s and test its evolution with energy scale. The results are consistent with the running of alpha_s expected from QCD. Combining all data, the value of alpha_s (M_z) is determined to be alpha_s(Mz)=0.1191+-0.0005(stat.)+-0.0010 (expt.)+-0.0011(hadr.)+-0.0044(theo.) The energy evolution of the moments is also used to determine a value of alpha_ with slightly larger errors: alpha_s(Mz)=0.1223+-0.0005(stat.) +-0.0014(expt.) +-0.0016(hadr.) +0.0054 -0.0036 (theo).

  5. Hidden beauty in multiloop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and prove that this method can be applied to any multiloop integral, allowing a conjectured iteration relation for any given amplitude to be tested up to polynomials in logarithms

  6. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  7. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  8. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.

  9. Estimation methods for sound levels and reverberation time in a room with irregular shape or absorption distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The reverberation time of an enclosed space is an important parameter to describe the acoustic quality in enclosed spaces. Mainly due to its simplicity Sabine’s equation is normally used even though the considered situations seldom comply with its preconditions: regular room shape, regular

  10. Analytical structure of the 3. -->. 3 forward scattering amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, A A; Medvedev, B V; Muzafarov, L M; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.

    1979-08-01

    Analytical properties of the amplitude of 3..-->..3 forward scattering established in the framework of the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach are described. The amplitudes of the different channels of the process are boundary values of a unique analytical function of invariant variables. Crossing-symmetry property of the amplitude is proved. Analysis of the absorptive part of the amplitude is performed and the generalized optical theorem is proved which connects one of the contributions into the absorptive part with the distribution function of the inclusive process.

  11. Evolution of the squeezing-enhanced vacuum state in the amplitude dissipative channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai

    2018-05-01

    We study the evolution of the squeezing-enhanced vacuum state (SEVS) in the amplitude dissipative channel by using the two-mode entangled state in the Fock space and Kraus operator. The explicit formulation of the output state is also given. It is found that the output state does not exhibit sub-Poissonian behavior for the nonnegative value of the Mandel's Q-parameters in a wide range of values of squeezing parameter and dissipation factor. It is interesting to see that second-order correlation function is independent of the dissipation factor. However, the photon-number distribution of the output quantum state shows remarkable oscillations with respect to the dissipation factor. The shape of Wigner function and the degree of squeezing show that the initial SEVS is dissipated by the amplitude dissipative channel.

  12. Amplitude-to-frequency converter of radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkov, V.P.; Korobkov, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    An amplitude-to-frequency converter designed for signal processing of radioisotope relay devices is descibed. The basic elements of the converter are a scaling amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, a code-to-frequency converter, a null-organ, a delay unit and a clock-pulse generator. The designed amplitude-to-frequency converter takes into account a prior information about the signal shape of the energy spectrum. The converter processes input pulses of 0.10 V amplitude and duration more than 2μs. The energy channel number is 64

  13. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 4; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on seismic exploration from the ground surface using the reflection method, for surface consistent amplitude correction from among effects imposed from the ground surface and a surface layer. Amplitude distribution on the reflection wave zone is complex. Therefore, items to be considered in making an analysis are multiple, such as estimation of spherical surface divergence effect and exponential attenuation effect, not only amplitude change through the surface layer. If all of these items are taken into consideration, burden of the work becomes excessive. As a method to solve this problem, utilization of amplitude in initial movement of a diffraction wave may be conceived. Distribution of the amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave shows a value relatively close to distribution of the vibration transmitting and receiving points. The reason for this is thought because characteristics of the vibration transmitting and receiving points related with waveline paths in the vicinity of the ground surface have no great difference both on the diffraction waves and on the reflection waves. The lecture described in this paper introduces an attempt of improving the efficiency of the surface consistent amplitude correction by utilizing the analysis of amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high-speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz

  15. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  16. Scattering amplitudes from multivariate polynomial division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo, E-mail: pierpaolo.mastrolia@cern.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mirabella, Edoardo, E-mail: mirabell@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Ossola, Giovanni, E-mail: GOssola@citytech.cuny.edu [New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peraro, Tiziano, E-mail: peraro@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We show that the evaluation of scattering amplitudes can be formulated as a problem of multivariate polynomial division, with the components of the integration-momenta as indeterminates. We present a recurrence relation which, independently of the number of loops, leads to the multi-particle pole decomposition of the integrands of the scattering amplitudes. The recursive algorithm is based on the weak Nullstellensatz theorem and on the division modulo the Groebner basis associated to all possible multi-particle cuts. We apply it to dimensionally regulated one-loop amplitudes, recovering the well-known integrand-decomposition formula. Finally, we focus on the maximum-cut, defined as a system of on-shell conditions constraining the components of all the integration-momenta. By means of the Finiteness Theorem and of the Shape Lemma, we prove that the residue at the maximum-cut is parametrized by a number of coefficients equal to the number of solutions of the cut itself.

  17. A statistical analysis of fibre size and shape distribution after compounding in composites reinforced by natural fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moigne, Le N.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Budtova, T.

    2011-01-01

    Using high resolution optical microscopy coupled with image analysis software and statistical methods, fibre length and aspect ratio distributions in polypropylene composites were characterized. Three types of fibres, flax, sisal and wheat straw, were studied. Number and surface weighted

  18. The importance of the human footprint in shaping the global distribution of terrestrial, freshwater and marine invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Gallardo

    Full Text Available Human activities such as transport, trade and tourism are likely to influence the spatial distribution of non-native species and yet, Species Distribution Models (SDMs that aim to predict the future broad scale distribution of invaders often rely on environmental (e.g. climatic information only. This study investigates if and to what extent do human activities that directly or indirectly influence nature (hereafter the human footprint affect the global distribution of invasive species in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. We selected 72 species including terrestrial plants, terrestrial animals, freshwater and marine invasive species of concern in a focus area located in NW Europe (encompassing Great Britain, France, The Netherlands and Belgium. Species Distribution Models were calibrated with the global occurrence of species and a set of high-resolution (9×9 km environmental (e.g. topography, climate, geology layers and human footprint proxies (e.g. the human influence index, population density, road proximity. Our analyses suggest that the global occurrence of a wide range of invaders is primarily limited by climate. Temperature tolerance was the most important factor and explained on average 42% of species distribution. Nevertheless, factors related to the human footprint explained a substantial amount (23% on average of species distributions. When global models were projected into the focus area, spatial predictions integrating the human footprint featured the highest cumulative risk scores close to transport networks (proxy for invasion pathways and in habitats with a high human influence index (proxy for propagule pressure. We conclude that human related information-currently available in the form of easily accessible maps and databases-should be routinely implemented into predictive frameworks to inform upon policies to prevent and manage invasions. Otherwise we might be seriously underestimating the species and areas under

  19. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  20. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  1. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  2. Distribution of smile line, gingival angle and tooth shape among the Saudi Arabian subpopulation and their association with gingival biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Nabeeh A; Haralur, Satheesh B; AlMaqbol, Mohammad; AlMufarrij, Ali Jubran; Al Dera, Ahmed Ali; Al-Qarni, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of smile line and maxillary tooth shape in the Saudi Arabian subpopulation, and to estimate the association between these parameters with gingival biotype. On the fulfillment of selection criteria, total 315 patients belong to Saudi Arabian ethnic group were randomly selected. Two frontal photographs of the patients were acquired. The tooth morphology, gingival angle, and smile line classification were determined with ImageJ image analyzing software. The gingival biotype was assessed by probe transparency method. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 19 (IBM Corporation, New York, USA) software to determine the frequency and association between other parameters and gingival biotype. Among the clinical parameters evaluated, the tapering tooth morphology (56.8%), thick gingival biotype (53%), and average smile line (57.5%) was more prevalent. The statistically significant association was found between thick gingival biotype and the square tooth, high smile line. The high gingival angle was associated with thin gingival biotype. The study results indicate the existence of an association between tooth shape, smile line, and gingival angle with gingival biotype.

  3. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  4. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  5. PROBING THE ROLE OF DYNAMICAL FRICTION IN SHAPING THE BSS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION. I. SEMI-ANALYTICAL MODELS AND PRELIMINARY N-BODY SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miocchi, P.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Alessandrini, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Pasquato, M.; Lee, Y.-W. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Vesperini, E. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present semi-analytical models and simplified N-body simulations with 10{sup 4} particles aimed at probing the role of dynamical friction (DF) in determining the radial distribution of blue straggler stars (BSSs) in globular clusters. The semi-analytical models show that DF (which is the only evolutionary mechanism at work) is responsible for the formation of a bimodal distribution with a dip progressively moving toward the external regions of the cluster. However, these models fail to reproduce the formation of the long-lived central peak observed in all dynamically evolved clusters. The results of N-body simulations confirm the formation of a sharp central peak, which remains as a stable feature over time regardless of the initial concentration of the system. In spite of noisy behavior, a bimodal distribution forms in many cases, with the size of the dip increasing as a function of time. In the most advanced stages, the distribution becomes monotonic. These results are in agreement with the observations. Also, the shape of the peak and the location of the minimum (which, in most of cases, is within 10 core radii) turn out to be consistent with observational results. For a more detailed and close comparison with observations, including a proper calibration of the timescales of the dynamical processes driving the evolution of the BSS spatial distribution, more realistic simulations will be necessary.

  6. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  7. Analysis of PL spectrum shape of Si-based materials as a tool for determination of Si crystallites' distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomenkova, L., E-mail: khomen@isp.kiev.ua

    2014-11-15

    This paper represents the analysis of the shape of photoluminescence spectra of Si-based nano-materials vs. energy of excitation light and temperature of measurements as a tool for the estimation of Si nanocrystallites' distribution. The samples fabricated by electrochemical etching (allowed different termination of Si nanocrystallites to be obtained) were used as modeling material. Bright emission at room temperature was observed for oxygen-terminated Si nanocrytallites, whereas hydrogen-terminated samples emit at low temperatures only. For most samples the photoluminescence spectrum was found to be complex, demonstrating competitive emission from Si crystallites and oxide defects. In latter case to separate the contribution of each recombination channel and to obtain information about crystallite distribution, low-temperature measurements of photoluminescence spectra under different excitation light energy were performed.

  8. Inverted U-shaped curve relationship between red blood cell distribution width and hypertension in a large health checkup population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingfei; Zha, Xiaojuan; Wu, Zewei; Zhu, Xinying; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Huan; Ma, Jun; Wang, Shuyi; Wen, Yufeng

    2018-03-10

    This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and hypertension in a large health check up population in China. A population of 302,527 subjects from Wuhu was enrolled in this cross-sectional health check up study between 2011 and 2016. They consisted of 126,369 women (41.78%) and 176,158 men (58.23%) with mean age of 46.9 ± 13.4 and 48.1 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The investigations included information on demographic characteristics, physical examination, and laboratory testing. Inverted U-shape relationships were observed between RDW and hypertension with peak RDW values of 14.2 (women) and 15.2 (men). After stratification by sex and adjusted with body mass index, age, white blood cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inverted U-shape relationships were also established between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, with peak RDW of 14.2, 14.5, 14.5 in women and 14.2, 16.0, 14.5 in men. Inverted U-shape relationship exists between RDW and hypertension, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure among the Chinese health check up population studied. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  10. Oceanic dispersal, vicariance and human introduction shaped the modern distribution of the termites Reticulitermes, Heterotermes and Coptotermes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Lo, Nathan; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David; Roisin, Yves; Evans, Theodore A

    2016-03-30

    Reticulitermes, Heterotermes and Coptotermes form a small termite clade with partly overlapping distributions. Although native species occur across all continents, the factors influencing their distribution are poorly known. Here, we reconstructed the historical biogeography of these termites using mitochondrial genomes of species collected on six continents. Our analyses showed that Reticulitermes split from Heterotermes + Coptotermesat 59.5 Ma (49.9-69.5 Ma 95% CI), yet the oldest split within Reticulitermes(Eurasia and North America) is 16.1 Ma (13.4-19.5 Ma) and the oldest split within Heterotermes + Coptotermesis 36.0 Ma (33.9-40.5 Ma). We detected 14 disjunctions between biogeographical realms, all of which occurred within the last 34 Ma, not only after the break-up of Pangaea, but also with the continents in similar to current positions. Land dispersal over land bridges explained four disjunctions, oceanic dispersal by wood rafting explained eight disjunctions, and human introduction was the source of two recent disjunctions. These wood-eating termites, therefore, appear to have acquired their modern worldwide distribution through multiple dispersal processes, with oceanic dispersal and human introduction favoured by the ecological traits of nesting in wood and producing replacement reproductives. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  12. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu

    2015-07-15

    Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  13. Cluster polylogarithms for scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, John; Paulos, Miguel F; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the cluster structure of two-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory we define cluster polylogarithm functions. We find that all such functions of weight four are made up of a single simple building block associated with the A 2 cluster algebra. Adding the requirement of locality on generalized Stasheff polytopes, we find that these A 2 building blocks arrange themselves to form a unique function associated with the A 3 cluster algebra. This A 3 function manifests all of the cluster algebraic structure of the two-loop n-particle MHV amplitudes for all n, and we use it to provide an explicit representation for the most complicated part of the n = 7 amplitude as an example. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  14. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  15. Topological amplitudes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1993-07-01

    We show that certain type II string amplitudes at genus g are given by the topological partition F g discussed recently by Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. These amplitudes give rise to a term in the four-dimensional effective action of the form Σ g F g W 2g , where W is the chiral superfield of N = 2 supergravitational multiplet. The holomorphic anomaly of F g is related to non-localities of the effective action due to the propagation of massless states. This result generalizes the holomorphic anomaly of the one loop case which is known to lead to non-harmonic gravitational couplings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  16. Radial power distribution shaping within a PWR fuel assembly utilizing asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, I.Z.

    1992-01-01

    As in-core fuel management designs evolve to meet the demands of increasing energy output, more innovative methods are developed to maintain power peaking within acceptable thermal margin limits. In-core fuel management staff must utilize various loading pattern strategies such as cross-core movement of fuel assemblies, multibatch enrichment schemes, and burnable absorbers as the primary means of controlling the radial power distribution. The utilization of fresh asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing assemblies as a fuel management tool provides an additional means of controlling the radial power distribution. At Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP), fresh fuel assemblies fabricated with asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel rods have been used successfully for several cycles of reactor operation. Asymmetric assemblies are neutronically modeled using the same tools and models that SNP uses to model symmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel assemblies. The CASMO-2E code is used to produce the homogenized macroscopic assembly cross sections for the nodal core simulator. Optimum fuel pin locations within the asymmetrical assembly are determined using the pin-by-pin PDQ7 assembly core model for each new assembly design. The optimum pin location is determined by the rod loading that minimizes the peak-to-average pin power

  17. Influence of the ion distribution on shape and damage in Xe-induced ripple formation on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Foschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Metzger, Hartmut [ID01 beamline, ESRF (France)

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, the creation of surface-nanostructures due to ion-beam sputtering has gained much interest due to the possibility to pattern large surface areas with tunable morphologies in a short time. One kind of those nanostructures are wave-like patterns (ripples) produced by an interplay between a roughening process caused by ion beam erosion (sputtering) of the surface and smoothening processes caused by surface diffusion. For the creation of such ripple patterns with medium energy ions, the ion beam has to be inclined with respect to the surface normal of the target by an angle between 60 {sup circle} and 80 {sup circle}. In this presentation we show that the resulting inhomogeneity within the irradiated sample area is essential for the ripple formation. We report on investigations of the ion distribution on ripple formation on Si (001) surfaces after irradiation with medium-energy Xe{sup +}-ions. We studied the change of average surface morphology and the damage imposed to the crystal by means of grazing-incidence - small angle scattering (GISAXS) and diffraction (GID) using synchrotron-radiation. We show that changing the asymmetry of the ion distribution changes both morphology and degree of damage of the crystalline material.

  18. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  19. Effect of Cooling Rates on Shape and Crystal Size Distributions of Mefenamic Acid Polymorph in Ethyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalip, S. K. Abdul; Adam, F.; Parveen, J.; Abu Bakar, M. R.; Amran, N.; Sulaiman, S. Z.; Che Man, R.; Arshad, Z. I. Mohd; Shaarani, S. Md.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigate the effect of cooling rates on mefenamic acid crystallisation in ethyl acetate. The cooling rate was varied from 0.2 to 5 °C/min. The in-line conductivity system and turbidity system were employed to detect the onset of the crystallization process. The crystals produced were analysed using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the crystals produced at different cooling rates were needle-like and exhibit polymorphic form type I. However, the aspect ratio and crystal size distributions were varied with the increased of cooling rate. A high crystals aspect ratio and narrower CSD (100-900 μm) was obtained at cooling rate of 0.5 °C/min. Thus, can be suggested as the most suitable cooling rate for crystallization of mefenamic acid in ethyl acetate.

  20. Insect-plant-pathogen interactions as shaped by future climate: effects on biology, distribution, and implications for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Dáder, Beatriz; Vassiliadis, Simone; Fereres, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the main anthropogenic gas which has drastically increased since the industrial revolution, and current concentrations are projected to double by the end of this century. As a consequence, elevated CO 2 is expected to alter the earths' climate, increase global temperatures and change weather patterns. This is likely to have both direct and indirect impacts on plants, insect pests, plant pathogens and their distribution, and is therefore problematic for the security of future food production. This review summarizes the latest findings and highlights current knowledge gaps regarding the influence of climate change on insect, plant and pathogen interactions with an emphasis on agriculture and food production. Direct effects of climate change, including increased CO 2 concentration, temperature, patterns of rainfall and severe weather events that impact insects (namely vectors of plant pathogens) are discussed. Elevated CO 2 and temperature, together with plant pathogen infection, can considerably change plant biochemistry and therefore plant defense responses. This can have substantial consequences on insect fecundity, feeding rates, survival, population size, and dispersal. Generally, changes in host plant quality due to elevated CO 2 (e.g., carbon to nitrogen ratios in C3 plants) negatively affect insect pests. However, compensatory feeding, increased population size and distribution have also been reported for some agricultural insect pests. This underlines the importance of additional research on more targeted, individual insect-plant scenarios at specific locations to fully understand the impact of a changing climate on insect-plant-pathogen interactions. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. N-loop string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture

  2. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  3. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  4. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  5. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  6. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  7. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  8. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  9. Renormalization Scale-Fixing for Complex Scattering Amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; /Madrid U.

    2005-12-21

    We show how to fix the renormalization scale for hard-scattering exclusive processes such as deeply virtual meson electroproduction by applying the BLM prescription to the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude and employing a fixed-t dispersion relation to obtain the scale-fixed real part. In this way we resolve the ambiguity in BLM renormalization scale-setting for complex scattering amplitudes. We illustrate this by computing the H generalized parton distribution at leading twist in an analytic quark-diquark model for the parton-proton scattering amplitude which can incorporate Regge exchange contributions characteristic of the deep inelastic structure functions.

  10. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  11. From magnetized iron bars to amplitude imaging of hadronic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1989-01-01

    Instruments shape research and determine which discoveries are made. Considering spin observables as carriers of information on nonperturbative QCD dynamics in hadronic reactions, we examine the relevance of amplitude analysis for the design goals of high intensity hadron facilities. New instrumental goals emerge: Hadron facility dedicated to continous measurements of spin observables and to cumulative production of computer images of scattering amplitudes over broad kinematic regions. The facility is viewed as a single instrument and termed spinoscope. We stress its connections to frontier developments in computer industries and to studies of nonperturbative states in condensed matter

  12. Scruncher phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q load of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited, VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  13. SCRUNCHER phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q loaded of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance

  14. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  15. Determination of the scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangal, A.D.; Kupsch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem to determine the elastic scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section by the unitarity equation is reexamined. We prove that the solution is unique and can be determined by a convergent iteration if the parameter lambda=sin μ of Newton and Martin is bounded by lambda 2 approx.=0.86. The method is based on a fixed point theorem for holomorphic mappings in a complex Banach space. (orig.)

  16. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  17. Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)

  18. Nonlinear Acoustics: Periodic Waveguide, Scattering of Sound by Sound, Three-Layer Fluid, Finite Amplitude Sound in a Medium Having a Distribution of Relaxation Processes, and Production of an Isolated Negative Pulse in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-03

    propagation and shape of the waveform," Conference on Lithotripsy (Extra-Corporeal Shock Wave Applications - Technical and Clinical Problems), Univer- sity of...Blackstock, "Physical aspects of lithotripsy ," Paper GG1, 115th Meeting, Acoustical Society of America, Seattle, 16-20 May 1988. ABSTRACT: J. Acoust...Am. 90, 2244(A) (1991). kAlso supported in part by Grant NAG-1-1204 and University of Southampton , Eng- land. 49 1992 ONR Contract Code 1109 JS 1. F

  19. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  20. Time-amplitude converter; Convertisseur temps-amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    It is normal in high energy physics to measure the time of flight of a particle in order to determine its mass. This can be done by the method which consists in transforming the time measurement into an analysis of amplitude, which is easier; a time-amplitude converter has therefore been built for this purpose. The apparatus here described uses a double grid control tube 6 BN 6 whose resolution time, as measured with a pulse generator, is 5 x 10{sup -11} s. The analysis of the response of a particle counter, made up of a scintillator and a photomultiplier, indicates that a time of resolution of 5 x 10{sup -10} s. can be obtained. A time of this order of magnitude is obtained experimentally with the converter. This converter has been used in the study of the time of flight of particles in a secondary beam of the accelerator Saturne. It has thus been possible to measure the energy spectrum of {pi}-mesons, of protons, and of deutons emitted from a polyethylene target bombarded by 1,4 and 2 GeV protons. (author) [French] Pour determiner la masse d'une particule, il est courant, en physique des hautes energies, de mesurer le temps de vol de cette particule. Cela peut etre fait par la methode qui consiste a transformer la mesure d'un temps en une analyse d'amplitude, plus aisee; aussi a-t-on, a cet effet, cree un convertisseur temps-amplitude. L'appareillage decrit dans cet article utilise un tube a double grille de commande 6 BN 6 dont le temps de resolution mesure avec un generateur d'impulsion est de 5.10{sup -11} s. L'analyse de la reponse d'un compteur de particules, constitue par un scintillateur et un photomultiplicateur, indique qu'un temps de resolution de 5.10{sup -10} s peut etre obtenu. Un temps de cet ordre est atteint experimentalement avec le convertisseur. Ce convertisseur a servi a l'etude du temps de vol des particules dans un faisceau secondaire de l'accelerateur Saturne. On a mesure ainsi le spectre d'energie des mesons {pi}, des protons, des deutons

  1. X-ray structure amplitudes for GaAs and InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1985-01-01

    The structure amplitudes of GaAs and InP are calculated taking into account the nonspherical parts of the valence electron density by means of a static bond charge model. The best known temperature factors and dispersion coefficients are employed. The calculated structure amplitudes should help determining exactly the shape of X-ray diffraction patterns. (author)

  2. TRH regulates action potential shape in cerebral cortex pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Patiño, Javier; Vargas, Yamili; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-07

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with a wide neural distribution and a variety of functions. It modulates neuronal electrophysiological properties, including resting membrane potential, as well as excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike frequencies. We explored, with whole-cell patch clamp, TRH effect on action potential shape in pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex. TRH reduced spike and after hyperpolarization amplitudes, and increased spike half-width. The effect varied with dose, time and cortical layer. In layer V, 0.5µM of TRH induced a small increase in spike half-width, while 1 and 5µM induced a strong but transient change in spike half-width, and amplitude; after hyperpolarization amplitude was modified at 5µM of TRH. Cortical layers III and VI neurons responded intensely to 0.5µM TRH; layer II neurons response was small. The effect of 1µM TRH on action potential shape in layer V neurons was blocked by G-protein inhibition. Inhibition of the activity of the TRH-degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) reproduced the effect of TRH, with enhanced spike half-width. Many cortical PPII mRNA+ cells were VGLUT1 mRNA+, and some GAD mRNA+. These data show that TRH regulates action potential shape in pyramidal cortical neurons, and are consistent with the hypothesis that PPII controls its action in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  4. An innovative approach to achieve re-centering and ductility of cement mortar beams through randomly distributed pseudo-elastic shape memory alloy fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajil, N.; Srinivasan, S. M.; Santhanam, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fibers can play a major role in post cracking behavior of concrete members, because of their ability to bridge cracks and distribute the stress across the crack. Addition of steel fibers in mortar and concrete can improve toughness of the structural member and impart significant energy dissipation through slow pull out. However, steel fibers undergo plastic deformation at low strain levels, and cannot regain their shape upon unloading. This is a major disadvantage in strong cyclic loading conditions, such as those caused by earthquakes, where self-centering ability of the fibers is a desired characteristic in addition to ductility of the reinforced cement concrete. Fibers made from an alternative material such as shape memory alloy (SMA) could offer a scope for re-centering, thus improving performance especially after a severe loading has occurred. In this study, the load-deformation characteristics of SMA fiber reinforced cement mortar beams under cyclic loading conditions were investigated to assess the re-centering performance. This study involved experiments on prismatic members, and related analysis for the assessment and prediction of re-centering. The performances of NiTi fiber reinforced mortars are compared with mortars with same volume fraction of steel fibers. Since re-entrant corners and beam columns joints are prone to failure during a strong ground motion, a study was conducted to determine the behavior of these reinforced with NiTi fiber. Comparison is made with the results of steel fiber reinforced cases. NiTi fibers showed significantly improved re-centering and energy dissipation characteristics compared to the steel fibers.

  5. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  6. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  7. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  8. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW in thorougbred horses from 12 to 24 months of age/ Valores da amplitude de distribuição do tamanho dos eritrócitos (RDW – Red Cell Distribution Width em equinos da raça puro sangue inglês (PSI de ambos os sexos de 12 a 24 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Souza Lopes

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for red blood cell distribution width (RDW in health horses. We obtained blood samples through jugular punctured from 90 clinicaly health thorougbred horses between 12 and 24 months of age. Blood was obtained in a Cell-Dyn 3500 (Abbott Diagnostic cell counter. Mean ± standart deviation values for RDW in male horses were 26,90 ± 1,41, whereas in females values were 26,89 ± 1,75. There were no differences in the RDW values between sexes, therefore, our reference values can be used in both males and females.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer valores da amplitude de distribuição do tamanho dos eritrócitos (RDW em eqüinos clinicamente sadios. Foram utilizadas 90 amostras de sangue de eqüinos da raça Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI, clinicamente sadios de 12 a 24 meses de idade, obtidas por venipunção jugular em tubos à vácuo contendo EDTA 10%. Posteriormente as amostras foram processadas no contador automático de células Cell-Dyn 3500 (Abbott Diagnostic. Os valores médios e o desvios-padrão para o RDW (% de machos foi de 26,90 ± 1,41 e para as fêmeas de 26,89 ± 1,75. Os resultados demonstram não haver diferenças nos valores de RDW para machos e fêmeas, podendo ser utilizados como referência para ambos os sexos.

  9. A note on probabilistic computation of earthquake response spectrum amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.G.; Trifunac, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes a method for computation of Pseudo Relative Velocity (PSV) spectrum and Absolute Acceleration (SA) spectrum so that the amplitudes and the shapes of these spectra reflect the geometrical characteristics of the seismic environment of the site. The estimated spectra also incorporate the geologic characteristics at the site, direction of ground motion and the probability of exceeding these motions. An example of applying this method in a realistic setting is presented and the uncertainties of the results are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. The role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities: an example from the southern North Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Schratzberger

    Full Text Available We combined sediment and faunal data to explore the role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities at Broken Bank and Swarte Bank, in the southern North Sea. A variety of sediment transport processes occur in the area, differing in the frequency and magnitude of sediment mobility, and the continuum between erosion, translation and sediment accumulation. The seabed contained a variety of bedforms, including longitudinal furrows, and small to very large sandwaves. The bed sediments were dominated by fine and medium sands, with admixtures of silt and gravel. Based on sedimentary bedforms and grain size analysis, a total of 11 sedimentary facies were delineated, of which 8 were analysed in detail for their relationships with the meiofauna. The sedimentary facies fell clearly into groups of facies, respectively representing high, high-moderate and moderate, and episodic sediment mobility. For those sedimentary facies where daily movement of sediments and bedforms occurred ('high' sediment mobility, the resulting spatially homogeneous environments were dominated by an impoverished nematode community comprising small deposit feeders and large predators. Resistance to sediment movement and the ability to exploit alternative food sources were prominent functional features of the successful colonisers. Those facies characterised by relatively infrequent sediment mobility ('episodic' and 'high-moderate and moderate' sediment mobility comprised a heterogeneous suite of benthic habitats, containing taxonomically and functionally diverse assemblages of nematodes of various sizes, feeding types and reproductive potential. Faunal distribution patterns here indicated trade-offs between the resistance to sediment movement, environmental tolerance and competitive abilities. Our focus on diverse assemblages of organisms with high turnover times, inhabiting highly

  11. The Role of the Sedimentary Regime in Shaping the Distribution of Subtidal Sandbank Environments and the Associated Meiofaunal Nematode Communities: An Example from the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratzberger, Michaela; Larcombe, Piers

    2014-01-01

    We combined sediment and faunal data to explore the role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities at Broken Bank and Swarte Bank, in the southern North Sea. A variety of sediment transport processes occur in the area, differing in the frequency and magnitude of sediment mobility, and the continuum between erosion, translation and sediment accumulation. The seabed contained a variety of bedforms, including longitudinal furrows, and small to very large sandwaves. The bed sediments were dominated by fine and medium sands, with admixtures of silt and gravel. Based on sedimentary bedforms and grain size analysis, a total of 11 sedimentary facies were delineated, of which 8 were analysed in detail for their relationships with the meiofauna. The sedimentary facies fell clearly into groups of facies, respectively representing high, high-moderate and moderate, and episodic sediment mobility. For those sedimentary facies where daily movement of sediments and bedforms occurred (‘high’ sediment mobility), the resulting spatially homogeneous environments were dominated by an impoverished nematode community comprising small deposit feeders and large predators. Resistance to sediment movement and the ability to exploit alternative food sources were prominent functional features of the successful colonisers. Those facies characterised by relatively infrequent sediment mobility (‘episodic’ and ‘high-moderate and moderate’ sediment mobility) comprised a heterogeneous suite of benthic habitats, containing taxonomically and functionally diverse assemblages of nematodes of various sizes, feeding types and reproductive potential. Faunal distribution patterns here indicated trade-offs between the resistance to sediment movement, environmental tolerance and competitive abilities. Our focus on diverse assemblages of organisms with high turnover times, inhabiting highly dynamic

  12. Stress distribution difference between Lava Ultimate full crowns and IPS e.max CAD full crowns on a natural tooth and on tooth-shaped implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Ivo; Daher, René

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this short communication is to present finite element analysis comparison of the stress distribution between CAD/CAM full crowns made of Lava Ultimate and of IPS e.max CAD, adhesively luted to natural teeth and to implant abutments with the shape of natural teeth. Six 3D models were prepared using a 3D content-creating software, based on a micro-CT scan of a human mandibular molar. The geometry of the full crown and of the abutment was the same for all models representing Lava Ultimate full crowns (L) and IPS e.max CAD full crowns (E) on three different abutments: prepared natural tooth (n), titanium abutment (t) and zirconia abutment (z). A static load of 400 N was applied on the vestibular and lingual cusps, and fixtures were applied to the base of the models. After running the static linear analysis, the post-processing data we analyzed. The stress values at the interface between the crown and the abutment of the Lt and Lz groups were significantly higher than the stress values at the same interface of all the other models. The high stress concentration in the adhesive at the interface between the crown and the abutment of the Lava Ultimate group on implants might be one of the factors contributing to the reported debondings of crowns.

  13. Wind conditions and geography shape the first outbound migration of juvenile honey buzzards and their distribution across sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, J.; Byholm, P.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary tracking studies reveal that low migratory connectivity between breeding and non-breeding ranges is common in migrant landbirds. It is unclear, however, how internal factors and early-life experiences of individual migrants shape the development of their migration routes and concomitant population-level non-breeding distributions. Stochastic wind conditions and geography may determine whether and where migrants end up by the end of their journey. We tested this hypothesis by satellite-tagging 31 fledgling honey buzzards Pernis apivorus from southern Finland and used a global atmospheric reanalysis model to estimate the wind conditions they encountered on their first outbound migration. Migration routes diverged rapidly upon departure and the birds eventually spread out across 3340 km of longitude. Using linear regression models, we show that the birds' longitudinal speeds were strongly affected by zonal wind speed, and negatively affected by latitudinal wind, with significant but minor differences between individuals. Eventually, 49% of variability in the birds' total longitudinal displacements was accounted for by wind conditions on migration. Some birds circumvented the Baltic Sea via Scandinavia or engaged in unusual downwind movements over the Mediterranean, which also affected the longitude at which these individuals arrived in sub-Saharan Africa. To understand why adult migrants use the migration routes and non-breeding sites they use, we must take into account the way in which wind conditions moulded their very first journeys. Our results present some of the first evidence into the mechanisms through which low migratory connectivity emerges. PMID:28539514

  14. Covariant amplitudes in Polyakov string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, H.; Dhar, A.; Namazie, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A manifestly Lorentz-covariant and reparametrization-invariant procedure for computing string amplitudes using Polyakov's formulation is described. Both bosonic and superstring theories are dealt with. The computation of string amplitudes is greatly facilitated by this formalism. (orig.)

  15. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  16. Determination of backward pion nucleon scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietarinen, E.

    1978-04-01

    Backward C(sup(+-))πN amplitudes are determined from πN→Nπ and NantiN→2π differential cross sections in such a way that they are consistent with the analyticity properties and information of the unphysical ππ→NantiN amplitudes. Combining the result with forward C(sup(+-)) amplitudes positive and negative parity resonances are extracted. An error analysis of the amplitudes is performed. (author)

  17. Classical analogues of a quantum system in spatial and temporal domains: A probability amplitude approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipta Panchadhyayee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have simulated the similar features of the well-known classical phenomena in quantum domain under the formalism of probability amplitude method. The identical pattern of interference fringes of a Fabry–Perot interferometer (especially on reflection mode is obtained through the power-broadened spectral line shape of the population distribution in the excited state with careful delineation of a coherently driven two-level atomic model. In a unit wavelength domain, such pattern can be substantially modified by controlling typical spatial field arrangement in one and two dimensions, which is found complementary to the findings of recent research on atom localization in sub-wavelength domain. The spatial dependence of temporal dynamics has also been studied at a particular condition, which is equivalent to that could be obtained under Raman–Nath diffraction controlled by spatial phase.

  18. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  19. Study of inelastic decay of amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic decay amplitudes from d-wave resonances in 49 V were obtained for 80 resonances in the proton energy range 2.2 to 3.1 MeV. With the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and high resolution system at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, an overall resolution of 350 eV was obtained. The experiment consisted of measurements of the angular distributions of the inelastically scattered protons and the subsequent deexcitation gamma rays. Forty five resonances were assigned J/sup π/ = 5/2 + , while thirty five resonances were assigned 3/2 + . The magnitudes of three inelastic decay amplitudes and the relative signs between these three amplitudes were determined. Large amplitude correlations were observed; the data are in the striking disagreement with the extreme statistical model. The present results provide the first explicit test of the multivariate reduced width amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter; the agreement is excellent. The physical origin of these channel correlations has not yet been explained

  20. Shape estimation of the buried body from the ground surface potential distributions generated by current injection; Tsuryu ni yoru chihyomen den`i bunpu wo riyoshita maizobutsu keijo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y; Okamoto, Y [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Noguchi, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Teramachi, Y [University of Industrial Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Akabane, H; Agu, M [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Ground surface potential distribution generated by current injection was studied to estimate the shape of buried bodies. Since the uniform ground system including a homogeneous buried body is perfectly determined with the surface shape of a buried body and resistivities in/around a buried body, inversion is easy if the surface shape is described with some parameters. N electrodes are arranged in 2-D grid manner on the ground, and two electrodes among them are used for current injection, while the others for measurement of potentials. M times of measurements are repeated while changing combination of electrodes for current injection. The potential distribution measured by the mth electrode pair is represented by N-2 dimensional vectors. The square error between this distribution and calculated one is the function of k parameters on the surface shape and resistivities on a buried body. Both shape and resistivities can be estimated by solving an optimum value problem using the square error as evaluation function. Analysis is easy for a spherical body with 6 unknown parameters, however, it is difficult for more complex bodies than elliptical one or more than two bodies. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Multivariable controller for discrete stochastic amplitude-constrained systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available A sub-optimal multivariable controller for discrete stochastic amplitude-constrained systems is presented. In the approach the regulator structure is restricted to the class of linear saturated feedback laws. The stationary covariances of the controlled system are evaluated by approximating the stationary probability distribution of the state by a gaussian distribution. An algorithm for minimizing a quadratic loss function is given, and examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the sub-optimal controller.

  2. Wind conditions and geography shape the first outbound migration of juvenile honey buzzards and their distribution across sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelant, W M G; Kekkonen, J; Byholm, P

    2017-05-31

    Contemporary tracking studies reveal that low migratory connectivity between breeding and non-breeding ranges is common in migrant landbirds. It is unclear, however, how internal factors and early-life experiences of individual migrants shape the development of their migration routes and concomitant population-level non-breeding distributions. Stochastic wind conditions and geography may determine whether and where migrants end up by the end of their journey. We tested this hypothesis by satellite-tagging 31 fledgling honey buzzards Pernis apivorus from southern Finland and used a global atmospheric reanalysis model to estimate the wind conditions they encountered on their first outbound migration. Migration routes diverged rapidly upon departure and the birds eventually spread out across 3340 km of longitude. Using linear regression models, we show that the birds' longitudinal speeds were strongly affected by zonal wind speed, and negatively affected by latitudinal wind, with significant but minor differences between individuals. Eventually, 49% of variability in the birds' total longitudinal displacements was accounted for by wind conditions on migration. Some birds circumvented the Baltic Sea via Scandinavia or engaged in unusual downwind movements over the Mediterranean, which also affected the longitude at which these individuals arrived in sub-Saharan Africa. To understand why adult migrants use the migration routes and non-breeding sites they use, we must take into account the way in which wind conditions moulded their very first journeys. Our results present some of the first evidence into the mechanisms through which low migratory connectivity emerges. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Shaping of the axial power density distribution in the core to minimize the vapor volume fraction at the outlet of the VVER-1200 fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savander, V. I.; Shumskiy, B. E., E-mail: borisshumskij@yandex.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Pinegin, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibility of decreasing the vapor fraction at the VVER-1200 fuel assembly outlet by shaping the axial power density field is considered. The power density field was shaped by axial redistribution of the concentration of the burnable gadolinium poison in the Gd-containing fuel rods. The mathematical modeling of the VVER-1200 core was performed using the NOSTRA computer code.

  4. Amplitude-independent flaw length determination using differential eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, E.

    2013-01-01

    Military engine component manufacturers typically specify the eddy current (EC) inspection requirements as a crack length or depth with the assumption that the cracks in both the test specimens and inspected component are of a similar fixed aspect ratio. However, differential EC response amplitude is dependent on the area of the crack face, not the length or depth. Additionally, due to complex stresses, in-service cracks do not always grow in the assumed manner. It would be advantageous to use more of the information contained in the EC data to better determine the full profile of cracks independent of the fixed aspect ratio amplitude response curve. A specimen with narrow width notches is used to mimic cracks of varying aspect ratios in a controllable manner. The specimen notches have aspect ratios that vary from 1:1 to 10:1. Analysis routines have been developed using the shape of the EC response signals that can determine the length of a surface flaw of common orientations without use of the amplitude of the signal or any supporting traditional probability of detection basis. Combined with the relationship between signal amplitude and area, the depth of the flaw can also be calculated.

  5. Phenomenological study of helicity amplitudes of high energy exclusive leptoproduction of the ρ meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Besse, A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a previously developed scheme to consistently include the twist-3 distribution amplitudes for transversely polarized ρ mesons in order to evaluate, in the framework of k T factorization, the helicity amplitudes for exclusive leptoproduction of a light vector meson, at leading order in α s . We compare our results with high energy experimental data for the ratios of helicity amplitudes T 11 /T 00 and T 01 /T 00 and get a good description of the data.

  6. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  7. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  8. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  9. Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1984-05-01

    Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.

  10. Gravothermal catastrophe of finite amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachisu, I; Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Nakada, Y; Nomoto, K

    1978-08-01

    Development of the gravothermal catastrophe is followed numerically for self-gravitating gas system enclosed by an adiabatic wall, which is isothermal in the initial state. It is found that the final fate of the catastrophe is in two ways depending on the initial perturbations. When the initial perturbation produces a temperature distribution decreasing outward, the contraction proceeds in the central region and the central density increases unlimitedly, as the heat flows outward. When the initial temperature distribution is increasing outward, on the other hand, the central region expands as the heat flows into the central region. Then the density contrast is reduced and finally the system reaches another isothermal configuration with the same energy but with a lower density contrast and a higher entropy. This final configuration is gravothermally stable and may be called a thermal system. In the former case of the unlimited contraction, the final density profile is determined essentially by the density and temperature dependence of the heat conductivity. In the case of a system under the force of the inverse square law, the final density distribution is well approximated by a power law so that the mass contained in the condensed core is relatively small. A possibility of formation of a black hole in stellar systems is also discussed.

  11. Gravothermal catastrophe of finite amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Nomoto, Ken-ichi.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the gravothermal catastrophe is followed numerically for self-gravitating gas system enclosed by an adiabatic wall, which is isothermal in the initial state. It is found that the final fate of the catastrophe is in two ways depending on the initial perturbations. When the initial perturbation produces a temperature distribution decreasing outward, the contraction proceeds in the central region and the central density increases unlimitedly, as the heat flows outward. When the initial temperature distribution is increasing outward, on the other hand, the central region expands as the heat flows into the central region. Then the density contrast is reduced and finally the system reaches another isothermal configuration with the same energy but with a lower density contrast and a higher entropy. This final configuration is gravothermally stable and may be called a thermal system. In the former case of the unlimited contraction, the final density profile is determined essentially by the density and temperature dependence of the heat conductivity. In the case of a system under the force of the inverse square law, the final density distribution is well approximated by a power law so that the mass contained in the condensed core is relatively small. A possibility of formation of a black hole in stellar systems is also discussed. (author)

  12. Amplitude structure of off-shell processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.; Goldstein, G.R.; Moravcsik, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of M matrices, or scattering amplitudes, and of potentials for off-shell processes is discussed with the objective of determining how one can obtain information on off-shell amplitudes of a process in terms of the physical observables of a larger process in which the first process is embedded. The procedure found is inevitably model dependent, but within a particular model for embedding, a determination of the physically measurable amplitudes of the larger process is able to yield a determination of the off-shell amplitudes of the embedded process

  13. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Dwight P; George, Sahara E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2015-07-01

    Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180 s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100 Hz), and additionally varied in modulation depth from 0% to 100% at the 4-Hz frequency only. Every 30 s, normal-hearing subjects estimated the loudness of one of the stimuli played at 15 dB above threshold in random order. Without any amplitude modulation, the loudness of the unmodulated tone after 180 s was only 20% of the loudness at the onset of the stimulus. Amplitude modulation systematically reduced the amount of loudness adaptation, with the 100%-modulated stimuli, regardless of modulation frequency, maintaining on average 55%-80% of the loudness at onset after 180 s. Because the present low-frequency amplitude modulation produced minimal changes in long-term spectral cues affecting the spatial distribution of excitation produced by a 12-kHz pure tone, the present result indicates that neural synchronization is critical to maintaining loudness perception over time.

  14. Study of droplet flow in a T-shape microchannel with bottom wall fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yan; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Zhaomiao

    2018-03-01

    Droplet generation in a T-shape microchannel, with a main channel width of 50 μm , side channel width of 25 μm, and height of 50 μm, is simulated to study the effects of the forced fluctuation of the bottom wall. The periodic fluctuations of the bottom wall are applied on the near junction part of the main channel in the T-shape microchannel. Effects of bottom wall's shape, fluctuation periods, and amplitudes on the droplet generation are covered in the research of this protocol. In the simulation, the average size is affected a little by the fluctuations, but significantly by the fixed shape of the deformed bottom wall, while the droplet size range is expanded by the fluctuations under most of the conditions. Droplet sizes are distributed in a periodic pattern with small amplitude along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the bottom wall near the T-junction, while the droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation. The droplet velocity is varied by the bottom wall motion, especially under the shorter period and the larger amplitude. When the fluctuation period is similar to the droplet emerging period, the droplet size is as stable as the non-fluctuation case after a development stage at the beginning of flow, while the droplet velocity is varied by the moving wall with the scope up to 80% of the average velocity under the conditions of this investigation.

  15. Improved polycrystalline Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} high-temperature shape memory alloy by γ phase distributing along grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Kaixin; Huang, Yangyang; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the shape recovery and mechanical properties of Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} high-temperature shape memory alloy are improved simultaneously. This results from the low, about 4.4%, volume fraction of γ phase being almost completely distributed along grain boundaries. The recovery strain gradually increases with the increase in residual strain with a shape recovery rate of above 68%, up to a maximum value of 5.3%. The compressive fracture strain of Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} alloy is about 35%. The results further reveal that when applying a high compression deformation two types of cracks form and propagate either within martensite grains (type I) or along the boundaries between martensite phase and γ phase (type II) in the present two-phase alloy.

  16. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  17. Effect of dust size distribution on ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas with different dust grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Yang, Yang; Yan, Qiang [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China); Wang, Xiao-Yun [Lanzhou Jiao Tong University, Department of Mathematics and Physics (China); Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: duanws@126.com [Northwest Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Theoretical studies are carried out for ion acoustic solitons in multicomponent nonuniform plasma considering the dust size distribution. The Korteweg−de Vries equation for ion acoustic solitons is given by using the reductive perturbation technique. Two special dust size distributions are considered. The dependences of the width and amplitude of solitons on dust size parameters are shown. It is found that the properties of a solitary wave depend on the shape of the size distribution function of dust grains.

  18. Photometric survey, modelling, and scaling of long-period and low-amplitude asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Müller, T.; Sanabria, J. J.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bernasconi, L.; Bronikowska, M.; Butkiewicz-Bąk, M.; Cikota, A.; Crippa, R.; Ditteon, R.; Dudziński, G.; Duffard, R.; Dziadura, K.; Fauvaud, S.; Geier, S.; Hirsch, R.; Horbowicz, J.; Hren, M.; Jerosimic, L.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Konstanciak, I.; Korlevic, P.; Kosturkiewicz, E.; Kudak, V.; Manzini, F.; Morales, N.; Murawiecka, M.; Ogłoza, W.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pilcher, F.; Polakis, T.; Poncy, R.; Santana-Ros, T.; Siwak, M.; Skiff, B.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stoss, R.; Żejmo, M.; Żukowski, K.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The available set of spin and shape modelled asteroids is strongly biased against slowly rotating targets and those with low lightcurve amplitudes. This is due to the observing selection effects. As a consequence, the current picture of asteroid spin axis distribution, rotation rates, radiometric properties, or aspects related to the object's internal structure might be affected too. Aims: To counteract these selection effects, we are running a photometric campaign of a large sample of main belt asteroids omitted in most previous studies. Using least chi-squared fitting we determined synodic rotation periods and verified previous determinations. When a dataset for a given target was sufficiently large and varied, we performed spin and shape modelling with two different methods to compare their performance. Methods: We used the convex inversion method and the non-convex SAGE algorithm, applied on the same datasets of dense lightcurves. Both methods search for the lowest deviations between observed and modelled lightcurves, though using different approaches. Unlike convex inversion, the SAGE method allows for the existence of valleys and indentations on the shapes based only on lightcurves. Results: We obtain detailed spin and shape models for the first five targets of our sample: (159) Aemilia, (227) Philosophia, (329) Svea, (478) Tergeste, and (487) Venetia. When compared to stellar occultation chords, our models obtained an absolute size scale and major topographic features of the shape models were also confirmed. When applied to thermophysical modelling (TPM), they provided a very good fit to the infrared data and allowed their size, albedo, and thermal inertia to be determined. Conclusions: Convex and non-convex shape models provide comparable fits to lightcurves. However, some non-convex models fit notably better to stellar occultation chords and to infrared data in sophisticated thermophysical modelling (TPM). In some cases TPM showed strong

  19. Disappearance of Anisotropic Intermittency in Large-amplitude MHD Turbulence and Its Comparison with Small-amplitude MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Li, Shengtai; Wang, Xin; Wang, Linghua

    2018-03-01

    Multi-order structure functions in the solar wind are reported to display a monofractal scaling when sampled parallel to the local magnetic field and a multifractal scaling when measured perpendicularly. Whether and to what extent will the scaling anisotropy be weakened by the enhancement of turbulence amplitude relative to the background magnetic strength? In this study, based on two runs of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence simulation with different relative levels of turbulence amplitude, we investigate and compare the scaling of multi-order magnetic structure functions and magnetic probability distribution functions (PDFs) as well as their dependence on the direction of the local field. The numerical results show that for the case of large-amplitude MHD turbulence, the multi-order structure functions display a multifractal scaling at all angles to the local magnetic field, with PDFs deviating significantly from the Gaussian distribution and a flatness larger than 3 at all angles. In contrast, for the case of small-amplitude MHD turbulence, the multi-order structure functions and PDFs have different features in the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular directions: a monofractal scaling and Gaussian-like distribution in the former, and a conversion of a monofractal scaling and Gaussian-like distribution into a multifractal scaling and non-Gaussian tail distribution in the latter. These results hint that when intermittencies are abundant and intense, the multifractal scaling in the structure functions can appear even if it is in the quasi-parallel direction; otherwise, the monofractal scaling in the structure functions remains even if it is in the quasi-perpendicular direction.

  20. Automation of loop amplitudes in numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    An automatic calculating system GRACE-L1 of one-loop Feynman amplitude is reviewed. This system can be applied to 2 to 2-body one-loop processes. A sample calculation of 2 to 3-body one-loop amplitudes is also presented. (orig.)

  1. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  2. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...

  3. Full amplitude models of 15 day Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, B.C.; Cox, A.N.; King, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical models of Cepheids have been computed with a range of effective temperatures and compositions. The amplitudes increase if the helium abundance increases or if the effective temperature decreases. The latter effect is contrary to observational data. The models also exhibit velocity amplitudes which are much lower than those observed

  4. Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Novaes, S.F.; Spehler, D.

    1992-07-01

    The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 - 2 , 1, and 3 - 2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron → photon + graviton are obtained. (author)

  5. Multilevel recording of complex amplitude data pages in a holographic data storage system using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-09-05

    A holographic data storage system using digital holography is proposed to record and retrieve multilevel complex amplitude data pages. Digital holographic techniques are capable of modulating and detecting complex amplitude distribution using current electronic devices. These techniques allow the development of a simple, compact, and stable holographic storage system that mainly consists of a single phase-only spatial light modulator and an image sensor. As a proof-of-principle experiment, complex amplitude data pages with binary amplitude and four-level phase are recorded and retrieved. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed holographic data storage system.

  6. New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  7. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation of the light, i.e., in amplitude and phase. We outline the theoretical concept, and then illustrate its use with the example of the laser beam shaping of Gaussian beams into flat-top beams. We quantify the performance of this approach...

  8. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few

  9. Spatial distribution of the .i.Daphnia longispina./i. species complex and other planktonic crustaceans in the heterogeneous environment of canyon-shaped reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seďa, Jaromír; Petrusek, A.; Macháček, Jiří; Šmilauer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2007), s. 619-628 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Daphnia longispina species complex * canyon-shaped reservoirs Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2007

  10. Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)

  11. Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail: 746616@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-06-15

    We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.

  12. Amplitude-Mode Dynamics of Polariton Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, R. T.; Littlewood, P. B.; Eastham, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the stability of collective amplitude excitations in nonequilibrium polariton condensates. These excitations correspond to renormalized upper polaritons and to the collective amplitude modes of atomic gases and superconductors. They would be present following a quantum quench or could be created directly by resonant excitation. We show that uniform amplitude excitations are unstable to the production of excitations at finite wave vectors, leading to the formation of density-modulated phases. The physical processes causing the instabilities can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators and the atomic Bose supernova.

  13. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  14. Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)

  15. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  16. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  17. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Søgaard, Mads; Damgaard, Poul Henrik

    This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of ...

  18. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  19. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-01

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full α' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the α' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  20. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  1. The amplitude of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, B.V.; Pavlov, V.P.; Polivanov, M.K.; Sukhanov, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    General properties of the transition amplitude in axiomatic quantum field theory are discussed. Bogolyubov's axiomatic method is chosen as the variant of the theory. The axioms of this method are analyzed. In particular, the significance of the off-shell extension and of the various forms of the causality condition are examined. A complete proof is given of the existence of a single analytic function whose boundary values are the amplitudes of all channels of a process with given particle number

  2. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  3. Computational evaluation of amplitude modulation for enhanced magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Frederik; Dupré, Luc; Ivkov, Robert; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can interact with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) to deposit localized energy for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Hyperthermia is useful in the context of multimodality treatments with radiation or chemotherapy to enhance disease control without increased toxicity. The unique attributes of heat deposition and transfer with MNPs have generated considerable attention and have been the focus of extensive investigations to elucidate mechanisms and optimize performance. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations are often conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the Pennes' bioheat equation. In the current study, the Pennes' equation was modified to include a thermal damage-dependent perfusion profile to improve model predictions with respect to known physiological responses to tissue heating. A normal distribution of MNPs in a model liver tumor was combined with empirical nanoparticle heating data to calculate tumor temperature distributions and resulting survival fraction of cancer cells. In addition, calculated spatiotemporal temperature changes were compared among magnetic field amplitude modulations of a base 150-kHz sinusoidal waveform, specifically, no modulation, sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular modulation. Complex relationships were observed between nanoparticle heating and cancer tissue damage when amplitude modulation and damage-related perfusion profiles were varied. These results are tantalizing and motivate further exploration of amplitude modulation as a means to enhance efficiency of and overcome technical challenges associated with magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH).

  4. Scalar-field amplitudes in black-hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, A.N.St.J.; D'Eath, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the quantum-mechanical decay of a Schwarzschild-like black hole into almost-flat space and weak radiation at a very late time. That is, we are concerned with evaluating quantum amplitudes (not just probabilities) for transitions from initial to final states. In this quantum description, no information is lost because of the black hole. The Lagrangian is taken, in the first instance, to consist of the simplest locally supersymmetric generalization of Einstein gravity and a massless scalar field. The quantum amplitude to go from given initial to final bosonic data in a slightly complexified time-interval T=τexp(-iθ) at infinity may be approximated by the form constxexp(-I), where I is the (complex) Euclidean action of the classical solution filling in between the boundary data. Additionally, in a pure supergravity theory, the amplitude constxexp(-I) is exact. Suppose that Dirichlet boundary data for gravity and the scalar field are posed on an initial spacelike hypersurface extending to spatial infinity, just prior to collapse, and on a corresponding final spacelike surface, sufficiently far to the future of the initial surface to catch all the Hawking radiation. Only in an averaged sense will this radiation have an approximately spherically-symmetric distribution. If the time-interval T had been taken to be exactly real, then the resulting 'hyperbolic Dirichlet boundary-value problem' would, as is well known, not be well posed. Provided instead ('Euclidean strategy') that one takes T complex, as above (0<θ=<π/2), one expects that the field equations become strongly elliptic, and that there exists a unique solution to the classical boundary-value problem. Within this context, by expanding the bosonic part of the action to quadratic order in perturbations about the classical solution, one obtains the quantum amplitude for weak-field final configurations, up to normalization. Such amplitudes are here calculated for weak final scalar fields

  5. Comparison between temperature distributions of an annular fuel rod of circular cross-section and of a hemoglobin shaped cross-section rod for PWR reactors in steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria Vitória A. de; Alvim, Antônio Carlos Marques, E-mail: moliveira@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: alvim@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work is to make a comparison between the temperature distributions of an annular fuel rod of circular cross-section and a hemoglobin shaped cross-section for PWR reactors in steady state conditions. The motivation for this article is due to the fact that the symmetric form of the red globules particles allows the O{sub 2} gases to penetrate the center of the cell homogeneously and quickly. The diffusion equation of gases in any environment is very similar to the heat diffusion equation: Diffusion - Fick's Law; Heat Flow - Fourier; where, the temperature (T) replaces the concentration (c). In previous works the comparison between the shape of solid fuel rods with circular section, and a with hemoglobin-shaped cross-section has proved that this new format optimizes the heat transfer, decreasing the thermal resistance between the center of the UO{sub 2} pellets and the clad. With this, a significant increase in the specific power of the reactor was made possible (more precisely a 23% increase). Currently, the advantages of annular fuel rods are being studied and recent works have shown that 12 x 12 arrays of annular fuel rods perform better, increasing the specific power of the reactor by at least 20% in relation to solid fuel rods, without affecting the safety of the reactor. Our proposal is analyzing the temperature distribution in annular fuel rods with cross sections with red blood cell shape and compare with the theoretical results of the annular fuel rods of circular cross section, initially in steady state. (author)

  6. Comparison between temperature distributions of an annular fuel rod of circular cross-section and of a hemoglobin shaped cross-section rod for PWR reactors in steady state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Vitória A. de; Alvim, Antônio Carlos Marques

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to make a comparison between the temperature distributions of an annular fuel rod of circular cross-section and a hemoglobin shaped cross-section for PWR reactors in steady state conditions. The motivation for this article is due to the fact that the symmetric form of the red globules particles allows the O 2 gases to penetrate the center of the cell homogeneously and quickly. The diffusion equation of gases in any environment is very similar to the heat diffusion equation: Diffusion - Fick's Law; Heat Flow - Fourier; where, the temperature (T) replaces the concentration (c). In previous works the comparison between the shape of solid fuel rods with circular section, and a with hemoglobin-shaped cross-section has proved that this new format optimizes the heat transfer, decreasing the thermal resistance between the center of the UO 2 pellets and the clad. With this, a significant increase in the specific power of the reactor was made possible (more precisely a 23% increase). Currently, the advantages of annular fuel rods are being studied and recent works have shown that 12 x 12 arrays of annular fuel rods perform better, increasing the specific power of the reactor by at least 20% in relation to solid fuel rods, without affecting the safety of the reactor. Our proposal is analyzing the temperature distribution in annular fuel rods with cross sections with red blood cell shape and compare with the theoretical results of the annular fuel rods of circular cross section, initially in steady state. (author)

  7. Cosmophysical Factors in the Fluctuation Amplitude Spectrum of Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminsky A. V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of the regular variability of the fine structure of the fluctuation in the am- plitude distributions (shapes of related histograms for the case of Brownian motion was investigated. We took an advantage of the dynamic light scattering method (DLS to get a stochastically fluctuated signal determined by Brownian motion. Shape of the histograms is most likely to vary, synchronous, in two proximally located independent cells containing Brownian particles. The synchronism persists in the cells distant at 2 m from each other, and positioned meridionally. With a parallel-wise positioning of the cells, high probability of the synchronous variation in the shape of the histograms by local time has been observed. This result meets the previous conclusion about the dependency of histogram shapes (“fluctuation amplitudes” of the spectra of stochastic processes upon rotation of the Earth.

  8. SU-F-T-31: Shape and Isodose Distributions in Co60 HDR Brachytherapy for Different Utero-Vaginal Time Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G [Faculty of Sciences, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Piriz, G [Hospital Pereyra Rossell, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize the dose in bladder and rectum and show the different shapes of the isodose volumes in Co60-HDR brachytherapy, considering different utero and vaginal sources dwell ratio times (TU:TV). Methods: Besides Ir192-HDR, new Co60-HDR sources are being incorporated. We considered different TU:TV times and computed the dosis in bladder, rectum and at the reference points of the Manchester system. Also, we calculated the isodose volume and shape in each case. We used a EZAG-BEBIG Co0.A86 model with TPS HDRplus3.0.4. and LCT42-7, LCT42-2(R,L) applicators. A reference dose RA= 1.00 Gy was given to the A-right point. We considered the TU:TV dwell time ratios 1:0.25, 1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. Given TU:TV, the stop time at each dwell position is fixed for each applicator. Results: Increasing TU:TV systematically results in a decreasing of the dose in bladder and rectum, e.g. 9% and 27% reduction were found in 1:0.25 with respect to 1:1, while 12% and 34% increase were found in 1:4 with respect to 1:1. Also, the isodose volume parameters height (h), width (w), thickness (t) and volume (hwt) increased from the 1:0.25 case to the 1:4 value: hwt is 25% lower and 31% higher than the 1:1 reference volume in these cases. Also w decreased for higher TU:TV and may compromise the tumoral volume coverage, decreasing 17% in the 1:0.25 case compared to the 1:1 case. The shape of the isodose volume was obtained for the different TU:TV considered. Conclusion: We obtained the shape of isodose volumes for different TU:TV values in gynecological Co60-HDR. We studied the dose reduction in bladder and rectum for different TU:TV ratios. The volume parameters and hwt are strongly dependent on this ratio. This information is useful for a quantitative check of the TPS and as a starting point towards optimization.

  9. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  10. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  11. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  12. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  13. High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru

  14. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  15. Analytic representations of Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourjaily, Jacob L., E-mail: bourjaily@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Feng, Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, 310027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang–Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space—fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang–Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  16. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  17. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  18. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  19. Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.

  20. Effect of Stress Amplitude on the Damping of Recycled Aggregate Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaofeng; Liu, Tiejun; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Zou, Dujian; Yang, Qiuwei

    2015-08-14

    Damping characterizes the energy dissipation capacity of materials and structures, and it is affected by several external factors such as vibrating frequency, stress history, temperature, and stress amplitude. This study investigates the relationship between the damping and the stress amplitude of environment-friendly recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). First, a function model of a member's loss factor and stress amplitude was derived based on Lazan's damping-stress function. Then, the influence of stress amplitude on the loss tangent of RAC was experimentally investigated. Finally, parameters used to determine the newly derived function were obtained by numerical fitting. It is shown that the member's loss factor is affected not only by the stress amplitude but also by factors such as the cross section shapes, boundary conditions, load types, and loading positions. The loss tangent of RAC increases with the stress amplitude, even at low stress amplitude. The damping energy exponent of RAC is not identically equal to 2.0, indicating that the damping is nonlinear. It is also found that the energy dissipation capacity of RAC is superior to that of natural aggregate concrete (NAC), and the energy dissipation capacity can be further improved by adding modified admixtures.

  1. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  2. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  3. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  4. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  5. Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.

  6. Precise generator of stability amplitude pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, N.A.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.; Kuts, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A generator of stability amplitude pulses, designed for stabilization of a low-noise semiconducting spectrometer, used in investigations of 76 Ge2β-decay, is described. The generator contains a permanent-voltage source, a storage element and a switch based on a Hg relay. A thermostatic source provides a relative voltage instability less than ±5x10 -6 per 80h (standard deviation). The Hg relay is placed into a separate thermostat. The relative instability of output generator pulse amplitude does not exceed ±1.5x10 -5 per 24h

  7. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  8. Spatial shape of avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoxuan; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2017-12-01

    In disordered elastic systems, driven by displacing a parabolic confining potential adiabatically slowly, all advance of the system is in bursts, termed avalanches. Avalanches have a finite extension in time, which is much smaller than the waiting time between them. Avalanches also have a finite extension ℓ in space, i.e., only a part of the interface of size ℓ moves during an avalanche. Here we study their spatial shape 〈S(x ) 〉 ℓ given ℓ , as well as its fluctuations encoded in the second cumulant 〈S2(x ) 〉 ℓ c. We establish scaling relations governing the behavior close to the boundary. We then give analytic results for the Brownian force model, in which the microscopic disorder for each degree of freedom is a random walk. Finally, we confirm these results with numerical simulations. To do this properly we elucidate the influence of discretization effects, which also confirms the assumptions entering into the scaling ansatz. This allows us to reach the scaling limit already for avalanches of moderate size. We find excellent agreement for the universal shape and its fluctuations, including all amplitudes.

  9. COMPARISON OF HOLOGRAPHIC AND ITERATIVE METHODS FOR AMPLITUDE OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Shevkunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental comparison of four methods for the wavefront reconstruction is presented. We considered two iterative and two holographic methods with different mathematical models and algorithms for recovery. The first two of these methods do not use a reference wave recording scheme that reduces requirements for stability of the installation. A major role in phase information reconstruction by such methods is played by a set of spatial intensity distributions, which are recorded as the recording matrix is being moved along the optical axis. The obtained data are used consistently for wavefront reconstruction using an iterative procedure. In the course of this procedure numerical distribution of the wavefront between the planes is performed. Thus, phase information of the wavefront is stored in every plane and calculated amplitude distributions are replaced for the measured ones in these planes. In the first of the compared methods, a two-dimensional Fresnel transform and iterative calculation in the object plane are used as a mathematical model. In the second approach, an angular spectrum method is used for numerical wavefront propagation, and the iterative calculation is carried out only between closely located planes of data registration. Two digital holography methods, based on the usage of the reference wave in the recording scheme and differing from each other by numerical reconstruction algorithm of digital holograms, are compared with the first two methods. The comparison proved that the iterative method based on 2D Fresnel transform gives results comparable with the result of common holographic method with the Fourier-filtering. It is shown that holographic method for reconstructing of the object complex amplitude in the process of the object amplitude reduction is the best among considered ones.

  10. Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloskokov S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.

  11. Speech Enhancement by MAP Spectral Amplitude Estimation Using a Super-Gaussian Speech Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotter Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents two spectral amplitude estimators for acoustical background noise suppression based on maximum a posteriori estimation and super-Gaussian statistical modelling of the speech DFT amplitudes. The probability density function of the speech spectral amplitude is modelled with a simple parametric function, which allows a high approximation accuracy for Laplace- or Gamma-distributed real and imaginary parts of the speech DFT coefficients. Also, the statistical model can be adapted to optimally fit the distribution of the speech spectral amplitudes for a specific noise reduction system. Based on the super-Gaussian statistical model, computationally efficient maximum a posteriori speech estimators are derived, which outperform the commonly applied Ephraim-Malah algorithm.

  12. Measurement of the shape of the boson rapidity distribution for $p\\bar{p} \\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*} \\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-} + X$ events produced at $\\sqrt{s} =1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Pengfei [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of the shape of the boson rapidity distribution for p $\\bar{p}$ → Z/γ* → e+e- + X events at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is presented in this thesis. Data, with an integrated luminosity of L = 9.86 fb-1, collected with the D0 detector during the whole RunII data taking period of the Fermilab Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collider has been used. The measurement is made for events with electron-positron mass 66 < Mee < 111 GeV. The current result gives the best precision of the boson rapidity shape at the Tevatron. It signi cantly reduces the uncertainty in the boson rapidity range |y| > 2:3. Predictions of Next-to- Leading-Order (NLO) QCD theory with CTEQ and MSTW parton distribution functions are found to agree well with the data over the full rapidity range.

  13. Assessing bed net damage: comparisons of three measurement methods for estimating the size, shape, and distribution of holes on bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L; Mathanga, Don P; Landman, Keren; Mwandama, Dyson; Minta, Anna A; Shah, Monica; Sutcliffe, James; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Steinhardt, Laura

    2017-10-10

    Measuring the physical condition of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) under field conditions is of great importance for malaria control programmes to guide decisions on how frequently to replace LLINs. Current guidelines by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) propose a proportionate hole index (pHI) for assessing LLIN condition by counting the number of holes the size of a thumb, fist, head, and larger than a head. However, this method does not account for irregular hole shapes or exact hole sizes which could result in inaccurate decisions about when to replace LLINs. LLINs were collected during a 2013 health facility-based malaria case control study in Machinga District, Malawi. To evaluate the accuracy of the pHI, the physical condition of 277 LLINs was estimated by the WHOPES method and then compared with two more thorough measurement methods: image analysis of digital photographs of each LLIN side; and for 10 nets, ruler measurements of the length, width, and location of each hole. Total hole counts and areas per net were estimated by each method, and detailed results of hole shapes and composite pictures of hole locations were generated using image analysis. The WHOPES method and image analysis resulted in similar estimates of total hole counts, each with a median of 10 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-24 and 4-23, respectively; p = 0.004); however, estimated hole areas were significantly larger using the WHOPES method (median 162 cm 2 , IQR 28-793) than image analysis (median 13 cm 2 , IQR 3-101; p holes than image analysis did (p = 0.002) in 10 LLINs; however, total hole area was not significantly different (p = 0.16). Most holes were not circular but roughly 2-5 times longer in one direction. The lower quarter of LLIN sides was found to have the most holes. The WHOPES method overestimated total hole area, likely because holes are elongated rather than circular, suggesting further adjustments to the pHI formula may be

  14. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  15. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  16. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  17. Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.

  18. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  19. Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, I.

    1979-04-01

    We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)

  20. Analytic properties of many-particle amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1982-08-01

    In the framework of N. N. Bogolyubov axiomatic approach the complete proof of the existence of an analytic function the boundary values of which are the amplitudes of any channel of n-particle process is given. The one-particle structure of this function is described.

  1. Modelling and mitigation of wheel squeal noise amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Paul A.; Liu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of vibration amplitude and sound pressure level of wheel squeal noise is investigated using a concise mathematical model that is verified with measurements from both a rolling contact two disk test rig and a field case study. The model is used to perform an energy-based analysis to determine a closed form solution to the steady state limit cycle amplitude of creep and vibration oscillations during squealing. The analytical solution compares well with a numerical solution using an experimentally tuned creep curve with full nonlinear shape. The predicted squeal sound level trend also compares well with that recorded at various crabbing velocities (proportional to angle of attack) for the test rig at different rolling speeds. In addition, further verification is performed against many field recordings of wheel squeal on a sharp curve of 300 m. A comparison with a simplified modified result from Rudd [1] is also provided and highlights the accuracy and advantages of the present efficient model. The analytical solution provides insight into why the sound pressure level of squeal noise increases with crabbing velocity (or angle of attack) as well as how the amplitude is affected by the critical squeal parameters including a detailed investigation of modal damping. Finally, the efficient model is used to perform a parametric investigation into means of achieving a 6 dB decrease in squeal noise. The results highlight the primary importance of crabbing velocity (and angle of attack) as well as the creep curve parameters that may be controlled using third body control (ie friction modifiers). The results concur with experimental and field observations and provide important theoretical insight into the useful mechanisms of mitigating wheel squeal and quantifying their relative merits.

  2. Time and amplitude dependent damping in a single crystal of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrens, A.; Ritchie, I.G.; Sprungmann, K.W.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude dependent and time dependent damping in a single crystal of zirconium has been investigated in the temperature range ambient to 400 0 C. The results are attributed to a combination of dislocation unpinning and pin rearrangement. After stabilization of the pin distribution by vibration conditioning, followed by a sudden large increase in amplitude, it is shown that the specimen retains a memory of the stabilized state

  3. Local analyticity properties of the n particle scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bros, J; Glaser, Vladimir Jurko

    1972-01-01

    The connected part F/sub /c(p) of the scattering amplitude (p/sub 1 /...p/sub /r mod S-1 mod p/sub r+1/,..., p/sub n/) defined on the mass shell p/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/ and deduced from a local field theory involving only (stable) particles with strictly positive masses can be represented in a suitable neighbourhood of any physical point p as a finite sum f/sub /c(p)= Sigma /sub 1//sup N/F/sub i/(p) of partial amplitudes', each F/sub i/(k) analytic in a certain domain F /sub i/ of the complex mass shell k/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/. The mentioned real neighbourhood lies on the boundary of each F/sub i/. The above decomposition may fail to hold only at points p where any two incoming or any two outgoing four-momenta become parallel (thresholds). The number N as well as the shape of the domains F/sub i / depend on the number n and on the real neighbourhood considered. For a generic configuration p the intersection of the domains F/sub i/ is empty. When this does not happen, F/sub i/(p) is the boundar...

  4. Dispersion relation for the 3. -->. 3 forward scattering amplitude and the generalized optical theorem. [Crossing properties, dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, A A; Medvedev, B V; Mestvirishvili, M A; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1977-11-01

    Investigation of analytical structure of the three-particle forward scattering amplitude with respect to energy variable of one of particles is performed. The results obtained make it possible to draw the conclusions on crossing properties of the amplitude and to derive the generalized optical theorem relating the discontinuity of the amplitude to the distribution function of an inclusive process. For a special case when two of three particles are of zero mass, a dispersion relation is proved.

  5. Climate Tolerances and Habitat Requirements Jointly Shape the Elevational Distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps, with Implications for Climate Change Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah H Yandow

    Full Text Available Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions.

  6. Holocene re-colonisation, central-marginal distribution and habitat specialisation shape population genetic patterns within an Atlantic European grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, D E V; Jentsch, A; Durka, W

    2015-05-01

    Corynephorus canescens (L.) P.Beauv. is an outbreeding, short-lived and wind-dispersed grass species, highly specialised on scattered and disturbance-dependent habitats of open sandy sites. Its distribution ranges from the Iberian Peninsula over Atlantic regions of Western and Central Europe, but excludes the two other classical European glacial refuge regions on the Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas. To investigate genetic patterns of this uncommon combination of ecological and biogeographic species characteristics, we analysed AFLP variation among 49 populations throughout the European distribution range, expecting (i) patterns of SW European glacial refugia and post-glacial expansion to the NE; (ii) decreasing genetic diversity from central to marginal populations; and (iii) interacting effects of high gene flow and disturbance-driven genetic drift. Decreasing genetic diversity from SW to NE and distinct gene pool clustering imply refugia on the Iberian Peninsula and in western France, from where range expansion originated towards the NE. High genetic diversity within and moderate genetic differentiation among populations, and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance indicate a gene flow drift equilibrium within C. canescens, probably due to its restriction to scattered and dynamic habitats and limited dispersal distances. These features, as well as the re-colonisation history, were found to affect genetic diversity gradients from central to marginal populations. Our study emphasises the need for including the specific ecology into analyses of species (re-)colonisation histories and range centre-margin analyses. To account for discontinuous distributions, new indices of marginality were tested for their suitability in studies of centre-periphery gradients. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Climate tolerances and habitat requirements jointly shape the elevational distribution of the American Pika (Ochotona princeps), with implications for climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandow, Leah H.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Doak, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most compelling examples of ecological responses to climate change are elevational range shifts of individual species, which have been observed throughout the world. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests substantial mediation of simple range shifts due to climate change by other limiting factors. Understanding limiting factors for a species within different contexts, therefore, is critical for predicting responses to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is an ideal species for investigating distributions in relation to climate because of their unusual and well-understood natural history as well as observed shifts to higher elevation in parts of their range. We tested three hypotheses for the climatic or habitat characteristics that may limit pika presence and abundance: summer heat, winter snowpack, and forage availability. We performed these tests using an index of pika abundance gathered in a region where environmental influences on pika distribution have not been well-characterized. We estimated relative pika abundance via scat surveys and quantified climatic and habitat characteristics across two North-Central Rocky Mountain Ranges, the Wind River and Bighorn ranges in Wyoming, USA. Pika scat density was highest at mid-elevations and increased linearly with forage availability in both ranges. Scat density also increased with temperatures conducive to forage plant growth, and showed a unimodal relationship with the number of days below -5°C, which is modulated by insulating snowpack. Our results provide support for both the forage availability and winter snowpack hypotheses. Especially in montane systems, considering the context-dependent nature of climate effects across regions and elevations as well as interactions between climatic and other critical habitat characteristics, will be essential for predicting future species distributions.

  8. Effects of Port Shape on Steady Flow Characteristics in an SI Engine with Semi-Wedge Combustion Chamber (2) - Velocity Distribution (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Inkyoung; Ohm, Inyong [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study is the second investigation on the steady flow characteristics of an SI engine with a semi-edge combustion chamber as a function of the port shape with varying evaluation positions. For this purpose, the planar velocity profiles were measured from 1.75B, 1.75 times of bore position apart from the bottom of head, to 6.00B positions using particle – image velocimetry. The flow patterns were examined with both a straight and a helical port. The velocity profiles, streamlines, and centers of swirl were almost the same at the same valve lift regardless of the measuring position, which is quite different from the case of the pent-roof combustion chamber. All the eccentricity values of the straight port were out of distortion criterion 0.15 through the lifts and the position. However, the values of the helical port exceeded the distortion criterion by up to 4 mm lift, but decreased rapidly above the 3.00B position and the 5 mm lift. There always existed a relative offset effect in the evaluation of the swirl coefficient using the PIV method due to the difference of the ideal impulse swirl meter velocity profile assumption, except for the cylinder-center-base estimation that was below 4 mm of the straight port. Finally, it was concluded that taking the center as an evaluation basis and the assumption about the axial velocity profile did not have any qualitative effect on swirl evaluation, but affected the value owing to the detailed profile.

  9. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier; Mesure des fluctuations d'amplitude d'un photo multiplicateur a reponse rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbault, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [French] Pour etudier les fluctuations d'amplitude d'un photomultiplicateur a reponse rapide, on introduit deux variables aleatoires independantes qui determinent la forme de l'impulsion anodique. L'energie de chaque impulsion, directement fonction du gain et de sa variance, est la premiere variable; les fluctuations d'amplitude, fonctions de la premiere variable, dependent egalement de la largeur de l'impulsion qui, elle, constitue la deuxieme variable. Les resultats obtenus sur les variations de l'amplitude maximale, a l'aide d'un circuit elargisseur d'impulsions a front raide, et les resultats des variations statistiques du gain sont compares pour mettre en evidence le fait que la variance relative a l'amplitude maximale du signal est plus grande que celle du gain. Dans la mesure de ces fluctuations, sont mises en evidence la contribution du coefficient d'emission secondaire de la premiere dynode et celle du coefficient d'emission secondaire moyen du multiplicateur. (auteur)

  10. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby J Lloyd-Jones

    Full Text Available Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP study. The main findings were as follows: (1 we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2 we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3 these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry objects; and (4 neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  11. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Roberts, Mark V; Leek, E Charles; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Truchanowicz, Ewa G

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP) study. The main findings were as follows: (1) we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2) we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3) these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana) and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry) objects; and (4) neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  12. Inferring processes from spatial patterns: the role of directional and non-directional forces in shaping fish larvae distribution in a freshwater lake system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bertolo

    Full Text Available Larval dispersal is a crucial factor for fish recruitment. For fishes with relatively small-bodied larvae, drift has the potential to play a more important role than active habitat selection in determining larval dispersal; therefore, we expect small-bodied fish larvae to be poorly associated with habitat characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we used as model yellow perch (Perca flavescens, whose larvae are among the smallest among freshwater temperate fishes. Thus, we analysed the habitat association of yellow perch larvae at multiple spatial scales in a large shallow fluvial lake by explicitly modelling directional (e.g. due to water currents and non-directional (e.g. due to aggregation spatial patterns. This allowed us to indirectly assess the relative roles of drift (directional process and potential habitat choice on larval dispersal. Our results give weak support to the drift hypothesis, whereas yellow perch show a strong habitat association at unexpectedly small sizes, when compared to other systems. We found consistent non-directional patterns in larvae distributions at both broad and medium spatial scales but only few significant directional components. The environmental variables alone (e.g. vegetation generally explained a significant and biologically relevant fraction of the variation in fish larvae distribution data. These results suggest that (i drift plays a minor role in this shallow system, (ii larvae display spatial patterns that only partially covary with environmental variables, and (iii larvae are associated to specific habitats. By suggesting that habitat association potentially includes an active choice component for yellow perch larvae, our results shed new light on the ecology of freshwater fish larvae and should help in building more realistic recruitment models.

  13. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...

  14. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J

    2012-01-01

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  15. Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forde, D

    2008-01-01

    In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen parameterization of the cut loop momentum approach infinity. Measurements of new physics at the forthcoming experimental program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a precise understanding of processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). This places increased demands for the computation of new one-loop amplitudes. This in turn has spurred recent developments towards improved calculational techniques. Direct calculations using Feynman diagrams are in general inefficient. Developments of more efficient techniques have usually centered around unitarity techniques [1], where tree amplitudes are effectively 'glued' together to form loops. The most straightforward application of this method, in which the cut loop momentum is in D = 4, allows for the computation of 'cut-constructible' terms only, i.e. (poly)logarithmic containing terms and any related constants. QCD amplitudes contain, in addition to such terms, rational pieces which cannot be derived using such cuts. These 'missing' rational parts can be extracted using cut loop momenta in D = 4-2 (var e psilon). The greater difficulty of such calculations has restricted the application of this approach, although recent developments [3, 4] have provided new promise for this technique. Recently the application of on-shell recursion relations [5] to obtaining the 'missing' rational parts of one-loop processes [6] has provided an alternative very promising solution to this problem. In combination with unitarity methods an 'on-shell bootstrap' approach provides an efficient technique for computing complete one-loop QCD amplitudes [7]. Additionally

  16. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Puhlfürst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.

  17. Unitarity and amplitudes for high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that in the quantum field theory of scalar particles with mass m the following inequalities for the upper bound for the amplitude of elastic scattering Μ(s,t) |Μ(s,t)| 0 )s, (|t|≥|t 0 |>0) and for the total cross section of scalar particles σ tot (s)≤C|d/dt ln Im Μ(s,t)| t=0 , (s → ∞) are valid. This result is based on the unitarity of the S-matrix on the mass shell and on a natural assumption that the imaginary part of the elastic scattering Im Μ(s,t) is a differentiable and convex down function in some vicinity of t=0. The locality of the theory and the analyticity of the elastic amplitude in the Martin-Lehmann ellipse are not used in proving these inequalities

  18. Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.

    1990-02-01

    In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)

  19. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  20. On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restuccia, A.; Taylor, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed [10]-SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string worldsheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions

  1. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances

  2. Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.

  3. How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1974-01-01

    The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)

  4. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  5. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  6. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-01-01

    ' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs

  7. Oscillatory shear response of moisture barrier coatings containing clay of different shape factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugge, C; Vanderhoek, N; Bousfield, D W

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory shear rheology of barrier coatings based on dispersed styrene-butadiene latex and clay of various shape factors or aspect ratio has been explored. Barrier performance of these coatings when applied to paperboard has been assessed in terms of water vapour transmission rates and the results related to shape factor, dewatering and critical strain. It has been shown that a system based on clay with high shape factor gives a lower critical strain, dewatering and water vapour transmission rate compared with clays of lower shape factor. The dissipated energy, as calculated from an amplitude sweep, indicated no attractive interaction between clay and latex implying a critical strain that appears to be solely dependent on the shape factor at a constant volume fraction. Particle size distribution was shown to have no effect on the critical strain while coatings of high elasticity exhibited high yield strains as expected. The loss modulus demonstrated strain hardening before the elastic to viscous transition. The loss modulus peak was identified by a maximum strain which was significantly lower for a coating based on clay with a high shape factor. The characteristic elastic time was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.3s. The zero shear viscosity of barrier dispersion coatings were estimated from the characteristic elastic time and the characteristic modulus to be of the order of 25-100 Pa s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Myosin-1 inhibition by PClP affects membrane shape, cortical actin distribution and lipid droplet dynamics in early Zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Gupta

    Full Text Available Myosin-1 (Myo1 represents a mechanical link between the membrane and actin-cytoskeleton in animal cells. We have studied the effect of Myo1 inhibitor PClP in 1-8 cell Zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate a unique involvement of Myo1 in early development of Zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Myo1 (by PClP and Myo2 (by Blebbistatin lead to arrest in cell division. While Myo1 isoforms appears to be important for both the formation and the maintenance of cleavage furrows, Myo2 is required only for the formation of furrows. We found that the blastodisc of the embryo, which contains a thick actin cortex (~13 μm, is loaded with cortical Myo1. Myo1 appears to be crucial for maintaining the blastodisc morphology and the actin cortex thickness. In addition to cell division and furrow formation, inhibition of Myo1 has a drastic effect on the dynamics and distribution of lipid droplets (LDs in the blastodisc near the cleavage furrow. All these results above are effects of Myo1 inhibition exclusively; Myo2 inhibition by blebbistatin does not show such phenotypes. Therefore, our results demonstrate a potential role for Myo1 in the maintenance and formation of furrow, blastodisc morphology, cell-division and LD organization within the blastodisc during early embryogenesis.

  9. The Role of External Inputs and Internal Cycling in Shaping the Global Ocean Cobalt Distribution: Insights From the First Cobalt Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Hawco, Nicholas J.; Bundy, Randelle M.; Landing, William M.; Milne, Angela; Morton, Peter L.; Saito, Mak A.

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt is an important micronutrient for ocean microbes as it is present in vitamin B12 and is a co-factor in various metalloenzymes that catalyze cellular processes. Moreover, when seawater availability of cobalt is compared to biological demands, cobalt emerges as being depleted in seawater, pointing to a potentially important limiting role. To properly account for the potential biological role for cobalt, there is therefore a need to understand the processes driving the biogeochemical cycling of cobalt and, in particular, the balance between external inputs and internal cycling. To do so, we developed the first cobalt model within a state-of-the-art three-dimensional global ocean biogeochemical model. Overall, our model does a good job in reproducing measurements with a correlation coefficient of >0.7 in the surface and >0.5 at depth. We find that continental margins are the dominant source of cobalt, with a crucial role played by supply under low bottom-water oxygen conditions. The basin-scale distribution of cobalt supplied from margins is facilitated by the activity of manganese-oxidizing bacteria being suppressed under low oxygen and low temperatures, which extends the residence time of cobalt. Overall, we find a residence time of 7 and 250 years in the upper 250 m and global ocean, respectively. Importantly, we find that the dominant internal resupply process switches from regeneration and recycling of particulate cobalt to dissolution of scavenged cobalt between the upper ocean and the ocean interior. Our model highlights key regions of the ocean where biological activity may be most sensitive to cobalt availability.

  10. Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simren Brar

    Full Text Available White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales. This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur.

  11. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  12. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  13. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM), which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM), which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM) are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for 'difficult' variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships. Relying on GAMLSS, we

  14. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coupé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM, which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM, which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS. We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for ‘difficult’ variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships

  15. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  16. Bilateral preictal signature of phase-amplitude coupling in canine epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Laura; Bou Assi, Elie; Nguyen, Dang K; Rihana, Sandy; Sawan, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    Seizure forecasting would improve the quality of life of patients with refractory epilepsy. Although early findings were optimistic, no single feature has been found capable of individually characterizing brain dynamics during transition to seizure. Cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling has been recently proposed as a precursor of seizure activity. This work evaluates the existence of a statistically significant difference in mean phase amplitude coupling distribution between the preictal and interictal states of seizures in dogs with bilaterally implanted intracranial electrodes. Results show a statistically significant change (p<0.05) of phase amplitude coupling during the preictal phase. This change is correlated with the position of implanted electrodes and is more significant within high-gamma frequency bands. These findings highlight the potential benefit of bilateral iEEG analysis and the feasibility of seizure forecasting based on slow modulation of high frequency amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  18. Loop amplitudes in an extended gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the S-matrix of gravity by the addition of the minimal three-point amplitude or equivalently adding R3 terms to the Lagrangian. We demonstrate how Unitarity can be used to simply examine the renormalisability of this theory and determine the R4 counter-terms that arise at one-loop. We find that the combination of R4 terms that arise in the extended theory is complementary to the R4 counter-term associated with supersymmetric Lagrangians.

  19. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  20. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated...... the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... of noisy environments and will alter their speech accordingly....

  1. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...

  2. First order correction to quasiclassical scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    First order (with respect to h) correction to quasiclassical with the aid of scattering amplitude in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is considered. This correction is represented by two-loop diagrams and includes the double integrals. With the aid of classical equations of motion, the sum of the contributions of the two-loop diagrams is transformed into the expression which includes one-dimensional integrals only. The specific property of the expression obtained is that the integrand does not possess any singularities in the focal points of the classical trajectory. The general formula takes much simpler form in the case of one-dimensional systems

  3. Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Nicola, A.; Pelaez, J. R.; Rios, G.

    2008-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.

  4. Survey of vibration amplitudes throughout the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of vibrations of the Linac structure due to on site disturbances, such as cooling towers, pumps, generators, Highway 280 overpass traffic, is of interest. CN-263, for example, discusses tolerances of random (i.e., uncorrelated) quad jitter and suggests that amplitudes should not exceed 0.7 microns rms. This note describes the results of a series of measurements carried out in the summer of 1983. In general, the tolerance is not exceeded, but there appears not to be a good safety factor at low frequencies

  5. DESIGN OF MIRRORS AND APODIZATION FUNCTIONS IN PHASE-INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Eric, E-mail: eric.j.cady@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors that reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any given pair of mirrors, or conversely mirror shapes chosen for given apodizers, to produce an arbitrary amplitude profile at the output of the system. We show how classical PIAA systems may be designed by this method and present the design of a novel four-mirror system with higher throughput than a standard two-mirror system. We also discuss the limitations due to diffraction and the design steps that may be taken to mitigate them.

  6. Shape coexistence in 72Kr at finite angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almehed, Daniel; Walet, Niels R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate shape coexistence in a rotating nucleus. We concentrate on the case of 72 Kr which exhibits an interesting interplay between prolate and oblate shaped states as a function of angular momentum. The calculation uses the local harmonic version of the method of self-consistent adiabatic large-amplitude collective motion. We analyse how the collective behaviour of the system changes with angular momentum and we focus on the role of non-axial shapes

  7. Reduction in plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes during a substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yuan, Z.; Yu, X.; Deng, X.; Tang, R.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is an important plasma wave in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons, so the distribution and generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss waves is worthy of study. Previous studies have found that the amplitude of plasmaspheric hiss waves tends to increase as substorm activity increases. In this study, through analysis of a hiss event observed by the Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), it is found that the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves at magnetic local time (MLT) > 1300 (L≈5) is reduced or even disappears during a substorm. After calculating energetic electron trajectories, we suggest that this is because electrons are prevented from entering the plasmasphere at MLT > 1300 (L≈5) by the stronger convection electric field during the substorm. The calculations are consistent with direct observations from the RBSP satellites. The results highlight the significant and complex variability of plasmaspheric hiss waves. The amplitude of these waves on the dayside is not necessarily positively correlated with substorm activity, as negative correlations may be observed on the afternoon side during a substorm.

  8. Measurement of the Σπ photoproduction line shapes near the Λ(1405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Sanctis, E.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, S.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Torayev, B.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2013-03-01

    The reaction γ+p→K++Σ+π was used to determine the invariant mass distributions or “line shapes” of the Σ+π-, Σ-π+, and Σ0π0 final states, from threshold at 1328 MeV/c2 through the mass range of the Λ(1405) and the Λ(1520). The measurements were made with the CLAS system at Jefferson Lab using tagged real photons, for center-of-mass energies 1.95distributions differ strongly in the vicinity of the I=0 Λ(1405), indicating the presence of substantial I=1 strength in the reaction. Background contributions to the data from the Σ0(1385) and from K*Σ production were studied and shown to have negligible influence. To separate the isospin amplitudes, Breit-Wigner model fits were made that included channel-coupling distortions due to the NK¯ threshold. A best fit to all the data was obtained after including a phenomenological I=1, JP=1/2- amplitude with a centroid at 1394±20 MeV/c2 and a second I=1 amplitude at 1413±10 MeV/c2. The centroid of the I=0 Λ(1405) strength was found at the Σπ threshold, with the observed shape determined largely by channel coupling, leading to an apparent overall peak near 1405 MeV/c2.

  9. Design of mirrors and apodization functions in phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors which reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam-shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any give...

  10. On the propagation of low-hybrid waves of finite amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A.N.; Piliya, A.D.; Fedorov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Propagation of low-hybrid waves of a finite amplitude with allowance for variation in plasma density caused by HF field pressure is studied. Considered is wave ''overturning'' which takes place in the absence of space dispersion. With taking account of dispersion the wave propagation is described by the third-order nonlinear equation which differs in shape from the complex modified Korteweg-de-Vries (Hirota) equation. Solutions of this equation of the space solution type are found

  11. An Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Amplitude Estimation of Saturated Optical Transient Signals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagie, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lanterman, Aaron D. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This paper addresses parameter estimation for an optical transient signal when the received data has been right-censored. We develop an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the amplitude of a Poisson intensity with a known shape in the presence of additive background counts, where the measurements are subject to saturation effects. We compare the results of our algorithm with those of an EM algorithm that is unaware of the censoring.

  12. Multichannel amplitude analyser for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, S.; Milovanovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    A multichannel amplitude analyser with 4096 channels was designed. It is based on a fast 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The intended purpose of the instrument is recording nuclear spectra by means of scintillation detectors. The computer link is established through an opto-isolated serial connection cable, thus reducing instrument sensitivity to disturbances originating from digital circuitry. Refreshing of the data displayed on the screen occurs on every 2.5 seconds. The impulse peak detection is implemented through the differentiation of the amplified input signal, while the synchronization with the data coming from the converter output is established by taking advantage of the internal 'pipeline' structure of the converter itself. The mode of operation of the built-in microcontroller provides that there are no missed impulses, and the simple logic network prevents the initiation of the amplitude reading sequence for the next impulse in case it appears shortly after its precedent. The solution proposed here demonstrated a good performance at a comparatively low manufacturing cost, and is thus suitable for educational purposes (author)

  13. Getting superstring amplitudes by degenerating Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explicitly show how the chiral superstring amplitudes can be obtained through factorisation of the higher genus chiral measure induced by suitable degenerations of Riemann surfaces. This powerful tool also allows to derive, at any genera, consistency relations involving the amplitudes and the measure. A key point concerns the choice of the local coordinate at the node on degenerate Riemann surfaces that greatly simplifies the computations. As a first application, starting from recent ansaetze for the chiral measure up to genus five, we compute the chiral two-point function for massless Neveu-Schwarz states at genus two, three and four. For genus higher than three, these computations include some new corrections to the conjectural formulae appeared so far in the literature. After GSO projection, the two-point function vanishes at genus two and three, as expected from space-time supersymmetry arguments, but not at genus four. This suggests that the ansatz for the superstring measure should be corrected for genus higher than four.

  14. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  15. Fatigue life prediction of rotor blade composites: Validation of constant amplitude formulations with variable amplitude experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, T; Nijssen, R P L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort

  16. Fatigue life prediction of rotor blade composites: Validation of constant amplitude formulations with variable amplitude experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort.

  17. Amplitude death in a ring of nonidentical nonlinear oscillators with unidirectional coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Ho; Son, Woo-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Uk

    2017-08-01

    We study the collective behaviors in a ring of coupled nonidentical nonlinear oscillators with unidirectional coupling, of which natural frequencies are distributed in a random way. We find the amplitude death phenomena in the case of unidirectional couplings and discuss the differences between the cases of bidirectional and unidirectional couplings. There are three main differences; there exists neither partial amplitude death nor local clustering behavior but an oblique line structure which represents directional signal flow on the spatio-temporal patterns in the unidirectional coupling case. The unidirectional coupling has the advantage of easily obtaining global amplitude death in a ring of coupled oscillators with randomly distributed natural frequency. Finally, we explain the results using the eigenvalue analysis of the Jacobian matrix at the origin and also discuss the transition of dynamical behavior coming from connection structure as the coupling strength increases.

  18. Tuneable Gaussian to flat-top resonator by amplitude beam shaping using a digital laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a simple laser cavity that produces spatial tuneable laser modes from a Gaussian beam to a Flat-top beam and a Donut-beam. The laser cavity contains an opaque ring and an adjustable circular aperture...

  19. Tuneable Gaussian to flat-top resonator by amplitude beam shaping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline a simple laser cavity comprising an opaque ring and a circular aperture that is capable of producing spatially tuneable laser modes, from a Gaussian beam to a Flat-top beam. The tuneability is achieved by varying the diameter...

  20. Thrombelastography Early Amplitudes in bleeding and coagulopathic trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Holst; Meyer, Martin A S; Meyer, Anna Sina P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early amplitudes in the viscoelastic hemostatic assays Thrombelastography (TEG) and Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide fast results, which is critical in resuscitation of bleeding patients. This study investigated associations between TEG early amplitudes and standard TEG var...

  1. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  2. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-01-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  3. Variational principles for the projected breakup amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Two alternate forms of variational principles for the breakup amplitude describing the two- to three-cluster transition are derived such that all the integrals involved in the intermediate stages are well defined. The first form contains a trial Green's function with which both the initial and final state trial wave functions are constructed. The earlier form of the Kohn-type variational principle derived by Lieber, Rosenberg, and Spruch is recovered, however, when this connection between the trial functions is removed. The second form of the variational principle is derived by projecting out from the trial functions all the open channel components which correspond to the two-cluster structures including the rearrangement channels. The remaining part of the wave functions describes the channels with three-cluster structures, and the integrals involving this part are then mathematically well defined

  4. Single isospin decay amplitude and CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N.G. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science; He, Xiaogang [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Pakvasa, S. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-06-01

    While for K meson or hyperon decays, the partial rate asymmetries are always zero if the final states are single isospin states, in B decays the situation is dramatically different and partial rate asymmetries can be non-zero if the final states are single isospin states. Partial rate asymmetries were calculated for several B decays with single isospin amplitude in the finale states using factorization approximation. It was found that more intermediate on-shell states with different Cabbibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa factors are allowed in B decay and CP violating partial rate asymmetries need not to be zero even if the final state contains only a single isospin state. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaert, Tom; Verheest, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Earlier systematic nonlinear treatments of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves have been given within a fluid dynamic approach, in a frame where the nonlinear structures are stationary and various constraining first integrals can be obtained. This has lead to the concept of oscillitons that has found application in various space plasmas. The present paper differs in three main aspects from the previous studies: first, the invariants are derived in the plasma frame, as customary in the Sagdeev method, thus retaining in Maxwell's equations all possible effects. Second, a single differential equation is obtained for the parallel fluid velocity, in a form reminiscent of the Sagdeev integrals, hence allowing a fully nonlinear discussion of the oscilliton properties, at such amplitudes as the underlying Mach number restrictions allow. Third, the transition to weakly nonlinear whistler oscillitons is done in an analytical rather than a numerical fashion

  6. Topological amplitudes in heterotic superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1996-06-01

    We show that certain heterotic string amplitudes are given in terms of correlators of the twisted topological (2,0) SCFT, corresponding to the internal sector of the N = 1 spacetime supersymmetric background. The genus g topological partition function F g corresponds to a term in the effective action of the form W 2g , where W is the gauge or gravitational superfield. We study also recursion relations related to holomorphic anomalies, showing that, contrary to the type II case, they involve correlators of anti-chiral superfields. The corresponding terms in the effective action are of the form W 2g II n , where II is a chiral superfield obtained by chiral projection of a general superfield. We observe that the structure of the recursion relations is that of N = 1 spacetime supersymmetry Ward identity. We give also a solution of the tree level recursion relations and discuss orbifold examples. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs

  7. Polynomial structures in one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Yang Gang

    2008-01-01

    A general one-loop scattering amplitude may be expanded in terms of master integrals. The coefficients of the master integrals can be obtained from tree-level input in a two-step process. First, use known formulas to write the coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals; these formulas depend on an additional variable, u, which encodes the dimensional shift. Second, convert the u-dependent coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals to explicit coefficients of dimensionally shifted master integrals. This procedure requires the initial formulas for coefficients to have polynomial dependence on u. Here, we give a proof of this property in the case of massless propagators. The proof is constructive. Thus, as a byproduct, we produce different algebraic expressions for the scalar integral coefficients, in which the polynomial property is apparent. In these formulas, the box and pentagon contributions are separated explicitly.

  8. Amplitude analysis of $B^0 → ¯D^0 K^+ π^-$ decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Raven, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Dalitz plot distribution of B0→D¯0K+π- decays is studied using a data sample corresponding to 3.0fb-1 of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The data are described by an amplitude model that contains contributions from intermediate K∗(892)0, K∗(1410)0,

  9. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in psi ' -> gamma chi(c2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Alberto, D.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A. C.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Nefedov, Y.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2011-01-01

    Using 106 x 10(6) psi' events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition psi' -> gamma chi(c2) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)/gamma K+K- are measured. A fit to the chi(c2) production and decay angular distributions yields M2

  10. Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.

  11. Corrections to the box diagram amplitude due to kaon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Kumbhakar, D.

    1985-08-01

    The K 0 -anti-K 0 mixing amplitude is calculated without using the standard zero external momentum approximation. The resulting corrections are numerically significant for the real part of the amplitude. In the imaginary part of the amplitude the effects of similar corrections are less important. Implications for Δmsub(k) and epsilon are discussed. (author)

  12. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)

  13. Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Jordens, B.; Hooper, A.; Baird, B. W.; Ren, W.; Xu, L.; Sun, L.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we presented a pulse shaping technique on regular solid-state lasers and the application in semiconductor micromachining. With a conventional Q-switched laser, all of the parameters can be adjusted over only limited ranges, especially the pulse width and pulse shape. However, some laser link processes using traditional laser pulses with pulse widths of a few nanoseconds to a few tens of nanoseconds tend to over-crater in thicker overlying passivation layers and thereby cause IC reliability problems. Use of a laser pulse with a special shape and a fast leading edge, such as tailored pulse, is one technique for controlling link processing. The pulse shaping technique is based on light-loop controlled optical modulation to shape conventional Q-switched solid-state lasers. One advantage of the pulse shaping technique is to provide a tailored pulse shape that can be programmed to have more than one amplitude value. Moreover, it has the capability of providing programmable tailored pulse shapes with discrete amplitude and time duration components. In addition, it provides fast rising and fall time of each pulse at fairly high repetition rate at 355nm with good beam quality. The regular-to-shaped efficiency is up to 50%. We conclude with a discussion of current results for laser processing of semiconductor memory link structures using programmable temporal pulse shapes. The processing experiments showed promising results with shaped pulse.

  14. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Myskov, G A

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (<= 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters.

  15. Magnetic excitations and amplitude fluctuations in insulating cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelwani, N.; Baum, A.; Böhm, T.; Opel, M.; Venturini, F.; Tassini, L.; Erb, A.; Berger, H.; Forró, L.; Hackl, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from light scattering experiments on three insulating antiferromagnetic cuprates, YBa2Cu3O6.05 , Bi2Sr2YCu2O8 +δ , and La2CuO4 as a function of polarization and excitation energy using samples of the latest generation. From the raw data we derive symmetry-resolved spectra. The spectral shape in B1 g symmetry is found to be nearly universal and independent of excitation energy. The spectra agree quantitatively with predictions by field theory [Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 237 (2015), 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60438-1] facilitating the precise extraction of the Heisenberg coupling J . In addition, the asymmetric lineshape on the high-energy side is found to be related to amplitude fluctuations of the magnetization. In La2CuO4 alone, minor contributions from resonance effects may be identified. The spectra in the other symmetries are not universal. The variations may be traced back to weak resonance effects and extrinsic contributions. For all three compounds we find support for the existence of chiral excitations appearing as a continuum in A2 g symmetry having an onset slightly below 3 J . In La2CuO4 an additional isolated excitation appears on top of the A2 g continuum.

  16. Non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes and MHV vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, James; Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how the MHV diagram description of Yang-Mills theories can be used to study non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes. In particular, we derive a compact expression for the cut-constructible part of the general one-loop MHV multi-gluon scattering amplitude in pure Yang-Mills theory. We show that in special cases this expression reduces to known amplitudes-the amplitude with adjacent negative-helicity gluons, and the five gluon non-adjacent amplitude. Finally, we briefly discuss the twistor space interpretation of our result

  17. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  18. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  19. Measurement of the $\\Sigma \\pi$ photoproduction line shapes near the $\\Lambda(1405)$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Anderson, M D; Anefalos Pereira, S; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bellis, M; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Collins, P; Crede, V; D& #x27; Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Doughty, R; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Fassi, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Fleming, J A; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I.J. D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McCracken, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mirazita, M; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Nepali, C S; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pivnyuk, N; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatio, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, S; Taylor, C E; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Torayev, B; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P

    2013-03-01

    The reaction {gamma} + p -> K{sup +} + {Sigma} + {p}i was used to determine the invariant mass distributions or "line shapes" of the {Sigma}{sup +} {pi}{sup -}, {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Sigma}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} final states, from threshold at 1328 MeV/c^2 through the mass range of the {Lambda}(1405) and the {Lambda}(1520). The measurements were made with the CLAS system at Jefferson Lab using tagged real photons, for center-of-mass energies 1.95 < W < 2.85 GeV. The three mass distributions differ strongly in the vicinity of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405), indicating the presence of substantial I=1 strength in the reaction. Background contributions to the data from the {Sigma}{sup 0}(1385) and from K* {Sigma} production were studied and shown to have negligible influence. To separate the isospin amplitudes, Breit-Wigner model fits were made that included channel-coupling distortions due to the Nkbar threshold. A best fit to all the data was obtained after including a phenomenological I=1, J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} amplitude with a centroid at 1394\\pm20 MeV/c^2 and a second I=1 amplitude at 1413\\pm10 MeV/c^2. The centroid of the I=0 {Lambda}(1405) strength was found at the {Sigma} {pi} threshold, with the observed shape determined largely by channel-coupling, leading to an apparent overall peak near 1405 MeV/c^2.

  20. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  1. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young; Seong, Yeol Wan; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation

  2. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  3. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  4. Electroweak amplitudes in chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    After referring to some basic features of chiral models for baryons, with quarks and mesons, we describe how to construct model states representing physical baryons. We consider soliton models such as the Linear Sigma Model or the Chromodielectric Model, and bag models such as the Cloudy Bag Model. These models are solved approximately using variational approaches whose starting point is a mean-field description. We go beyond the mean-field description by introducing quantum fluctuations in the mesonic degrees of freedom. This is achieved, in a first step, by using a quantum state to represent meson clouds and, secondly, by performing an angular momentum and isospin projection from the mean-field state (actually a coherent state). Model states for baryons (nucleon, Delta, Roper) constructed in this way are used to determine several physical properties. I this seminar we paid a particular attention to the nucleon-delta electromagnetic and weak transition, presenting the model predictions for the electromagnetic and axial amplitudes

  5. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  6. Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.

    2005-09-01

    We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW 2 ) h-1 , where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F (0,h) , on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Π n (TrW 2 ) h-2 , where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW 2 ) 2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m 1/2 ∼ m 0 4 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW 2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m 0 ∼ O (10 13 ) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)

  7. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M A; Continentino, M A

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  8. Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui

    2014-08-05

    Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.

  9. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU at is as part of the system that controls the output of Klystorns in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  10. Tsunami Amplitude Estimation from Real-Time GNSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, C.; MacInnes, B. T.; Melbourne, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami early warning systems currently comprise modeling of observations from the global seismic network, deep-ocean DART buoys, and a global distribution of tide gauges. While these tools work well for tsunamis traveling teleseismic distances, saturation of seismic magnitude estimation in the near field can result in significant underestimation of tsunami excitation for local warning. Moreover, DART buoy and tide gauge observations cannot be used to rectify the underestimation in the available time, typically 10-20 minutes, before local runup occurs. Real-time GNSS measurements of coseismic offsets may be used to estimate finite faulting within 1-2 minutes and, in turn, tsunami excitation for local warning purposes. We describe here a tsunami amplitude estimation algorithm; implemented for the Cascadia subduction zone, that uses continuous GNSS position streams to estimate finite faulting. The system is based on a time-domain convolution of fault slip that uses a pre-computed catalog of hydrodynamic Green's functions generated with the GeoClaw shallow-water wave simulation software and maps seismic slip along each section of the fault to points located off the Cascadia coast in 20m of water depth and relies on the principle of the linearity in tsunami wave propagation. The system draws continuous slip estimates from a message broker, convolves the slip with appropriate Green's functions which are then superimposed to produce wave amplitude at each coastal location. The maximum amplitude and its arrival time are then passed into a database for subsequent monitoring and display. We plan on testing this system using a suite of synthetic earthquakes calculated for Cascadia whose ground motions are simulated at 500 existing Cascadia GPS sites, as well as real earthquakes for which we have continuous GNSS time series and surveyed runup heights, including Maule, Chile 2010 and Tohoku, Japan 2011. This system has been implemented in the CWU Geodesy Lab for the Cascadia

  11. Complex amplitude reconstruction by iterative amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    Multi-image iterative phase retrieval methods have been successfully applied in plenty of research fields due to their simple but efficient implementation. However, there is a mismatch between the measurement of the first long imaging distance and the sequential interval. In this paper, an amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference is put forward without additional measurements or priori knowledge. It gets rid of measuring the first imaging distance. With a designed update formula, it significantly raises the convergence speed and the reconstruction fidelity, especially in phase retrieval. Its superiority over the original amplitude-phase retrieval (APR) method is validated by numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore, it provides a conceptual design of a compact holographic image sensor, which can achieve numerical refocusing easily.

  12. Theoretical Study of Amplitude Modulation Application during Radio Frequency Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karpuhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the investigation results of influence of the amplitude-modulated acting signal parameters on the thermoelectric characteristics of biological tissues for a specified geometry of the working electrode section during RF mono-polar electrocoagulation. The geometric model ‘electrode - a biological tissue’ was suggested to study the distribution of power and temperature fields in biological tissue during mono-polar coagulation. The model of biological tissue is represented as a cylinder and the needle electrode is an ellipsoid immersed in the biological tissue. The heat and quasi-electrostatics equations are used as a mathematical model. These equations are solved in Comsol Multiphysics environment.As a result, we have got the following findings: the technique of calculating parameters of the PAM acting signal which has a fixed carrier frequency for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and the immersion depth in biological tissues is suggested. Parameters of PAM signal are determined for this electrode geometry. These parameters provide a 60 ... 80°C heating range of biological tissues near the working part of the tool for different amplitudes of acting signal during RF coagulation. It has been found out that both the temperature and the relaxation frequency of biological tissue depend on exposure time for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and immersion depth of the working part of tool into biological tissue.It is shown that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue, subjected to the radiofrequency pulses, linearly depends on its heating temperature and can be used as a numerical criterion for maintaining the specified temperature conditions. It is found that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue depends on the contact area of the tool working part and biological tissues. To reduce this dependence it is necessary to provide automatic current control of the output action.

  13. Jet shapes in hadron and electron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1993-05-01

    High energy jets are observed both in hadronic machines like the Tevatron and electron machines like LEP. These jets have an extended structure in phase space which can be measured. This distribution is usually called the jet shape. There is an intrinsic relation between jet variables, like energy and direction, the jet algorithm used, and the jet shape. Jet shape differences can be used to separate quark and gluon jets

  14. Typing of the sausage-shaped bacteria forming A-type sulfur-turf according to cell length distributions of natural populations and physico-chemical conditions of hot spring waters; Saibo chobunpu to seiiku kankyo kara mita A gata io shiba shizen kotaigun ni okeru okamagata saikin no katabetsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Y. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

    1996-01-25

    In order to type the sausage-shaped bacteria forming A-type sulfur-turf, cell length distributions and physics-chemical conditions of hot spring waters were investigated on twelve samples collected from all over Japan. The frequency distributions of the cell length of eight samples were bimodal, while the other four samples were unimodal. In seven samples with bimodal distributions, two types (large and small) of the sausage-shaped bacteria could be differentiated. The cell length of the large-type was between 10.1 and 31.9{mu}m, while that of the small-type ranged 2.2 to 6.6{mu}m. The pH of seven hot spring waters were between 6 and 8, and the two types (large and small) formed together sulfur-turf. In contrast, pH of the three hot springs were over 8, and the two types of the sausage-shaped bacteria could not be detected in the sulfur-turf. Therefore, it is reasonable to set a third type of the sausage-shaped bacteria which prefers high-pH (over 8) and low calcium condition. The cell lengths of the third type were in the range of 5.5 to 8.6{mu}m, which correspond to the sausage-shaped bacteria of medium size. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes; Amplitudes de transversidad en procesos de intercambio de hipercarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used In processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K{sup p} and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of.the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs.

  16. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  17. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  18. Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2012-02-13

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.

  19. Conformist-contrarian interactions and amplitude dependence in the Kuramoto model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    We derive exact formulas for the frequency of synchronized oscillations in Kuramoto models with conformist-contrarian interactions, and determine necessary conditions for synchronization to occur. Numerical computations show that for certain parameters repulsive nodes behave as conformists, and that in other cases attractive nodes can display frustration, being neither conformist nor contrarian. The signs of repulsive couplings can be placed equivalently outside the sum, as proposed in Hong and Strogatz (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 054102), or inside the sum as in Hong and Strogatz (2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 056210), but the two models have different characteristics for small magnitudes of the coupling constants. In the latter case we show that the distributed coupling constants can be viewed as oscillator amplitudes which are constant in time, with the property that oscillators of small amplitude couple only weakly to connected nodes. Such models provide a means of investigating the effect of amplitude variations on synchronization properties.

  20. Conformist–contrarian interactions and amplitude dependence in the Kuramoto model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohe, M A

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact formulas for the frequency of synchronized oscillations in Kuramoto models with conformist–contrarian interactions, and determine necessary conditions for synchronization to occur. Numerical computations show that for certain parameters repulsive nodes behave as conformists, and that in other cases attractive nodes can display frustration, being neither conformist nor contrarian. The signs of repulsive couplings can be placed equivalently outside the sum, as proposed in Hong and Strogatz (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 054102), or inside the sum as in Hong and Strogatz (2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 056210), but the two models have different characteristics for small magnitudes of the coupling constants. In the latter case we show that the distributed coupling constants can be viewed as oscillator amplitudes which are constant in time, with the property that oscillators of small amplitude couple only weakly to connected nodes. Such models provide a means of investigating the effect of amplitude variations on synchronization properties. (paper)

  1. A heating mechanism of ions due to large amplitude coherent ion acoustic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Nobuo; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Kogiso, Ken.

    1978-05-01

    Ion heating mechanism in a plasma with a coherent ion acoustic wave is studied experimentally and numerically. Ions are accelerated periodically in the electrostatic potential of the coherent wave and their oscillation energy is converted into the thermal energy of ions through the collision with the neutral atoms in plasma. The Monte Carlo calculation is applied to obtain the ion temperature. The amplitude of the electrostatic potential, the mean number of collisions and the mean life time of ions are treated as parameters in the calculation. The numerical results are compared with the experiments and both of them agree well. It is found that the ion temperature increases as the amplitude of the coherent wave increases and the high energy tail in the distribution function of ions are observed for the case of large wave-amplitude. (author)

  2. Control of broadband optically generated ultrasound pulses using binary amplitude holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael D; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, Ben T; Treeby, Bradley E

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the use of binary amplitude holography is investigated as a mechanism to focus broadband acoustic pulses generated by high peak-power pulsed lasers. Two algorithms are described for the calculation of the binary holograms; one using ray-tracing, and one using an optimization based on direct binary search. It is shown using numerical simulations that when a binary amplitude hologram is excited by a train of laser pulses at its design frequency, the acoustic field can be focused at a pre-determined distribution of points, including single and multiple focal points, and line and square foci. The numerical results are validated by acoustic field measurements from binary amplitude holograms, excited by a high peak-power laser.

  3. Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    1987-01-01

    Propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a multi-component plasma with negative ions is investigated in a double-plasma device. When the density of negative ions is larger than a critical value, a broad negative pulse evolves to rarefactive solitons, and a positive pulse whose amplitude is less than a certain threshold value becomes a subsonic wave train. In the same plasma, a positive pulse whose amplitude is larger than the threshold develops into a solitary wave. The critical amplitude is measured as a function of the density of negative ions and compared with predictions of the pseudo-potential method. The energy distribution of electrons in the solitary wave is also measured. (author)

  4. Scattering amplitudes in four- and six-dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Theodor

    2014-01-01

    We study scattering amplitudes in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory and the six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory, focusing on the symmetries of and relations between the tree-level scattering amplitudes in these three gauge theories. We derive the tree level and one-loop color decomposition of an arbitrary QCD amplitude into primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes. We prove that every color ordered tree amplitude of massless QCD can be obtained from gluon-gluino amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Furthermore, we derive analytical formulae for all gluon-gluino amplitudes relevant for QCD. We compare the numerical efficiency and accuracy of evaluating these closed analytic formulae for color ordered QCD tree amplitudes to a numerically efficient implementation of the Berends-Giele recursion. We derive the symmetries of massive tree amplitudes on the coulomb branch of N=4 SYM theory, which in turn can be obtained from N=(1,1) SYM theory by dimensional reduction. Furthermore, we investigate the tree amplitudes of N=(1, 1) SYM theory and explain how analytical formulae can be obtained from a numerical implementation of the supersymmetric BCFW recursion relation and investigate a potential uplift of the massless tree amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Finally we study an alternative to dimensional regularization of N=4 SYM theory. The infrared divergences are regulated by masses obtained from a Higgs mechanism. The corresponding string theory set-up suggests that the amplitudes have an exact dual conformal symmetry. We confirm this expectation and illustrate the calculational advantages of the massive regulator by explicit calculations.

  5. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  6. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  7. Joint Inversion of Phase and Amplitude Data of Surface Waves for North American Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2015-12-01

    For the reconstruction of the laterally heterogeneous upper-mantle structure using surface waves, we generally use phase delay information of seismograms, which represents the average phase velocity perturbation along a ray path, while the amplitude information has been rarely used in the velocity mapping. Amplitude anomalies of surface waves contain a variety of information such as anelastic attenuation, elastic focusing/defocusing, geometrical spreading, and receiver effects. The effects of elastic focusing/defocusing are dependent on the second derivative of phase velocity across the ray path, and thus, are sensitive to shorter-wavelength structure than the conventional phase data. Therefore, suitably-corrected amplitude data of surface waves can be useful for improving the lateral resolution of phase velocity models. In this study, we collect a large-number of inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratio data for fundamental-mode surface waves with a non-linear waveform fitting between two stations of USArray. The measured inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratios are then inverted simultaneously for phase velocity maps and local amplification factor at receiver locations in North America. The synthetic experiments suggest that, while the phase velocity maps derived from phase data only reflect large-scale tectonic features, those from phase and amplitude data tend to exhibit better recovery of the strength of velocity perturbations, which emphasizes local-scale tectonic features with larger lateral velocity gradients; e.g., slow anomalies in Snake River Plain and Rio Grande Rift, where significant local amplification due to elastic focusing are observed. Also, the spatial distribution of receiver amplification factor shows a clear correlation with the velocity structure. Our results indicate that inter-station amplitude-ratio data can be of help in reconstructing shorter-wavelength structures of the upper mantle.

  8. An experimental test of noise-dependent voice amplitude regulation in Cope's grey treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Elliot K; Bee, Mark A

    2010-09-01

    One strategy for coping with the constraints on acoustic signal reception posed by ambient noise is to signal louder as noise levels increase. Termed the 'Lombard effect', this reflexive behaviour is widespread among birds and mammals and occurs with a diversity of signal types, leading to the hypothesis that voice amplitude regulation represents a general vertebrate mechanism for coping with environmental noise. Support for this evolutionary hypothesis, however, remains limited due to a lack of studies in taxa other than birds and mammals. Here, we report the results of an experimental test of the hypothesis that male grey treefrogs increase the amplitude of their advertisement calls in response to increasing levels of chorus-shaped noise. We recorded spontaneously produced calls in quiet and in the presence of noise broadcast at sound pressure levels ranging between 40 dB and 70 dB. While increasing noise levels induced predictable changes in call duration and rate, males did not regulate call amplitude. These results do not support the hypothesis that voice amplitude regulation is a generic vertebrate mechanism for coping with noise. We discuss the possibility that intense sexual selection and high levels of competition for mates in choruses place some frogs under strong selection to call consistently as loudly as possible.

  9. ALOHA: Automatic libraries of helicity amplitudes for Feynman diagram computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Priscila; Link, William; Maltoni, Fabio; Mattelaer, Olivier; Stelzer, Tim

    2012-10-01

    We present an application that automatically writes the HELAS (HELicity Amplitude Subroutines) library corresponding to the Feynman rules of any quantum field theory Lagrangian. The code is written in Python and takes the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) as an input. From this input it produces the complete set of routines, wave-functions and amplitudes, that are needed for the computation of Feynman diagrams at leading as well as at higher orders. The representation is language independent and currently it can output routines in Fortran, C++, and Python. A few sample applications implemented in the MADGRAPH 5 framework are presented. Program summary Program title: ALOHA Catalogue identifier: AEMS_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/UoI-NCSA.php No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6094320 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7479819 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python2.6 Computer: 32/64 bit Operating system: Linux/Mac/Windows RAM: 512 Mbytes Classification: 4.4, 11.6 Nature of problem: An effcient numerical evaluation of a squared matrix element can be done with the help of the helicity routines implemented in the HELAS library [1]. This static library contains a limited number of helicity functions and is therefore not always able to provide the needed routine in the presence of an arbitrary interaction. This program provides a way to automatically create the corresponding routines for any given model. Solution method: ALOHA takes the Feynman rules associated to the vertex obtained from the model information (in the UFO format [2]), and multiplies it by the different wavefunctions or propagators. As a result the analytical expression of the helicity routines is obtained. Subsequently, this expression is

  10. Overview of historical recurring low-amplitude floods in Lower Provence, Southeastern France (1700-1950)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    In the Mediterranean world, water plays a prominent role as a « prime mover » in the development of urban and rural spaces. But, the specificities of the typical climate require a management of a natural resource that varies permanently between scarcity and abundance. Since Antiquity, the chronic lack of freshwater could be limited thanks to large hydraulic infrastructures while the flood risk management has always been a recurring problem for rural and urban communities. Because of brief, intense and irregularly distributed rain, amplified by a mountainous topography, stream floods often are heavy and flash with catastrophic consequences. However, often only past extremefloods were studied because both their consequences and available archival materials they have left while many recurring low-amplitude floodshave resulted in severe damagesto hydraulic and road infrastructures, in loss of agricultural soils and inconflicts between citizens and administration. Indeed, these ones were a central problem for rural and urban settlements and for the managementof water bodies.It seems interesting to present adetailed overview of historical recurring low-amplitude floods and consider how local societies have chosen to manage these questions and how these small hydrological events have contributed to shape existing current hydrological and geomorphologicalstructure of hydrosystems. In this context, the Lower Provence area (especially the Bouches-du-Rhône district, southeastern France), subject to recurring floods for centuries, appears to be a perfect place to explore and understand these questions. The decision to start the study at the dawn of the Eighteenth Century is especially interesting because it's a turning point for economic, scientific and engineering development in many European countries during whichdisasters and environmental health risks, including flooding, begin to become a real social and technical problem for authorities and citizens. Moreover, from

  11. Analyticity properties of two-body helicity amplitudes; Proprietes d'analyticite des amplitudes d'helicite a deux corps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navelet-Noualhier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    Helicity amplitudes are expressed via the spinor amplitudes in terms of the Joos invariant which have been shown by Williams to be free from kinematical singularities. This procedure allows to analyze the kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes and separate them out, which results into the definition of regularized helicity amplitudes. A crossing matrix for helicity amplitudes, is written down, corresponding to the continuation path used to cross spinor amplitudes. We verify explicitly that the corresponding crossing matrix for regularized helicity amplitudes is uniform as it should be. Kinematical constraints which generalize, to the case of arbitrary spins and masses, relations which must hold between helicity amplitudes at some values of the energy variable in {pi}N {yields} {pi}N, {pi}{pi} {yields} NN-bar and NN-bar {yields} NN-bar reactions, appear as a consequence of the existence of poles in the crossing matrix between regularized helicity amplitudes. An english version of this work has been written with G. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Morel and submitted for publication to Annals of Physics. (author) [French] Les amplitudes d'helicite pour une reaction a deux corps sont exprimees, par l'intermediaire des amplitudes spinorielles, en fonction d'amplitudes invariantes de Joos qui sont, comme l'a montre Williams, sans singularites cinematiques. Ce procede nous permet d'analyser puis d'eliminer les singularites cinematiques des amplitudes d'helicite. Ceci nous conduit a la definition d'amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees'. Une relation de 'croisement' entre amplitudes d'helicite est ecrite; elle realise leur prolongement analytique le long du chemin utilise pour 'croiser' les amplitudes spinorielles. Nous verifions que les elements de la matrice de croisement entre amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees' sont bien uniformes. Les contraintes cinematiques qui generalisent, au cas de masses et de spins arbitraires, les relations obtenues dans les reactions {pi

  12. Eikonal representation of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Kang, K.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the construction of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes is proposed, suggested by the simplest case of N = 2: Calculate the scattering amplitude in eikonal approximation, discard the infinite phase factors which appear upon taking the limit of a Coulomb potential, and treat the remainder as an amplitude whose absolute value squared produces the exact, Coulomb differential cross section. The method easily generalizes to the N-body Coulomb problem for elastic scattering, and for inelastic rearrangement scattering of Coulomb bound states. We give explicit results for N = 3 and 4; in the N = 3 case we extract amplitudes for the processes (12)+3->1+2+3 (breakup), (12)+3->1+(23) (rearrangement), and (12)+3→(12)'+3 (inelastic scattering) as residues at the appropriate poles in the free-free amplitude. The method produces scattering amplitudes f/sub N/ given in terms of explicit quadratures over (N-2) 2 distinct integrands

  13. Expansion of all multitrace tree level EYM amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Teng, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expansion of tree level multitrace Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) amplitudes. First, we propose two types of recursive expansions of tree level EYM amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gluons, gravitons and traces by those amplitudes with fewer traces or/and gravitons. Then we give many support evidence, including proofs using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursive relation. As a byproduct, two types of generalized BCJ relations for multitrace EYM are further proposed, which will be useful in the BCFW proof. After one applies the recursive expansions repeatedly, any multitrace EYM amplitudes can be given in the Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) basis of tree level color ordered Yang-Mills (YM) amplitudes. Thus the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators, as the expansion coefficients, for all multitrace EYM amplitudes are naturally constructed.

  14. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  15. Efecto de la forma de la distribución y de la media en el índice po de Huynh. [Effect of the shape of distribution and mean in Huynh’s po index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Almerich

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of Educational Evaluation, the Criterion-Referenced Evaluation is a very relevant, though incipient approach. In this paper, we present a simulation study oriented to the analysis of a reliability index: the index po calculated by means of the Huynh’s method for criterion-referenced tests. The simulation study has been carried out with the aid of computer software developed ad hoc. The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of two variables – the distribution shape and the mean- on that index. The conclusion is that both variables consistently affect the reliability index. Furthermore, the obtained evidence brings relevant information about desirable metrical characteristics for applied use of the index in the criterion-referenced tests. En el ámbito de la Evaluación Educativa, la Evaluación Criterial es una corriente muy importante, aunque incipiente. En este artículo, presentamos un estudio de simulación cuyo propósito es el análisis de un índice de fiabilidad: el índice po de Huynh para pruebas de referencia criterial, El estudio de simulación se ha realizado con la ayuda de un programa de ordenador creado para tal fin. El objetivo es describir la influencia de dos variables –la forma de la distribución y la media- en este índice. La conclusión es que ambas variables están afectando consistentemente el índice de fiabilidad. Además, las evidencias obtenidas aportan información relevante sobre características métricas deseables para la posterior utilización del índice en las pruebas criteriales.

  16. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  17. Loop Amplitudes in Pure Yang-Mills from Generalised Unitarity

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4 - 2 epsilon dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  18. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2ε dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions

  19. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhuber, Andreas [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); McNamara, Simon [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Spence, Bill [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Travaglini, Gabriele [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-15

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2{epsilon} dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  20. Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.