WorldWideScience

Sample records for distributed sensor arrays

  1. Feature extraction using distribution representation for colorimetric sensor arrays used as explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Raich, Raviv; Kostesha, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    is required. We present a new approach of extracting features from a colorimetric sensor array based on a color distribution representation. For each sensor in the array, we construct a K-nearest neighbor classifier based on the Hellinger distances between color distribution of a test compound and the color......We present a colorimetric sensor array which is able to detect explosives such as DNT, TNT, HMX, RDX and TATP and identifying volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. To analyze colorimetric sensors with statistical methods, a suitable representation of sensory readings...

  2. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  3. Tactile Sensor Array with Fiber Bragg Gratings in Quasi-Distributed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Pedroso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development of a quasi-distributed real-time tactile sensing system with a reduced number of fiber Bragg grating-based sensors and reports its use with a reconstruction method based on differential evolution. The sensing system is comprised of six fiber Bragg gratings encapsulated in silicone elastomer to form a tactile sensor array with total dimensions of 60 × 80 mm, divided into eight sensing cells with dimensions of 20 × 30 mm. Forces applied at the central position of the sensor array resulted in linear response curves for the gratings, highlighting their coupled responses and allowing the application of compressive sensing. The reduced number of sensors regarding the number of sensing cells results in an undetermined inverse problem, solved with a compressive sensing algorithm with the aid of differential evolution method. The system is capable of identifying and quantifying up to four different loads at four different cells with relative errors lower than 10.5% and signal-to-noise ratio better than 12 dB.

  4. High performance architecture design for large scale fibre-optic sensor arrays using distributed EDFAs and hybrid TDM/DWDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Austin, Ed; Nash, Philip J.; Kingsley, Stuart A.; Richardson, David J.

    2013-09-01

    A distributed amplified dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) array architecture is presented for interferometric fibre-optic sensor array systems. This architecture employs a distributed erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) scheme to decrease the array insertion loss, and employs time division multiplexing (TDM) at each wavelength to increase the number of sensors that can be supported. The first experimental demonstration of this system is reported including results which show the potential for multiplexing and interrogating up to 4096 sensors using a single telemetry fibre pair with good system performance. The number can be increased to 8192 by using dual pump sources.

  5. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating array sensor for furnace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Sai Prasad, R. L. N.; Sen Gupta, D.; Sai Shankar, M.; Srimannarayana, K.; Ravinder Reddy, P.

    2012-05-01

    An experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of the temperature profile in high temperature boilers is presented. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λ B1 =1545.8 nm, λ B2 =1547 nm, λ B3 =1550.8 nm, λ B4 =1555.5 nm at 30 °C) written in the hydrogen-loaded fiber in line. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube using the rigid probe technique for avoiding micro cracks. The spatial distribution of the temperature profile inside a prototype boiler was measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor, and the results are presented. Further, the finite element simulation has been carried out by using ANSYS R11 software to predict temperature contours in the boiler, and the experimental and predicted results were found to be closely matching.

  6. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  7. Fiber Bragg Grating Array as a Quasi Distributed Temperature Sensor for Furnace Boiler Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Saidi; Prasad, R. L. N. Sai; Sengupta, D.; Shankar, M. Sai; Srimannarayana, K.; Kishore, P.; Rao, P. Vengal

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the experimental work on distributed temperature sensing making use of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array sensor for possible applications in the monitoring of temperature profile in high temperature boilers. A special sensor has been designed for this purpose which consists of four FBGs (of wavelengths λB1 = 1547.28 nm, λB2 = 1555.72 nm, λB3 = 1550.84 nm, λB4 = 1545.92 nm) written in hydrogen loaded fiber in line with a spacing of 15 cm between them. All the FBGs are encapsulated inside a stainless steel tube for avoiding micro cracks using rigid probe technique. The spatial distribution of temperature profile inside a prototype boiler has been measured experimentally both in horizontal and vertical directions employing the above sensor and the results are presented.

  8. Optimization of modal filters based on arrays of piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Carlos C Jr; Trindade, Marcelo A

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters may be obtained by a properly designed weighted sum of the output signals of an array of sensors distributed on the host structure. Although several research groups have been interested in techniques for designing and implementing modal filters based on a given array of sensors, the effect of the array topology on the effectiveness of the modal filter has received much less attention. In particular, it is known that some parameters, such as size, shape and location of a sensor, are very important in determining the observability of a vibration mode. Hence, this paper presents a methodology for the topological optimization of an array of sensors in order to maximize the effectiveness of a set of selected modal filters. This is done using a genetic algorithm optimization technique for the selection of 12 piezoceramic sensors from an array of 36 piezoceramic sensors regularly distributed on an aluminum plate, which maximize the filtering performance, over a given frequency range, of a set of modal filters, each one aiming to isolate one of the first vibration modes. The vectors of the weighting coefficients for each modal filter are evaluated using QR decomposition of the complex frequency response function matrix. Results show that the array topology is not very important for lower frequencies but it greatly affects the filter effectiveness for higher frequencies. Therefore, it is possible to improve the effectiveness and frequency range of a set of modal filters by optimizing the topology of an array of sensors. Indeed, using 12 properly located piezoceramic sensors bonded on an aluminum plate it is shown that the frequency range of a set of modal filters may be enlarged by 25–50%

  9. Bearing estimation with acoustic vector-sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, M.; Nehorai, A.

    1996-01-01

    We consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation using arrays of acoustic vector sensors in free space, and derive expressions for the Cramacute er-Rao bound on the DOA parameters when there is a single source. The vector-sensor array is seen to have improved performance over the traditional scalar-sensor (pressure-sensor) array for two distinct reasons: its elements have an inherent directional sensitivity and the array makes a greater number of measurements. The improvement is greatest for small array apertures and low signal-to-noise ratios. Examination of the conventional beamforming and Capon DOA estimators shows that vector-sensor arrays can completely resolve the bearing, even with a linear array, and can remove the ambiguities associated with spatial undersampling. We also propose and analyze a diversely-oriented array of velocity sensors that possesses some of the advantages of the vector-sensor array without the increase in hardware and computation. In addition, in certain scenarios it can avoid problems with spatially correlated noise that the vector-sensor array may suffer. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Cross-coherent vector sensor processing for spatially distributed glider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Brendan; Sabra, Karim G

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders fitted with vector sensors can be used as a spatially distributed sensor array to passively locate underwater sources. However, to date, the positional accuracy required for robust array processing (especially coherent processing) is not achievable using dead-reckoning while the gliders remain submerged. To obtain such accuracy, the gliders can be temporarily surfaced to allow for global positioning system contact, but the acoustically active sea surface introduces locally additional sensor noise. This letter demonstrates that cross-coherent array processing, which inherently mitigates the effects of local noise, outperforms traditional incoherent processing source localization methods for this spatially distributed vector sensor network.

  11. Real Time Assessment of Potable Water Quality in Distribution Network based on Low Cost Multi-Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Khatri, Punit

    2018-03-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameters measurement systems. This paper proposed a new way of potable water quality assessment in distribution network using Multi Sensor Array (MSA). Extensive research suggests that following parameters i.e. pH, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), Conductivity, Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP), Temperature and Salinity are most suitable to detect overall quality of potable water. Commonly MSA is not an integrated sensor array on some substrate, but rather comprises a set of individual sensors measuring simultaneously different water parameters all together. Based on research, a MSA has been developed followed by signal conditioning unit and finally, an algorithm for easy user interfacing. A dedicated part of this paper also discusses the platform design and significant results. The Objective of this proposed research is to provide simple, efficient, cost effective and socially acceptable means to detect and analyse water bodies regularly and automatically.

  12. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  13. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  14. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method

  15. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  16. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  17. A Hybrid Pressure and Vector Sensor Towed Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Dehua

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is of a combined acoustic pressure and acoustic vector sensor array, where multiple acoustic pressure sensors are integrated with an acoustic vector sensor in a towed array...

  18. Analyzing Responses of Chemical Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a third-generation electronic nose (ENose) capable of continuous monitoring of the International Space Station s cabin atmosphere for specific, harmful airborne contaminants. Previous generations of the ENose have been described in prior NASA Tech Briefs issues. Sensor selection is critical in both (prefabrication) sensor material selection and (post-fabrication) data analysis of the ENose, which detects several analytes that are difficult to detect, or that are at very low concentration ranges. Existing sensor selection approaches usually include limited statistical measures, where selectivity is more important but reliability and sensitivity are not of concern. When reliability and sensitivity can be major limiting factors in detecting target compounds reliably, the existing approach is not able to provide meaningful selection that will actually improve data analysis results. The approach and software reported here consider more statistical measures (factors) than existing approaches for a similar purpose. The result is a more balanced and robust sensor selection from a less than ideal sensor array. The software offers quick, flexible, optimal sensor selection and weighting for a variety of purposes without a time-consuming, iterative search by performing sensor calibrations to a known linear or nonlinear model, evaluating the individual sensor s statistics, scoring the individual sensor s overall performance, finding the best sensor array size to maximize class separation, finding optimal weights for the remaining sensor array, estimating limits of detection for the target compounds, evaluating fingerprint distance between group pairs, and finding the best event-detecting sensors.

  19. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  20. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingnan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The inductive element associated with each capacitive sensor can be surface-mounted inductors, integrated microstrip inductors or metamaterial-inspired structures. We show that by using metamaterial split-ring structures coupled to a microstrip line, the quality factor of each resonance can be greatly improved compared to conventional surface-mounted or microstrip meander inductors. With such a microstrip-coupled split-ring design, more sensing elements can be integrated in the same frequency spectrum, and the sensitivity can be greatly improved.

  1. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  2. Improved chemical identification from sensor arrays using intelligent algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    2001-02-01

    Intelligent signal processing algorithms are shown to improve identification rates significantly in chemical sensor arrays. This paper focuses on the use of independently derived sensor status information to modify the processing of sensor array data by using a fast, easily-implemented "best-match" approach to filling in missing sensor data. Most fault conditions of interest (e.g., stuck high, stuck low, sudden jumps, excess noise, etc.) can be detected relatively simply by adjunct data processing, or by on-board circuitry. The objective then is to devise, implement, and test methods for using this information to improve the identification rates in the presence of faulted sensors. In one typical example studied, utilizing separately derived, a-priori knowledge about the health of the sensors in the array improved the chemical identification rate by an artificial neural network from below 10 percent correct to over 99 percent correct. While this study focuses experimentally on chemical sensor arrays, the results are readily extensible to other types of sensor platforms.

  3. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-01-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking.

  4. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  5. Wireless Sensor Array Network DoA Estimation from Compressed Array Data via Joint Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yin, Ming; Luo, Ji-An; Wang, Yingguan; Bao, Ming; Hu, Yu-Hen; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-23

    A compressive sensing joint sparse representation direction of arrival estimation (CSJSR-DoA) approach is proposed for wireless sensor array networks (WSAN). By exploiting the joint spatial and spectral correlations of acoustic sensor array data, the CSJSR-DoA approach provides reliable DoA estimation using randomly-sampled acoustic sensor data. Since random sampling is performed at remote sensor arrays, less data need to be transmitted over lossy wireless channels to the fusion center (FC), and the expensive source coding operation at sensor nodes can be avoided. To investigate the spatial sparsity, an upper bound of the coherence of incoming sensor signals is derived assuming a linear sensor array configuration. This bound provides a theoretical constraint on the angular separation of acoustic sources to ensure the spatial sparsity of the received acoustic sensor array signals. The Cram e ´ r-Rao bound of the CSJSR-DoA estimator that quantifies the theoretical DoA estimation performance is also derived. The potential performance of the CSJSR-DoA approach is validated using both simulations and field experiments on a prototype WSAN platform. Compared to existing compressive sensing-based DoA estimation methods, the CSJSR-DoA approach shows significant performance improvement.

  6. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  7. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  8. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H. S.; Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I.; Nasser, A. A. A.; Raafat, A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O 2 , H 2 and CO 2 gases as a function of temperature

  10. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H. S., E-mail: hassan.shokry@gmail.com; Kashyout, A. B., E-mail: hady8@yahoo.com [Electronic Materials Researches Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Researches and technological applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Morsi, I., E-mail: drimanmorsi@yahoo.com; Nasser, A. A. A., E-mail: menem-1954@yahoo.com; Raafat, A., E-mail: abrs-218@yahoo.com [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, 21936 (Egypt)

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  11. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives. The tec......In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives...... to the analytes creates a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and VOCs. Such sensing technology can be used for screening relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas and liquid phases....... This sensor array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable....

  12. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  13. Development of flexible array tactile sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    time data acquisition system scans all the cells and converts electrical resistance to tactile pressure maps. We validate that this information can be used to improve grasping and perform object recognition. Key words: piezoresistivity, tactile, sensor, pressure, robotics......In this paper we describe the development of an array tactile sensor for use in robotic grippers based on a flexible piezoresistive material. We start by comparing different cell structures in terms of output characteristics and we construct an array of cells in a row and columns layout. A real...

  14. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Forough [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza, E-mail: hormozi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza, E-mail: mahmoudi@stanford.edu [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 13169-43551 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5101 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and L-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25–30 μmol L{sup −1}. Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. - Highlights: • We have proposed a fluorescence sensor array to detect catecholamine neurotransmitters. • Visual differentiation of catecholamines is provided by fluorescence array fingerprints. • Discrimination of catecholamines from each other, and from their mixture is obtained on a PCA plot. • Proposed sensor array can be used for detection of catecholamines in urine samples.

  15. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pishko, Michael V

    2006-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  16. Microfabricated Multianalyte Sensor Arrays for Metabolic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pishko, Michael V

    2007-01-01

    ...(ethylene glycol) diacrylate or PEG-DA on the array electrodes. The fabricated microarray sensors were individually addressable and with no cross-talk between adjacent array elements as assessed using cyclic voltammetry...

  17. Scalable fabric tactile sensor arrays for soft bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Nathan; Penaloza, Jimmy; Santos, Veronica J.; Killpack, Marc D.

    2018-06-01

    Soft robots have the potential to transform the way robots interact with their environment. This is due to their low inertia and inherent ability to more safely interact with the world without damaging themselves or the people around them. However, existing sensing for soft robots has at least partially limited their ability to control interactions with their environment. Tactile sensors could enable soft robots to sense interaction, but most tactile sensors are made from rigid substrates and are not well suited to applications for soft robots which can deform. In addition, the benefit of being able to cheaply manufacture soft robots may be lost if the tactile sensors that cover them are expensive and their resolution does not scale well for manufacturability. This paper discusses the development of a method to make affordable, high-resolution, tactile sensor arrays (manufactured in rows and columns) that can be used for sensorizing soft robots and other soft bodies. However, the construction results in a sensor array that exhibits significant amounts of cross-talk when two taxels in the same row are compressed. Using the same fabric-based tactile sensor array construction design, two different methods for cross-talk compensation are presented. The first uses a mathematical model to calculate a change in resistance of each taxel directly. The second method introduces additional simple circuit components that enable us to isolate each taxel electrically and relate voltage to force directly. Fabric sensor arrays are demonstrated for two different soft-bodied applications: an inflatable single link robot and a human wrist.

  18. BRDF-dependent accuracy of array-projection-based 3D sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Stefan; Kühmstedt, Peter; Tünnermann, Andreas; Notni, Gunther

    2017-03-10

    In order to perform high-speed three-dimensional (3D) shape measurements with structured light systems, high-speed projectors are required. One possibility is an array projector, which allows pattern projection at several tens of kilohertz by switching on and off the LEDs of various slide projectors. The different projection centers require a separate analysis, as the intensity received by the cameras depends on the projection direction and the object's bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this contribution, we investigate the BRDF-dependent errors of array-projection-based 3D sensors and propose an error compensation process.

  19. A distributed monitoring system for photovoltaic arrays based on a two-level wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, F. P.; Chen, Z. C.; Zhou, H. F.; Wu, L. J.; Lin, P. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a distributed on-line monitoring system based on a two-level wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed for real time status monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to support the fine management and maintenance of PV power plants. The system includes the sensing nodes installed on PV modules (PVM), sensing and routing nodes installed on combiner boxes of PV sub-arrays (PVA), a sink node and a data management centre (DMC) running on a host computer. The first level WSN is implemented by the low-cost wireless transceiver nRF24L01, and it is used to achieve single hop communication between the PVM nodes and their corresponding PVA nodes. The second level WSN is realized by the CC2530 based ZigBee network for multi-hop communication among PVA nodes and the sink node. The PVM nodes are used to monitor the PVM working voltage and backplane temperature, and they send the acquired data to their PVA node via the nRF24L01 based first level WSN. The PVA nodes are used to monitor the array voltage, PV string current and environment irradiance, and they send the acquired and received data to the DMC via the ZigBee based second level WSN. The DMC is designed using the MATLAB GUIDE and MySQL database. Laboratory experiment results show that the system can effectively acquire, display, store and manage the operating and environment parameters of PVA in real time.

  20. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIP Sensors proposes to develop a Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor Array System for measuring air flow pressure at multiple points on the skin of aircrafts for Flight...

  1. Tests Of Array Of Flush Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Larry J.; Moes, Timothy R.; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    Report describes tests of array of pressure sensors connected to small orifices flush with surface of 1/7-scale model of F-14 airplane in wind tunnel. Part of effort to determine whether pressure parameters consisting of various sums, differences, and ratios of measured pressures used to compute accurately free-stream values of stagnation pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and mach number. Such arrays of sensors and associated processing circuitry integrated into advanced aircraft as parts of flight-monitoring and -controlling systems.

  2. Construction of a Piezoresistive Neural Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, W. B.; Schulze, W. A.; Pilgrim, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a piezoresistive - piezoelectric sensor (or actuator) array is proposed using 'neural' connectivity for signal recognition and possible actuation functions. A closer integration of the sensor and decision functions is necessary in order to achieve intrinsic identification within the sensor. A neural sensor is the next logical step in development of truly 'intelligent' arrays. This proposal will integrate 1-3 polymer piezoresistors and MLC electroceramic devices for applications involving acoustic identification. The 'intelligent' piezoresistor -piezoelectric system incorporates printed resistors, composite resistors, and a feedback for the resetting of resistances. A model of a design is proposed in order to simulate electromechanical resistor interactions. The goal of optimizing a sensor geometry for improving device reliability, training, & signal identification capabilities is the goal of this work. At present, studies predict performance of a 'smart' device with a significant control of 'effective' compliance over a narrow pressure range due to a piezoresistor percolation threshold. An interesting possibility may be to use an array of control elements to shift the threshold function in order to change the level of resistance in a neural sensor array for identification, or, actuation applications. The proposed design employs elements of: (1) conductor loaded polymers for a 'fast' RC time constant response; and (2) multilayer ceramics for actuation or sensing and shifting of resistance in the polymer. Other material possibilities also exist using magnetoresistive layered systems for shifting the resistance. It is proposed to use a neural net configuration to test and to help study the possible changes required in the materials design of these devices. Numerical design models utilize electromechanical elements, in conjunction with structural elements in order to simulate piezoresistively controlled actuators and changes in resistance of sensors

  3. Virtual colorimetric sensor array: single ionic liquid for solvent discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpothdeniya, Waduge Indika S; Regmi, Bishnu P; McCarter, Kevin S; de Rooy, Sergio L; Siraj, Noureen; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-04-21

    There is a continuing need to develop high-performance sensors for monitoring organic solvents, primarily due to the environmental impact of such compounds. In this regard, colorimetric sensors have been a subject of intense research for such applications. Herein, we report a unique virtual colorimetric sensor array based on a single ionic liquid (IL) for accurate detection and identification of similar organic solvents and mixtures of such solvents. In this study, we employ eight alcohols and seven binary mixtures of ethanol and methanol as analytes to provide a stringent test for assessing the capabilities of this array. The UV-visible spectra of alcoholic solutions of the IL used in this study show two absorption bands. Interestingly, the ratio of absorbance for these two bands is found to be extremely sensitive to alcohol polarity. A virtual sensor array is created by using four different concentrations of IL sensor, which allowed identification of these analytes with 96.4-100% accuracy. Overall, this virtual sensor array is found to be very promising for discrimination of closely related organic solvents.

  4. Health monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicle based on optical fiber sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Shen, Jingshi; Shao, Fei; Guo, Chunhui; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Jiande

    2017-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in flight needs to face the complicated environment, especially to withstand harsh weather conditions, such as the temperature and pressure. Compared with conventional sensors, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has the advantages of small size, light weight, high reliability, high precision, anti-electromagnetic interference, long lift-span, moistureproof and good resistance to causticity. It's easy to be embedded in composite structural components of UAVs. In the paper, over 1000 FBG sensors distribute regularly on a wide range of UAVs body, combining wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), time division multiplexing (TDM) and multichannel parallel architecture. WDM has the advantage of high spatial resolution. TDM has the advantage of large capacity and wide range. It is worthful to constitute a sensor network by different technologies. For the signal demodulation of FBG sensor array, WDM works by means of wavelength scanning light sources and F-P etalon. TDM adopts the technology of optical time-domain reflectometry. In order to demodulate efficiently, the most proper sensor multiplex number with some reflectivity is given by the curves fitting. Due to the regular array arrangement of FBG sensors on the UAVs, we can acquire the health state of UAVs in the form of 3D visualization. It is helpful to master the information of health status rapidly and give a real-time health evaluation.

  5. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  6. Proposed biomimetic molecular sensor array for astrobiology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D. C.; Grant, W. D.; Piletsky, S.; Sims, M. R.

    2001-08-01

    A key objective of future astrobiology lander missions, e.g. to Mars and Europa, is the detection of biomarkers - molecules whose presence indicates the existence of either current or extinct life. To address limitations of current analytical methods for biomarker detection, we describe the methodology of a new project for demonstration of a robust molecular-recognition sensor array for astrobiology biomarkers. The sensor array will be realised by assembling components that have been demonstrated individually in previous or current research projects. The major components are (1) robust artificial molecular receptors comprised of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) recognition systems and (2) a sensor array comprised of both optical and electrochemical sensor elements. These components will be integrated together using ink-jet printing technology coupled with in situ photo-polymerisation of MIPs. For demonstration, four model biomarkers are chosen as targets and represent various classes of potential biomarkers. Objectives of the proposed work include (1) demonstration of practical proof-of-concept, (2) identify areas for further development and (3) provide performance and design data for follow-up projects leading to astrobiology missions.

  7. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O 2 -sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp) 3 ] 2+ ) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  8. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  9. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  10. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  11. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  12. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  13. Radiation detection and situation management by distributed sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Frigo; Mielke, Angela; Cai, D. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radioactive materials in an urban environment usually requires large, portal-monitor-style radiation detectors. However, this may not be a practical solution in many transport scenarios. Alternatively, a distributed sensor network (DSN) could complement portal-style detection of radiological materials through the implementation of arrays of low cost, small heterogeneous sensors with the ability to detect the presence of radioactive materials in a moving vehicle over a specific region. In this paper, we report on the use of a heterogeneous, wireless, distributed sensor network for traffic monitoring in a field demonstration. Through wireless communications, the energy spectra from different radiation detectors are combined to improve the detection confidence. In addition, the DSN exploits other sensor technologies and algorithms to provide additional information about the vehicle, such as its speed, location, class (e.g. car, truck), and license plate number. The sensors are in-situ and data is processed in real-time at each node. Relevant information from each node is sent to a base station computer which is used to assess the movement of radioactive materials

  14. High speed vision processor with reconfigurable processing element array based on full-custom distributed memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Shi, Cong; Qin, Qi; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a hybrid vision processor based on a compact full-custom distributed memory for near-sensor high-speed image processing is proposed. The proposed processor consists of a reconfigurable processing element (PE) array, a row processor (RP) array, and a dual-core microprocessor. The PE array includes two-dimensional processing elements with a compact full-custom distributed memory. It supports real-time reconfiguration between the PE array and the self-organized map (SOM) neural network. The vision processor is fabricated using a 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The circuit area of the distributed memory is reduced markedly into 1/3 of that of the conventional memory so that the circuit area of the vision processor is reduced by 44.2%. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves correct functions.

  15. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  16. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces. (paper)

  17. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  18. Catchment Integration of Sensor Array Observations to Understand Hydrologic Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, S.; Livneh, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Suding, K.; Neff, J. C.; Hinckley, E. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity and the land surface water balance are likely to be impacted by climate change in the coming years. Although recent work has started to demonstrate that climate modulates connectivity, we still lack knowledge of how local ecology will respond to environmental and atmospheric changes and subsequently interact with connectivity. The overarching goal of this research is to address and forecast how climate change will affect hydrologic connectivity in an alpine environment, through the use of near-surface observations (temperature, humidity, soil moisture, snow depth) from a new 16-sensor array (plus 5 precipitation gauges), together with a distributed hydrologic model, over a small catchment on Colorado's Niwot Ridge (above 3000m). Model simulations will be constrained to distributed sensor measurements taken in the study area and calibrated with streamflow. Periods of wetting and dry-down will be analyzed to identify signatures of connectivity across the landscape, its seasonal signals and its sensitivity to land cover. Further work will aim to develop future hydrologic projections, compare model output with related observations, conduct multi-physics experiments, and continue to expand the existing sensor network.

  19. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP and tetrahydrofuran (THF to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl, saltiness (NaCl, sweetness (glucose and bitterness (quinine-HCl, were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA was applied

  20. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. PMID:22163865

  1. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  2. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kea-Tiong Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN applications.

  3. Corroles-Porphyrins: A Teamwork for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Capuano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrins provide an excellent material for chemical sensors, and they have been used for sensing species both in air and solution. In the gas phase, the broad selectivity of porphyrins is largely dependant on molecular features, such as the metal ion complexed at the core of the aromatic ring and the peripheral substituents. Although these features have been largely exploited to design gas sensor arrays, so far, little attention has been devoted to modify the sensing properties of these macrocycles by variation of the molecular aromatic ring. In this paper, the gas sensing properties of a porphyrin analog, the corrole, are studied in comparison with those of the parent porphyrin. Results show that changes in the aromatic ring have important consequences on the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors and that porphyrins and corroles can positively cooperate to enhance the performance of sensor arrays.

  4. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Young; Song, Dong Eon; Kim, Sang Sub

    2008-01-01

    Vertically and laterally aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on Pt-coated Si substrates by catalyst-free metal organic chemical vapor deposition. An approach to fabricating chemical sensors based on the nanorod arrays using a coating-and-etching process with a photo-resist is reported. Tests of the devices as oxygen gas sensors have been performed. Our results demonstrate that the approach holds promise for the realization of sensitive and reliable nanorod array chemical sensors

  5. Biomimetic Hair Sensor Arrays: From Inspiration To Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report on the successful implementation of highly sensitive artificial hair-based flow-sensor arrays for sensing low-frequency air flows. Artificial hair sensors are bio-inspired from crickets’ cercal filiform hairs, one of nature’s best in sensing small air flows. The presented

  6. Learning from Crickets: Artificial Hair-Sensor Array Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully developed biomimetic flowsensitive hair-sensor arrays taking inspiration from mechanosensory hairs of crickets. Our current generation of sensors achieves sub mm/s threshold air-flow sensitivity for single hairs operating in a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz and is the result of a

  7. Wireless powering for low-power distributed sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoya B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the field of wireless powering is presented with an emphasis on low-power applications. Several rectenna elements and arrays are discussed in more detail: (1 a 10-GHz array for powering sensors in aircraft wings; (2 a single antenna in the 2.4-GHz ISM band for low-power assisted-living sensors; and (3 a broadband array for power harvesting in the 2-18GHz frequency range.

  8. Integrated chemical sensor array platform based on a light emitting diode, xerogel-derived sensor elements, and high-speed pin printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Jeong; Bright, Frank V.

    2002-01-01

    We report a new, solid-state, integrated optical array sensor platform. By using pin printing technology in concert with sol-gel-processing methods, we form discrete xerogel-based microsensor elements that are on the order of 100 μm in diameter and 1 μm thick directly on the face of a light emitting diode (LED). The LED serves as the light source to excite chemically responsive luminophores sequestered within the doped xerogel microsensors and the analyte-dependent emission from within the doped xerogel is detected with a charge coupled device (CCD). We overcome the problem of background illumination from the LED reaching the CCD and the associated biasing that results by coating the LED first with a thin layer of blue paint. The thin paint layer serves as an optical filter, knocking out the LEDs red-edge spectral tail. The problem of the spatially-dependent fluence across the LED face is solved entirely by performing ratiometric measurements. We illustrate the performance of the new sensor scheme by forming an array of 100 discrete O 2 -responsive sensing elements on the face of a single LED. The combination of pin printing with an integrated sensor and light source platform results in a rapid method of forming (∼1 s per sensor element) reusable sensor arrays. The entire sensor array can be calibrated using just one sensor element. Array-to-array reproducibly is <8%. Arrays can be formed using single or multiple pins with indistinguishable analytical performance

  9. Application of a sensor array based on capillary-attached conductive gas sensors for odor identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahraminejad, Behzad; Basri, Shahnor; Isa, Maryam; Hambali, Zarida

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose based on an array of capillary-attached conductive gas sensors was fabricated. The identification ability of the developed structure was investigated by employing different categories of simple and complex odor databases. Feature data sets were generated from the dynamic and steady state responses of the sensor array to the applied odor databases. Combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods were used to detect target gases. Validation of each technique was evaluated. Achievements of the study proved high classification rates of the fabricated e-nose in odor identification. It was indicated that gas identification is possible by applying the early selected portion of transient responses of the developed sensor array. The ability of the mentioned structure in analyzing gas mixtures was also investigated. The results presented high accuracy in the classification of gas mixtures

  10. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring by using tactile array sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2015-07-01

    An ideal alignment method based on the external anatomical surface of the patient should consider the entire region of interest. However, optical-camera-based systems cannot blindly monitor such areas as the patient's back, for example. Furthermore, collecting enough information to correct the associated deformation error is impossible. The study aim is to propose a new patient alignment method using tactile array sensors that can measure the distributed pressure profiles along the contact surface. The TactArray system includes one sensor, a signal-conditioning device (USB drive/interface electronics, power supply, and cables), and a PC. The tactile array sensor was placed between the patient's back and the treatment couch, and the deformations at different location on the patient's back were evaluated. Three healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study, and pressure profile distributions (PPDs) were obtained with and without immobilization. After the initial pretreatment setup using the laser alignment system, the PPD of the patient's back was acquired. The results were obtained at four different times and included a reference PPD dataset. The contact area and the center-of-pressure value were also acquired based on the PPD data for a more elaborate quantitative data analysis. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using the proposed alignment method for reducing the deformation error, we implemented a real-time self-correction procedure. Despite the initial alignment, we confirmed that PPD variations existed in both cases of the volunteer studies (with and without the use of the immobilization tool). Additionally, we confirmed that the contact area and the center of pressure varied in both cases, and those variations were observed in all three volunteers. With the proposed alignment method and the real-time selfcorrection procedure, the deformation error was significantly reduced. The proposed alignment method can be used to account for the limitation of

  11. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  12. Design of a Large-scale Three-dimensional Flexible Arrayed Tactile Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new type of large-scale three-dimensional flexible arrayed tactile sensor based on conductive rubber. It can be used to detect three-dimensional force information on the continuous surface of the sensor, which realizes a true skin type tactile sensor. The widely used method of liquid rubber injection molding (LIMS method is used for "the overall injection molding" sample preparation. The structure details of staggered nodes and a new decoupling algorithm of force analysis are given. Simulation results show that the sensor based on this structure can achieve flexible measurement of large-scale 3-D tactile sensor arrays.

  13. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J, E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  14. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  15. Assessment of Embedded Conjugated Polymer Sensor Arrays for Potential Load Transmission Measurement in Orthopaedic Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Micolini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Load transfer through orthopaedic joint implants is poorly understood. The longer-term outcomes of these implants are just starting to be studied, making it imperative to monitor contact loads across the entire joint implant interface to elucidate the force transmission and distribution mechanisms exhibited by these implants in service. This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smart polymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI structures embedded within a polymeric parent phase. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were investigated to characterize the sensing behaviour inherent to these embedded pressure sensor arrays, including the experimental determination of the stable response of PANI to continuous loading, stability throughout the course of loading and unloading cycles, and finally sensor repeatability and linearity in response to incremental loading cycles. This specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for PANI is shown be an attractive approach for the fabrication of implant components having embedded smart-polymer sensors, which could ultimately be employed for the measurement and analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants for in vitro testing.

  16. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  17. Improving slowness estimate stability and visualization using limited sensor pair correlation on seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Näsholm, S. P.; Ruigrok, E.; Kværna, T.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic arrays enhance signal detection and parameter estimation by exploiting the time-delays between arriving signals on sensors at nearby locations. Parameter estimates can suffer due to both signal incoherence, with diminished waveform similarity between sensors, and aberration, with time-delays between coherent waveforms poorly represented by the wave-front model. Sensor-to-sensor correlation approaches to parameter estimation have an advantage over direct beamforming approaches in that individual sensor-pairs can be omitted without necessarily omitting entirely the data from each of the sensors involved. Specifically, we can omit correlations between sensors for which signal coherence in an optimal frequency band is anticipated to be poor or for which anomalous time-delays are anticipated. In practice, this usually means omitting correlations between more distant sensors. We present examples from International Monitoring System seismic arrays with poor parameter estimates resulting when classical f-k analysis is performed over the full array aperture. We demonstrate improved estimates and slowness grid displays using correlation beamforming restricted to correlations between sufficiently closely spaced sensors. This limited sensor-pair correlation (LSPC) approach has lower slowness resolution than would ideally be obtained by considering all sensor-pairs. However, this ideal estimate may be unattainable due to incoherence and/or aberration and the LSPC estimate can often exploit all channels, with the associated noise-suppression, while mitigating the complications arising from correlations between very distant sensors. The greatest need for the method is for short-period signals on large aperture arrays although we also demonstrate significant improvement for secondary regional phases on a small aperture array. LSPC can also provide a robust and flexible approach to parameter estimation on three-component seismic arrays.

  18. Massive Sensor Array Fault Tolerance: Tolerance Mechanism and Fault Injection for Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Um

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As today's machines become increasingly complex in order to handle intricate tasks, the number of sensors must increase for intelligent operations. Given the large number of sensors, detecting, isolating, and then tolerating faulty sensors is especially important. In this paper, we propose fault tolerance architecture suitable for a massive sensor array often found in highly advanced systems such as autonomous robots. One example is the sensitive skin, a type of massive sensor array. The objective of the sensitive skin is autonomous guidance of machines in unknown environments, requiring elongated operations in a remote site. The entirety of such a system needs to be able to work remotely without human attendance for an extended period of time. To that end, we propose a fault-tolerant architecture whereby component and analytical redundancies are integrated cohesively for effective failure tolerance of a massive array type sensor or sensor system. In addition, we discuss the evaluation results of the proposed tolerance scheme by means of fault injection and validation analysis as a measure of system reliability and performance.

  19. Performance of UWB Array-Based Radar Sensor in a Multi-Sensor Vehicle-Based Suit for Landmine Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.; Savelyev, T.; Zhuge, X.; Aubry, P.; Ligthart, L.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Tettelaar, P.; Breejen, E. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, integration of an UWB array-based timedomain radar sensor in a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor system for landmine detection is described. Dedicated real-time signal processing algorithms are developed to compute the radar sensor confidence map which is used for sensor fusion.

  20. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  1. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  2. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  3. Damage detection on mesosurfaces using distributed sensor network and spectral diffusion maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinde, V; Vaidya, U; Laflamme, S; Cao, L

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop a data-driven method for the diagnosis of damage in mesoscale mechanical structures using an array of distributed sensor networks. The proposed approach relies on comparing intrinsic geometries of data sets corresponding to the undamaged and damaged states of the system. We use a spectral diffusion map approach to identify the intrinsic geometry of the data set. In particular, time series data from distributed sensors is used for the construction of diffusion maps. The low dimensional embedding of the data set corresponding to different damage levels is obtained using a singular value decomposition of the diffusion map. We construct appropriate metrics in the diffusion space to compare the different data sets corresponding to different damage cases. The developed algorithm is applied for damage diagnosis of wind turbine blades. To achieve this goal, we developed a detailed finite element-based model of CX-100 blade in ANSYS using shell elements. Typical damage, such as crack or delamination, will lead to a loss of stiffness, is modeled by altering the stiffness of the laminate layer. One of the main challenges in the development of health monitoring algorithms is the ability to use sensor data with a relatively small signal-to-noise ratio. Our developed diffusion map-based algorithm is shown to be robust to the presence of sensor noise. The proposed diffusion map-based algorithm is advantageous by enabling the comparison of data from numerous sensors of similar or different types of data through data fusion, hereby making it attractive to exploit the distributed nature of sensor arrays. This distributed nature is further exploited for the purpose of damage localization. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully determine the extent of damage on the wind turbine blade and also localize the damage. We also present preliminary results for the application of the developed algorithm on

  4. A Radiosonde Using a Humidity Sensor Array with a Platinum Resistance Heater and Multi-Sensor Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunbo; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenjie; Shang, Chunxue; Wang, Yadong; Chen, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a radiosonde which can measure the meteorological temperature, humidity, pressure, and other atmospheric data. The system is composed of a CPU, microwave module, temperature sensor, pressure sensor and humidity sensor array. In order to effectively solve the humidity sensor condensation problem due to the low temperatures in the high altitude environment, a capacitive humidity sensor including four humidity sensors to collect meteorological humidity and a platinum resistance heater was developed using micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. A platinum resistance wire with 99.999% purity and 0.023 mm in diameter was used to obtain the meteorological temperature. A multi-sensor data fusion technique was applied to process the atmospheric data. Static and dynamic experimental results show that the designed humidity sensor with platinum resistance heater can effectively tackle the sensor condensation problem, shorten response times and enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor array can improve measurement accuracy and obtain a reliable initial meteorological humidity data, while the multi-sensor data fusion technique eliminates the uncertainty in the measurement. The radiosonde can accurately reflect the meteorological changes. PMID:23857263

  5. Haussdorff and hellinger for colorimetric sensor array classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Development of sensors and systems for detection of chemical compounds is an important challenge with applications in areas such as anti-terrorism, demining, and environmental monitoring. A newly developed colorimetric sensor array is able to detect explosives and volatile organic compounds......; however, each sensor reading consists of hundreds of pixel values, and methods for combining these readings from multiple sensors must be developed to make a classification system. In this work we examine two distance based classification methods, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Gaussian process (GP......) classification, which both rely on a suitable distance metric. We evaluate a range of different distance measures and propose a method for sensor fusion in the GP classifier. Our results indicate that the best choice of distance measure depends on the sensor and the chemical of interest....

  6. Distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Donald B; Carlin, John B; Iyengar, S Sitharama; Brooks, Richard R; University, Clemson

    2014-01-01

    An Overview, S.S. Iyengar, Ankit Tandon, and R.R. BrooksMicrosensor Applications, David ShepherdA Taxonomy of Distributed Sensor Networks, Shivakumar Sastry and S.S. IyengarContrast with Traditional Systems, R.R. BrooksDigital Signal Processing Background, Yu Hen HuImage-Processing Background Lynne Grewe and Ben ShahshahaniObject Detection and Classification, Akbar M. SayeedParameter Estimation David FriedlanderTarget Tracking with Self-Organizing Distributed Sensors R.R. Brooks, C. Griffin, D.S. Friedlander, and J.D. KochCollaborative Signal and Information Processing: AnInformation-Directed Approach Feng Zhao, Jie Liu, Juan Liu, Leonidas Guibas, and James ReichEnvironmental Effects, David C. SwansonDetecting and Counteracting Atmospheric Effects Lynne L. GreweSignal Processing and Propagation for Aeroacoustic Sensor Networks, Richard J. Kozick, Brian M. Sadler, and D. Keith WilsonDistributed Multi-Target Detection in Sensor Networks Xiaoling Wang, Hairong Qi, and Steve BeckFoundations of Data Fusion f...

  7. Developing the ultimate biomimetic flow-sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinink, C.M.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Kolster, M.L.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution reports on the major developments and achievements in our group on fabricating highly sensitive biomimetic flow-sensor arrays. The mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets are taken as a model system for their ability to perceive flow signals at thermal noise levels and,

  8. Light-Regulated Electrochemical Sensor Array for Efficiently Discriminating Hazardous Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongqiu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Huihui; Jin, Han; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jin, Qinghui; Zou, Jie; Haick, Hossam; Jian, Jiawen

    2017-10-27

    Inadequate detection limit and unsatisfactory discrimination features remain the challenging issues for the widely applied electrochemical gas sensors. Quite recently, we confirmed that light-regulated electrochemical reaction significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity, and thereby can potentially extend the detection limit to the parts per billion (ppb) level. Nevertheless, impact of the light-regulated electrochemical reaction on response selectivity has been discussed less. Herein, we systematically report on the effect of illumination on discrimination features via design and fabrication of a light-regulated electrochemical sensor array. Upon illumination (light on), response signal to the examined gases (C 3 H 6 , NO, and CO) is selectively enhanced, resulting in the sensor array demonstrating disparate response patterns when compared with that of the sensor array operated at light off. Through processing all the response patterns derived from both light on and light off with a pattern recognition algorithm, a satisfactory discrimination feature is observed. In contrast, apparent mutual interference between NO and CO is found when the sensor array is solely operated without illumination. The impact mechanism of the illumination is studied and it is deduced that the effect of the illumination on the discriminating features can be mainly attributed to the competition of electrocatalytic activity and gas-phase reactivity. If the enhanced electrocatalytic activity (to specific gas) dominates the whole sensing progress, enhancements in the corresponding response signal would be observed upon illumination. Otherwise, illumination gives a negligible impact. Hence, the response signal to part of the examined gases is selectively enhanced by illumination. Conclusively, light-regulated electrochemical reaction would provide an efficient approach to designing future smart sensing devices.

  9. A Multi-Modality CMOS Sensor Array for Cell-Based Assay and Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Taiyun; Park, Jong Seok; Butts, Jessica C; Hookway, Tracy A; Su, Amy; Zhu, Chengjie; Styczynski, Mark P; McDevitt, Todd C; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated multi-modality CMOS cellular sensor array with four sensing modalities to characterize different cell physiological responses, including extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance mapping, optical detection with shadow imaging and bioluminescence sensing, and thermal monitoring. The sensor array consists of nine parallel pixel groups and nine corresponding signal conditioning blocks. Each pixel group comprises one temperature sensor and 16 tri-modality sensor pixels, while each tri-modality sensor pixel can be independently configured for extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance measurement (voltage excitation/current sensing), and optical detection. This sensor array supports multi-modality cellular sensing at the pixel level, which enables holistic cell characterization and joint-modality physiological monitoring on the same cellular sample with a pixel resolution of 80 μm × 100 μm. Comprehensive biological experiments with different living cell samples demonstrate the functionality and benefit of the proposed multi-modality sensing in cell-based assay and drug screening.

  10. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM, the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm.

  11. A Novel Wearable Electronic Nose for Healthcare Based on Flexible Printed Chemical Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panida Lorwongtragool

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel wearable electronic nose for armpit odor analysis is proposed by using a low-cost chemical sensor array integrated in a ZigBee wireless communication system. We report the development of a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polymer sensor array based on inkjet printing technology. With this technique both composite-like layer and actual composite film of CNTs/polymer were prepared as sensing layers for the chemical sensor array. The sensor array can response to a variety of complex odors and is installed in a prototype of wearable e-nose for monitoring the axillary odor released from human body. The wearable e-nose allows the classification of different armpit odors and the amount of the volatiles released as a function of level of skin hygiene upon different activities.

  12. Equivalent thermal history reconstruction from a partially crystallized glass-ceramic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeg, Bauke

    2015-11-01

    The basic concept of a thermal history sensor is that it records the accumulated exposure to some unknown, typically varying temperature profile for a certain amount of time. Such a sensor is considered to be capable of measuring the duration of several (N) temperature intervals. For this purpose, the sensor deploys multiple (M) sensing elements, each with different temperature sensitivity. At the end of some thermal exposure for a known period of time, the sensor array is read-out and an estimate is made of the set of N durations of the different temperature ranges. A potential implementation of such a sensor was pioneered by Fair et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 141, 245 (2008)], based on glass-ceramic materials with different temperature-dependent crystallization dynamics. In their work, it was demonstrated that an array of sensor elements can be made sensitive to slight differences in temperature history. Further, a forward crystallization model was used to simulate the variations in sensor array response to differences in the temperature history. The current paper focusses on the inverse aspect of temperature history reconstruction from a hypothetical sensor array output. The goal of such a reconstruction is to find an equivalent thermal history that is the closest representation of the true thermal history, i.e., the durations of a set of temperature intervals that result in a set of fractional crystallization values which is closest to the one resulting from the true thermal history. One particular useful simplification in both the sensor model as well as in its practical implementation is the omission of nucleation effects. In that case, least squares models can be used to approximate the sensor response and make reconstruction estimates. Even with this simplification, sensor noise can have a destabilizing effect on possible reconstruction solutions, which is evaluated using simulations. Both regularization and non-negativity constrained least squares

  13. Compact Printed Arrays with Embedded Coupling Mitigation for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine G. Kakoyiannis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors emerged as narrowband, resource-constrained devices to provide monitoring services over a wide life span. Future applications of sensor networks are multimedia-driven and include sensor mobility. Thus, sensors must combine small size, large bandwidth, and diversity capabilities. Compact arrays, offering transmit/receive diversity, suffer from strong mutual coupling (MC, which causes lower antenna efficiency, loss of bandwidth, and signal correlation. An efficient technique to reduce coupling in compact arrays is described herein: a defect was inserted in the ground plane (GNDP area between each pair of elements. The defect disturbed the GNDP currents and offered multidecibel coupling suppression, bandwidth recovery, and reduction of in-band correlation. Minimal pattern distortion was estimated. Computational results were supported by measurements. The bandwidth of unloaded arrays degraded gracefully from 38% to 28% with decreasing interelement distance (0.25 to 0.10. Defect-loaded arrays exhibited active impedance bandwidths 37–45%, respectively. Measured coupling was reduced by 15–20 dB.

  14. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  15. Stretchable Active Matrix Temperature Sensor Array of Polyaniline Nanofibers for Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Yeong; Lee, Yong Hui; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; You, Ilhwan; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-02-03

    A stretchable polyaniline nanofiber temperature sensor array with an active matrix consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors is demonstrated. The integrated temperature sensor array gives mechanical stability under biaxial stretching of 30%, and the resultant spatial temperature mapping does not show any mechanical or electrical degradation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. PATTERN RECOGNITION STUDIES OF HALOGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CONDUCTING POLYMER SENSOR ARRAYS. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct measurement of volatile and semivolatile halogenated organic compounds of environmental interest was carried out using arrays of conducting polymer sensors. Mathematical expressions of the sensor arrays using microscopic polymer network model is described. A classical, non...

  17. A Statistical Model and Computer program for Preliminary Calculations Related to the Scaling of Sensor Arrays; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max Morris

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and engineering have made it possible to assemble many related sensors in a common array, often of small physical size. Sensor arrays may report an entire vector of measured values in each data collection cycle, typically one value per sensor per sampling time. The larger quantities of data provided by larger arrays certainly contain more information, however in some cases experience suggests that dramatic increases in array size do not always lead to corresponding improvements in the practical value of the data. The work leading to this report was motivated by the need to develop computational planning tools to approximate the relative effectiveness of arrays of different size (or scale) in a wide variety of contexts. The basis of the work is a statistical model of a generic sensor array. It includes features representing measurement error, both common to all sensors and independent from sensor to sensor, and the stochastic relationships between the quantities to be measured by the sensors. The model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hypothetical arrays in classifying objects or events from two classes. A computer program is presented for evaluating the misclassification rates which can be expected when arrays are calibrated using a given number of training samples, or the number of training samples required to attain a given level of classification accuracy. The program is also available via email from the first author for a limited time

  18. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Trucco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed. In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  19. Modeling of a new 2D Acceleration Sensor Array using SystemC-AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Erik; Dienel, Marco; Herrmann, Goeran; Mueller, Dietmar; Heinkel, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modeling and simulation of a new 2D acceleration sensor array using SystemC-AMS. The sensor array consists of six single acceleration sensors with different detection axes. These single sensors comprise of four capacitive segments and one mass segment, aligned in a semicircle. The redundant sensor information is used for offset correction. Modeling of the single sensors is achieved using sensor structure simplification into 11 points and analytic equations for capacity changes, currents and torques. This model was expanded by a PWM feedback circuit to keep the sensor displacement in a linear region. In this paper the single sensor model is duplicated considering different positions of the seismic mass resulting in different detection axes for the single sensors. The measured accelerations of the sensors are merged with different weights depending on the orientation. This also reduces calculation effort

  20. Localizing on-scalp MEG sensors using an array of magnetic dipole coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christoph; Andersen, Lau M; Lundqvist, Daniel; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F; Oostenveld, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the neural activity underlying magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals requires co-registration i.e., determination of the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the head. In modern MEG systems, an array of hundreds of low-Tc SQUID sensors is used to localize a set of small, magnetic dipole-like (head-position indicator, HPI) coils that are attached to the subject's head. With accurate prior knowledge of the positions and orientations of the sensors with respect to one another, the HPI coils can be localized with high precision, and thereby the positions of the sensors in relation to the head. With advances in magnetic field sensing technologies, e.g., high-Tc SQUIDs and optically pumped magnetometers (OPM), that require less extreme operating temperatures than low-Tc SQUID sensors, on-scalp MEG is on the horizon. To utilize the full potential of on-scalp MEG, flexible sensor arrays are preferable. Conventional co-registration is impractical for such systems as the relative positions and orientations of the sensors to each other are subject-specific and hence not known a priori. Herein, we present a method for co-registration of on-scalp MEG sensors. We propose to invert the conventional co-registration approach and localize the sensors relative to an array of HPI coils on the subject's head. We show that given accurate prior knowledge of the positions of the HPI coils with respect to one another, the sensors can be localized with high precision. We simulated our method with realistic parameters and layouts for sensor and coil arrays. Results indicate co-registration is possible with sub-millimeter accuracy, but the performance strongly depends upon a number of factors. Accurate calibration of the coils and precise determination of the positions and orientations of the coils with respect to one another are crucial. Finally, we propose methods to tackle practical challenges to further improve the method.

  1. Conductive polymer sensor arrays for smart orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micolini, Carolina; Holness, F. B.; Johnson, James A.; Price, Aaron D.

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smartpolymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded in a polymeric substrate. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to evaluate the efficacy of the manufacturing of an embedded pressure sensor. PANI's stability throughout loading and unloading cycles together with the response to incremental loading cycles was investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is a good candidate for the manufacture of implant components with smart-polymer sensors embedded for the analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.

  2. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J; Triantafyllou, M S; Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J; Woo, M E; Lang, J H

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  3. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H P; Ramseyer, J P; Grange, W; Braun, T; Schmid, D; Hunziker, P; Jung, C; Hegner, M; Gerber, C

    2007-01-01

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples

  4. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, H P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ramseyer, J P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Grange, W [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Braun, T [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, D [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hunziker, P [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Jung, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hegner, M [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gerber, C [National Center of Competence in Research for Nanoscale Science, Institute of Physics of Univesity of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples.

  5. Molecular identification of common Salmonella serovars using multiplex DNA sensor-based suspension array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Muhsin; Carter-Conger, Jacqueline; Gao, Ning; Gilmore, David F; Ricke, Steven C; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is one of major foodborne pathogens and the leading cause of foodborne illness-related hospitalizations and deaths. It is critical to develop a sensitive and rapid detection assay that can identify Salmonella to ensure food safety. In this study, a DNA sensor-based suspension array system of high multiplexing ability was developed to identify eight Salmonella serovars commonly associated with foodborne outbreaks to the serotype level. Each DNA sensor was prepared by activating pre-encoded microspheres with oligonucleotide probes that are targeting virulence genes and serovar-specific regions. The mixture of 12 different types of DNA sensors were loaded into a 96-well microplate and used as a 12-plex DNA sensor array platform. DNA isolated from Salmonella was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and the presence of Salmonella was determined by reading fluorescent signals from hybridization between probes on DNA sensors and fluorescently labeled target DNA using the Bio-Plex® system. The developed multiplex array was able to detect synthetic DNA at the concentration as low as 100 fM and various Salmonella serovars as low as 100 CFU/mL within 1 h post-PCR. Sensitivity of this assay was further improved to 1 CFU/mL with 6-h enrichment. The array system also correctly and specifically identified serotype of tested Salmonella strains without any cross-reactivity with other common foodborne pathogens. Our results indicate the developed DNA sensor suspension array can be a rapid and reliable high-throughput method for simultaneous detection and molecular identification of common Salmonella serotypes.

  6. Thermal physics of transition edge sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevers, H.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal transport in transition edge sensor (TES)-based microcalorimeter arrays is reviewed. The fundamentals of thermal conductance in Si 3 N 4 membranes are discussed and the magnitude of the electron-phonon coupling and Kapitza coupling in practical devices is summarized. Next, the thermal transport in high-stopping power and low-heat capacity absorbers, required for arrays of TES microcalorimeters, is discussed in combination with a performance analysis of detectors with mushroom-absorbers. Finally, the phenomenology of unexplained excess noise, observed in both Mo- and Ti-based TESs, is briefly summarized and related with the coupling of the TES to the heat bath

  7. Application of Gas Sensor Arrays in Assessment of Wastewater Purification Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Guz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array consisting of eight metal oxide semiconductor (MOS type gas sensors was evaluated for its ability for assessment of the selected wastewater parameters. Municipal wastewater was collected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in a primary sedimentation tank and was treated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR. A comparison of the gas sensor array (electronic nose response to the standard physical-chemical parameters of treated wastewater was performed. To analyze the measurement results, artificial neural networks were used. E-nose—gas sensors array and artificial neural networks proved to be a suitable method for the monitoring of treated wastewater quality. Neural networks used for data validation showed high correlation between the electronic nose readouts and: (I chemical oxygen demand (COD (r = 0.988; (II total suspended solids (TSS (r = 0.938; (III turbidity (r = 0.940; (IV pH (r = 0.554; (V nitrogen compounds: N-NO3 (r = 0.958, N-NO2 (r = 0.869 and N-NH3 (r = 0.978; (VI and volatile organic compounds (VOC (r = 0.987. Good correlation of the abovementioned parameters are observed under stable treatment conditions in a laboratory batch reactor.

  8. Spherical porphyrin sensor array based on encoded colloidal crystal beads for VOC vapor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Cao, Kai-Di; Ding, Hai-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Feng; Gu, Hong-Cheng; Xie, Zhuo-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Jin; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2012-12-01

    A spherical porphyrin sensor array using colloidal crystal beads (CCBs) as the encoding microcarriers has been developed for VOC vapor detection. Six different porphyrins were coated onto the CCBs with distinctive encoded reflection peaks via physical adsorption and the sensor array was fabricated by placing the prepared porphyrin-modified CCBs together. The change in fluorescence color of the porphyrin-modified CCBs array serves as the detection signal for discriminating between different VOC vapors and the reflection peak of the CCBs serves as the encoding signal to distinguish between different sensors. It was demonstrated that the VOC vapors detection using the prepared sensor array showed excellent discrimination: not only could the compounds from the different chemical classes be easily differentiated (e.g., alcohol vs acids vs ketones) but similar compounds from the same chemical family (e.g., methanol vs ethanol) and the same compound with different concentration ((e.g., Sat. ethanol vs 60 ppm ethanol vs 10 ppm ethanol) could also be distinguished. The detection reproducibility and the humidity effect were also investigated. The present spherical sensor array, with its simple preparation, rapid response, high sensitivity, reproducibility, and humidity insensitivity, and especially with stable and high-throughput encoding, is promising for real applications in artificial olfactory systems.

  9. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan; Yang, Xinsheng; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  10. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  11. Maximum-likelihood methods for array processing based on time-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Mu, Weifeng; Amin, Moeness G.

    1999-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel time-frequency maximum likelihood (t-f ML) method for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for non- stationary signals, and compares this method with conventional maximum likelihood DOA estimation techniques. Time-frequency distributions localize the signal power in the time-frequency domain, and as such enhance the effective SNR, leading to improved DOA estimation. The localization of signals with different t-f signatures permits the division of the time-frequency domain into smaller regions, each contains fewer signals than those incident on the array. The reduction of the number of signals within different time-frequency regions not only reduces the required number of sensors, but also decreases the computational load in multi- dimensional optimizations. Compared to the recently proposed time- frequency MUSIC (t-f MUSIC), the proposed t-f ML method can be applied in coherent environments, without the need to perform any type of preprocessing that is subject to both array geometry and array aperture.

  12. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  13. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao; Qiu, Lili; Yan, Zequn; Meng, Zihui; Xue, Min; He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  14. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Jae; Lee, Young-Gu; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Jun, Moon-Seog

    2011-01-01

    These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes. PMID:22164072

  15. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  16. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  17. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  18. Gait Dynamics Sensing Using IMU Sensor Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomir Kardos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a progressive approach in gait sensing. It is incorporated by IMU (Inertia Measurement Unit complex sensors whose field of acting is mainly the motion sensing in medicine, automotive and other industry, self-balancing systems, etc. They allow acquiring the position and orientation of an object in 3D space. Using several IMU units the sensing array for gait dynamics was made. Based on human gait analysis the 7-sensor array was designed to build a gait motion dynamics sensing system with the possibility of graphical interpretation of data from the sensing modules in real-time graphical application interface under the LabVIEW platform. The results of analyses can serve as the information for medical diagnostic purposes. The main control part of the system is microcontroller, whose function is to control the data collection and flow, provide the communication and power management.

  19. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Jun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB as one of the sensor combination methods. The three-layered housing structure that included independent pressure sensor units using the FDB method not only enabled elimination of the crosstalk among channels, but also allowed various array patterns to be created for effective pulse measurement. The sensors were arranged in a circular-type arrangement such that they could estimate the direction of the radial artery and precisely measure the pulse wave. The performance of the fabricated sensor array was validated by evaluating the sensor sensitivity per channel, and the possibility of estimating the blood vessel direction was demonstrated through a radial artery pulse simulator. We expect the proposed sensor to allow accurate extraction of the pulse indices for pulse diagnosis.

  20. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO(2), CH(4), H(2), NH(3), CO and NO(2) has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO(2) presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO(2) gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO(2) concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO(2) gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 microm and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified CNT-chemoresistor array

  1. High performance flexible pH sensor based on polyaniline nanopillar array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jo Hee; Hong, Seok Bok; Yun, Seok-Oh; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Tae Jae; Lee, Kyoung G; Choi, Bong Gill

    2017-03-15

    Flexible pH sensor technologies have attracted a great deal of attention in many applications, such as, wearable health care devices and monitors for chemical and biological processes. Here, we fabricated flexible and thin pH sensors using a two electrode configuration comprised of a polyaniline nanopillar (PAN) array working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. In order to provide nanostructure, soft lithography using a polymeric blend was employed to create a flexible nanopillar backbone film. Polyaniline-sensing materials were deposited on a patterned-nanopillar array by electrochemical deposition. The pH sensors produced exhibited a near-Nernstian response (∼60.3mV/pH), which was maintained in a bent state. In addition, pH sensors showed other excellent sensor performances in terms of response time, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity, and stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Use of Calixarene Thin Films in the Sensor Array for VOCs Detection and Olfactory Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Holloway

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the development of a sensor array for detection of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs in pre-explosive concentrations as well as for olfactory robotic navigation in the frame of two EU projects. A QCM (quartz crystal microbalance sensor array was built utilising quartz crystals spun-coated with thin films of different amphiphilic calixarene molecules to provide a base for pattern recognition of different volatile organic chemicals (VOCs. Commercial Metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS sensors were also used in the same array for the benefit of comparison. The sensor array was tested with a range of organic vapours, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aromatics, etc, in concentrations below LEL and up to UEL (standing for lower and upper explosion limit, respectively; the sensor array proved to be capable of identification and concentration evaluation of a range of VOCs. Comparison of QCM and MOS sensors responses to VOCs in the LEL-UEL range showed the advantage of the former. In addition, the sensor array was tested on the vapours of camphor from cinnamon oil in order to prove the concept of using the "scent marks" for robotic navigation. The results showed that the response signature of QCM coated with calixarenes to camphor is very much different from those of any other VOCs used. Adsorption and de-sorption rates of camphor are also much slower comparing to VOCs due to a high viscosity of the compound. Our experiments demonstrated the suitability of calixarene sensor array for the task and justified the use of camphor as a "scent mark" for olfactory navigation.

  3. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor......In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  4. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  5. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Dual-Mode Large-Arrayed CMOS ISFET Sensor for Accurate and High-Throughput pH Sensing in Biomedical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Yu; Yan, Mei; Wu, Dongping

    2015-09-01

    The existing ISFET-based DNA sequencing detects hydrogen ions released during the polymerization of DNA strands on microbeads, which are scattered into microwell array above the ISFET sensor with unknown distribution. However, false pH detection happens at empty microwells due to crosstalk from neighboring microbeads. In this paper, a dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor is proposed to have accurate pH detection toward DNA sequencing. Dual-mode sensing, optical and chemical modes, is realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor (CIS) with ISFET pH sensor, and is fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CIS process. With accurate determination of microbead physical locations with CIS pixel by contact imaging, the dual-mode sensor can correlate local pH for one DNA slice at one location-determined microbead, which can result in improved pH detection accuracy. Moreover, toward a high-throughput DNA sequencing, a correlated-double-sampling readout that supports large array for both modes is deployed to reduce pixel-to-pixel nonuniformity such as threshold voltage mismatch. The proposed CMOS dual-mode sensor is experimentally examined to show a well correlated pH map and optical image for microbeads with a pH sensitivity of 26.2 mV/pH, a fixed pattern noise (FPN) reduction from 4% to 0.3%, and a readout speed of 1200 frames/s. A dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor with suppressed FPN for accurate large-arrayed pH sensing is proposed and demonstrated with state-of-the-art measured results toward accurate and high-throughput DNA sequencing. The developed dual-mode CMOS ISFET sensor has great potential for future personal genome diagnostics with high accuracy and low cost.

  7. Planar location of the simulative acoustic source based on fiber optic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Jun; Liu, Jun-feng; Zhang, Qiao-ping; Mu, Lin-lin

    2010-06-01

    A fiber optic sensor array which is structured by four Sagnac fiber optic sensors is proposed to detect and locate a simulative source of acoustic emission (AE). The sensing loops of Sagnac interferometer (SI) are regarded as point sensors as their small size. Based on the derived output light intensity expression of SI, the optimum work condition of the Sagnac fiber optic sensor is discussed through the simulation of MATLAB. Four sensors are respectively placed on a steel plate to structure the sensor array and the location algorithms are expatiated. When an impact is generated by an artificial AE source at any position of the plate, the AE signal will be detected by four sensors at different times. With the help of a single chip microcomputer (SCM) which can calculate the position of the AE source and display it on LED, we have implemented an intelligent detection and location.

  8. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  9. Enzyme sensor array for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Jana [University of Greifswald, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Wittmann, Christine [Fachhochschule Neubrandenburg, Department of Technology (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    An enzyme sensor array for the simultaneous determination of the three biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine and putrescine) by pattern recognition using an artificial neural network and its application to different food samples is described. A combination of a monoamine oxidase, a tyramine oxidase and a diamine oxidase (with specific activities sufficient for rapid detection) are immobilised each on a separate screen-printed thick-film electrode via transglutaminase and glutaraldehyde to compare these cross-linking reagents with regard to their suitability. To calculate the amount of a specific biogenic amine, the raw data from multichannel software were transferred to a neural network. The sensor array takes 20 min to complete (excluding statistical data analysis) with only one extraction and subsequent neutralisation step required prior to sensor measurement. The lower detection limits with the enzyme sensor were 10 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine, and 5 mg/kg for putrescine with a linear range up to 200 mg/kg for histamine and tyramine and 100 mg/kg for putrescine. The application area of the enzyme sensor array was tested from fish to meat products, sauerkraut, beer, dairy products, wine and further fermented foods and compared with the data of conventional LC analyses (mean correlation coefficient: 0.854). (orig.)

  10. A modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Guanhao; Wang, Yancheng; Mei, Deqing; Xi, Kailun; Chen, Zichen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modified analytical model to study the sensing performance of a flexible capacitive tactile sensor array, which utilizes solid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film as the dielectric layer. To predict the deformation of the sensing unit and capacitance changes, each sensing unit is simplified into a three-layer plate structure and divided into central, edge and corner regions. The plate structure and the three regions are studied by the general and modified models, respectively. For experimental validation, the capacitive tactile sensor array with 8  ×  8 (= 64) sensing units is fabricated. Experiments are conducted by measuring the capacitance changes versus applied external forces and compared with the general and modified models’ predictions. For the developed tactile sensor array, the sensitivity predicted by the modified analytical model is 1.25%/N, only 0.8% discrepancy from the experimental measurement. Results demonstrate that the modified analytical model can accurately predict the sensing performance of the sensor array and could be utilized for model-based optimal capacitive tactile sensor array design. (paper)

  11. Exploiting Cross-sensitivity by Bayesian Decoding of Mixed Potential Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreller, Cortney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    LANL mixed-potential electrochemical sensor (MPES) device arrays were coupled with advanced Bayesian inference treatment of the physical model of relevant sensor-analyte interactions. We demonstrated that our approach could be used to uniquely discriminate the composition of ternary gas sensors with three discreet MPES sensors with an average error of less than 2%. We also observed that the MPES exhibited excellent stability over a year of operation at elevated temperatures in the presence of test gases.

  12. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2 absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  13. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  14. Development of a Tactile Sensor Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Nicolae; Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Flexible grasping robots are needed for enabling automated, profitable and competitive production of small batch sizes including complex handling processes of often fragile objects. This development will create new conditions for value-adding activities in the production of the future world....... The paper describes the related research work we have developed for sensor design, exploration and control for a robot gripping system, in order to analyze normal forces applied on the tactile pixels for gripping force control and generate tactile images for gripping positioning and object recognition....... Section 1 gives an introduction of principles and technologies in tactile sensing for robot grippers. Section 2 presents the sensor cell (taxel) and array design and characterization. Section 3 introduces object recognition and shape analysis ideas showing a few preliminary examples, where geometrical...

  15. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  16. Real time interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating enhanced fiber loop ringdown sensors array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Ruoming; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Xiangfei; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

  17. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  18. An optode sensor array for long term in situ Oxygen measurements in soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars F; Jensen, Louise Askær; Walpersdorf, Eva Christine

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We construc......Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We...... constructed an O2 optode sensor array for long-term in situ measurements in soil and sediment. Th e new device consists of a 1.3-m-long, cylindrical, spear-shaped rod equipped with 10 sensor spots along the shaft . Each spot contains a thermocouple fi xed with a robust fi beroptic O2 optode made...... characteristics of the sensor array system are presented along with a novel approach for temperature compensation of O2 optodes. During in situ application over several months in a peat bog, we used the new device to document pronounced variations in O2 distribution aft er marked shift s in water level. Th e...

  19. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  20. Mathematical theories of distributed sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iyengar, Sitharama S; Balakrishnan, N

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical Theory of Distributed Sensor Networks demonstrates how mathematical theories can be used to provide distributed sensor modeling and to solve important problems such as coverage hole detection and repair. The book introduces the mathematical and computational structure by discussing what they are, their applications and how they differ from traditional systems. The text also explains how mathematics are utilized to provide efficient techniques implementing effective coverage, deployment, transmission, data processing, signal processing, and data protection within distributed sensor networks. Finally, the authors discuss some important challenges facing mathematics to get more incite to the multidisciplinary area of distributed sensor networks.

  1. Indoor air quality inspection and analysis system based on gas sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Mingjiang; Fan, Binwen

    2017-08-01

    A detection and analysis system capable of measuring the concentration of four major gases in indoor air is designed. It uses four gas sensors constitute a gas sensor array, to achieve four indoor gas concentration detection, while the detection of data for further processing to reduce the cross-sensitivity between the gas sensor to improve the accuracy of detection.

  2. Microchamber arrays with an integrated long luminescence lifetime pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Elisabeth; Pfeiffer, Simon A; Herm, Marc; Gaebler, Michael; Busse, Benedikt; Nagl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A pH probe with a microsecond luminescence lifetime was obtained via covalent coupling of 6-carboxynaphthofluorescein (CNF) moieties to ruthenium-tris-(1,10-phenanthroline)(2+). The probe was covalently attached to amino-modified poly-(2-hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (pHEMA) and showed a pH-dependent FRET with luminescence lifetimes of 681 to 1260 ns and a working range from ca. pH 6.5 to 9.0 with a pKa of 7.79 ± 0.14. The pH sensor matrix was integrated via spin coating as ca. 1- to 2-μm-thick layer into "CytoCapture" cell culture dishes of 6 mm in diameter. These contained a microcavity array of square-shaped regions of 40 μm length and width and 15 μm depth that was homogeneously coated with the pH sensor matrix. The sensor layer showed fast response times in both directions. A microscopic setup was developed that enabled imaging of the pH inside the microchamber arrays over many hours. As a proof of principle, we monitored the pH of Escherichia coli cell cultures grown in the microchamber arrays. The integrated sensor matrix allowed pH monitoring spatially resolved in every microchamber, and the differences in cell growth between individual chambers could be resolved and quantified.

  3. Kalman filter-based tracking of moving objects using linear ultrasonic sensor array for road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Li, Guofa; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Bo; Wang, Jianqiang; Li, Keqiang

    2018-01-01

    Detection and tracking of objects in the side-near-field has attracted much attention for the development of advanced driver assistance systems. This paper presents a cost-effective approach to track moving objects around vehicles using linearly arrayed ultrasonic sensors. To understand the detection characteristics of a single sensor, an empirical detection model was developed considering the shapes and surface materials of various detected objects. Eight sensors were arrayed linearly to expand the detection range for further application in traffic environment recognition. Two types of tracking algorithms, including an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), for the sensor array were designed for dynamic object tracking. The ultrasonic sensor array was designed to have two types of fire sequences: mutual firing or serial firing. The effectiveness of the designed algorithms were verified in two typical driving scenarios: passing intersections with traffic sign poles or street lights, and overtaking another vehicle. Experimental results showed that both EKF and UKF had more precise tracking position and smaller RMSE (root mean square error) than a traditional triangular positioning method. The effectiveness also encourages the application of cost-effective ultrasonic sensors in the near-field environment perception in autonomous driving systems.

  4. Sensor distributions for structural monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio

    2017-01-01

    Deciding on the spatial distribution of output sensors for vibration-based structural health monitoring (SHM) is a task that has been, and still is, studied extensively. Yet, when referring to the conventional damage characterization hierarchy, composed of detection, localization, and quantificat......Deciding on the spatial distribution of output sensors for vibration-based structural health monitoring (SHM) is a task that has been, and still is, studied extensively. Yet, when referring to the conventional damage characterization hierarchy, composed of detection, localization......, and quantification, it is primarily the first component that has been addressed with regard to optimal sensor placement. In this particular context, a common approach is to distribute sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that some scalar function of the probability of detection for a pre......-defined set of damage patterns is maximized. Obviously, the optimal sensor distribution, in terms of damage detection, is algorithm-dependent, but studies have showed how correlation generally exists between the different strategies. However, it still remains a question how this “optimality” correlates...

  5. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    their color changes in response to compounds present in fresh products (hexanal, 1-octane-3-ol) used as negative controls. The colorimetric sensor array was used to follow fish spoilage over time at room temperature for up to 24 h as well as at 4 °C for 9 days. Additionally, fish decay was monitored using......Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  6. Sensors in Distributed Mixed Reality Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hamza-Lup

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A distributed mixed-reality (MR or virtual reality (VR environment implies the cooperative engagement of a set of software and hardware resources. With the advances in sensors and computer networks we have seen an increase in the number of potential MR/VR applications that require large amounts of information from the real world collected through sensors (e.g. position and orientation tracking sensors. These sensors collect data from the real environment in real-time at different locations and a distributed environment connecting them must assure data distribution among collaborative sites at interactive speeds. With the advances in sensor technology, we envision that in future systems a significant amount of data will be collected from sensors and devices attached to the participating nodes This paper proposes a new architecture for sensor based interactive distributed MR/VR environments that falls in-between the atomistic peer-to-peer model and the traditional client-server model. Each node is autonomous and fully manages its resources and connectivity. The dynamic behavior of the nodes is dictated by the human participants that manipulate the sensors attached to these nodes.

  7. Diode temperature sensor array for measuring and controlling micro scale surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Il Young; Kim, Sung Jin

    2004-01-01

    The needs of micro scale thermal detecting technique are increasing in biology and chemical industry. For example, thermal finger print, Micro PCR(Polymer Chain Reaction), TAS and so on. To satisfy these needs, we developed a DTSA(Diode Temperature Sensor Array) for detecting and controlling the temperature on small surface. The DTSA is fabricated by using VLSI technique. It consists of 32 array of diodes(1,024 diodes) for temperature detection and 8 heaters for temperature control on a 8mm surface area. The working principle of temperature detection is that the forward voltage drop across a silicon diode is approximately proportional to the inverse of the absolute temperature of diode. And eight heaters (1K) made of poly-silicon are added onto a silicon wafer and controlled individually to maintain a uniform temperature distribution across the DTSA. Flip chip packaging used for easy connection of the DTSA. The circuitry for scanning and controlling DTSA are also developed

  8. A Low-Operating-Power and Flexible Active-Matrix Organic-Transistor Temperature-Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Pei, Ke; Peng, Boyu; Zhang, Zhichao; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Chan, Paddy K L

    2016-06-01

    An organic flexible temperature-sensor array exhibits great potential in health monitoring and other biomedical applications. The actively addressed 16 × 16 temperature sensor array reaches 100% yield rate and provides 2D temperature information of the objects placed in contact, even if the object has an irregular shape. The current device allows defect predictions of electronic devices, remote sensing of harsh environments, and e-skin applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development and characterization of silicone embedded distributed piezoelectric sensors for contact detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acer, Merve; Salerno, Marco; Paik, Jamie; Agbeviade, Kossi

    2015-01-01

    Tactile sensing transfers complex interactive information in a most intuitive sense. Such a populated set of data from the environment and human interactions necessitates various degrees of information from both modular and distributed areas. A sensor design that could provide such types of feedback becomes challenging when the target component has a nonuniform, agile, high resolution, and soft surface. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the manufacture of novel soft sensors that have a high resolution sensing array due to the sensitivity of ceramic piezoelectric (PZT) elements, while uncommonly matched with the high stretchability of the soft substrate and electrode design. Further, they have a low profile and their transfer function is easy to tune by changing the material and thickness of the soft substrate in which the PZTs are embedded. In this manuscript, we present experimental results of the soft sensor prototypes: PZTs arranged in a four by two array form, measuring 1.5–2.3 mm in thickness, with the sensitivity in the range of 0.07–0.12 of the normalized signal change per unit force. We have conducted extensive tests under dynamic loading conditions that include impact, step and cyclic. The presented prototype's mechanical and functional capacities are promising for applications in biomedical systems where soft, wearable and high precision sensors are needed. (paper)

  10. Development and characterization of silicone embedded distributed piezoelectric sensors for contact detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Merve; Salerno, Marco; Agbeviade, Kossi; Paik, Jamie

    2015-07-01

    Tactile sensing transfers complex interactive information in a most intuitive sense. Such a populated set of data from the environment and human interactions necessitates various degrees of information from both modular and distributed areas. A sensor design that could provide such types of feedback becomes challenging when the target component has a nonuniform, agile, high resolution, and soft surface. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the manufacture of novel soft sensors that have a high resolution sensing array due to the sensitivity of ceramic piezoelectric (PZT) elements, while uncommonly matched with the high stretchability of the soft substrate and electrode design. Further, they have a low profile and their transfer function is easy to tune by changing the material and thickness of the soft substrate in which the PZTs are embedded. In this manuscript, we present experimental results of the soft sensor prototypes: PZTs arranged in a four by two array form, measuring 1.5-2.3 mm in thickness, with the sensitivity in the range of 0.07-0.12 of the normalized signal change per unit force. We have conducted extensive tests under dynamic loading conditions that include impact, step and cyclic. The presented prototype's mechanical and functional capacities are promising for applications in biomedical systems where soft, wearable and high precision sensors are needed.

  11. A flexible liquid crystal polymer MEMS pressure sensor array for fish-like underwater sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottapalli, A G P; Asadnia, M; Miao, J M; Barbastathis, G; Triantafyllou, M S

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform underwater surveillance, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) require flexible, light-weight, reliable and robust sensing systems that are capable of flow sensing and detecting underwater objects. Underwater animals like fish perform a similar task using an efficient and ubiquitous sensory system called a lateral-line constituting of an array of pressure-gradient sensors. We demonstrate here the development of arrays of polymer microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors which are flexible and can be readily mounted on curved surfaces of AUV bodies. An array of ten sensors with a footprint of 60 (L) mm × 25 (W) mm × 0.4 (H) mm is fabricated using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) as the sensing membrane material. The flow sensing and object detection capabilities of the array are illustrated with proof-of-concept experiments conducted in a water tunnel. The sensors demonstrate a pressure sensitivity of 14.3 μV Pa −1 . A high resolution of 25 mm s −1 is achieved in water flow sensing. The sensors can passively sense underwater objects by transducing the pressure variations generated underwater by the movement of objects. The experimental results demonstrate the array’s ability to detect the velocity of underwater objects towed past by with high accuracy, and an average error of only 2.5%. (paper)

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using a Chemocapacitor Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Petros; Raptis, Ioannis; Sanopoulou, Merope

    2014-01-01

    The alcoholic fermentation of Savatiano must variety was initiated under laboratory conditions and monitored daily with a gas sensor array without any pre-treatment steps. The sensor array consisted of eight interdigitated chemocapacitors (IDCs) coated with specific polymers. Two batches of fermented must were tested and also subjected daily to standard chemical analysis. The chemical composition of the two fermenting musts differed from day one of laboratory monitoring (due to different storage conditions of the musts) and due to a deliberate increase of the acetic acid content of one of the musts, during the course of the process, in an effort to spoil the fermenting medium. Sensor array responses to the headspace of the fermenting medium were compared with those obtained either for pure or contaminated samples with controlled concentrations of standard ethanol solutions of impurities. Results of data processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), demonstrate that this sensing system could discriminate between a normal and a potential spoiled grape must fermentation process, so this gas sensing system could be potentially applied during wine production as an auxiliary qualitative control instrument. PMID:25184490

  13. Monitoring pressure profiles across an airfoil with a fiber Bragg grating sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Karas, Andrew R.; Hansen, Kristy L.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow over an airfoil section creates a pressure difference across the upper and lower surfaces, thus generating lift. Successful wing design is a combination of engineering design and experience in the field, with subtleties in design and manufacture having significant impact on the amount of lift produced. Current methods of airfoil optimization and validation typically involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive wind tunnel testing with pressure sensors embedded into the airfoil to measure the pressure over the wing. Monitoring pressure along an airfoil in a wind tunnel is typically achieved using surface pressure taps that consist of hollow tubes running from the surface of the airfoil to individual pressure sensors external to the tunnel. These pressure taps are complex to configure and not ideal for in-flight testing. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensing arrays provide a highly viable option for both wind tunnel and inflight pressure measurement. We present a fiber optic sensor array that can detect positive and negative pressure suitable for validating CFD models of airfoil profile sections. The sensing array presented here consists of 6 independent sensing elements, each capable of a pressure resolution of less than 10 Pa over the range of 70 kPa to 120 kPa. The device has been tested with the sensor array attached to a 90mm chord length airfoil section subjected to low velocity flow. Results show that the arrays are capable of accurately detecting variations of the pressure profile along the airfoil as the angle of attack is varied from zero to the point at which stall occurs.

  14. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  15. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Hung Liao; Jung-Chuan Chou

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other differ...

  16. An armored-cable-based fiber Bragg grating sensor array for perimeter fence intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Varghese, Paulose; Phua, Jiliang; Foo, Siang Fook

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an armored-cable-based optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor array, for perimeter fence intrusion detection, is demonstrated and some of the field trial results are reported. The field trial was conducted at a critical local installation in Singapore in December 2010. The sensor array was put through a series of both simulated and live intrusion scenarios to test the stability and suitability of operation in the local environmental conditions and to determine its capabilities in detecting and reporting these intrusions accurately to the control station. Such a sensor array can provide perimeter intrusion detection with fine granularity and preset pin-pointing accuracy. The various types of intrusions included aided or unaided climbs, tampering and cutting of the fence, etc. The unique sensor packaging structure provides high sensitivity, crush resistance and protection against rodents. It is also capable of resolving nuisance events such as rain, birds sitting on the fence or seismic vibrations. These sensors are extremely sensitive with a response time of a few seconds. They can be customized for a desired spatial resolution and pre-determined sensitivity. Furthermore, it is easy to cascade a series of such sensors to monitor and detect intrusion events over a long stretch of fence line. Such sensors can be applied to real-time intrusion detection for perimeter security, pipeline security and communications link security.

  17. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  18. Compressive sensing-based electrostatic sensor array signal processing and exhausted abnormal debris detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Li, Yue; Yang, Yongmin

    2018-05-01

    When faults happen at gas path components of gas turbines, some sparsely-distributed and charged debris will be generated and released into the exhaust gas. The debris is called abnormal debris. Electrostatic sensors can detect the debris online and further indicate the faults. It is generally considered that, under a specific working condition, a more serious fault generates more and larger debris, and a piece of larger debris carries more charge. Therefore, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are important indicators of the fault severity. However, because an electrostatic sensor can only detect the superposed effect on the electrostatic field of all the debris, it can hardly identify the amount and position of the debris. Moreover, because signals of electrostatic sensors depend on not only charge but also position of debris, and the position information is difficult to acquire, measuring debris charge accurately using the electrostatic detecting method is still a technical difficulty. To solve these problems, a hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensors' circular array (HSESCA) is used, and an array signal processing method based on compressive sensing (CS) is proposed in this paper. To research in a theoretical framework of CS, the measurement model of the HSESCA is discretized into a sparse representation form by meshing. In this way, the amount and charge of the abnormal debris are described as a sparse vector. It is further reconstructed by constraining l1-norm when solving an underdetermined equation. In addition, a pre-processing method based on singular value decomposition and a result calibration method based on weighted-centroid algorithm are applied to ensure the accuracy of the reconstruction. The proposed method is validated by both numerical simulations and experiments. Reconstruction errors, characteristics of the results and some related factors are discussed.

  19. Comparison of pH Data Measured with a pH Sensor Array Using Different Data Fusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces different data fusion methods which are used for an electrochemical measurement using a sensor array. In this study, we used ruthenium dioxide sensing membrane pH electrodes to form a sensor array. The sensor array was used for detecting the pH values of grape wine, generic cola drink and bottled base water. The measured pH data were used for data fusion methods to increase the reliability of the measured results, and we also compared the fusion results with other different data fusion methods.

  20. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptide modified ZnO nanoparticles as gas sensors array for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-04-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modelled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modelled demonstrated a nice fitting of modelling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  2. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mascini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  3. Transition-edge sensor arrays for UV-optical-IR astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Barral, J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Miller, A.J.; Nam, S.; Rosenberg, D.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.

    2006-01-01

    Our research group has developed and characterized transition-edge sensor (TES) arrays for near IR-optical-near UV astrophysical observations. These detectors have a time-stamp accuracy of 0.3μs and an energy resolution of 0.16eV for 2.33eV photons at very high rates (30kHz). We have installed a 6x6 array of these TESs in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We discuss new instrumentation progress and current data in all aspects related to successful operation of this camera system, including: detector and array performance, position dependence and cross-talk, low-temperature and readout electronics, quantum and system efficiency, IR filtering, and focus and imaging

  4. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  5. Oxidative stress detection by MEMS cantilever sensor array based electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anurag; Singh, T. Sonamani; Singh, Priyanka; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with analyzing the role of polymer swelling induced surface stress in MEMS chemical sensors. The objective is to determine the impact of surface stress on the chemical discrimination ability of MEMS resonator sensors. We considered a case study of hypoxia detection by MEMS sensor array and performed several types of simulation experiments for detection of oxidative stress volatile organic markers in human breath. Both types of sensor response models that account for the surface stress effect and that did not were considered for the analyses in comparison. It is found that the surface stress (hence the polymer swelling) provides better chemical discrimination ability to polymer coated MEMS sensors.

  6. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  7. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  8. Harsh Environment Gas Sensor Array for Venus Atmospheric Measurements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and the Ohio State University propose to develop a harsh environment tolerant gas sensor array for atmospheric analysis in future Venus missions....

  9. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  10. SQUID readout multiplexers for transition-edge sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: atl@physics.berkeley.edu

    2006-04-15

    Two classes of SQUID multiplexer are being developed for large arrays of cryogenic sensors, distinguished by their operation in either the time domain or frequency domain. Several systems optimized for use with Transition-Edge Sensors (TES) are reaching a high level of maturity, and will be deployed on funded astrophysics experiments in the next several years. A useful technical figure of merit is the product of the number of detectors multplexed multipled by the bandwidth of the detectors, which can be termed the 'total signal bandwidth' of a multiplexer system. This figure of merit is comparable within a factor of two for the mature systems. Several new concepts for increasing the total bandwidth are being developed in the broad class of frequency domain multiplexers. Another notable area of progress is in the level of integration of muliplexer and detector array. The time domain system for SCUBA-II is a sophisticated bump-bonded sandwich structure, and the Jena/MPI group is integrating detectors and a time domain multiplexer on one substrate. Finally, the Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID)/HEMT (non-SQUID) detector/multiplexer system, will be discussed briefly.

  11. A thermal plasmonic sensor platform: resistive heating of nanohole arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mudassar; Xiong, Kunli; Svedendahl, Mikael; Käll, Mikael; Dahlin, Andreas B

    2014-06-11

    We have created a simple and efficient thermal plasmonic sensor platform by letting a DC current heat plasmonic nanohole arrays. The sensor can be used to determine thermodynamic parameters in addition to monitoring molecular reactions in real-time. As an application example, we use the thermal sensor to determine the kinetics and activation energy for desorption of thiol monolayers on gold. Further, the temperature of the metal can be measured optically by the spectral shift of the bonding surface plasmon mode (0.015 nm/K). We show that this resonance shift is caused by thermal lattice expansion, which reduces the plasma frequency of the metal. The sensor is also used to determine the thin film thermal expansion coefficient through a theoretical model for the expected resonance shift.

  12. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Bae, Jang-Han; Jung, Chang Jin; Cho, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB) as one of the s...

  13. Sensor Fusion Techniques for Phased-Array Eddy Current and Phased-Array Ultrasound Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, Lloyd F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Sensor (or Data) fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate and comprehensive information than is provided by a single data source. Sensor fusion may also be used to combine multiple signals from a single modality to improve the performance of a particular inspection technique. Industrial nondestructive testing may utilize multiple sensors to acquire inspection data depending upon the object under inspection and the anticipated types of defects that can be identified. Sensor fusion can be performed at various levels of signal abstraction with each having its strengths and weaknesses. A multimodal data fusion strategy first proposed by Heideklang and Shokouhi that combines spatially scattered detection locations to improve detection performance of surface-breaking and near-surface cracks in ferromagnetic metals is shown using a surface inspection example and is then extended for volumetric inspections. Utilizing data acquired from an Olympus Omniscan MX2 from both phased array eddy current and ultrasound probes on test phantoms, single and multilevel fusion techniques are employed to integrate signals from the two modalities. Preliminary results demonstrate how confidence in defect identification and interpretation benefit from sensor fusion techniques. Lastly, techniques for integrating data into radiographic and volumetric imagery from computed tomography are described and results are presented.

  14. Locating sources within a dense sensor array using graph clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstoft, P.; Riahi, N.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a model-free technique to identify weak sources within dense sensor arrays using graph clustering. No knowledge about the propagation medium is needed except that signal strengths decay to insignificant levels within a scale that is shorter than the aperture. We then reinterpret the spatial coherence matrix of a wave field as a matrix whose support is a connectivity matrix of a graph with sensors as vertices. In a dense network, well-separated sources induce clusters in this graph. The geographic spread of these clusters can serve to localize the sources. The support of the covariance matrix is estimated from limited-time data using a hypothesis test with a robust phase-only coherence test statistic combined with a physical distance criterion. The latter criterion ensures graph sparsity and thus prevents clusters from forming by chance. We verify the approach and quantify its reliability on a simulated dataset. The method is then applied to data from a dense 5200 element geophone array that blanketed of the city of Long Beach (CA). The analysis exposes a helicopter traversing the array and oil production facilities.

  15. Distributed 3D Source Localization from 2D DOA Measurements Using Multiple Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canclini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript addresses the problem of 3D source localization from direction of arrivals (DOAs in wireless acoustic sensor networks. In this context, multiple sensors measure the DOA of the source, and a central node combines the measurements to yield the source location estimate. Traditional approaches require 3D DOA measurements; that is, each sensor estimates the azimuth and elevation of the source by means of a microphone array, typically in a planar or spherical configuration. The proposed methodology aims at reducing the hardware and computational costs by combining measurements related to 2D DOAs estimated from linear arrays arbitrarily displaced in the 3D space. Each sensor measures the DOA in the plane containing the array and the source. Measurements are then translated into an equivalent planar geometry, in which a set of coplanar equivalent arrays observe the source preserving the original DOAs. This formulation is exploited to define a cost function, whose minimization leads to the source location estimation. An extensive simulation campaign validates the proposed approach and compares its accuracy with state-of-the-art methodologies.

  16. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-10-24

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  17. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Scalar Field Mapping Using Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Hung Manh; Sheng, Weihua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, autonomous mobile sensor networks are deployed to measure a scalar field and build its map. We develop a novel method for multiple mobile sensor nodes to build this map using noisy sensor measurements. Our method consists of two parts. First, we develop a distributed sensor fusion algorithm by integrating two different distributed consensus filters to achieve cooperative sensing among sensor nodes. This fusion algorithm has two phases. In the first phase, the weighted average consensus filter is developed, which allows each sensor node to find an estimate of the value of the scalar field at each time step. In the second phase, the average consensus filter is used to allow each sensor node to find a confidence of the estimate at each time step. The final estimate of the value of the scalar field is iteratively updated during the movement of the mobile sensors via weighted average. Second, we develop the distributed flocking-control algorithm to drive the mobile sensors to form a network and track the virtual leader moving along the field when only a small subset of the mobile sensors know the information of the leader. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate our proposed algorithms.

  18. Reliability of measured data for pH sensor arrays with fault diagnosis and data fusion based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-12-13

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  19. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis (FD and data fusion (DF technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagnosis to remove any faulty sensors in advance, and then proceed with data fusion in the sensor array. The average, self-adaptive and coefficient of variance data fusion methods are used in this study. The pH electrode is fabricated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO2 sensing membrane using a sputtering system to deposit it onto a silicon substrate, and eight RuO2 pH electrodes are fabricated to form a sensor array for this study.

  20. Low SWaP multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, John; Varghese, Ron

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of multispectral imaging are well established in a variety of applications including remote sensing, authentication, satellite and aerial surveillance, machine vision, biomedical, and other scientific and industrial uses. However, many of the potential solutions require more compact, robust, and cost-effective cameras to realize these benefits. The next generation of multispectral sensors and cameras needs to deliver improvements in size, weight, power, portability, and spectral band customization to support widespread deployment for a variety of purpose-built aerial, unmanned, and scientific applications. A novel implementation uses micro-patterning of dichroic filters1 into Bayer and custom mosaics, enabling true real-time multispectral imaging with simultaneous multi-band image acquisition. Consistent with color image processing, individual spectral channels are de-mosaiced with each channel providing an image of the field of view. This approach can be implemented across a variety of wavelength ranges and on a variety of detector types including linear, area, silicon, and InGaAs. This dichroic filter array approach can also reduce payloads and increase range for unmanned systems, with the capability to support both handheld and autonomous systems. Recent examples and results of 4 band RGB + NIR dichroic filter arrays in multispectral cameras are discussed. Benefits and tradeoffs of multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays are compared with alternative approaches - including their passivity, spectral range, customization options, and scalable production.

  1. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  2. Epidermis Microstructure Inspired Graphene Pressure Sensor with Random Distributed Spinosum for High Sensitivity and Large Linearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Zhang, Kunning; Yang, Zhen; Jiang, Song; Ju, Zhenyi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Danyang; Jian, Muqiang; Zhang, Yingying; Liang, Renrong; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-27

    Recently, wearable pressure sensors have attracted tremendous attention because of their potential applications in monitoring physiological signals for human healthcare. Sensitivity and linearity are the two most essential parameters for pressure sensors. Although various designed micro/nanostructure morphologies have been introduced, the trade-off between sensitivity and linearity has not been well balanced. Human skin, which contains force receptors in a reticular layer, has a high sensitivity even for large external stimuli. Herein, inspired by the skin epidermis with high-performance force sensing, we have proposed a special surface morphology with spinosum microstructure of random distribution via the combination of an abrasive paper template and reduced graphene oxide. The sensitivity of the graphene pressure sensor with random distribution spinosum (RDS) microstructure is as high as 25.1 kPa -1 in a wide linearity range of 0-2.6 kPa. Our pressure sensor exhibits superior comprehensive properties compared with previous surface-modified pressure sensors. According to simulation and mechanism analyses, the spinosum microstructure and random distribution contribute to the high sensitivity and large linearity range, respectively. In addition, the pressure sensor shows promising potential in detecting human physiological signals, such as heartbeat, respiration, phonation, and human motions of a pushup, arm bending, and walking. The wearable pressure sensor array was further used to detect gait states of supination, neutral, and pronation. The RDS microstructure provides an alternative strategy to improve the performance of pressure sensors and extend their potential applications in monitoring human activities.

  3. A Method to Estimate Local Towed Array Angles Using Flush Mounted Hot Film Wall Shear Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, William L; Cipolla, Kimberly M

    2008-01-01

    A towed array is provided with hot-film sensors and anemometer circuitry to calculate the angle of inclination of the towed array in real time during deployment of the towed array in a sea water environment...

  4. A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits†

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Lim, Sung H.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits). The color changes in an array of chemically responsive nanoporous pigments provide facile identification of the TICs with an error rate below 0.7%.

  5. Active Sensor for Microwave Tissue Imaging with Bias-Switched Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Farzad; Nikolova, Natalia K

    2018-05-06

    A prototype of a bias-switched active sensor was developed and measured to establish the achievable dynamic range in a new generation of active arrays for microwave tissue imaging. The sensor integrates a printed slot antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and an active mixer in a single unit, which is sufficiently small to enable inter-sensor separation distance as small as 12 mm. The sensor’s input covers the bandwidth from 3 GHz to 7.5 GHz. Its output intermediate frequency (IF) is 30 MHz. The sensor is controlled by a simple bias-switching circuit, which switches ON and OFF the bias of the LNA and the mixer simultaneously. It was demonstrated experimentally that the dynamic range of the sensor, as determined by its ON and OFF states, is 109 dB and 118 dB at resolution bandwidths of 1 kHz and 100 Hz, respectively.

  6. Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array (MESA): a mesh sensor network for climate change research in remote mountainous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. W.; Neal, D.; Frome, D.; Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P. E.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z. A.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Developing sensor networks robust enough to perform unattended in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks that lack anthropogenic influence. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. The MESA (Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array) project has faced these challenges and developed a wireless mesh sensor network across a 660 m topoclimatic gradient in a wilderness area in central Idaho. This sensor array uses advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies to provide near real-time synchronized data covering a suite of biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The 76 sensors in the network monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, and leaf wetness at synchronized time intervals ranging from two minutes to two hours and spatial scales from a few meters to two kilometers. We present our novel methods of placing sensors and network nodes above, below, and throughout the forest canopy without using meteorological towers. In addition, we explain our decision to use different forms of power (wind and solar) and the equipment we use to control and integrate power harvesting. Further, we describe our use of the network to sense and quantify its own power use. Using examples of environmental data from the project, we discuss how these data may be used to increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystem processes in mountainous environments. MESA sensor locations across a 700 m topoclimatic gradient at the University of Idaho Taylor Wilderness Research Station.

  7. Retina-like sensor based on a lens array with a large field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin

    2015-12-20

    This paper puts forward a retina-like sensor based on a lens array, which can be used in conventional optical systems. This sensor achieves log-polar mapping by dividing the imaging optical system's image plane using a lens array. In this paper the mathematical model has been set up with the relative structural parameters. Also, the simulation experiments and parameter analysis have been discussed to verify the reliability of this system. From the experiment results, it can be seen that this sensor realized the log-polar mapping with the transformed image output. Each lens corresponded to a circular region in the image plane with no crossover between different fields of view of adjacent lenses. When the number of rings changed, the relative error did not significantly change, and this error could be reduced to 1% when the number of lenses in each ring was increased. The work widely enlarged the application of this kind of sensor, which will lay a theoretical foundation for retina-like sensors.

  8. High-Resolution Spin-on-Patterning of Perovskite Thin Films for a Multiplexed Image Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woongchan; Lee, Jongha; Yun, Huiwon; Kim, Joonsoo; Park, Jinhong; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Dong Chan; Seo, Hyunseon; Lee, Hakyong; Yu, Ji Woong; Lee, Won Bo; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite thin films have attracted significant attention as an alternative to silicon in photon-absorbing devices mainly because of their superb optoelectronic properties. However, high-definition patterning of perovskite thin films, which is important for fabrication of the image sensor array, is hardly accomplished owing to their extreme instability in general photolithographic solvents. Here, a novel patterning process for perovskite thin films is described: the high-resolution spin-on-patterning (SoP) process. This fast and facile process is compatible with a variety of spin-coated perovskite materials and perovskite deposition techniques. The SoP process is successfully applied to develop a high-performance, ultrathin, and deformable perovskite-on-silicon multiplexed image sensor array, paving the road toward next-generation image sensor arrays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Bend, stretch, and touch: Locating a finger on an actively deformed transparent sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib; Dobashi, Yuta; Preston, Claire; Wyss, Justin K M; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Madden, John David Wyndham

    2017-03-01

    The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger. The polyacrylamide electrodes are embedded in silicone. These two widely available, low-cost, transparent materials are combined in a three-step manufacturing technique that is amenable to large-area fabrication. The approach is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept 4 × 4 cross-grid sensor array with a 5-mm pitch. The approach of a finger hovering a few centimeters above the array is readily detectable. Light touch produces a localized decrease in capacitance of 15%. The movement of a finger can be followed across the array, and the location of multiple fingers can be detected. Touch is detectable during bending and stretch, an important feature of any wearable device. The capacitive sensor design can be made more or less sensitive to bending by shifting it relative to the neutral axis. Ultimately, the approach is adaptable to the detection of proximity, touch, pressure, and even the conformation of the sensor surface.

  10. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass–coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass–coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow. (paper)

  11. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  12. Aircraft Aerodynamic Parameter Detection Using Micro Hot-Film Flow Sensor Array and BP Neural Network Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Air speed, angle of sideslip and angle of attack are fundamental aerodynamic parameters for controlling most aircraft. For small aircraft for which conventional detecting devices are too bulky and heavy to be utilized, a novel and practical methodology by which the aerodynamic parameters are inferred using a micro hot-film flow sensor array mounted on the surface of the wing is proposed. A back-propagation neural network is used to model the coupling relationship between readings of the sensor array and aerodynamic parameters. Two different sensor arrangements are tested in wind tunnel experiments and dependence of the system performance on the sensor arrangement is analyzed.

  13. Evaluation of Crack and Corrosion Detection Sensitivity Using Piezoelectric Sensor Arrays (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackshire, James L; Martin, Steve; Cooney, Adam

    2006-01-01

    .... In this research effort, a systematic evaluation of the detection sensitivity levels of surface-bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays has been undertaken using experimental studies and analytic modeling...

  14. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  15. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-31

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ∼3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  16. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  17. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  18. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Hammond, Mark H.; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO 2 , H 2 S, and CS 2 , respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  19. Detection and classification of gaseous sulfur compounds by solid electrolyte cyclic voltammetry of cermet sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L; Hammond, Mark H; Tillett, Duane; Streckert, Holger H

    2007-02-12

    Electrochemical sensors composed of a ceramic-metallic (cermet) solid electrolyte are used for the detection of gaseous sulfur compounds SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2) in a study involving 11 toxic industrial chemical (TIC) compounds. The study examines a sensor array containing four cermet sensors varying in electrode-electrolyte composition, designed to offer selectivity for multiple compounds. The sensors are driven by cyclic voltammetry to produce a current-voltage profile for each analyte. Raw voltammograms are processed by background subtraction of clean air, and the four sensor signals are concatenated to form one vector of points. The high-resolution signal is compressed by wavelet transformation and a probabilistic neural network is used for classification. In this study, training data from one sensor array was used to formulate models which were validated with data from a second sensor array. Of the 11 gases studied, 3 that contained sulfur produced the strongest responses and were successfully analyzed when the remaining compounds were treated as interferents. Analytes were measured from 10 to 200% of their threshold-limited value (TLV) according to the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) exposure limits defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). True positive classification rates of 93.3, 96.7, and 76.7% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for prediction of one sensor unit when a second sensor was used for modeling. True positive rates of 83.3, 90.0, and 90.0% for SO(2), H(2)S, and CS(2), respectively, were achieved for the second sensor unit when the first sensor unit was used for modeling. Most of the misclassifications were for low concentration levels (such 10-25% TLV) in which case the compound was classified as clean air. Between the two sensors, the false positive rates were 2.2% or lower for the three sulfur compounds, 0.9% or lower for the interferents (eight remaining analytes), and 5.8% or lower for

  20. MEMS sensors and wireless telemetry for distributed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Warmack, R.J.; Smith, S.F. [and others

    1998-02-01

    Selectively coated cantilevers are being developed at ORNL for chemical and biological sensing. The sensitivity can exceed that of other electro-mechanical devices as parts-per-trillion detection can be demonstrated for certain species. The authors are now proceeding to develop systems that employ electrically readable microcantilevers in a standard MEMS process and standard CMOS processes. One of their primary areas of interest is chemical sensing for environmental applications. Towards this end, they are presently developing electronic readout of a mercury-sensitive coated cantilever. In order to field arrays of distributed sensors, a wireless network for data reporting is needed. For this, the authors are developing on-chip spread-spectrum encoding and modulation circuitry to improve the robustness and security of sensor data in typical interference- and multipath-impaired environments. They have also provided for a selection of distinct spreading codes to serve groups of sensors in a common environment by the application of code-division multiple-access techniques. Most of the RF circuitry they have designed and fabricated in 0.5 {micro}m CMOS has been tested and verified operational to above 1 GHz. The initial intended operation is for use in the 915 MHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band. This paper presents measured data on the microcantilever-based mercury detector. They also present design data and measurements of the RF telemetry chip.

  1. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  2. Low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Samatha; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of fabricating a low-cost and low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate sheets for sensing CO, SO2, H2 and NO2 gases. The array has four sensor elements with an integrated microheater which can be individually controlled enabling the monitoring of four gases. The thermal properties of the microheater characterized by IR imaging are presented. The microheater with an active area of 15 µm  ×  5 µm reaches a temperature of 300 °C, consuming 2 mW power, the lowest reported on flexible substrates. A sensing electrode is patterned on top of the microheater, and a nanogap (100 nm) is created by an electromigration process. This nanogap is bridged by four sensing materials doped with platinum, deposited using a solution dispensing technique. The sensing material characterization is completed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sensing characteristics of ZnO for CO, V2O5 for SO2, SnO2 for H2 and WO3 for NO2 gases are studied at different microheater voltages. The sensing characteristics of ZnO at different bending angles is also studied, which shows that the microheater and the sensing material are intact without any breaking upto a bending angle of 20°. The ZnO CO sensor shows sensitivity of 146.2% at 1 ppm with good selectivity.

  3. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chin Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives.

  4. Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue Ivan; Lau, Siu-Kit; Wong, Kainam Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor-all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between-this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters.

  5. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  6. Determination of the Tc distribution for 1000 Transition Edge Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, P.L.; Saab, T.; Miller, A.J.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Chang, C.; Young, B.A.; Akerib, D.S.; Discroll, D.; Kamat, S.; Perera, T.A.; Schnee, R.W.; Wang, G.; Emes, J.H.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Mandic, V.; Meunier, P.; Rau, W.; Sadoulet, B.; Seitz, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    The ZIP detectors deployed in the CDMS II experiment utilize phonon sensors comprising W Transition Edge Sensors (TESs). In order to ensure uniform collection of the athermal phonon signal the TESs are dispersed uniformly on one side of a 1 cm thick, 3 inch diameter, disk. Each quadrant contains 1036 TESs connected in parallel to one series-array SQUID amplifier. The initial superconducting transition temperatures of these TESs tend to be too high for our requirements, and substantial gradients make the operation of the detectors difficult. Hence our implementation of Fe-56 ion implantation, as reported at the previous LTD meeting, to reduce in a controlled manner the transition temperature. However, the successful implementation of this ion-implantation scheme requires accurate knowledge of the initial transition temperature of each TES in a given quadrant. We report on our approaches and techniques employed to address the issue of determining the initial Tc distribution

  7. Cryogenic Multichannel Pressure Sensor With Electronic Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr.; Chapman, John J.; Kruse, Nancy M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Array of pressure sensors operates reliably and repeatably over wide temperature range, extending from normal boiling point of water down to boiling point of nitrogen. Sensors accurate and repeat to within 0.1 percent. Operate for 12 months without need for recalibration. Array scanned electronically, sensor readings multiplexed and sent to desktop computer for processing and storage. Used to measure distributions of pressure in research on boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers, achieved by low temperatures.

  8. Electronic tongue - an array of non-specific chemical sensors - for analysis of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legin, A.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Babain, V.

    2006-01-01

    Multisensor systems, combining chemical sensor arrays with multivariate data processing engines (electronic tongue) rapidly and successfully developing in the last years are capable of simultaneous quantitative analysis of several species, e.g. metals, in complex real solutions. The expansion of the metals (metal ions) and species to be detected in radioactive waste requires permanent enhancement of sensing materials and sensors, with seriously different properties from those known earlier. A prospective direction of R and D of novel sensing materials is exploitation of radiochemical extraction systems and application of extraction substances as active components of new sensors. The sensors based on bidentate phosphorous organic compounds and their combinations with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide displayed high sensitivity and selectivity to rare-earth metal ions La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ . The results indicated good promise for the development of novel analytical tools for detection of multivalent metal cations in different media, particularly in corrosive solutions such as radioactive wastes and solutions derived from spent nuclear fuel. The sensors and sensor arrays made on their basis can play an important role in the development of 'electronic tongue' systems for rapid analytical determinations of different components in complex radioactive solutions

  9. Human location estimation using thermopile array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Utilization of Thermopile sensor at an early stage of human detection is challenging as there are many things that produce thermal heat other than human such as electrical appliances and animals. Therefrom, an algorithm for early presence detection has been developed through the study of human body temperature behaviour with respect to the room temperature. The change in non-contact detected temperature of human varied according to body parts. In an indoor room, upper parts of human body change up to 3°C whereas lower part ranging from 0.58°C to 1.71°C. The average changes in temperature of human is used as a conditional set-point value in the program algorithm to detect human presence. The current position of human and its respective angle is gained when human is presence at certain pixels of Thermopile’s sensor array. Human position is estimated successfully as the developed sensory system is tested to the actuator of a stand fan.

  10. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  11. Chip cleaning and regeneration for electrochemical sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Vijayender [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Carrara, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.carrara@epfl.c [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Stagni, Claudio [Department DEIS, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Samori, Bruno [Biochemistry Department ' G.Moruzzi' , University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Sensing systems based on electrochemical detection have generated great interest because electronic readout may replace conventional optical readout in microarray. Moreover, they offer the possibility to avoid labelling for target molecules. A typical electrochemical array consists of many sensing sites. An ideal micro-fabricated sensor-chip should have the same measured values for all the equivalent sensing sites (or spots). To achieve high reliability in electrochemical measurements, high quality in functionalization of the electrodes surface is essential. Molecular probes are often immobilized by using alkanethiols onto gold electrodes. Applying effective cleaning methods on the chip is a fundamental requirement for the formation of densely-packed and stable self-assembly monolayers. However, the available well-known techniques for chip cleaning may not be so reliable. Furthermore, it could be necessary to recycle the chip for reuse. Also in this case, an effective recycling technique is required to re-obtain well cleaned sensing surfaces on the chip. This paper presents experimental results on the efficacy and efficiency of the available techniques for initial cleaning and further recycling of micro-fabricated chips. Piranha, plasma, reductive and oxidative cleaning methods were applied and the obtained results were critically compared. Some interesting results were attained by using commonly considered cleaning methodologies. This study outlines oxidative electrochemical cleaning and recycling as the more efficient cleaning procedure for electrochemical based sensor arrays.

  12. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  13. Hazardous industrial gases identified using a novel polymer/MWNT composite resistance sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuana, C.L.; Chang, C.P.; Song, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, a silicon wafer microelectrode substrate for a resistance sensor was fabricated using the semiconductor manufacturing process. → This work developed polymer-functionalized MWNT sensor plat forms for the detection of vapors from chemical agents at different temperatures. → Applied PCA to determine the performance of as-fabricated films for exposure to three chemical agents. - Abstract: Hazardous industrial chemical gases pose a significant threat to the environment and human life. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a reliable sensor for identifying these hazardous gases. In this work, a silicon wafer microelectrode substrate for a resistance sensor was fabricated using the semiconductor manufacturing process. Conductive carbon nanotubes were then mixed with six different polymers with different chemical adsorption properties to produce a composite thin film for the fabrication of a chemical sensor array. This array was then utilized to identify three hazardous gases at different temperatures. Experimental results for six polymers for chemical gases, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), chloroform (CHCl 3 ) and methanol (MeOH) at different temperatures, indicate that the variation in sensitivity resistance increased when the sensing temperature increased. The poly(ethylene adipate)/MWNT sensing film had high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, and good reproducibility in detecting all chemical agent vapors. Additionally, this study utilized a bar chart and statistical methods in principal component analysis to identify gases with the polymer/MWNT sensor.

  14. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  15. Rational Design of QCM-D Virtual Sensor Arrays Based on Film Thickness, Viscoelasticity, and Harmonics for Vapor Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Nicholas C; Siraj, Noureen; Regmi, Bishnu P; Marzoughi, Hassan; Neal, Courtney; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate an alternative strategy for creating QCM-based sensor arrays by use of a single sensor to provide multiple responses per analyte. The sensor, which simulates a virtual sensor array (VSA), was developed by depositing a thin film of ionic liquid, either 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([OMIm][Br]) or 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([OMIm][SCN]), onto the surface of a QCM-D transducer. The sensor was exposed to 18 different organic vapors (alcohols, hydrocarbons, chlorohydrocarbons, nitriles) belonging to the same or different homologous series. The resulting frequency shifts (Δf) were measured at multiple harmonics and evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) which revealed that analytes can be classified with extremely high accuracy. In almost all cases, the accuracy for identification of a member of the same class, that is, intraclass discrimination, was 100% as determined by use of quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Impressively, some VSAs allowed classification of all 18 analytes tested with nearly 100% accuracy. Such results underscore the importance of utilizing lesser exploited properties that influence signal transduction. Overall, these results demonstrate excellent potential of the virtual sensor array strategy for detection and discrimination of vapor phase analytes utilizing the QCM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on QCM VSAs, as well as an experimental sensor array, that is based primarily on viscoelasticity, film thickness, and harmonics.

  16. Detection of coffee flavour ageing by solid-phase microextraction/surface acoustic wave sensor array technique (SPME/SAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barié, Nicole; Bücking, Mark; Stahl, Ullrich; Rapp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The use of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays is a very promising technique for highly sensitive and selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We present new developments to achieve a low cost sensor setup with a sampling method enabling the highly reproducible detection of volatiles even in the ppb range. Since the VOCs of coffee are well known by gas chromatography (GC) research studies, the new sensor array was tested for an easy assessable objective: coffee ageing during storage. As reference method these changes were traced with a standard GC/FID set-up, accompanied by sensory panellists. The evaluation of GC data showed a non-linear characteristic for single compound concentrations as well as for total peak area values, disabling prediction of the coffee age. In contrast, the new SAW sensor array demonstrates a linear dependency, i.e. being capable to show a dependency between volatile concentration and storage time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors

  18. MASM: a market architecture for sensor management in distributed sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Avasarala; Mullen, Tracy; Hall, David; Garga, Amulya

    2005-03-01

    Rapid developments in sensor technology and its applications have energized research efforts towards devising a firm theoretical foundation for sensor management. Ubiquitous sensing, wide bandwidth communications and distributed processing provide both opportunities and challenges for sensor and process control and optimization. Traditional optimization techniques do not have the ability to simultaneously consider the wildly non-commensurate measures involved in sensor management in a single optimization routine. Market-oriented programming provides a valuable and principled paradigm to designing systems to solve this dynamic and distributed resource allocation problem. We have modeled the sensor management scenario as a competitive market, wherein the sensor manager holds a combinatorial auction to sell the various items produced by the sensors and the communication channels. However, standard auction mechanisms have been found not to be directly applicable to the sensor management domain. For this purpose, we have developed a specialized market architecture MASM (Market architecture for Sensor Management). In MASM, the mission manager is responsible for deciding task allocations to the consumers and their corresponding budgets and the sensor manager is responsible for resource allocation to the various consumers. In addition to having a modified combinatorial winner determination algorithm, MASM has specialized sensor network modules that address commensurability issues between consumers and producers in the sensor network domain. A preliminary multi-sensor, multi-target simulation environment has been implemented to test the performance of the proposed system. MASM outperformed the information theoretic sensor manager in meeting the mission objectives in the simulation experiments.

  19. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Li, Jian-Qing; Song, Ai-Guo

    2016-12-06

    With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements' bypass currents, which were injected into array's non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT) with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC) was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT's measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  20. Fabrication and optimization of a conducting polymer sensor array using stored grain model volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Eftekhar; Rahman, G M Aminur; Freund, Michael S; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G; Shafai, Cyrus; Thomson, Douglas J

    2012-03-21

    During storage, grain can experience significant degradation in quality due to a variety of physical, chemical, and biological interactions. Most commonly, these losses are associated with insects or fungi. Continuous monitoring and an ability to differentiate between sources of spoilage are critical for rapid and effective intervention to minimize deterioration or losses. Therefore, there is a keen interest in developing a straightforward, cost-effective, and efficient method for monitoring of stored grain. Sensor arrays are currently used for classifying liquors, perfumes, and the quality of food products by mimicking the mammalian olfactory system. The use of this technology for monitoring of stored grain and identification of the source of spoilage is a new application, which has the potential for broad impact. The main focus of the work described herein is on the fabrication and optimization of a carbon black (CB) polymer sensor array to monitor stored grain model volatiles associated with insect secretions (benzene derivatives) and fungi (aliphatic hydrocarbon derivatives). Various methods of statistical analysis (RSD, PCA, LDA, t test) were used to select polymers for the array that were optimum for distinguishing between important compound classes (quinones, alcohols) and to minimize the sensitivity for other parameters such as humidity. The performance of the developed sensor array was satisfactory to demonstrate identification and separation of stored grain model volatiles at ambient conditions.

  1. Graphene Nanoplatelet-Polymer Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Discrimination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederoder, Michael S; Nallon, Eric C; Weiss, Matt; McGraw, Shannon K; Schnee, Vincent P; Bright, Collin J; Polcha, Michael P; Paffenroth, Randy; Uzarski, Joshua R

    2017-11-22

    A cross-reactive array of semiselective chemiresistive sensors made of polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite coated electrodes was examined for detection and discrimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The arrays employ a set of chemically diverse polymers to generate a unique response signature for multiple CWA simulants and background interferents. The developed sensors' signal remains consistent after repeated exposures to multiple analytes for up to 5 days with a similar signal magnitude across different replicate sensors with the same polymer-GNP coating. An array of 12 sensors each coated with a different polymer-GNP mixture was exposed 100 times to a cycle of single analyte vapors consisting of 5 chemically similar CWA simulants and 8 common background interferents. The collected data was vector normalized to reduce concentration dependency, z-scored to account for baseline drift and signal-to-noise ratio, and Kalman filtered to reduce noise. The processed data was dimensionally reduced with principal component analysis and analyzed with four different machine learning algorithms to evaluate discrimination capabilities. For 5 similarly structured CWA simulants alone 100% classification accuracy was achieved. For all analytes tested 99% classification accuracy was achieved demonstrating the CWA discrimination capabilities of the developed system. The novel sensor fabrication methods and data processing techniques are attractive for development of sensor platforms for discrimination of CWA and other classes of chemical vapors.

  2. Localization of CO2 Leakage from a Circular Hole on a Flat-Surface Structure Using a Circular Acoustic Emission Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwang Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leak localization is essential for the safety and maintenance of storage vessels. This study proposes a novel circular acoustic emission sensor array to realize the continuous CO2 leak localization from a circular hole on the surface of a large storage vessel in a carbon capture and storage system. Advantages of the proposed array are analyzed and compared with the common sparse arrays. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale stainless steel plate and leak signals were obtained from a circular hole in the center of this flat-surface structure. In order to reduce the influence of the ambient noise and dispersion of the acoustic wave on the localization accuracy, ensemble empirical mode decomposition is deployed to extract the useful leak signal. The time differences between the signals from the adjacent sensors in the array are calculated through correlation signal processing before estimating the corresponding distance differences between the sensors. A hyperbolic positioning algorithm is used to identify the location of the circular leak hole. Results show that the circular sensor array has very good directivity toward the circular leak hole. Furthermore, an optimized method is proposed by changing the position of the circular sensor array on the flat-surface structure or adding another circular sensor array to identify the direction of the circular leak hole. Experiential results obtained on a 100 cm × 100 cm stainless steel plate demonstrate that the full-scale error in the leak localization is within 0.6%.

  3. A Fusion Approach to Feature Extraction by Wavelet Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis in Transient Signal Processing of SAW Odor Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant SINGH

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical analysis of a new approach for development of surface acoustic wave (SAW sensor array based odor recognition system. The construction of sensor array employs a single polymer interface for selective sorption of odorant chemicals in vapor phase. The individual sensors are however coated with different thicknesses. The idea of sensor coating thickness variation is for terminating solvation and diffusion kinetics of vapors into polymer up to different stages of equilibration on different sensors. This is expected to generate diversity in information content of the sensors transient. The analysis is based on wavelet decomposition of transient signals. The single sensor transients have been used earlier for generating odor identity signatures based on wavelet approximation coefficients. In the present work, however, we exploit variability in diffusion kinetics due to polymer thicknesses for making odor signatures. This is done by fusion of the wavelet coefficients from different sensors in the array, and then applying the principal component analysis. We find that the present approach substantially enhances the vapor class separability in feature space. The validation is done by generating synthetic sensor array data based on well-established SAW sensor theory.

  4. Investigation and Characterization of Acoustic Emissions of Tornadoes Using Arrays of Infrasound Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, W. G.; Talmadge, C. L.; Waxler, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Goudeau, B.; Hetzer, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Working in co-ordination with the NOAA Vortex Southeast (Vortex SE) research program, 9 infrasound sensor arrays were deployed at fixed sites across North Alabama, South-central Tennessee, and Northwest Georgia during March and April of 2017, to investigate the emission and characterization of infrasonic acoustic energy from tornadoes and related phenomena. Each array consisted of seven broadband acoustic sensors with calibrated frequency response from 0.02 Hz to 200 Hz. The arrays were configured in a pattern such that accurate bearings to acoustic sources could be obtained over a broad range of frequencies (nominally from 1 Hz to 100 Hz). Data were collected synchronously at a rate of 1000 samples per second. On 22 April 2017 a line of strong storms passed directly through the area being monitored producing at least three verified tornadoes. Two of these were rated at EF0 and the other an EF1. Subsequent processing of the data from several of the arrays revealed acoustic emissions from the tornadic storms ranging in frequencies below 1 Hz to frequencies greater than 10 Hz. Accurate bearings to the storms have been calculated from distances greater than 60 km. Preliminary analysis has revealed that continuous emissions occurred prior to the estimated touchdown times, while the storms were on the ground, and for short periods after the tornadoes lifted; however, the strongest emissions appeared to occur while the storms were on the ground. One of the storms passed near two arrays simultaneously, and therefore accurate an accurate track of the storm as it moved has been obtained only using the infrasound measurements. Initial results from the analysis of the infrasound data will be presented. Under Vortex SE meteorological data was collected on a large suite of sensors. Correlations between the infrasound data and the meteorological data will be investigated and discussed.

  5. Infrared Range Sensor Array for 3D Sensing in Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtae Do

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of multiple infrared range detectors arranged in a two-dimensional (2D array. The proposed system can collect the sparse three-dimensional (3D data of objects and surroundings for robotics applications. Three kinds of tasks are considered using the system: detecting obstacles that lie ahead of a mobile robot, sensing the ground profile for the safe navigation of a mobile robot, and sensing the shape and position of an object on a conveyor belt for pickup by a robot manipulator. The developed system is potentially a simple alternative to high-resolution (and expensive 3D sensing systems, such as stereo cameras or laser scanners. In addition, the system can provide shape information about target objects and surroundings that cannot be obtained using simple ultrasonic sensors. Laboratory prototypes of the system were built with nine infrared range sensors arranged in a 3×3 array and test results confirmed the validity of system.

  6. Improved sensing characteristics of dual-gate transistor sensor using silicon nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheol-Min; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Ki Joong; Oh, Young Kyoung; Shin, Yong-Beom; Cho, Won-Ju

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the construction of a sensitive, stable, and label-free sensor based on a dual-gate field-effect transistor (DG FET), in which uniformly distributed and size-controlled silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays by nanoimprint lithography act as conductor channels. Compared to previous DG FETs with a planar-type silicon channel layer, the constructed SiNW DG FETs exhibited superior electrical properties including a higher capacitive-coupling ratio of 18.0 and a lower off-state leakage current under high-temperature stress. In addition, while the conventional planar single-gate (SG) FET- and planar DG FET-based pH sensors showed the sensitivities of 56.7 mV/pH and 439.3 mV/pH, respectively, the SiNW DG FET-based pH sensors showed not only a higher sensitivity of 984.1 mV/pH, but also a lower drift rate of 0.8% for pH-sensitivity. This demonstrates that the SiNW DG FETs simultaneously achieve high sensitivity and stability, with significant potential for future biosensing applications.

  7. Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors for Vibration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Baoquan; Bai, Qing; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-07-26

    Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors receive extensive investigation and play a significant role in the sensor panorama. Optical parameters such as light intensity, phase, polarization state, or light frequency will change when external vibration is applied on the sensing fiber. In this paper, various technologies of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing are reviewed, from interferometric sensing technology, such as Sagnac, Mach-Zehnder, and Michelson, to backscattering-based sensing technology, such as phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer, polarization-optical time domain reflectometer, optical frequency domain reflectometer, as well as some combinations of interferometric and backscattering-based techniques. Their operation principles are presented and recent research efforts are also included. Finally, the applications of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors are summarized, which mainly include structural health monitoring and perimeter security, etc. Overall, distributed fiber-optic vibration sensors possess the advantages of large-scale monitoring, good concealment, excellent flexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, and thus show considerable potential for a variety of practical applications.

  8. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  9. Fault Detection Using the Clustering-kNN Rule for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingli Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The k-nearest neighbour (kNN rule, which naturally handles the possible non-linearity of data, is introduced to solve the fault detection problem of gas sensor arrays. In traditional fault detection methods based on the kNN rule, the detection process of each new test sample involves all samples in the entire training sample set. Therefore, these methods can be computation intensive in monitoring processes with a large volume of variables and training samples and may be impossible for real-time monitoring. To address this problem, a novel clustering-kNN rule is presented. The landmark-based spectral clustering (LSC algorithm, which has low computational complexity, is employed to divide the entire training sample set into several clusters. Further, the kNN rule is only conducted in the cluster that is nearest to the test sample; thus, the efficiency of the fault detection methods can be enhanced by reducing the number of training samples involved in the detection process of each test sample. The performance of the proposed clustering-kNN rule is fully verified in numerical simulations with both linear and non-linear models and a real gas sensor array experimental system with different kinds of faults. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the clustering-kNN rule can greatly enhance both the accuracy and efficiency of fault detection methods and provide an excellent solution to reliable and real-time monitoring of gas sensor arrays.

  10. Fault Detection Using the Clustering-kNN Rule for Gas Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingli; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The k-nearest neighbour (kNN) rule, which naturally handles the possible non-linearity of data, is introduced to solve the fault detection problem of gas sensor arrays. In traditional fault detection methods based on the kNN rule, the detection process of each new test sample involves all samples in the entire training sample set. Therefore, these methods can be computation intensive in monitoring processes with a large volume of variables and training samples and may be impossible for real-time monitoring. To address this problem, a novel clustering-kNN rule is presented. The landmark-based spectral clustering (LSC) algorithm, which has low computational complexity, is employed to divide the entire training sample set into several clusters. Further, the kNN rule is only conducted in the cluster that is nearest to the test sample; thus, the efficiency of the fault detection methods can be enhanced by reducing the number of training samples involved in the detection process of each test sample. The performance of the proposed clustering-kNN rule is fully verified in numerical simulations with both linear and non-linear models and a real gas sensor array experimental system with different kinds of faults. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the clustering-kNN rule can greatly enhance both the accuracy and efficiency of fault detection methods and provide an excellent solution to reliable and real-time monitoring of gas sensor arrays. PMID:27929412

  11. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  12. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  13. Frequency-domain readout multiplexing of transition-edge sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanting, T.M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: tlanting@berkeley.edu; Arnold, K. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cho, Hsiao-Mei [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Clarke, John [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, Matt [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, William [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lueker, M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richards, P.L. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A.D. [Northrop-Grumman, Redondo Beach, CA 94278 (United States); Spieler, H.G. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have demonstrated frequency-domain readout multiplexing of eight channels for superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometer arrays. The multiplexed readout noise is 6.5 pA/{radical}Hz, well below the bolometer dark noise of 15-20 pA/{radical}Hz. We measure an upper limit on crosstalk of 0.004 between channels adjacent in frequency which meets our design requirement of 0.01. We have observed vibration insensitivity in our frequency-domain multiplexed transition-edge sensors, making this system very attractive for telescope and satellite observations. We also discuss extensions to our multiplexed readout. In particular, we are developing a SQUID flux-locked loop that is entirely cold and collaborating on digital multiplexer technology in order to scale up the number of multiplexed channels.

  14. Visualisation of air–water bubbly column flow using array Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munkhbat Batsaikhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental study of bubbly two-phase flow in a rectangular bubble column was performed using two ultrasonic array sensors, which can measure the instantaneous velocity of gas bubbles on multiple measurement lines. After the sound pressure distribution of sensors had been evaluated with a needle hydrophone technique, the array sensors were applied to two-phase bubble column. To assess the accuracy of the measurement system with array sensors for one and two-dimensional velocity, a simultaneous measurement was performed with an optical measurement technique called particle image velocimetry (PIV. Experimental results showed that accuracy of the measurement system with array sensors is under 10% for one-dimensional velocity profile measurement compared with PIV technique. The accuracy of the system was estimated to be under 20% along the mean flow direction in the case of two-dimensional vector mapping.

  15. Antenna-coupled bolometer arrays using transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: mmyers@cosmology.berkeley.edu; Ade, Peter [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Arnold, Kam [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Engargiola, Greg [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, Bill [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); O' Brient, Roger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Richards, Paul L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Smith, Andy [Northrop Grumman, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States); Spieler, Helmuth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tran, Huan T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing antenna-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for use in measurements of the CMB polarization. TES bolometers have many well-known advantages over conventional bolometers, such as increased speed, linearity, and the existence of readout multiplexers. Antenna-coupled bolometers use an on-chip planar antenna to couple light into the bolometer. The antenna directivity and polarization sensitivity, along with the potential for on-chip band defining filters and channelizing circuits, allow a significant increase in focal plane integration. This eliminates the bulky horns, quasioptical filters, dichroics, and polarizers which might otherwise be needed in a conventional bolometric system. This simplification will ease the construction of receivers with larger numbers of pixels. We report on the fabrication and optical testing of single antenna-coupled bolometer pixels with integrated band defining filters. We will also discuss current progress on fabrication of a bolometer array based on this design.

  16. Robust site security using smart seismic array technology and multi-sensor data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellickson, Dean; Richards, Paul; Reynolds, Zane; Keener, Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Traditional site security systems are susceptible to high individual sensor nuisance alarm rates that reduce the overall system effectiveness. Visual assessment of intrusions can be intensive and manually difficult as cameras are slewed by the system to non intrusion areas or as operators respond to nuisance alarms. Very little system intrusion performance data are available other than discrete sensor alarm indications that provide no real value. This paper discusses the system architecture, integration and display of a multi-sensor data fused system for wide area surveillance, local site intrusion detection and intrusion classification. The incorporation of a novel seismic array of smart sensors using FK Beamforming processing that greatly enhances the overall system detection and classification performance of the system is discussed. Recent test data demonstrates the performance of the seismic array within several different installations and its ability to classify and track moving targets at significant standoff distances with exceptional immunity to background clutter and noise. Multi-sensor data fusion is applied across a suite of complimentary sensors eliminating almost all nuisance alarms while integrating within a geographical information system to feed a visual-fusion display of the area being secured. Real-time sensor detection and intrusion classification data is presented within a visual-fusion display providing greatly enhanced situational awareness, system performance information and real-time assessment of intrusions and situations of interest with limited security operator involvement. This approach scales from a small local perimeter to very large geographical area and can be used across multiple sites controlled at a single command and control station.

  17. Innovative Self-Powered and Self-Contained Sensor Array for Separation Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a self-contained, self-powered, robust flight test sensor array for the determination of separation. The proposed system uses off the...

  18. High figure of merit ultra-compact 3-channel parallel-connected photonic crystal mini-hexagonal-H1 defect microcavity sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiawen; Tian, Huiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PhC) butt-coupled mini-hexagonal-H1 defect (MHHD) microcavity sensor is proposed. The MHHD microcavity is designed by introducing six mini-holes into the initial H1 defect region. Further, based on a well-designed 1 ×3 PhC Beam Splitter and three optimal MHHD microcavity sensors with different lattice constants (a), a 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations method is performed to demonstrate the high performance of our structures. As statistics show, the quality factor (Q) of our optimal MHHD microcavity attains higher than 7×104, while the sensitivity (S) reaches up to 233 nm/RIU(RIU = refractive index unit). Thus, the figure of merit (FOM) >104 of the sensor is obtained, which is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the previous butt-coupled sensors [1-4]. As for the 3-channel parallel-connected PhC MHHD microcavity sensor array, the FOMs of three independent MHHD microcavity sensors are 8071, 8250 and 8250, respectively. In addition, the total footprint of the proposed 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array is ultra-compactness of 12.5 μm ×31 μm (width × length). Therefore, the proposed high FOM sensor array is an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact highly parallel refractive index (RI) sensing.

  19. Circular Array of Magnetic Sensors for Current Measurement: Analysis for Error Caused by Position of Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Liu, Huayi; Qu, Jiaqi

    2018-02-14

    This paper analyzes the measurement error, caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, of a circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement. The circular array of magnetic sensors is an effective approach for AC or DC non-contact measurement, as it is low-cost, light-weight, has a large linear range, wide bandwidth, and low noise. Especially, it has been claimed that such structure has excellent reduction ability for errors caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor, crosstalk current interference, shape of the conduction cross-section, and the Earth's magnetic field. However, the positions of the current-carrying conductor-including un-centeredness and un-perpendicularity-have not been analyzed in detail until now. In this paper, for the purpose of having minimum measurement error, a theoretical analysis has been proposed based on vector inner and exterior product. In the presented mathematical model of relative error, the un-center offset distance, the un-perpendicular angle, the radius of the circle, and the number of magnetic sensors are expressed in one equation. The comparison of the relative error caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor between four and eight sensors is conducted. Tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors are used in the experimental prototype to verify the mathematical model. The analysis results can be the reference to design the details of the circular array of magnetic sensors for current measurement in practical situations.

  20. Urinary Colorimetric Sensor Array and Algorithm to Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Other Febrile Illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute pediatric vasculitis of infants and young children with unknown etiology and no specific laboratory-based test to identify. A specific molecular diagnostic test is urgently needed to support the clinical decision of proper medical intervention, preventing subsequent complications of coronary artery aneurysms. We used a simple and low-cost colorimetric sensor array to address the lack of a specific diagnostic test to differentiate KD from febrile control (FC patients with similar rash/fever illnesses.Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected for subjects with KD and FCs under standard protocol. After screening using a genetic algorithm, eleven compounds including metalloporphyrins, pH indicators, redox indicators and solvatochromic dye categories, were selected from our chromatic compound library (n = 190 to construct a colorimetric sensor array for diagnosing KD. Quantitative color difference analysis led to a decision-tree-based KD diagnostic algorithm.This KD sensing array allowed the identification of 94% of KD subjects (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area under the curve [AUC] 0.981 in the training set (33 KD, 33 FC and 94% of KD subjects (ROC AUC: 0.873 in the testing set (16 KD, 17 FC. Color difference maps reconstructed from the digital images of the sensing compounds demonstrated distinctive patterns differentiating KD from FC patients.The colorimetric sensor array, composed of common used chemical compounds, is an easily accessible, low-cost method to realize the discrimination of subjects with KD from other febrile illness.

  1. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  2. Fabrication of a gas sensor array with micro-wells for VOCs gas sensing based on polymer/carbon nanotube thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Yadong; Tai, Huiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, gas sensor array with micro-well was designed and prepared by Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The micro-well and interdigital electrodes of sensor array were prepared using photolithography process, reactive ion etching (RIE) process, wet etching and conventional vacuum evaporation. In the manufacture process of the gas sensor array, KOH wet etching process was mainly discussed. The optimum etching processing parameters were as follows: 30 wt% KOH solution at 80 °C, a cooling back-flow device and a magnetic stirrer. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and MWNTs-Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite films were utilized as sensitive layers to test gas-sensing properties. Response performances of MWCNTs- PEO and MWNTs-PVP composite films to toluene vapor and methanol vapor at room temperature were investigated. The results revealed that the sensor array showed a larger sensitivity to toluene vapor than to methanol vapor. In addition, the sensing mechanisms were studied as well.

  3. Revealing the properties of oils from their dissolved hydrocarbon compounds in water with an integrated sensor array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiubin; Crooke, Emma; Ross, Andrew; Bastow, Trevor P; Stalvies, Charlotte

    2011-09-21

    This paper presents a system and method developed to identify a source oil's characteristic properties by testing the oil's dissolved components in water. Through close examination of the oil dissolution process in water, we hypothesise that when oil is in contact with water, the resulting oil-water extract, a complex hydrocarbon mixture, carries the signature property information of the parent oil. If the dominating differences in compositions between such extracts of different oils can be identified, this information could guide the selection of various sensors, capable of capturing such chemical variations. When used as an array, such a sensor system can be used to determine parent oil information from the oil-water extract. To test this hypothesis, 22 oils' water extracts were prepared and selected dominant hydrocarbons analyzed with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS); the subsequent Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicates that the major difference between the extract solutions is the relative concentration between the volatile mono-aromatics and fluorescent polyaromatics. An integrated sensor array system that is composed of 3 volatile hydrocarbon sensors and 2 polyaromatic hydrocarbon sensors was built accordingly to capture the major and subtle differences of these extracts. It was tested by exposure to a total of 110 water extract solutions diluted from the 22 extracts. The sensor response data collected from the testing were processed with two multivariate analysis tools to reveal information retained in the response patterns of the arrayed sensors: by conducting PCA, we were able to demonstrate the ability to qualitatively identify and distinguish different oil samples from their sensor array response patterns. When a supervised PCA, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA), was applied, even quantitative classification can be achieved: the multivariate model generated from the LDA achieved 89.7% of successful classification of the type of the

  4. A sensor array system for monitoring moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Cook, P.J.

    2007-05-15

    To facilitate investigations of moisture dynamics inunsaturated soil, we have developed a technique to qualitatively monitorpatterns of saturation changes. Field results suggest that this device,the sensor array system (SAS), is suitable for determining changes inrelative wetness along vertical soil profiles. The performance of theseprobes was compared with that of the time domain reflectometry (TDR)technique under controlled and field conditions. Measurements from bothtechniques suggest that by obtaining data at high spatial and temporalresolution, the SAS technique was effective in determining patterns ofsaturation changes along a soil profile. In addition, hardware used inthe SAS technique was significantly cheaper than the TDR system, and thesensor arrays were much easier to install along a soilprofile.

  5. Reliability of Measured Data for pH Sensor Arrays with Fault Diagnosis and Data Fusion Based on LabVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Lin, Chin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) and data fusion (DF) technologies implemented in the LabVIEW program were used for a ruthenium dioxide pH sensor array. The purpose of the fault diagnosis and data fusion technologies is to increase the reliability of measured data. Data fusion is a very useful statistical method used for sensor arrays in many fields. Fault diagnosis is used to avoid sensor faults and to measure errors in the electrochemical measurement system, therefore, in this study, we use fault diagn...

  6. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  7. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  8. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Chong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  9. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Chong; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2017-01-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO 2 nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. - Highlights: • Vertical graphene sheets were prepared with Ti as the catalyst via a CVD method. • TiO 2 nanotubes were key transition layers in the formation of the TiC nanorods. • Vertical growth mechanism of graphene products was discussed. • Biomolecules were detected to be a chemical sensor. • Response mechanism for analytes at the graphene/TiC nanorod array was discussed.

  10. A High-Sensitivity Flexible Eddy Current Array Sensor for Crack Monitoring of Welded Structures under Varying Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; He, Yuting; Du, Jinqiang

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array (HS-FECA) sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array (FECA) sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor. A 3-D finite element model was established using Comsol AC/DC module to analyze the perturbation effects of crack on eddy currents and output signals of the sensor, which showed perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents is reduced by the current loop when crack propagates. Then, the HS-FECA sensor was proposed to boost the sensitivity to cracks. Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. Experimental result further shows that the sensitivity of the new sensor is at least 19 times that of the original one. In addition, both stress and temperature variations have little effect on signals of the new sensor.

  11. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong

    2016-12-13

    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  12. Pin-photodiode array for the measurement of fan-beam energy and air kerma distributions of X-ray CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Aoyama, Takahiko; Kinomura, Yutaka; Ida, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masanao; Kameyama, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Yoshinori

    2016-07-01

    Patient dose estimation in X-ray computed tomography (CT) is generally performed by Monte Carlo simulation of photon interactions within anthropomorphic or cylindrical phantoms. An accurate Monte Carlo simulation requires an understanding of the effects of the bow-tie filter equipped in a CT scanner, i.e. the change of X-ray energy and air kerma along the fan-beam arc of the CT scanner. To measure the effective energy and air kerma distributions, we devised a pin-photodiode array utilizing eight channels of X-ray sensors arranged at regular intervals along the fan-beam arc of the CT scanner. Each X-ray sensor consisted of two plate type of pin silicon photodiodes in tandem - front and rear photodiodes - and of a lead collimator, which only allowed X-rays to impinge vertically to the silicon surface of the photodiodes. The effective energy of the X-rays was calculated from the ratio of the output voltages of the photodiodes and the dose was calculated from the output voltage of the front photodiode using the energy and dose calibration curves respectively. The pin-photodiode array allowed the calculation of X-ray effective energies and relative doses, at eight points simultaneously along the fan-beam arc of a CT scanner during a single rotation of the scanner. The fan-beam energy and air kerma distributions of CT scanners can be effectively measured using this pin-photodiode array. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solution-based analysis of multiple analytes by a sensor array: toward the development of an electronic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Steven M.; Lavigne, John J.; Yoo, J. S.; Wright, John; Rodriguez, Marc; Goodey, Adrian; McDoniel, Bridget; McDevitt, John T.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Shear, Jason B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Neikirk, Dean P.

    1998-12-01

    A micromachined sensor array has been developed for the rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in aqueous media. The sensor functions in a manner analogous to that of the mammalian tongue, using an array composed of individually immobilized polystyrene-polyethylene glycol composite microspheres selectively arranged in micromachined etch cavities localized o n silicon wafers. Sensing occurs via colorimetric or fluorometric changes to indicator molecules that are covalently bound to amine termination sites on the polymeric microspheres. The hybrid micromachined structure has been interfaced directly to a charged-coupled-device that is used for the simultaneous acquisition of the optical data from the individually addressable `taste bud' elements. With the miniature sensor array, acquisition of data streams composed of red, green, and blue color patterns distinctive for the analytes in the solution are rapidly acquired. The unique combination of carefully chosen reporter molecules with water permeable microspheres allows for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a variety of analytes. The fabrication of the sensor structures and the initial colorimetric and fluorescent responses for pH, Ca+2, Ce+3, and sugar are reported. Interface to microfluidic components should also be possible, producing a complete sampling/sensing system.

  14. The Use of a Pressure-Indicating Sensor Film to Provide Feedback upon Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Array Self-Application In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; Quinn, Helen L; McAlister, Emma; O'Neill, Shannon; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne G; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the combination of a pressure-indicating sensor film with hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays, as a method of feedback to confirm MN insertion in vivo. Pilot in vitro insertion studies were conducted using a Texture Analyser to insert MN arrays, coupled with a pressure-indicating sensor film, at varying forces into excised neonatal porcine skin. In vivo studies involved twenty human volunteers, who self-applied two hydrogel-forming MN arrays, one with a pressure-indicating sensor film incorporated and one without. Optical coherence tomography was employed to measure the resulting penetration depth and colorimetric analysis to investigate the associated colour change of the pressure-indicating sensor film. Microneedle insertion was achieved in vitro at three different forces, demonstrating the colour change of the pressure-indicating sensor film upon application of increasing pressure. When self-applied in vivo, there was no significant difference in the microneedle penetration depth resulting from each type of array, with a mean depth of 237 μm recorded. When the pressure-indicating sensor film was present, a colour change occurred upon each application, providing evidence of insertion. For the first time, this study shows how the incorporation of a simple, low-cost pressure-indicating sensor film can indicate microneedle insertion in vitro and in vivo, providing visual feedback to assure the user of correct application. Such a strategy may enhance usability of a microneedle device and, hence, assist in the future translation of the technology to widespread clinical use.

  15. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noroozian, Omid [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Kang, Zhao [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/√(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=λ/Δλ>10{sup 3}.

  16. Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Chung, Kyungwha; Quan, Li Na; Špačková, Barbora; Šípová, Hana; Moon, Seyoung; Cho, Won Joon; Shin, Hae-Young; Jang, Yu Jin; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Yoon, Min Ji; Kim, Jihyeon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Jin Kon; Kim, Donghyun; Homola, Jiří; Kim, Dong Ha

    2013-11-01

    Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated.Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM image and UV-vis absorption spectrum of citrate-capped Au NPs, AFM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k) template, ImageJ-analyzed results of PS-b-P4VP (41k-24k)-templated Au NC arrays, calculated %-surface coverage values, SEM images of Au NC arrays on the PS-b-P2VP (172k-42k

  17. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  18. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  19. Wearable Sensor Localization Considering Mixed Distributed Sources in Health Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liangtian; Han, Guangjie; Wang, Hao; Shu, Lei; Feng, Nanxing; Peng, Bao

    2016-03-12

    In health monitoring systems, the base station (BS) and the wearable sensors communicate with each other to construct a virtual multiple input and multiple output (VMIMO) system. In real applications, the signal that the BS received is a distributed source because of the scattering, reflection, diffraction and refraction in the propagation path. In this paper, a 2D direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for incoherently-distributed (ID) and coherently-distributed (CD) sources is proposed based on multiple VMIMO systems. ID and CD sources are separated through the second-order blind identification (SOBI) algorithm. The traditional estimating signal parameters via the rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT)-based algorithm is valid only for one-dimensional (1D) DOA estimation for the ID source. By constructing the signal subspace, two rotational invariant relationships are constructed. Then, we extend the ESPRIT to estimate 2D DOAs for ID sources. For DOA estimation of CD sources, two rational invariance relationships are constructed based on the application of generalized steering vectors (GSVs). Then, the ESPRIT-based algorithm is used for estimating the eigenvalues of two rational invariance matrices, which contain the angular parameters. The expressions of azimuth and elevation for ID and CD sources have closed forms, which means that the spectrum peak searching is avoided. Therefore, compared to the traditional 2D DOA estimation algorithms, the proposed algorithm imposes significantly low computational complexity. The intersecting point of two rays, which come from two different directions measured by two uniform rectangle arrays (URA), can be regarded as the location of the biosensor (wearable sensor). Three BSs adopting the smart antenna (SA) technique cooperate with each other to locate the wearable sensors using the angulation positioning method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S; Wieman, Howard; Denes, Peter; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2005-09-01

    A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX electron microscope. For this experiment, we used an APS prototype with an area of 64 x 64 pixels of 20 microm x 20 microm pixel pitch. Single-electron events were measured by using very low beam intensity. The histogram of the incident electron energy deposited in the sensor shows a Landau distribution at low energies, as well as unexpected events at higher absorbed energies. After careful study, we concluded that backscattering in the silicon substrate and re-entering the sensitive epitaxial layer a second time with much lower speed caused the unexpected events. Exhaustive simulation experiments confirmed the existence of these back-scattered electrons. For the APS to be usable, the back-scattered electron events must be eliminated, perhaps by thinning the substrate to less than 30 microm. By using experimental data taken with an APS chip with a standard silicon substrate (300 microm) and adjusting the results to take into account the effect of a thinned silicon substrate (30 microm), we found an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio for a back-thinned detector in the energy range of 200-400 keV was about 10:1 and an estimate for the spatial resolution was about 10 microm.

  1. Pairwise graphical models for structural health monitoring with dense sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Ghazi, Reza; Chen, Justin G.; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-09-01

    Through advances in sensor technology and development of camera-based measurement techniques, it has become affordable to obtain high spatial resolution data from structures. Although measured datasets become more informative by increasing the number of sensors, the spatial dependencies between sensor data are increased at the same time. Therefore, appropriate data analysis techniques are needed to handle the inference problem in presence of these dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses graphical models (GM) for considering the spatial dependencies between sensor measurements in dense sensor networks or arrays to improve damage localization accuracy in structural health monitoring (SHM) application. Because there are always unobserved damaged states in this application, the available information is insufficient for learning the GMs. To overcome this challenge, we propose an approximated model that uses the mutual information between sensor measurements to learn the GMs. The study is backed by experimental validation of the method on two test structures. The first is a three-story two-bay steel model structure that is instrumented by MEMS accelerometers. The second experimental setup consists of a plate structure and a video camera to measure the displacement field of the plate. Our results show that considering the spatial dependencies by the proposed algorithm can significantly improve damage localization accuracy.

  2. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  3. Distributed Sensor Network Software Development Testing through Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Sean M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The distributed sensor network (DSN) presents a novel and highly complex computing platform with dif culties and opportunities that are just beginning to be explored. The potential of sensor networks extends from monitoring for threat reduction, to conducting instant and remote inventories, to ecological surveys. Developing and testing for robust and scalable applications is currently practiced almost exclusively in hardware. The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for DSNs independent of hardware constraints. The exibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness and scaling issues, to explore arbitrary algorithms for distributed sensors, and to defeat those algorithms through simulated failure. The user speci es the topology, the environment, the application, and any number of arbitrary failures; DSS provides the virtual environmental embedding.

  4. High-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Paul; Rabin, Michael; Croce, Mark; Hoteling, Nathan; Schwellenbach, David; Kruschwitz, Craig; Mocko, Veronika; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) array. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio frequency superconducting-quantum-interference devices (RF-SQUIDs) and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We used a flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and avoid low-frequency noise. The result is a very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array. We performed and validated a small-scale demonstration and test of all the components of our concept system, which encompassed microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and software-defined radio (SDR). We shall display data we acquired in the first simultaneous combination of all key innovations in a 4-pixel demonstration, including microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and SDR. We present the energy spectrum of a gadolinium-153 (153Gd) source we measured using our 4-pixel TES array and the RF-SQUID multiplexer. For each pixel, one can observe the two 97.4 and 103.2 keV photopeaks. We measured the 153Gd photon source with an achieved energy resolution of 70 eV, full width half maximum (FWHM) at 100 keV, and an equivalent readout system noise of 90 pA/pHz at the TES. This demonstration establishes a path for the readout of cryogenic x-ray and gamma ray sensor arrays with more elements and spectral resolving powers. We believe this project has improved capabilities and substantively advanced the science useful for missions such as nuclear forensics, emergency response, and treaty verification through the explored TES developments.

  5. Signal Space Separation Method for a Biomagnetic Sensor Array Arranged on a Flat Plane for Magnetocardiographic Applications: A Computer Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Although the signal space separation (SSS) method can successfully suppress interference/artifacts overlapped onto magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals, the method is considered inapplicable to data from nonhelmet-type sensor arrays, such as the flat sensor arrays typically used in magnetocardiographic (MCG) applications. This paper shows that the SSS method is still effective for data measured from a (nonhelmet-type) array of sensors arranged on a flat plane. By using computer simulations, it is shown that the optimum location of the origin can be determined by assessing the dependence of signal and noise gains of the SSS extractor on the origin location. The optimum values of the parameters LC and LD, which, respectively, indicate the truncation values of the multipole-order ℓ of the internal and external subspaces, are also determined by evaluating dependences of the signal, noise, and interference gains (i.e., the shield factor) on these parameters. The shield factor exceeds 104 for interferences originating from fairly distant sources. However, the shield factor drops to approximately 100 when calibration errors of 0.1% exist and to 30 when calibration errors of 1% exist. The shielding capability can be significantly improved using vector sensors, which measure the x, y, and z components of the magnetic field. With 1% calibration errors, a vector sensor array still maintains a shield factor of approximately 500. It is found that the SSS application to data from flat sensor arrays causes a distortion in the signal magnetic field, but it is shown that the distortion can be corrected by using an SSS-modified sensor lead field in the voxel space analysis. PMID:29854364

  6. Signal Space Separation Method for a Biomagnetic Sensor Array Arranged on a Flat Plane for Magnetocardiographic Applications: A Computer Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Sekihara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the signal space separation (SSS method can successfully suppress interference/artifacts overlapped onto magnetoencephalography (MEG signals, the method is considered inapplicable to data from nonhelmet-type sensor arrays, such as the flat sensor arrays typically used in magnetocardiographic (MCG applications. This paper shows that the SSS method is still effective for data measured from a (nonhelmet-type array of sensors arranged on a flat plane. By using computer simulations, it is shown that the optimum location of the origin can be determined by assessing the dependence of signal and noise gains of the SSS extractor on the origin location. The optimum values of the parameters LC and LD, which, respectively, indicate the truncation values of the multipole-order ℓ of the internal and external subspaces, are also determined by evaluating dependences of the signal, noise, and interference gains (i.e., the shield factor on these parameters. The shield factor exceeds 104 for interferences originating from fairly distant sources. However, the shield factor drops to approximately 100 when calibration errors of 0.1% exist and to 30 when calibration errors of 1% exist. The shielding capability can be significantly improved using vector sensors, which measure the x, y, and z components of the magnetic field. With 1% calibration errors, a vector sensor array still maintains a shield factor of approximately 500. It is found that the SSS application to data from flat sensor arrays causes a distortion in the signal magnetic field, but it is shown that the distortion can be corrected by using an SSS-modified sensor lead field in the voxel space analysis.

  7. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  8. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  9. Discrimination of honeys using colorimetric sensor arrays, sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Jiyong, Shi; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2016-09-01

    Aroma profiles of six honey varieties of different botanical origins were investigated using colorimetric sensor array, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and descriptive sensory analysis. Fifty-eight aroma compounds were identified, including 2 norisoprenoids, 5 hydrocarbons, 4 terpenes, 6 phenols, 7 ketones, 9 acids, 12 aldehydes and 13 alcohols. Twenty abundant or active compounds were chosen as key compounds to characterize honey aroma. Discrimination of the honeys was subsequently implemented using multivariate analysis, including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Honeys of the same botanical origin were grouped together in the PCA score plot and HCA dendrogram. SPME-GC/MS and colorimetric sensor array were able to discriminate the honeys effectively with the advantages of being rapid, simple and low-cost. Moreover, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to indicate the relationship between sensory descriptors and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feature Selection for Chemical Sensor Arrays Using Mutual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T.; Nowotny, Thomas; Berna, Amalia Z.; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of feature selection for classifying a diverse set of chemicals using an array of metal oxide sensors. Our aim is to evaluate a filter approach to feature selection with reference to previous work, which used a wrapper approach on the same data set, and established best features and upper bounds on classification performance. We selected feature sets that exhibit the maximal mutual information with the identity of the chemicals. The selected features closely match those found to perform well in the previous study using a wrapper approach to conduct an exhaustive search of all permitted feature combinations. By comparing the classification performance of support vector machines (using features selected by mutual information) with the performance observed in the previous study, we found that while our approach does not always give the maximum possible classification performance, it always selects features that achieve classification performance approaching the optimum obtained by exhaustive search. We performed further classification using the selected feature set with some common classifiers and found that, for the selected features, Bayesian Networks gave the best performance. Finally, we compared the observed classification performances with the performance of classifiers using randomly selected features. We found that the selected features consistently outperformed randomly selected features for all tested classifiers. The mutual information filter approach is therefore a computationally efficient method for selecting near optimal features for chemical sensor arrays. PMID:24595058

  11. Characterization of switching field distributions in Ising-like magnetic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraleigh, Robert D.; Kempinger, Susan; Lammert, Paul E.; Zhang, Sheng; Crespi, Vincent H.; Schiffer, Peter; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-04-01

    The switching field distribution within arrays of single-domain ferromagnetic islands incorporates both island-island interactions and quenched disorder in island geometry. Separating these two contributions is important for disentangling the effects of disorder and interactions in the magnetization dynamics of island arrays. Using submicron, spatially resolved Kerr imaging in an external magnetic field for islands with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, we map out the evolution of island arrays during hysteresis loops. Resolving and tracking individual islands across four different lattice types and a range of interisland spacings, we can extract the individual switching fields of every island and thereby quantitatively determine the contributions of interactions and quenched disorder in the arrays. The width of the switching field distribution is found to be well fitted by a simple model comprising the sum of an array-independent contribution (interpreted as disorder induced) and a term proportional to the maximum field the entire rest of the array could exert on a single island, i.e., in a fully polarized state. This supports the claim that disorder in these arrays is primarily a single-island property and provides a methodology by which to quantify such disorder.

  12. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  13. Quantum entanglement distribution using a magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffry, M; Benjamin, S C; Matsuzaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    Sensors based on crystal defects, especially nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in nanodiamond, can achieve detection of single magnetic moments. Here, we show that this exquisite control can be utilized to entangle remote electronic spins for applications in quantum computing; the mobile sensor provides a ‘flying’ qubit while the act of sensing the local field constitutes a two-qubit projective measurement. Thus, the NV centre mediates entanglement between an array of well-separated (and thus well-controlled) qubits. Our calculations establish that such a device would be remarkably robust against realistic issues such as dephasing, inaccurate timing and both positioning errors and multimodal vibrations in the sensor tip. Interestingly, the fact that this form of flying qubit is readily measurable allows one to convert certain classes of unknown errors into heralded failures, which are relatively easy to deal with using established quantum information processing techniques. We also provide calculations establishing the feasibility of performing a demonstrator experiment with a fixed sensor in the immediate future. (paper)

  14. Design Concept of Array ECT Sensor for Steam Generator Tubing Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan Hee; Lee, Tae Hun; Yoo, Hyun Ju [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The eddy current testing, which is one of the nondestructive examination methods, is widely used for the inspection of heat exchangers including steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. It uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. Two types of eddy current probes are conventionally used for the inspection of steam generator tubing according to the main purpose. One is the bobbin probe technology and the other is the rotating probe. During the inspection, they have restrictions for the flaw detection or the inspection speed. An array probe can be alternative to the bobbin and rotating probes. The design concept of array coils with high sensitivity is described in this paper. It is expected that the eddy current testing using this type of array sensors may provide high detectability and resolution for flaws in steam generator tubing. Eddy current technology has some barriers for the inspection of steam generator tubing in the nuclear power plant. Bobbin probes offer poor circumferential crack detection and rotating probes are time and money consuming due to the mechanical rotation. Array probe inspection technique can replace bobbin and rotating probe techniques due to its sensitivity for flaw detection and inspection speed. In general, circular-shaped coils are considered in an array eddy current probe.

  15. Transition-edge sensor imaging arrays for astrophysics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer Anne

    Many interesting objects in our universe currently elude observation in the optical band: they are too faint or they vary rapidly and thus any structure in their radiation is lost over the period of an exposure. Conventional photon detectors cannot simultaneously provide energy resolution and time-stamping of individual photons at fast rates. Superconducting detectors have recently made the possibility of simultaneous photon counting, imaging, and energy resolution a reality. Our research group has pioneered the use of one such detector, the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES). TES physics is simple and elegant. A thin superconducting film, biased at its critical temperature, can act as a particle detector: an incident particle deposits energy and drives the film into its superconducting-normal transition. By inductively coupling the detector to a SQUID amplifier circuit, this resistance change can be read out as a current pulse, and its energy deduced by integrating over the pulse. TESs can be used to accurately time-stamp (to 0.1 [mu]s) and energy-resolve (0.15 eV at 1.6 eV) near-IR/visible/near-UV photons at rates of 30~kHz. The first astronomical observations using fiber-coupled detectors were made at the Stanford Student Observatory 0.6~m telescope in 1999. Further observations of the Crab Pulsar from the 107" telescope at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory showed rapid phase variations over the near-IR/visible/near-UV band. These preliminary observations provided a glimpse into a new realm of observations of pulsars, binary systems, and accreting black holes promised by TES arrays. This thesis describes the development, characterization, and preliminary use of the first camera system based on Transition-Edge Sensors. While single-device operation is relatively well-understood, the operation of a full imaging array poses significant challenges. This thesis addresses all aspects related to the creation and characterization of this cryogenic imaging

  16. Active damage localization for plate-like structures using wireless sensors and a distributed algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L; Yuan, F G

    2008-01-01

    Wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have emerged as a promising technology for robust and cost-effective structural monitoring. However, the applications of wireless sensors on active diagnosis for structural health monitoring (SHM) have not been extensively investigated. Due to limited energy sources, battery-powered wireless sensors can only perform limited functions and are expected to operate at a low duty cycle. Conventional designs are not suitable for sensing high frequency signals, e.g. in the ultrasonic frequency range. More importantly, algorithms to detect structural damage with a vast amount of data usually require considerable processing and communication time and result in unaffordable power consumption for wireless sensors. In this study, an energy-efficient wireless sensor for supporting high frequency signals and a distributed damage localization algorithm for plate-like structures are proposed, discussed and validated to supplement recent advances made for active sensing-based SHM. First, the power consumption of a wireless sensor is discussed and identified. Then the design of a wireless sensor for active diagnosis using piezoelectric sensors is introduced. The newly developed wireless sensor utilizes an optimized combination of field programmable gate array (FPGA) and conventional microcontroller to address the tradeoff between power consumption and speed requirement. The proposed damage localization algorithm, based on an energy decay model, enables wireless sensors to be practically used in active diagnosis. The power consumption for data communication can be minimized while the power budget for data processing can still be affordable for a battery-powered wireless sensor. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed in a mains-powered sensor node or PC to locate damage. Experimental results and discussion on the improvement of power efficiency are given

  17. Blind Time-Frequency Analysis for Source Discrimination in Multisensor Array Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amin, Moeness

    1999-01-01

    .... We have clearly demonstrated, through analysis and simulations, the offerings of time-frequency distributions in solving key problems in sensor array processing, including direction finding, source...

  18. Development of Ultra-Low Power Metal Oxide Sensors and Arrays for Embedded Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent; Wind, Rikard; Kostelecky, Clayton; Routkevitch, Dmitri; Deininger, Debra

    2011-09-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are widely used as individual sensors and in arrays, and a variety of designs for low power microhotplates have been demonstrated.1 Synkera Technologies has developed an embeddable chemical microsensor platform, based on a unique ceramic MEMS technology, for practical implementation in cell phones and other mobile electronic devices. Key features of this microsensor platform are (1) small size, (2) ultra-low power consumption, (3) high chemical sensitivity, (4) accurate response to a wide-range of threats, and (5) low cost. The sensor platform is enabled by a combination of advances in ceramic micromachining, and precision deposition of sensing films inside the high aspect ratio pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO).

  19. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With one operational amplifier (op-amp in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements’ bypass currents, which were injected into array’s non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT’s measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  20. Hydrogen Detection With a Gas Sensor Array – Processing and Recognition of Dynamic Responses Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwiżdż Patryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm, methane (167-3000 ppm and propane (167-3000 ppm concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.

  1. Fabrication of highly oriented reduced graphene oxide microbelts array for massive production of sensitive ammonia gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Rongfu; Wang, Xiaona; Feng, Wei; Hu, PingAn; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William

    2013-01-01

    Patterning oriented reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into functional structures is significant for its application in electronics and sensors. A large array of highly oriented rGO microbelts are prepared by a soft lithography process. These rGO microbelts have a uniform structure that enables the massive production of graphene electronics using a simple mask shielding process. A high performance NH 3 sensor array which was fabricated from rGO microbelts exhibits a reproducible performance with the relative resistance response (ΔR/R 0 ) reaching 0.35, whilst offering a large concentration range response of 10 ppm ∼38%, showing these sensors to be both highly sensitive and responsive. The impact of working temperature on the response to NH 3 in low and high concentration ranges of NH 3 is also discussed. (paper)

  2. Identification of accelerants, fuels and post-combustion residues using a colorimetric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jang, Minseok; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-09-07

    A linear (1 × 36) colorimetric sensor array has been integrated with a pre-oxidation technique for detection and identification of a variety of fuels and post-combustion residues. The pre-oxidation method permits the conversion of fuel vapor into more detectable species and therefore greatly enhances the sensitivity of the sensor array. The pre-oxidation technique used a packed tube of chromic acid on an oxide support and was optimized in terms of the support and concentration. Excellent batch to batch reproducibility was observed for preparation and use of the disposable pre-oxidation tubes. Twenty automotive fuels including gasolines and diesel from five gasoline retailers were individually identifiable with no confusions or misclassifications in quintuplicate trials. Limits of detection were at sub-ppm concentrations for gasoline and diesel fuels. In addition, burning tests were performed on commonly used fire accelerants, and clear differentiation was achieved among both the fuels themselves and their volatile residues after burning.

  3. High Resolution Flexible Tactile Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    both spatial distribution of pressure and dynamic events such as contact, release of contact and slip. Data acquisition and object recognition applications are described and it is proposed that such a sensor could be used in robotic grippers to improve object recognition, manipulation of objects......This paper describes the development of a tactile sensor for robotics inspired by the human sense of touch. It consists of two parts: a static tactile array sensor based on piezoresistive rubber and a dynamic sensor based on piezoelectric PVDF film. The combination of these two layers addresses...

  4. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-05-18

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  5. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  6. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 160 Fenske Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-06-28

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays.

  7. Ultrasensitive DNA sequence detection using nanoscale ZnO sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Dorfman, Adam; Hahm, Jong-in

    2006-01-01

    We report that engineered nanoscale zinc oxide structures can be effectively used for the identification of the biothreat agent, Bacillus anthracis by successfully discriminating its DNA sequence from other genetically related species. We explore both covalent and non-covalent linking schemes in order to couple probe DNA strands to the zinc oxide nanostructures. Hybridization reactions are performed with various concentrations of target DNA strands whose sequence is unique to Bacillus anthracis. The use of zinc oxide nanomaterials greatly enhances the fluorescence signal collected after carrying out duplex formation reaction. Specifically, the covalent strategy allows detection of the target species at sample concentrations at a level as low as a few femtomolar as compared to the detection sensitivity in the tens of nanomolar range when using the non-covalent scheme. The presence of the underlying zinc oxide nanomaterials is critical in achieving increased fluorescence detection of hybridized DNA and, therefore, accomplishing rapid and extremely sensitive identification of the biothreat agent. We also demonstrate the easy integration potential of nanoscale zinc oxide into high density arrays by using various types of zinc oxide sensor prototypes in the DNA sequence detection. When combined with conventional automatic sample handling apparatus and computerized fluorescence detection equipment, our approach can greatly promote the use of zinc oxide nanomaterials as signal enhancing platforms for rapid, multiplexed, high-throughput, highly sensitive, DNA sensor arrays

  8. Investigation of the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches for a guided wave-based magnetostrictive phased array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the use of uniaxial comb-shaped Fe-Ga alloy (Galfenol) patches in the development of a Magnetostrictive Phased Array Sensor (MPAS) for the Guided Wave (GW) damage inspection technique. The MPAS consists of six highly-textured Galfenol patches with a preferred orientation and a Hexagonal Magnetic Circuit Device (HMCD). The Galfenol patches individually aligned to distinct azimuthal directions were permanently attached to a thin aluminum plate specimen. The detachable HMCD encloses a biasing magnet and six sensing coils with unique directional sensing preferences, equivalent to the specific orientation of the discrete Galfenol patches. The preliminary experimental tests validated that the GW sensing performance and directional sensitivity of the Galfenol-based sensor were significantly improved by the magnetic shape anisotropy effect on the fabrication of uniaxial comb fingers to a Galfenol disc patch. We employed a series of uniaxial comb-shaped Galfenol patches to form an MPAS with a hexagonal sensor configuration, uniformly arranged within a diameter of 1". The Galfenol MPAS was utilized to identify structural damage simulated by loosening joint bolts used to fasten the plate specimen to a frame structure. We compared the damage detection results of the MPAS with those of a PZT Phased Array Sensor (PPAS) collocated to the back surface of the plate. The directional filtering characteristic of the Galfenol MPAS led to acquiring less complicated GW signals than the PPAS using omnidirectional PZT discs. However, due to the detection limit of the standard hexagonal patterned array, the two array sensors apparently identified only the loosened bolts located along one of the preferred orientations of the array configuration. The use of the fixed number of the Galfenol patches for the MPAS construction constrained the capability of sensing point multiplication of the HMCD by altering its rotational orientation, resulting in such damage detection

  9. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  10. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Nguyen, Tam Q.; Mayeda, Jill C.; Lie, Paul E.; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is

  11. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Travis; Lie, Donald Y C; Nguyen, Tam Q; Mayeda, Jill C; Lie, Paul E; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E

    2017-11-15

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient's vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is sleeping

  12. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Hall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF non-contact vital signs (NCVS monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the

  13. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  14. Sensors and sensor integration; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter D.

    Consideration is given to adaptive control of propellant slosh for launch vehicles, a lidar for expendable launch vehicles, a high-resolution airborne multisensor system, an optical velocity sensor for air data applications, and use of absorption spectroscopy for refined petroleum product discrimination. Attention is also given to edge effects in silicon photodiode arrays, sensing and environment perception for a mobile vehicle, distributed-effect optical fiber sensors for trusses and plates, and instrumentation concepts for multiplexed Bragg grating sensors. (For individual items see A93-21962 to A93-21972)

  15. Recent progress in distributed optical fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gong, Huaping; Yu, Xiangdong; Liu, Honglin; Jin, Yongxing; Kang, Juan; Li, Chenxia; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenping; Niu, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhongzhou; Zhao, Chunliu; Dong, Xinyong; Jin, Shangzhong

    2012-06-01

    A brief review of recent progress in researches, productions and applications of full distributed fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University (CJLU) is presented. In order to improve the measurement distance, the accuracy, the space resolution, the ability of multi-parameter measurements, and the intelligence of full distributed fiber sensor systems, a new generation fiber sensor technology based on the optical fiber nonlinear scattering fusion principle is proposed. A series of new generation full distributed fiber sensors are investigated and designed, which consist of new generation ultra-long distance full distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh scattering photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, auto-correction full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on Raman correlation dual sources, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on a pulse coding source, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors using a fiber Raman wavelength shifter, a new type of Brillouin optical time domain analyzers (BOTDAs) integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier for replacing a fiber Brillouin amplifier, full distributed fiber Raman and Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, and full distributed fiber Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Brillouin frequency shifter. The Internet of things is believed as one of candidates of the next technological revolution, which has driven hundreds of millions of class markets. Sensor networks are important components of the Internet of things. The full distributed optical fiber sensor network (Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin scattering) is a 3S (smart materials, smart structure, and smart skill) system, which is easy to construct smart fiber sensor networks. The distributed optical fiber sensor can be embedded in the power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, constructions, water supply systems, dams, oil and gas pipelines and other

  16. A gas sensor array for the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhao, Jianhong; Du, Tengfei; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-05-16

    Air quality around the globe is declining and public health is seriously threatened by indoor air pollution. Typically, indoor air pollutants are composed of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generally harmful to the human body, especially VOCs with low molecular weights (less than 100 Da). Moreover, in some situations, more than one type of VOC is present; thus, a device that can detect one or more VOCs simultaneously would be most beneficial. Here, we synthesized a sensor array with 4 units to detect 4 VOCs: acetone (unit 1), benzene (unit 2), methanol (unit 3) and formaldehyde (unit 4) simultaneously. All units were simultaneously exposed to 2.5 ppm of all four VOCs. The sensitivity of unit 1 was 14.67 for acetone and less than 2.54 for the other VOCs. The sensitivities of units 2, 3 and 4 to benzene, methanol and formaldehyde were 2 18.64, 20.98 and 17.26, respectively, and less than 4.01 for the other VOCs. These results indicated that the sensor array exhibited good selectivity and could be used for the real-time monitoring of indoor air quality. Thus, this device will be useful in situations requiring the simultaneous detection of multiple VOCs.

  17. A patterned ZnO nanorod array/gas sensor fabricated by mechanoelectrospinning-assisted selective growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Huang, Yongan; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-02-21

    Micropatterned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated by the mechanoelectrospinning-assisted direct-writing process and the hydrothermal growth process, and utilized as gas sensors that exhibited excellent Ohmic behavior and sensitivity response to oxidizing gas NO2 at low concentrations (1-100 ppm).

  18. Intelligent Design of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Arrays Using Reciprocal Kernel Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Andrew W.

    Metal oxides are a staple of the sensor industry. The combination of their sensitivity to a number of gases, and the electrical nature of their sensing mechanism, make the particularly attractive in solid state devices. The high temperature stability of the ceramic material also make them ideal for detecting combustion byproducts where exhaust temperatures can be high. However, problems do exist with metal oxide sensors. They are not very selective as they all tend to be sensitive to a number of reduction and oxidation reactions on the oxide's surface. This makes sensors with large numbers of sensors interesting to study as a method for introducing orthogonality to the system. Also, the sensors tend to suffer from long term drift for a number of reasons. In this thesis I will develop a system for intelligently modeling metal oxide sensors and determining their suitability for use in large arrays designed to analyze exhaust gas streams. It will introduce prior knowledge of the metal oxide sensors' response mechanisms in order to produce a response function for each sensor from sparse training data. The system will use the same technique to model and remove any long term drift from the sensor response. It will also provide an efficient means for determining the orthogonality of the sensor to determine whether they are useful in gas sensing arrays. The system is based on least squares support vector regression using the reciprocal kernel. The reciprocal kernel is introduced along with a method of optimizing the free parameters of the reciprocal kernel support vector machine. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be simpler and to perform better than an earlier kernel, the modified reciprocal kernel. Least squares support vector regression is chosen as it uses all of the training points and an emphasis was placed throughout this research for extracting the maximum information from very sparse data. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be effective in modeling the sensor

  19. Characterization of RF-spittered self-polarized PZT thin films for sensors arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Lin, W. M.; Koehler, R.; Sandner, T.; Gerlach, G.; Krawietz, R.; Pompe, W.; Deineka, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, - (2002), s. 473-478 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015; GA ČR GA202/00/1425 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : self-polarized PZT * polarization and refractive index profiles * IR sensor array Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2002

  20. A Nodes Deployment Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network coverage is a basic problem of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a wireless sensor network node deployment algorithm base on distribution in order to form an efficient wireless sensor network. The iteratively greedy algorithm is used in this paper to choose priority nodes into active until the entire network is covered by wireless sensor nodes, the whole network to multiply connected. The simulation results show that the distributed wireless sensor network node deployment algorithm can form a multiply connected wireless sensor network.

  1. Fabrication of close-packed TES microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Li, M. J.; Lindeman, M. A.; Stahle, C. K.; Stahle, C. M.; Tralshawala, N.

    2002-02-01

    We present an overview of our efforts in fabricating Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct types of array schemes are currently pursued: 5×5 single pixel TES array where each pixel is a TES microcalorimeter, and Position-Sensing TES (PoST) array. In the latter, a row of 7 or 15 thermally-linked absorber pixels is read out by two TES at its ends. Both schemes employ superconducting Mo/Au bilayers as the TES. The TES are placed on silicon nitride membranes for thermal isolation from the structural frame. The silicon nitride membranes are prepared by a Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) process into a silicon wafer. In order to achieve the concept of closely packed arrays without decreasing its structural and functional integrity, we have already developed the technology to fabricate arrays of cantilevered pixel-sized absorbers and slit membranes in silicon nitride films. Furthermore, we have started to investigate ultra-low resistance through-wafer micro-vias to bring the electrical contact out to the back of a wafer. .

  2. Temperature measurement distributed on a building by fiber optic BOTDA sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Bum; Kim, Chi Yeop; Choi, Man Yong; Lee, Seung Seok

    2002-01-01

    We have focused on the development of a fiber optic BOTDA (Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis) sensor system in order to measure temperature distributed on large structures. Also, we present a feasibility study of the fiber optic sensor to monitor the distributed temperature on a building construction. A fiber optic BOTDA sensor system, which has a capability of measuring the temperature distribution, attempted over several kilometers of long fiber paths. This simple fiber optic sensor system employs a laser diode and two electro-optic modulators. The optical fiber of the length of 1400 m was installed on the surfaces of the building. The change of the distributed temperature on the building construction was well measured by this fiber optic sensor. The temperature changed normally up to 4 degrees C through one day.

  3. Probabilistic Neural Networks for Chemical Sensor Array Pattern Recognition: Comparison Studies, Improvements and Automated Outlier Rejection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Ronald E

    1998-01-01

    For application to chemical sensor arrays, the ideal pattern recognition is accurate, fast, simple to train, robust to outliers, has low memory requirements, and has the ability to produce a measure...

  4. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  5. Multichannel DC SQUID sensor array for biomagnetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, H.E.; Daalmans, G.M.; Bar, L.; Bommel, F.; Paulus, A.; Uhl, D.; Weisse, H.J.; Schneider, S.; Seifert, H.; Reichenberger, H.; Abraham-Fuchs, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a biomagnetic multichannel system for medical diagnosis of brain and heart KRENIKON has been developed. 37 axial 2st order gradiometers - manufactured as flexible superconducting printed circuits - are arranged in a circular flat array of 19 cm diameter. Additionally, 3 orthogonal magnetometers are provided. The DC SQUIDs are fabricated in all-Nb technology, ten on a chip. The sensor system is operated in a shielded room with two layers of soft magnetic material and one layer of Al. The every day noise level is 10 fT/Hz 1/2 at frequencies above 10 Hz. Within 2 years of operation in a normal urban surrounding, useful clinical applications have been demonstrated (e.g. for epilepsy and heart arrhythmias)

  6. Distributed cluster management techniques for unattended ground sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Magdi A.; Stelzig, Chad A.; Bevington, James E.; Minor, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    Smart Sensor Networks are becoming important target detection and tracking tools. The challenging problems in such networks include the sensor fusion, data management and communication schemes. This work discusses techniques used to distribute sensor management and multi-target tracking responsibilities across an ad hoc, self-healing cluster of sensor nodes. Although miniaturized computing resources possess the ability to host complex tracking and data fusion algorithms, there still exist inherent bandwidth constraints on the RF channel. Therefore, special attention is placed on the reduction of node-to-node communications within the cluster by minimizing unsolicited messaging, and distributing the sensor fusion and tracking tasks onto local portions of the network. Several challenging problems are addressed in this work including track initialization and conflict resolution, track ownership handling, and communication control optimization. Emphasis is also placed on increasing the overall robustness of the sensor cluster through independent decision capabilities on all sensor nodes. Track initiation is performed using collaborative sensing within a neighborhood of sensor nodes, allowing each node to independently determine if initial track ownership should be assumed. This autonomous track initiation prevents the formation of duplicate tracks while eliminating the need for a central "management" node to assign tracking responsibilities. Track update is performed as an ownership node requests sensor reports from neighboring nodes based on track error covariance and the neighboring nodes geo-positional location. Track ownership is periodically recomputed using propagated track states to determine which sensing node provides the desired coverage characteristics. High fidelity multi-target simulation results are presented, indicating the distribution of sensor management and tracking capabilities to not only reduce communication bandwidth consumption, but to also

  7. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Teja P.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Djouadi, Seddik M.; Lake, Joe E.

    2011-05-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  8. Comparison of Measured Dark Current Distributions with Calculated Damage Energy Distributions in HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. J.; Marshall, P. W.; Howe, C. L.; Reed, R. A.; Weller, R. A.; Mendenhall, M.; Waczynski, A.; Ladbury, R.; Jordan, T. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined Monte Carlo and analytic approach to the calculation of the pixel-to-pixel distribution of proton-induced damage in a HgCdTe sensor array and compares the results to measured dark current distributions after damage by 63 MeV protons. The moments of the Coulombic, nuclear elastic and nuclear inelastic damage distributions were extracted from Monte Carlo simulations and combined to form a damage distribution using the analytic techniques first described in [1]. The calculations show that the high energy recoils from the nuclear inelastic reactions (calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX [2]) produce a pronounced skewing of the damage energy distribution. While the nuclear elastic component (also calculated using the MCNPX) contributes only a small fraction of the total nonionizing damage energy, its inclusion in the shape of the damage across the array is significant. The Coulombic contribution was calculated using MRED [3-5], a Geant4 [4,6] application. The comparison with the dark current distribution strongly suggests that mechanisms which are not linearly correlated with nonionizing damage produced according to collision kinematics are responsible for the observed dark current increases. This has important implications for the process of predicting the on-orbit dark current response of the HgCdTe sensor array.

  9. Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.; Williams, Nancy L.; Boss, Emmanuel; Haëntjens, Nils; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) program has begun deploying a large array of biogeochemical sensors on profiling floats in the Southern Ocean. As of February 2016, 86 floats have been deployed. Here the focus is on 56 floats with quality-controlled and adjusted data that have been in the water at least 6 months. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll fluorescence, and optical backscatter sensors. The raw data generated by these sensors can suffer from inaccurate initial calibrations and from sensor drift over time. Procedures to correct the data are defined. The initial accuracy of the adjusted concentrations is assessed by comparing the corrected data to laboratory measurements made on samples collected by a hydrographic cast with a rosette sampler at the float deployment station. The long-term accuracy of the corrected data is compared to the GLODAPv2 data set whenever a float made a profile within 20 km of a GLODAPv2 station. Based on these assessments, the fleet average oxygen data are accurate to 1 ± 1%, nitrate to within 0.5 ± 0.5 µmol kg-1, and pH to 0.005 ± 0.007, where the error limit is 1 standard deviation of the fleet data. The bio-optical measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter are used to estimate chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon concentration. The particulate organic carbon concentrations inferred from optical backscatter appear accurate to with 35 mg C m-3 or 20%, whichever is larger. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimated chlorophyll a concentrations are evaluated.Plain Language SummaryThe ocean science community must move toward greater use of autonomous platforms and sensors if we are to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate driven change within the ocean. Essential to this shift in observing strategies is an understanding of the performance that can be obtained from biogeochemical sensors on platforms deployed for years and the

  10. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Chander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  11. Heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire micro-sensor array for gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMeo, Dante; E Vandervelde, Thomas; MacNaughton, Sam; Sonkusale, Sameer; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Xinjie

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide, and nickel oxide nanowires were investigated for their applicability as chemiresistive gas sensors. Nanowires have excellent surface-to-volume ratios which yield higher sensitivities than bulk materials. Sensing elements consisting of these materials were assembled in an array to create an electronic nose platform. Dielectrophoresis was used to position the nanomaterials onto a microfabricated array of electrodes, which was subsequently mounted onto a leadless chip carrier and printed circuit board for rapid testing. Samples were tested in an enclosed chamber with vapors of acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and aqueous ammonia. The change in resistance of each assembly was measured. Responses varied between nanowire compositions, each demonstrating unique and repeatable responses to different gases; this enabled direct detection of the gases from the ensemble response. Sensitivities were calculated based on the fractional resistance change in a saturated environment and ranged from 6 × 10 −4 to 2 × 10 −5 %change ppm −1 . (papers)

  12. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chun Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin, the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.

  13. Response Optimization of a Chemical Gas Sensor Array using Temperature Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Durán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of the design and implementation of a simple conditioning circuit to optimize the electronic nose performance, where a temperature modulation method was applied to the heating resistor to study the sensor’s response and confirm whether they are able to make the discrimination when exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This study was based on determining the efficiency of the gas sensors with the aim to perform an electronic nose, improving the sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability of the measuring system, selecting the type of modulation (e.g., pulse width modulation for the analytes detection (i.e., Moscatel wine samples (2% of alcohol and ethyl alcohol (70%. The results demonstrated that by using temperature modulation technique to the heating resistors, it is possible to realize the discrimination of VOC’s in fast and easy way through a chemical sensors array. Therefore, a discrimination model based on principal component analysis (PCA was implemented to each sensor, with data responses obtaining a variance of 94.5% and accuracy of 100%.

  14. Packets distribution in a tree-based topology wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akpakwu, GA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of data distribution within cluster of sensor nodes to the source sink has resulted to intense research in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, in order to determine the scheduling length of packet distribution, a tree...

  15. A Survey on Distributed Filtering and Fault Detection for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, theoretical and practical research on large-scale networked systems has gained an increasing attention from multiple disciplines including engineering, computer science, and mathematics. Lying in the core part of the area are the distributed estimation and fault detection problems that have recently been attracting growing research interests. In particular, an urgent need has arisen to understand the effects of distributed information structures on filtering and fault detection in sensor networks. In this paper, a bibliographical review is provided on distributed filtering and fault detection problems over sensor networks. The algorithms employed to study the distributed filtering and detection problems are categorised and then discussed. In addition, some recent advances on distributed detection problems for faulty sensors and fault events are also summarized in great detail. Finally, we conclude the paper by outlining future research challenges for distributed filtering and fault detection for sensor networks.

  16. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  17. Low-Temperature Rapid Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire UV Sensor Array by Laser-Induced Local Hydrothermal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjoon Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ZnO nanowire based UV sensor by laser-induced hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire. By inducing a localized temperature rise using focused laser, ZnO nanowire array at ~15 μm size consists of individual nanowires with ~8 μm length and 200~400 nm diameter is readily synthesized on gold electrode within 30 min at the desired position. The laser-induced growth process is consecutively applied on two different points to bridge the micron gap between the electrodes. The resultant photoconductive ZnO NW interconnections display 2~3 orders increase in the current upon the UV exposure at a fixed voltage bias. It is also confirmed that the amount of photocurrent can be easily adjusted by changing the number of ZnO NW array junctions. The device exhibits clear response to the repeated UV illumination, suggesting that this process can be usefully applied for the facile fabrication of low-cost UV sensor array.

  18. Distributed data acquisition system for Pachmarhi array of Cverenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, S. S.; Acharya, B. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chitnis, V. R.; D'Souza, A. I.; Francis, P. J.; Gothe, K. S.; Joshi, S. R.; Majumdar, P.; Manogaran, M.; Nagesh, B. K.; Pose, M. S.; Purohit, P. N.; Rahman, M. A.; Rao, K. K.; Rao, S. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Singh, B. B.; Stanislaus, A. J.; Sudersanan, P. V.; Venkatesh Murthy, B. L.; Vishwanath, P. R.

    2002-03-01

    Pachmarhi Array of Cverenkov Telescopes consists of 25 Telescopes distributed within an area of 8000m2. The array was designed to detect and process faint Cverenkov light flashes that lasts for a few nanoseconds, produced in the atmosphere by celestial VHE ?-rays or cosmic rays. In this experiment, the arrival time and amplitude of fast tiny pulses have to be measured and recorded from each of 175 photo-tubes in a shortest possible time. In view of the complexity of the system, the entire array is divided into 4 sectors. A Distributed Data Acquisition System developed for the purpose consists of independent Sector Data Acquisition Systems and a Master Data Acquisition System. The distributed data acquisition and monitoring system are built using PC's which are networked through LAN. The entire software for DDAS was developed in-house in C language under LINUX environment. Also, most of the hardware barring a few fast digitization modules were designed and fabricated in-house. The design features, implementation strategy as well as the performance of the whole system are discussed.

  19. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  20. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a ∼10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38

  1. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  2. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.

  3. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagyasi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  4. Multi-parameter fibre Bragg grating sensor-array for thermal vacuum cycling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Ahlers, B.; Toet, P.; Casarosa, G.; Appolloni, M.

    2017-11-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor systems based on optical fibres are gaining interest in space applications. Studies on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of the reusable launchers using FBG sensors have been carried out in the Future European Space Transportation Investigations Programme (FESTIP). Increasing investment in the development on FBG sensor applications is foreseen for the Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). TNO has performed different SHM measurements with FBGs including on the VEGA interstage [1, 2] in 2006. Within the current project, a multi-parameter FBG sensor array demonstrator system for temperature and strain measurements is designed, fabricated and tested under ambient as well as Thermal Vacuum (TV) conditions in a TV chamber of the European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC site. The aim is the development of a multi-parameters measuring system based on FBG technology for space applications. During the TV tests of a Space Craft (S/C) or its subsystems, thermal measurements, as well as strain measurements are needed by the engineers in order to verify their prediction and to validate their models. Because of the dimensions of the test specimen and the accuracy requested to the measurement, a large number of observation/measuring points are needed. Conventional sensor systems require a complex routing of the cables connecting the sensors to their acquisition unit. This will add extra weight to the construction under test. FBG sensors are potentially light-weight and can easily be multiplexed in an array configuration. The different tasks comply of a demonstrator system design; its component selection, procurement, manufacturing and finally its assembly. The temperature FBG sensor is calibrated in a dedicated laboratory setup down to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature at TNO. A temperature-wavelength calibration curve is generated. After a test programme definition a setup in thermal vacuum is realised at ESA premises including a mechanical

  5. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS2/Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS2-based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ˜50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  6. A woven 2D touchpad sensor and a 1D slide sensor using soft capacitor fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgutsa, Stephan; Gu, Jian Feng; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Recently reported soft conductive-polymer-based capacitor fibers are used to build a fully woven 2D touchpad sensor and a 1D slide sensor. An individual capacitor fiber features a swiss-roll like structure having two dielectric and two conductive polymer films rolled together in a classic multilayer capacitor configuration. The soft fibers of sub-1 mm outer diameter are fabricated using a fiber drawing procedure from a macroscopic polymeric preform. An individual capacitor fiber is then demonstrated to act as a distributed sensor that allows the touch position to be determined by measuring the fiber’s AC response. In other words, a single fiber acts as a 1D slide sensor. Furthermore, we develop an electrical ladder network model to predict the distributed sensor properties of an individual fiber and show that this model describes the experimental measurements very well. Finally, a two-dimensional touchpad sensor is presented. The sensor is built by weaving a one-dimensional array of capacitor fibers in parallel to each other. The performance of the touchpad sensor is then characterized. (paper)

  7. Synthesis of CdS nanorod arrays and their applications in flexible piezo-driven active H2S sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Penglei; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A flexible piezo-driven active H 2 S sensor has been fabricated from CdS nanorod arrays. By coupling the piezoelectric and gas sensing properties of CdS nanorods, the piezoelectric output generated by CdS nanorod arrays acts not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to H 2 S. Under externally applied compressive force, the piezoelectric output of CdS nanorod arrays is very sensitive to H 2 S. Upon exposure to 600 ppm H 2 S, the piezoelectric output of the device decreased from 0.32 V (in air) to 0.12 V. Such a flexible device can be driven by the tiny mechanical energy in our living environment, such as human finger pinching. Our research can stimulate a research trend on designing new material systems and device structures for high-performance piezo-driven active gas sensors. (paper)

  8. High Resolution Eddy-Current Wire Testing Based on a Gmr Sensor-Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzbruck, Marc; Allweins, Kai; Strackbein, Chris; Bernau, Hendrick

    2009-03-01

    Increasing demands in materials quality and cost effectiveness have led to advanced standards in manufacturing technology. Especially when dealing with high quality standards in conjunction with high throughput quantitative NDE techniques are vital to provide reliable and fast quality control systems. In this work we illuminate a modern electromagnetic NDE approach using a small GMR sensor array for testing superconducting wires. Four GMR sensors are positioned around the wire. Each GMR sensor provides a field sensitivity of 200 pT/√Hz and a spatial resolution of about 100 μm. This enables us to detect under surface defects of 100 μm in size in a depth of 200 μm with a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 400. Surface defects could be detected with a SNR of up to 10,000. Besides this remarkably SNR the small extent of GMR sensors results in a spatial resolution which offers new visualisation techniques for defect localisation, defect characterization and tomography-like mapping techniques. We also report on inverse algorithms based on either a Finite Element Method or an analytical approach. These allow for accurate defect localization on the urn scale and an estimation of the defect size.

  9. Sensor and method for measuring the areal density of magnetic nanoparticles on a micro-array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and a device for magnetic detection of binding of biological molecules on a biochip. A magnetoresistive sensor device for measuring an areal density of magnetic nanoparticles on a micro-array, the magnetic nanoparticles (15) being directly or indirectly

  10. Detection of Defective Sensors in Phased Array Using Compressed Sensing and Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed sensing based array diagnosis technique has been presented. This technique starts from collecting the measurements of the far-field pattern. The system linking the difference between the field measured using the healthy reference array and the field radiated by the array under test is solved using a genetic algorithm (GA, parallel coordinate descent (PCD algorithm, and then a hybridized GA with PCD algorithm. These algorithms are applied for fully and partially defective antenna arrays. The simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms in terms of localization of element failure with a small number of measurements. In the proposed algorithm, the slow and early convergence of GA has been avoided by combining it with PCD algorithm. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-PCD algorithm provides an accurate diagnosis of fully and partially defective sensors as compared to GA or PCD alone. Different simulations have been provided to validate the performance of the designed algorithms in diversified scenarios.

  11. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  12. Polar exponential sensor arrays unify iconic and Hough space representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The log-polar coordinate system, inherent in both polar exponential sensor arrays and log-polar remapped video imagery, is identical to the coordinate system of its corresponding Hough transform parameter space. The resulting unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computation for line recognition and eliminates the slope quantization problems inherent in the classical Cartesian Hough transform. The geometric organization of the algorithm is more amenable to massively parallel architectures than that of the Cartesian version. The neural architecture of the human visual cortex meets the geometric requirements to execute 'in-place' log-Hough algorithms of the kind described here.

  13. DOA estimation for conformal vector-sensor array using geometric algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tianzhen; Wu, Minjie; Yuan, Naichang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is considered in the case of multiple polarized signals impinging on the conformal electromagnetic vector-sensor array (CVA). We focus on modeling the manifold holistically by a new mathematical tool called geometric algebra. Compared with existing methods, the presented one has two main advantages. Firstly, it acquires higher resolution by preserving the orthogonality of the signal components. Secondly, it avoids the cumbersome matrix operations while performing the coordinate transformations, and therefore, has a much lower computational complexity. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumoorthy Palanisamy

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.

  15. MISSION-ORIENTED SENSOR ARRAYS AND UAVs – A CASE STUDY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Figueira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA, proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013, aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical. As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  16. Nano-arrays of SAM by dip-pen nanowriting (DPN) technique for futuristic bio-electronic and bio-sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Pankaj B.; Kumar, A.; Saravanan, R.; Sharma, A.K.; Shekhar, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Nano-arrays of bio-molecules have potential applications in many areas namely, bio-sensors, bio/molecular electronics and virus detection. Spot array, micro-contact printing and photolithography are used for micron size array fabrications while Dip-Pen Nanowriting (DPN) is employed for submicron/nano size arrays. We have fabricated nano-dots of 16-MHA (16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold substrate by DPN technique with different dwell time under varying relative humidity. These patterns were imaged in the same system in LFM (Lateral Force Microscopy) mode with fast scanning speed (5 Hz). The effect of humidity on size variation of nano-dots has been studied. During experiments, relative humidity (RH) was varied from 20% to 60%, while the temperature was kept constant ∼ 25 o C. The minimum measured diameter of the dot is ∼ 294 nm at RH = 20% for a dwell time of 2 s. The thickness of the 16-MHA dots, estimated in NanoRule image analysis software is ∼ 2 nm, which agrees well with the length of single MHA molecule (2.2 nm). The line profile has been used to estimate the size and thickness of dots. The obtained results will be useful in further development of nano-array based bio-sensors and bio-electronic devices.

  17. A NOVEL BCG SENSOR-ARRAY FOR UNOBTRUSIVE CARDIAC MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Böhm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive heart rate monitoring is a popular research topic in biomedical engineering. The reason is that convential methods, e.g. the clinical gold standard electrocardiography, require conductive contact to the human body. Other methods such as ballistocardiography try to record these vital signs without electrodes that are attached to the body. So far, these systems cannot replace routine procedures. Most systems have some drawbacks that cannot be compensated, such as aging of the sensor materials or movement artifacts. In addition, the signal form differs greatly from an ECG, which is an electrical signal. The ballistocardiogram has a mechanical source, which makes it harder to evaluate. We have developed a new sensor array made of near-IR-LEDs to record BCGs. IR-sensors do not age in relevant time scales. Analog filtering was neccesary, because the signal amplitude was very small. The digitized data was then processed by various algorithms to extract beat-to-beat or breath-to-breath intervals. The redundancy of multiple BCG channels was used to provide a robust estimation of beat-to-beat intervals and heart rate. We installed the system beneath a mattress topper of a hospital bed, but any other bed would have been sufficient. The validation of this measurement system shows that it is well suited for BCG recordings. The use of multiple channels has proven to be superior to relying on a single BCG channel.

  18. Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Grating and Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCary, Kelly Marie

    2017-01-01

    Fiber optic temperature sensors were evaluated in the High Temperature Test Lab (HTTL) to determine the accuracy of the measurements at various temperatures. A distributed temperature sensor was evaluated up to 550C and a fiber Bragg grating sensor was evaluated up to 750C. HTTL measurements indicate that there is a drift in fiber Bragg sensor over time of approximately -10C with higher accuracy at temperatures above 300C. The distributed sensor produced some bad data points at and above 500C but produced measurements with less than 2% error at increasing temperatures up to 400C

  19. Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Grating and Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCary, Kelly Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic temperature sensors were evaluated in the High Temperature Test Lab (HTTL) to determine the accuracy of the measurements at various temperatures. A distributed temperature sensor was evaluated up to 550C and a fiber Bragg grating sensor was evaluated up to 750C. HTTL measurements indicate that there is a drift in fiber Bragg sensor over time of approximately -10C with higher accuracy at temperatures above 300C. The distributed sensor produced some bad data points at and above 500C but produced measurements with less than 2% error at increasing temperatures up to 400C

  20. Distributed Detection with Collisions in a Random, Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-26

    public release; distribution is unlimited. Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network The views, opinions...1274 2 ABSTRACT Distributed detection with collisions in a random, single-hop wireless sensor network Report Title We consider the problem of... WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK Gene T. Whipps?† Emre Ertin† Randolph L. Moses† ?U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 †The Ohio State University

  1. General Voltage Feedback Circuit Model in the Two-Dimensional Networked Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianFeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the feature of the two-dimensional networked resistive sensor array, we firstly proposed a general model of voltage feedback circuits (VFCs such as the voltage feedback non-scanned-electrode circuit, the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit, and the voltage feedback non-scanned-sampling-electrode circuit. By analyzing the general model, we then gave a general mathematical expression of the effective equivalent resistor of the element being tested in VFCs. Finally, we evaluated the features of VFCs with simulation and test experiment. The results show that the expression is applicable to analyze the VFCs’ performance of parameters such as the multiplexers’ switch resistors, the nonscanned elements, and array size.

  2. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  3. Autonomous distributed self-organization for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Yu; Tang, Hung-Kai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks.

  4. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  5. Array-type sensor to determine corrosive conditions in high temperature water under gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.; Tsukada, T.; Uchida, S.; Katoh, C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems to determine electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in high temperature water under irradiation is to apply long-lived and reliable reference electrodes. In order to avoid troubles due to the reference electrode, a new concept to determine ECP without the reference electrode has been proposed. Several metal plates are applied as working electrodes and at the same time as the reference electrodes. Potential of the metal plates with stable oxide films on their surfaces show stable values in high temperature water. As a result of the combination of their potential values, ECP of each metal can be determined without any specific reference electrode. Array-type sensors consisting of several metal plates, e.g., Fe, Ni, Cr, Zr, Pt, Pd, Re, Ir, with well developed oxide films on their surface were prepared for ECP measurement in high temperature water under neutron/gamma ray irradiations. In order to confirm the feasibility of this concept, responses of the redox potentials of the pure metals to changes in the simulated BWR reactor water conditions were measured and the ECP was determined by the differences in potentials between a couple of metal plates. Major conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The redox potentials of the Fe, Pt, Zr, Ir, Pd, and Re electrodes showed the different dependences on the changes in O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The redox potentials of the electrodes increased as the oxidant concentrations increased except for Zr electrode. The potential of the Zr electrode was kept the very low potential at the wide range of O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations differed form the other electrodes. 2) It was estimated that the redox potential of highly soluble metal may be increased, while that of low soluble metal may be decreased by an oxide film. The stable oxide film would cause the stable potential response of the electrode with oxide film. 3) The relationship between the oxidant concentrations and the redox potentials of the

  6. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles to Capture Lifelike Proteins: Application on the Multichannel Sensor Array Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Leng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical elements of proteins are similar to that of DNA (e.g., C, H, O, and N, and DNA shows different knotted architectures. So we imagine that proteins may show a wealth of highly complex structures, especially when proteins interact with each other. The imagination was proved by synthesizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs to capture the lifelike protein structures. The optical responses (i.e., color of as-prepared GNPs are found to be characteristic to a given protein (or heavy metal ion. Based on the “three colors” principle of Thomas Young, we extracted the red, green, and blue (RGB alterations of as-synthesized GNPs to fabricate multichannel sensor arrays for proteins (or heavy metal ions discrimination. The designed multichannel sensor arrays demonstrate possibilities in semiquantitative analysis of multiple analytes (e.g., proteins and heavy metal ions. This work is believed to open new opportunities for GNPs-based label-free sensing.

  7. Least Squares Neural Network-Based Wireless E-Nose System Using an SnO₂ Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Areej; Choi, Jong-Hyeok; Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2018-05-06

    Over the last few decades, the development of the electronic nose (E-nose) for detection and quantification of dangerous and odorless gases, such as methane (CH₄) and carbon monoxide (CO), using an array of SnO₂ gas sensors has attracted considerable attention. This paper addresses sensor cross sensitivity by developing a classifier and estimator using an artificial neural network (ANN) and least squares regression (LSR), respectively. Initially, the ANN was implemented using a feedforward pattern recognition algorithm to learn the collective behavior of an array as the signature of a particular gas. In the second phase, the classified gas was quantified by minimizing the mean square error using LSR. The combined approach produced 98.7% recognition probability, with 95.5 and 94.4% estimated gas concentration accuracies for CH₄ and CO, respectively. The classifier and estimator parameters were deployed in a remote microcontroller for the actualization of a wireless E-nose system.

  8. Unmanned Vehicle Distributed Sensor Management and Information Exchange Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottfried, Russell

    2004-01-01

    ... sensors to a remote decision-making node. The goal was to establish connectivity between the two nodes, assess the quality of relayed data transmission from distributed sensors, and determine the viability of the technology for future...

  9. Numerical and Experimental Characterization of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Structures with Embedded Piezoelectric Sensor-Actuator Arrays for Ultrasonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudiusz Holeczek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary numerical and experimental studies of active textile-reinforced thermoplastic composites with embedded sensor-actuator arrays. The goal of the investigations was the assessment of directional sound wave generation capability using embedded sensor-actuator arrays and developed a wave excitation procedure for ultrasound measurement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed approach was initially confirmed in numerical investigations assuming idealized mechanical and geometrical conditions. The findings were validated in real-life conditions on specimens of elementary geometry. Herein, the technological aspects of unique automated assembly of thermoplastic films containing adapted thermoplastic-compatible piezoceramic modules and conducting paths were described.

  10. Autonomous Distributed Self-Organization for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Wen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive combined-metrics-based clustering scheme for mobile wireless sensor networks, which manages the mobile sensors by utilizing the hierarchical network structure and allocates network resources efficiently. A local criteria is used to help mobile sensors form a new cluster or join a current cluster. The messages transmitted during hierarchical clustering are applied to choose distributed gateways such that communication for adjacent clusters and distributed topology control can be achieved. In order to balance the load among clusters and govern the topology change, a cluster reformation scheme using localized criterions is implemented. The proposed scheme is simulated and analyzed to abstract the network behaviors in a number of settings. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides efficient network topology management and achieves high scalability in mobile sensor networks.

  11. Pure random search for ambient sensor distribution optimisation in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P; Nugent, Chris D; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liming

    2011-01-01

    Smart homes are living spaces facilitated with technology to allow individuals to remain in their own homes for longer, rather than be institutionalised. Sensors are the fundamental physical layer with any smart home, as the data they generate is used to inform decision support systems, facilitating appropriate actuator actions. Positioning of sensors is therefore a fundamental characteristic of a smart home. Contemporary smart home sensor distribution is aligned to either a) a total coverage approach; b) a human assessment approach. These methods for sensor arrangement are not data driven strategies, are unempirical and frequently irrational. This Study hypothesised that sensor deployment directed by an optimisation method that utilises inhabitants' spatial frequency data as the search space, would produce more optimal sensor distributions vs. the current method of sensor deployment by engineers. Seven human engineers were tasked to create sensor distributions based on perceived utility for 9 deployment scenarios. A Pure Random Search (PRS) algorithm was then tasked to create matched sensor distributions. The PRS method produced superior distributions in 98.4% of test cases (n=64) against human engineer instructed deployments when the engineers had no access to the spatial frequency data, and in 92.0% of test cases (n=64) when engineers had full access to these data. These results thus confirmed the hypothesis.

  12. Distributed sensor management for space situational awareness via a negotiation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) is critical to many space missions serving weather analysis, communications, and navigation. However, the number of sensors used in space situational awareness is limited which hinders collision avoidance prediction, debris assessment, and efficient routing. Hence, it is critical to use such sensor resources efficiently. In addition, it is desired to develop the SSA sensor management algorithm in a distributed manner. In this paper, a distributed sensor management approach using the negotiation game (NG-DSM) is proposed for the SSA. Specifically, the proposed negotiation game is played by each sensor and its neighboring sensors. The bargaining strategies are developed for each sensor based on negotiating for accurately tracking desired targets (e.g., satellite, debris, etc.) . The proposed NG-DSM method is tested in a scenario which includes eight space objects and three different sensor modalities which include a space based optical sensor, a ground radar, or a ground Electro-Optic sensor. The geometric relation between the sensor, the Sun, and the space object is also considered. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed NG-DSM sensor management methods, which facilitates an application of multiple-sensor multiple-target tracking for space situational awareness.

  13. Energy Efficient Distributed Fault Identification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed fault identification algorithm is proposed here to find both hard and soft faulty sensor nodes present in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm is distributed, self-detectable, and can detect the most common byzantine faults such as stuck at zero, stuck at one, and random data. In the proposed approach, each sensor node gathered the observed data from the neighbors and computed the mean to check whether faulty sensor node is present or not. If a node found the presence of faulty sensor node, then compares observed data with the data of the neighbors and predict probable fault status. The final fault status is determined by diffusing the fault information from the neighbors. The accuracy and completeness of the algorithm are verified with the help of statistical model of the sensors data. The performance is evaluated in terms of detection accuracy, false alarm rate, detection latency and message complexity.

  14. Spatially distributed damage detection in CMC thermal protection materials using thin-film piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, Samuel J.; Blackshire, James L.; Na, Jeong K.

    2009-03-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) of aerospace vehicles are subjected to impacts during in-flight use and vehicle refurbishment. The damage resulting from such impacts can produce localized regions that are unable to resist extreme temperatures. Therefore it is essential to have a reliable method to detect, locate, and quantify the damage occurring from such impacts. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a capability that could lead to detecting, locating and quantifying impact events for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) wrapped tile TPS via sensors embedded in the TPS material. Previous research had shown a correlation between impact energies, material damage state, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor response for impact energies between 0.07 - 1.00 Joules, where impact events were located directly over the sensor positions1. In this effort, the effectiveness of a sensor array is evaluated for detecting and locating low energy impacts on a CMC wrapped TPS. The sensor array, which is adhered to the internal surface of the TPS tile, is used to detect low energy impact events that occur at different locations. The analysis includes an evaluation of signal amplitude levels, time-of-flight measurements, and signal frequency content. Multiple impacts are performed at each location to study the repeatability of each measurement.

  15. Operation of remote mobile sensors for security of drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, By Lina; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-09-01

    The deployment of fixed online water quality sensors in water distribution systems has been recognized as one of the key components of contamination warning systems for securing public health. This study proposes to explore how the inclusion of mobile sensors for inline monitoring of various water quality parameters (e.g., residual chlorine, pH) can enhance water distribution system security. Mobile sensors equipped with sampling, sensing, data acquisition, wireless transmission and power generation systems are being designed, fabricated, and tested, and prototypes are expected to be released in the very near future. This study initiates the development of a theoretical framework for modeling mobile sensor movement in water distribution systems and integrating the sensory data collected from stationary and non-stationary sensor nodes to increase system security. The methodology is applied and demonstrated on two benchmark networks. Performance of different sensor network designs are compared for fixed and combined fixed and mobile sensor networks. Results indicate that complementing online sensor networks with inline monitoring can increase detection likelihood and decrease mean time to detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujie; Li, Siying; Peng, Sai; Huang, Yukun; Zhao, Jiaqing; Tang, Wei; Guo, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    Soft conductive films composed of a silver nanowire (AgNW) network, a neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS over-coating layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate are fabricated by large area compatible coating processes. The neutral-pH PEDOT:PSS layer is shown to be able to significantly improve the conductivity, stretchability and air stability of the conductive films. The soft conductive films are patterned using a simple maskless patterning approach to fabricate an 8 × 8 flexible pressure sensor array. It is shown that such soft conductive films can help to improve the sensitivity and reduce the signal crosstalk over the pressure sensor array. Project supported by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 16JC1400603).

  17. Chemiresistive Graphene Sensors for Ammonia Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Charles; Schroeder, Vera; Zurutuza, Amaia; Su, Cong; Kong, Jing; Swager, Timothy M; Palacios, Tomás

    2018-05-09

    The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate a novel sensor system as a convenient vehicle for scaled-up repeatability and the kinetic analysis of a pixelated testbed. This work presents a sensor system capable of measuring hundreds of functionalized graphene sensors in a rapid and convenient fashion. The sensor system makes use of a novel array architecture requiring only one sensor per pixel and no selector transistor. The sensor system is employed specifically for the evaluation of Co(tpfpp)ClO 4 functionalization of graphene sensors for the detection of ammonia as an extension of previous work. Co(tpfpp)ClO 4 treated graphene sensors were found to provide 4-fold increased ammonia sensitivity over pristine graphene sensors. Sensors were also found to exhibit excellent selectivity over interfering compounds such as water and common organic solvents. The ability to monitor a large sensor array with 160 pixels provides insights into performance variations and reproducibility-critical factors in the development of practical sensor systems. All sensors exhibit the same linearly related responses with variations in response exhibiting Gaussian distributions, a key finding for variation modeling and quality engineering purposes. The mean correlation coefficient between sensor responses was found to be 0.999 indicating highly consistent sensor responses and excellent reproducibility of Co(tpfpp)ClO 4 functionalization. A detailed kinetic model is developed to describe sensor response profiles. The model consists of two adsorption mechanisms-one reversible and one irreversible-and is shown capable of fitting experimental data with a mean percent error of 0.01%.

  18. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  19. Optimal Sensor Networks Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patan, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Sensor networks have recently come into prominence because they hold the potential to revolutionize a wide spectrum of both civilian and military applications. An ingenious characteristic of sensor networks is the distributed nature of data acquisition. Therefore they seem to be ideally prepared for the task of monitoring processes with spatio-temporal dynamics which constitute one of most general and important classes of systems in modelling of the real-world phenomena. It is clear that careful deployment and activation of sensor nodes are critical for collecting the most valuable information from the observed environment. Optimal Sensor Network Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems discusses the characteristic features of the sensor scheduling problem, analyzes classical and recent approaches, and proposes a wide range of original solutions, especially dedicated for networks with mobile and scanning nodes. Both researchers and practitioners will find the case studies, the proposed al...

  20. Ground motion response to an ML 4.3 earthquake using co-located distributed acoustic sensing and seismometer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Herbert F.; Zeng, Xiangfang; Miller, Douglas E.; Fratta, Dante; Feigl, Kurt L.; Thurber, Clifford H.; Mellors, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    The PoroTomo research team deployed two arrays of seismic sensors in a natural laboratory at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016. The 1500 m (length) × 500 m (width) × 400 m (depth) volume of the laboratory overlies a geothermal reservoir. The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) array consisted of about 8400 m of fiber-optic cable in a shallow trench and 360 m in a well. The conventional seismometer array consisted of 238 shallowly buried three-component geophones. The DAS cable was laid out in three parallel zig-zag lines with line segments approximately 100 m in length and geophones were spaced at approximately 60 m intervals. Both DAS and conventional geophones recorded continuously over 15 d during which a moderate-sized earthquake with a local magnitude of 4.3 was recorded on 2016 March 21. Its epicentre was approximately 150 km south-southeast of the laboratory. Several DAS line segments with co-located geophone stations were used to compare signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in both time and frequency domains and to test relationships between DAS and geophone data. The ratios were typically within a factor of five of each other with DAS SNR often greater for P-wave but smaller for S-wave relative to geophone SNR. The SNRs measured for an earthquake can be better than for active sources because the earthquake signal contains more low-frequency energy and the noise level is also lower at those lower frequencies. Amplitudes of the sum of several DAS strain-rate waveforms matched the finite difference of two geophone waveforms reasonably well, as did the amplitudes of DAS strain waveforms with particle-velocity waveforms recorded by geophones. Similar agreement was found between DAS and geophone observations and synthetic strain seismograms. The combination of good SNR in the seismic frequency band, high-spatial density, large N and highly accurate time control among individual sensors suggests that DAS arrays have potential to assume a role in earthquake

  1. ALAT PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN GAS BERACUN CO PADA MOBIL DENGAN ARRAY SENSOR MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Widodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi otomotif sekarang ini semakin pesat yaitu dengan fasilitas accessories mobil yang semakin lengkap. Namun berbagai fasilitas yang terdapat dalam mobil tanpa disadari menyimpan ancaman bahaya bagi pengguna mobil salah satunya ketika system pada AC (Air Conditioner terjadi kebocoran maka gas CO (karbon monoksida akan memenuhi ruang mobil yang tertutup. Gas CO ini sangat berbahaya karena gas ini tidak berwarna, tidak berbau, dan tidak berasa sehingga sulit untuk dideteksi yang dapat menyebabkan orang yang ada didalam mobil menjadi mati lemas tanpa disadari karena menghirup gas CO yang bocor. Dengan fenomena tersebut dibutuhkan sebuah alat yang dapat mendeteksi dan mengontrol kebocoran gas CO untuk memberikan rasa aman kepada pengguna mobil. Alat ini menggunakan kendali logika fuzzy sebagai proses pengambilan keputusan sebagai hasil nilai dari inferensi kerja array sensor. Pengendali utama pada sistem menggunakan mikrokontroller ATmega32. Ketika array sensor yaitu TGS2442 dan TGS2600 mendeteksi kadar gas CO >29,0 ppm berarti dalam status bahaya sehingga buzzer akan aktif diikuti motor DC yang menggerakkan kaca mobil agar terbuka. Berdasarkan lima kali pengujian yang dilakukan didapatkanlah rata-rata selisih error output gas sebesar 0.29 ppm disaat kondisi aman dan 3.87 ppm disaat kondisi bahaya.

  2. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-06-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  3. Testing of Streckeisen STS-5A and Nanometrics Trillium 120PH Sensors for the Alaska Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Baghbadorani, A.; Aderhold, K.; Bloomquist, D.; Frassetto, A.; Miller, P. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Starting in 2014, the IRIS Transportable Array facility began to install and operate seismic stations in Alaska and western Canada. By the end of the project, the full deployment of the array will cover a grid of 280 stations spaced about 85 km apart covering all of mainland Alaska and parts of the Yukon, British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories. Approximately 200 stations will be operated directly by IRIS through at least 2019. A key aspect of the Alaska TA is the need for stations to operate autonomously, on account of the high cost of installation and potential subsequent visits to remote field-sites to repair equipment. The TA is using newly developed broadband seismometers Streckeisen STS-5A and Nanometrics Trillium-120PH, designed for installation in shallow posthole emplacements. These new instruments were extensively vetted beforehand, but they are still relatively new to the TA inventory. Here we will assess their performance under deployment conditions and after repeated commercial shipping and travel to the field. Our objective is to provide a thorough accounting of the identified failures of the existing inventory of posthole instruments. We will assess the practices and results of instrument testing by the PASSCAL Instrument Center/Array Operations Facility (PIC/AOF), Alaska Operations Center (AOC), and broadband seismic sensor manufacturers (Streckeisen, Nanometrics) in order to document potential factors in and stages during the process for instrument failures. This will help to quantify the overall reliability of the TA seismic sensors and quality of TA practices and data collection, and identify potential considerations in future TA operations. Our results show that the overall rate of failure of all posthole instruments is improved station performance after sensor replacement, and that these are key elements in assessing whether or not a sensor should be replaced in the field.

  4. A Robust and Low-Complexity Gas Recognition Technique for On-Chip Tin-Oxide Gas Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Flitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas recognition is a new emerging research area with many civil, military, and industrial applications. The success of any gas recognition system depends on its computational complexity and its robustness. In this work, we propose a new low-complexity recognition method which is tested and successfully validated for tin-oxide gas sensor array chip. The recognition system is based on a vector angle similarity measure between the query gas and the representatives of the different gas classes. The latter are obtained using a clustering algorithm based on the same measure within the training data set. Experimented results on our in-house gas sensors array show more than 98% of correct recognition. The robustness of the proposed method is tested by recognizing gas measurements with simulated drift. Less than 1% of performance degradation is noted at the worst case scenario which represents a significant improvement when compared to the current state-of-the-art.

  5. Cosmic non-TEM radiation and synthetic feed array sensor system in ASIC mixed signal technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centureli, F.; Scotti, G.; Tommasino, P.; Trifiletti, A.; Romano, F.; Cimmino, R.; Saitto, A.

    2014-08-01

    The paper deals with the opportunity to introduce "Not strictly TEM waves" Synthetic detection Method (NTSM), consisting in a Three Axis Digital Beam Processing (3ADBP), to enhance the performances of radio telescope and sensor systems. Current Radio Telescopes generally use the classic 3D "TEM waves" approximation Detection Method, which consists in a linear tomography process (Single or Dual axis beam forming processing) neglecting the small z component. The Synthetic FEED ARRAY three axis Sensor SYSTEM is an innovative technique using a synthetic detection of the generic "NOT strictly TEM Waves radiation coming from the Cosmo, which processes longitudinal component of Angular Momentum too. Than the simultaneous extraction from radiation of both the linear and quadratic information component, may reduce the complexity to reconstruct the Early Universe in the different requested scales. This next order approximation detection of the observed cosmologic processes, may improve the efficacy of the statistical numerical model used to elaborate the same information acquired. The present work focuses on detection of such waves at carrier frequencies in the bands ranging from LF to MMW. The work shows in further detail the new generation of on line programmable and reconfigurable Mixed Signal ASIC technology that made possible the innovative Synthetic Sensor. Furthermore the paper shows the ability of such technique to increase the Radio Telescope Array Antenna performances.

  6. Fabrication of a thin-film capacitive force sensor array for tactile feedback in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Omeed H; Wottawa, Christopher R; Fan, Richard E; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O; Candler, Rob N

    2012-01-01

    Although surgical robotic systems provide several advantages over conventional minimally invasive techniques, they are limited by a lack of tactile feedback. Recent research efforts have successfully integrated tactile feedback components onto surgical robotic systems, and have shown significant improvement to surgical control during in vitro experiments. The primary barrier to the adoption of tactile feedback in clinical use is the unavailability of suitable force sensing technologies. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a thin-film capacitive force sensor array that is intended for integration with tactile feedback systems. This capacitive force sensing technology could provide precise, high-sensitivity, real-time responses to both static and dynamic loads. Capacitive force sensors were designed to operate with optimal sensitivity and dynamic range in the range of forces typical in minimally invasive surgery (0-40 N). Initial results validate the fabrication of these capacitive force-sensing arrays. We report 16.3 pF and 146 pF for 1-mm(2) and 9-mm(2) capacitive areas, respectively, whose values are within 3% of theoretical predictions.

  7. Romanian earthquakes analysis using BURAR seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Rogozea, Maria; Nica, Daniela; Popescu, Emilia; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Bucovina seismic array (BURAR) is a medium-aperture array, installed in 2002 in the northern part of Romania (47.61480 N latitude, 25.21680 E longitude, 1150 m altitude), as a result of the cooperation between Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA and National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of ten elements, located in boreholes and distributed over a 5 x 5 km 2 area; nine with short-period vertical sensors and one with a broadband three-component sensor. Since the new station has been operating the earthquake survey of Romania's territory has been significantly improved. Data recorded by BURAR during 01.01.2005 - 12.31.2005 time interval are first processed and analyzed, in order to establish the array detection capability of the local earthquakes, occurred in different Romanian seismic zones. Subsequently a spectral ratios technique was applied in order to determine the calibration relationships for magnitude, using only the information gathered by BURAR station. The spectral ratios are computed relatively to a reference event, considered as representative for each seismic zone. This method has the advantage to eliminate the path effects. The new calibration procedure is tested for the case of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes and proved to be very efficient in constraining the size of these earthquakes. (authors)

  8. Distributed electrochemical sensors: recent advances and barriers to market adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rafael; Blondeau, Pascal; Andrade, Francisco J

    2018-07-01

    Despite predictions of their widespread application in healthcare and environmental monitoring, electrochemical sensors are yet to be distributed at scale, instead remaining largely confined to R&D labs. This contrasts sharply with the situation for physical sensors, which are now ubiquitous and seamlessly embedded in the mature ecosystem provided by electronics and connectivity protocols. Although chemical sensors could be integrated into the same ecosystem, there are fundamental issues with these sensors in the three key areas of analytical performance, usability, and affordability. Nevertheless, advances are being made in each of these fields, leading to hope that the deployment of automated and user-friendly low-cost electrochemical sensors is on the horizon. Here, we present a brief survey of key challenges and advances in the development of distributed electrochemical sensors for liquid samples, geared towards applications in healthcare and wellbeing, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. As will be seen, in many cases the analytical performance of the sensor is acceptable; it is usability that is the major barrier to commercial viability at this moment. Were this to be overcome, the issue of affordability could be addressed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xie, Fengqin; Cao, Maoyong; Zhong, Mingming

    2017-07-01

    To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA) sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor), magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  10. Designing an array for performing Near-field Acoustic Holography with a small number of p-u probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Comesaña, Daniel; Wen, Junjie; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    , such approaches usually require that a large number of transducers is spatially distributed over the area of interest. This paper describes some practical considerations for the design and optimization of a compact sensor array for performing NAH with a small number of sound intensity p-u probes. Two sensor...

  11. Isotropic gates and large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    Angular information extracted from in-beam γ ray measurements are of great importance for γ ray multipolarity and nuclear spin assignments. In our days large Ge detector arrays became available allowing the measurements of extremely weak γ rays in almost 4π sr solid angle (e.g., EUROGAM detector array). Given the high detector efficiency it is common for the mean suppressed coincidence multiplicity to reach values as high as 4 to 6. Thus, it is possible to gate on particular γ rays in order to enhance the relative statistics of a definite reaction channel and/or a definite decaying path in the level scheme of the selected residual nucleus. As compared to angular correlations, the conditioned angular distribution spectra exhibit larger statistics because in the latter the gate-setting γ ray may be observed by all the detectors in the array, relaxing somehow the geometrical restrictions of the angular correlations. Since the in-beam γ ray emission is anisotropic one could inquire that gate setting as mentioned above, based on anisotropic γ ray which would perturb the angular distributions in the unfolded events. As our work proved, there is no reason to worry about this if the energy gate runs over the whole solid angle in an ideal 4π sr detector, i.e., if the gate is isotropic. In real quasi 4π sr detector arrays the corresponding quasi isotropic gate preserves the angular properties of the unfolded data, too. However extraction of precise angular distribution coefficient especially a 4 , requires the consideration of the deviation of the quasi isotropic gate relative to the (ideal) isotropic gate

  12. Degree-of-Freedom Strengthened Cascade Array for DOD-DOA Estimation in MIMO Array Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bobin; Dong, Zhi; Zhang, Weile; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qisheng

    2018-05-14

    In spatial spectrum estimation, difference co-array can provide extra degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for promoting parameter identifiability and parameter estimation accuracy. For the sake of acquiring as more DOFs as possible with a given number of physical sensors, we herein design a novel sensor array geometry named cascade array. This structure is generated by systematically connecting a uniform linear array (ULA) and a non-uniform linear array, and can provide more DOFs than some exist array structures but less than the upper-bound indicated by minimum redundant array (MRA). We further apply this cascade array into multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array systems, and propose a novel joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, which is based on a reduced-dimensional weighted subspace fitting technique. The algorithm is angle auto-paired and computationally efficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations prove the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed array structure and the related algorithm.

  13. Distributed estimation based on observations prediction in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Mohammed F A; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We consider wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for distributed estimation of unknown parameters. Due to the limited bandwidth, sensor nodes quantize their noisy observations before transmission to a fusion center (FC) for the estimation process

  14. Fabrication of Well-Ordered Three-Phase Boundary with Nanostructure Pore Array for Mixed Potential-Type Zirconia-Based NO2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Fangmeng; Yang, Xue; Guan, Yehui; Ma, Ce; Hao, Xidong; Liang, Xishuang; Liu, Fengmin; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Tong; Lu, Geyu

    2016-07-06

    A well-ordered porous three-phase boundary (TPB) was prepared with a polystyrene sphere as template and examined to improve the sensitivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based mixed-potential-type NO2 sensor due to the increase of the electrochemical reaction active sites. The shape of pore array on the YSZ substrate surface can be controlled through changing the concentration of the precursor solution (Zr(4+)/Y(3+) = 23 mol/L/4 mol/L) and treatment conditions. An ordered hemispherical array was obtained when CZr(4+) = 0.2 mol/L. The processed YSZ substrates were used to fabricate the sensors, and different sensitivities caused by different morphologies were tested. The sensor with well-ordered porous TPB exhibited the highest sensitivity to NO2 with a response value of 105 mV to 100 ppm of NO2, which is approximately twice as much as the smooth one. In addition, the sensor also showed good stability and speedy response kinetics. All these enhanced sensing properties might be due to the structure and morphology of the enlarged TPB.

  15. Distributed estimation based on observations prediction in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-03-19

    We consider wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for distributed estimation of unknown parameters. Due to the limited bandwidth, sensor nodes quantize their noisy observations before transmission to a fusion center (FC) for the estimation process. In this letter, the correlation between observations is exploited to reduce the mean-square error (MSE) of the distributed estimation. Specifically, sensor nodes generate local predictions of their observations and then transmit the quantized prediction errors (innovations) to the FC rather than the quantized observations. The analytic and numerical results show that transmitting the innovations rather than the observations mitigates the effect of quantization noise and hence reduces the MSE. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Infrared sensors and sensor fusion; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, May 19-21, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, R.G.; Warren, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the fields of IR sensor multifunctional design; image modeling, simulation, and detection; IR sensor configurations and components; thermal sensor arrays; silicide-based IR sensors; and IR focal plane array utilization. Attention is given to the fusion of lidar and FLIR for target segmentation and enhancement, the synergetic integration of thermal and visual images for computer vision, the 'Falcon Eye' FLIR system, multifunctional electrooptics and multiaperture sensors for precision-guided munitions, and AI approaches to data integration. Also discussed are the comparative performance of Ir silicide and Pt silicide photodiodes, high fill-factor silicide monolithic arrays, and the characterization of noise in staring IR focal plane arrays

  17. Towards Development of Microcalorimeter Arrays of Mo/Au Transition-Edge Sensors with Bismuth Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Brekosky, Regis; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Li, Mary; Stahle, Carl; Stahle, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    We report on our progress towards the development of arrays of X-ray microcalorimeters as candidates for the high resolution x-ray spectrometer on the Constellation-X mission. The microcalorimeter arrays (30 x 30) with appropriate pixel sizes (0.25 mm. x 0.25 mm) and high packing fractions (greater than 96%) are being developed. Each individual pixel has a 10 micron thick Bi X-ray absorber that is shaped like a mushroom to increase the packing fraction, and a Mo/Au proximity effect superconducting transition edge sensor (TES). These are deposited on a 0.25 or 0.5 micron thick silicon nitride membrane with slits to provide a controllable weak thermal link to the sink temperature. Studies are underway to model, test and optimize the TES pixel uniformity, critical current, heat capacity and the membrane thermal conductance in the array structure. Fabrication issues and procedures, and results of our efforts based on these optimizations will be provided.

  18. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  19. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

    consists of small bio-monitors - with sensors and a unique ID - which are placed on the victims. The bio-monitors communicate wirelessly with one or more base-stations, which distribute the signals locally at the incident site and to remote coordination centres and emergency departments. Ongoing...... data you are looking at? And, when an alarm goes off because the bio-sensor data of a patient reaches a critical threshold, how do you find the patient? In order to support medical responders on site and at coordination centres/ emergency departments, we are supplementing the bio-sensor data...

  20. Geometrical modeling of a two-dimensional sensor array for determining spatial position of a passive object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an active sensor array which can determine the spatial position of a passive object by illuminating the object via a small set of emitters and measure the intensity of the reflection by means of a small set of receivers. All emitters and receivers are located...

  1. Zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of optical spatial filtering velocimetry sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Finn; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-crossing detection algorithm for arrays of compact low-cost optical sensors based on spatial filtering for measuring fluctuations in angular velocity of rotating solid structures. The algorithm is applicable for signals with moderate signal-to-noise ratios, and delivers...... repeating the same measurement error for each revolution of the target, and to gain high performance measurement of angular velocity. The traditional zero-crossing detection is extended by 1) inserting an appropriate band-pass filter before the zero-crossing detection, 2) measuring time periods between zero...

  2. Distributed data fusion across multiple hard and soft mobile sensor platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsley, Gregory

    One of the biggest challenges currently facing the robotics field is sensor data fusion. Unmanned robots carry many sophisticated sensors including visual and infrared cameras, radar, laser range finders, chemical sensors, accelerometers, gyros, and global positioning systems. By effectively fusing the data from these sensors, a robot would be able to form a coherent view of its world that could then be used to facilitate both autonomous and intelligent operation. Another distinct fusion problem is that of fusing data from teammates with data from onboard sensors. If an entire team of vehicles has the same worldview they will be able to cooperate much more effectively. Sharing worldviews is made even more difficult if the teammates have different sensor types. The final fusion challenge the robotics field faces is that of fusing data gathered by robots with data gathered by human teammates (soft sensors). Humans sense the world completely differently from robots, which makes this problem particularly difficult. The advantage of fusing data from humans is that it makes more information available to the entire team, thus helping each agent to make the best possible decisions. This thesis presents a system for fusing data from multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and human observers. The first issue this thesis addresses is that of centralized data fusion. This is a foundational data fusion issue, which has been very well studied. Important issues in centralized fusion include data association, classification, tracking, and robotics problems. Because these problems are so well studied, this thesis does not make any major contributions in this area, but does review it for completeness. The chapter on centralized fusion concludes with an example unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance problem that demonstrates many of the traditional fusion methods. The second problem this thesis addresses is that of distributed data fusion. Distributed data fusion

  3. Inkjet printing of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for high-sensitive paper-like electrochemical oxygen sensors using ionic liquid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengguo; Bai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yingkai; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Shengshui

    2012-04-17

    A simple approach to the mass production of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for electrochemical sensing of oxygen using ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes was established. The approach, combining the inkjet printing of gold nanoparticle (GNP) patterns with the self-catalytic growth of these patterns into conducting layers, can fabricate hundreds of self-designed gold arrays on cellulose membranes within several hours using an inexpensive inkjet printer. The resulting paper-based gold electrode arrays (PGEAs) had several unique properties as thin-film sensor platforms, including good conductivity, excellent flexibility, high integration, and low cost. The porous nature of PGEAs also allowed the addition of electrolytes from the back cellulose membrane side and controllably produced large three-phase electrolyte/electrode/gas interfaces at the front electrode side. A novel paper-based solid-state electrochemical oxygen (O(2)) sensor was therefore developed using an IL electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF(6)). The sensor looked like a piece of paper but possessed high sensitivity for O(2) in a linear range from 0.054 to 0.177 v/v %, along with a low detection limit of 0.0075% and a short response time of less than 10 s, foreseeing its promising applications in developing cost-effective and environment-friendly paper-based electrochemical gas sensors.

  4. The pressure distribution for biharmonic transmitting array: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the paper is theoretical analysis of the finite amplitude waves interaction problem for the biharmonic transmitting array. We assume that the array consists of 16 circular pistons of the same dimensions that regrouped in two sections. Two different arrangements of radiating elements were considered. In this situation the radiating surface is non-continuous without axial symmetry. The mathematical model was built on the basis of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. To solve the problem the finite-difference method was applied. On-axis pressure amplitude for different frequency waves as a function of distance from the source, transverse pressure distribution of these waves at fixed distances from the source and pressure amplitude distribution for them at fixed planes were examined. Especially changes of normalized pressure amplitude for difference frequency were studied. The paper presents mathematical model and some results of theoretical investigations obtained for different values of source parameters.

  5. Highly stretchable resistive pressure sensors using a conductive elastomeric composite on a micropyramid array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Sanghun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kang, Tae-Hyung; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Im, Jungkyun; Jeong, Yong Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-06-04

    A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor, magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  7. Distributed temperature and distributed acoustic sensing for remote and harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondanos, Michael; Parker, Tom; Milne, Craig H.; Yeo, Jackson; Coleman, Thomas; Farhadiroushan, Mahmoud

    2015-05-01

    Advances in opto-electronics and associated signal processing have enabled the development of Distributed Acoustic and Temperature Sensors. Unlike systems relying on discrete optical sensors a distributed system does not rely upon manufactured sensors but utilises passive custom optical fibre cables resistant to harsh environments, including high temperature applications (600°C). The principle of distributed sensing is well known from the distributed temperature sensor (DTS) which uses the interaction of the source light with thermal vibrations (Raman scattering) to determine the temperature at all points along the fibre. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) uses a novel digital optical detection technique to precisely capture the true full acoustic field (amplitude, frequency and phase) over a wide dynamic range at every point simultaneously. A number of signal processing techniques have been developed to process a large array of acoustic signals to quantify the coherent temporal and spatial characteristics of the acoustic waves. Predominantly these systems have been developed for the oil and gas industry to assist reservoir engineers in optimising the well lifetime. Nowadays these systems find a wide variety of applications as integrity monitoring tools in process vessels, storage tanks and piping systems offering the operator tools to schedule maintenance programs and maximize service life.

  8. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-21

    In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  9. Target Tracking Using SePDAF under Ambiguous Angles for Distributed Array Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Teng; Zhang, Honggang; Zeng, Tao; Chen, Xinliang; Liu, Quanhua; Zheng, Le

    2016-01-01

    Distributed array radar can improve radar detection capability and measurement accuracy. However, it will suffer cyclic ambiguity in its angle estimates according to the spatial Nyquist sampling theorem since the large sparse array is undersampling. Consequently, the state estimation accuracy and track validity probability degrades when the ambiguous angles are directly used for target tracking. This paper proposes a second probability data association filter (SePDAF)-based tracking method for distributed array radar. Firstly, the target motion model and radar measurement model is built. Secondly, the fusion result of each radar’s estimation is employed to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to finish the first filtering. Thirdly, taking this result as prior knowledge, and associating with the array-processed ambiguous angles, the SePDAF is applied to accomplish the second filtering, and then achieving a high accuracy and stable trajectory with relatively low computational complexity. Moreover, the azimuth filtering accuracy will be promoted dramatically and the position filtering accuracy will also improve. Finally, simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27618058

  10. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Oren Z; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S

    2017-06-30

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO 2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  11. Hybrid CMOS-Graphene Sensor Array for Subsecond Dopamine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Bayan; Wu, Ting; Alharbi, Abdullah; You, Kae-Dyi; Gupta, Mayank; Sebastian, Sunit P; Kiani, Roozbeh; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid CMOS-graphene sensor array for subsecond measurement of dopamine via fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). The prototype chip has four independent CMOS readout channels, fabricated in a 65-nm process. Using planar multilayer graphene as biologically compatible sensing material enables integration of miniaturized sensing electrodes directly above the readout channels. Taking advantage of the chemical specificity of FSCV, we introduce a region of interest technique, which subtracts a large portion of the background current using a programmable low-noise constant current at about the redox potentials. We demonstrate the utility of this feature for enhancing the sensitivity by measuring the sensor response to a known dopamine concentration in vitro at three different scan rates. This strategy further allows us to significantly reduce the dynamic range requirements of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) without compromising the measurement accuracy. We show that an integrating dual-slope ADC is adequate for digitizing the background-subtracted current. The ADC operates at a sampling frequency of 5-10 kHz and has an effective resolution of about 60 pA, which corresponds to a theoretical dopamine detection limit of about 6 nM. Our hybrid sensing platform offers an effective solution for implementing next-generation FSCV devices that can enable precise recording of dopamine signaling in vivo on a large scale.

  12. Hydrogel based sensor arrays (2 × 2) with perforated piezoresistive diaphragms for metabolic monitoring (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, M P; Lin, G; Avula, M; Buetefisch, S; Magda, J; Rieth, L W; Solzbacher, F

    2010-03-19

    This report details the first experimental results from novel hydrogel sensor array (2 × 2) which incorporates analyte diffusion pores into a piezoresistive diaphragm for the detection of hydrogel swelling pressures and hence chemical concentrations. The sensor assembly was comprised of three components, the active four sensors, HPMA/DMA/TEGDMA (hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)) hydrogel, and backing plate. Each of the individual sensors of the array can be used with various hydrogels used to measure the presence of a number of stimuli including pH, ionic strength, and glucose concentrations. Ideally, in the future, these sensors will be used for continuous metabolic monitoring applications and implanted subcutaneously. In this paper and to properly characterize the sensor assembly, hydrogels sensitive to changes ionic strength were synthesized using hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA) and crosslinker tetra-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and inserted into the sensor assembly. This hydrogel quickly and reversibly swells when placed environments of physiological buffer solutions (PBS) with ionic strengths ranging from 0.025 to 0.15 M, making it ideal for proof-of-concept testing and initial characterization. The assembly was wire bonded to a printed circuit board and coated with 3 ± 0.5 μm of Parylene-C using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to protect the sensor and electrical connections during ionic strength wet testing. Two versions of sensors were fabricated for comparison, the first incorporated diffusion pores into the diaphragm, and the second used a solid diaphragm with perforated backing plate. This new design (perforated diaphragm) was shown to have slightly higher sensitivity than solid diaphragm sensors with separate diffuse backing plates when coupled with the hydrogel. The sensitivities for the 1 mm

  13. Computational Aspects of Sensor Network Protocols (Distributed Sensor Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Iyer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we model the sensor networks as an unsupervised learning and clustering process. We classify nodes according to its static distribution to form known class densities (CCPD. These densities are chosen from specific cross-layer features which maximizes lifetime of power-aware routing algorithms. To circumvent computational complexities of a power-ware communication STACK we introduce path-loss models at the nodes only for high density deployments. We study the cluster heads and formulate the data handling capacity for an expected deployment and use localized probability models to fuse the data with its side information before transmission. So each cluster head has a unique Pmax but not all cluster heads have the same measured value. In a lossless mode if there are no faults in the sensor network then we can show that the highest probability given by Pmax is ambiguous if its frequency is ≤ n/2 otherwise it can be determined by a local function. We further show that the event detection at the cluster heads can be modelled with a pattern 2m and m, the number of bits can be a correlated pattern of 2 bits and for a tight lower bound we use 3-bit Huffman codes which have entropy < 1. These local algorithms are further studied to optimize on power, fault detection and to maximize on the distributed routing algorithm used at the higher layers. From these bounds in large network, it is observed that the power dissipation is network size invariant. The performance of the routing algorithms solely based on success of finding healthy nodes in a large distribution. It is also observed that if the network size is kept constant and the density of the nodes is kept closer then the local pathloss model effects the performance of the routing algorithms. We also obtain the maximum intensity of transmitting nodes for a given category of routing algorithms for an outage constraint, i.e., the lifetime of sensor network.

  14. Cricket inspired flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Casas, J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of crickets. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to lowfrequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of

  15. Recent Progress in Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Bao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scatterings in fibers result from the interaction of photons with local material characteristic features like density, temperature and strain. For example an acoustic/mechanical wave generates a dynamic density variation; such a variation may be affected by local temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence. By detecting changes in the amplitude, frequency and phase of light scattered along a fiber, one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for measuring localized temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence over lengths ranging from meters to one hundred kilometers. Such a measurement can be made in the time domain or frequency domain to resolve location information. With coherent detection of the scattered light one can observe changes in birefringence and beat length for fibers and devices. The progress on state of the art technology for sensing performance, in terms of spatial resolution and limitations on sensing length is reviewed. These distributed sensors can be used for disaster prevention in the civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams and railroads. A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.

  16. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  17. Field-programmable gate array based controller for multi spot light-addressable potentiometric sensors with integrated signal correction mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Carl Frederik; Schusser, Sebastian; Spelthahn, Heiko [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Wagner, Torsten; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo [Tohoku University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 6-6-05 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Schoening, Michael J., E-mail: schoening@fh-aachen.de [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Juelich Campus, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Heinrich-Mussmann-Strasse 1, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > Flexible up-scalable design of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor set-up. > Utilisation of a field-programmable gate array to address LAPS measurement spots. > Measurements in amplitude-mode and phase-mode for different pH solutions. > Amplitude, phase and frequency behaviour of LAPS for single and multiple light stimulus. > Signal calibration method by brightness control to compensated systematic errors. - Abstract: A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) can measure the concentration of one or several analytes at the sensor surface simultaneously in a spatially resolved manner. A modulated light pointer stimulates the semiconductor structure at the area of interest and a responding photocurrent can be read out. By simultaneous stimulation of several areas with light pointers of different modulation frequencies, the read out can be performed at the same time. With the new proposed controller electronic based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), it is possible to control the modulation frequencies, phase shifts, and light brightness of multiple light pointers independently and simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to investigate the frequency response of the sensor, and to examine the analyte concentration by the determination of the surface potential with the help of current/voltage curves and phase/voltage curves. Additionally, the ability to individually change the light intensities of each light pointer is used to perform signal correction.

  18. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stiharu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer numerically controlled (CNC machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based sensor node.

  19. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  20. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  1. Distortion-Rate Bounds for Distributed Estimation Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Jindal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We deal with centralized and distributed rate-constrained estimation of random signal vectors performed using a network of wireless sensors (encoders communicating with a fusion center (decoder. For this context, we determine lower and upper bounds on the corresponding distortion-rate (D-R function. The nonachievable lower bound is obtained by considering centralized estimation with a single-sensor which has all observation data available, and by determining the associated D-R function in closed-form. Interestingly, this D-R function can be achieved using an estimate first compress afterwards (EC approach, where the sensor (i forms the minimum mean-square error (MMSE estimate for the signal of interest; and (ii optimally (in the MSE sense compresses and transmits it to the FC that reconstructs it. We further derive a novel alternating scheme to numerically determine an achievable upper bound of the D-R function for general distributed estimation using multiple sensors. The proposed algorithm tackles an analytically intractable minimization problem, while it accounts for sensor data correlations. The obtained upper bound is tighter than the one determined by having each sensor performing MSE optimal encoding independently of the others. Numerical examples indicate that the algorithm performs well and yields D-R upper bounds which are relatively tight with respect to analytical alternatives obtained without taking into account the cross-correlations among sensor data.

  2. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, William G [Sandia Park, NM; Siegal, Michael P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  3. Periodic leg movement (PLM) monitoring using a distributed body sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhushri, Priyanka; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Jovanov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensors networks represent the architecture of choice for distributed monitoring due to the ease of deployment and configuration. We developed a distributed sleep monitoring system which combines wireless inertial sensors SP-10C by Sensoplex controlled by a custom smartphone application as an extension of the polysomnographic (PSG) monitor SOMNOscreen plus from Somnomedics. While existing activity monitors are wired to the SOMNOscreen, our system allows the use of wireless inertial sensors to improve user's comfort during sleep. The system is intended for monitoring of periodic leg movements (PLM) and user's activity during sleep. Wireless sensors are placed on ankle and toes of the foot in a customized sock. An Android app communicates with wireless sensors over Bluetooth Smart (BTS) link and streams 3D accelerometer values, 4D unit quaternion values and timestamps. In this paper we present a novel method of synchronization of data streams from PSG and inertial sensors, and original method of detection of PLM events. The system was tested using five experiments of simulated PLM, and achieved 96.51% of PLM detection accuracy.

  4. Distributed temperature sensors development using an stepped-helical ultrasonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the design and development of the distributed ultrasonic waveguide temperature sensors using some stepped-helical structures. Distributed sensing has several applications in various industries (oil, glass, steel) for measurement of physical parameters such as level, temperature, viscosity, etc. This waveguide incorporates a special notch or bend for obtaining ultrasonic wave reflections from the desired locations (Gage-lengths) where local measurements are desired. In this paper, a multi-location measurement wave-guide, with a measurement capability of 18 locations in a single wire, has been fabricated. The distribution of these sensors is both in the axial as well as radial directions using a stepped-helical spring configuration. Also, different high temperature materials have been chosen for the wave-guide. Both lower order axi-symmetric guided ultrasonic modes (L(0,1) and T(0,1)) were employed. These wave modes were generated/received (pulse-echo approach) using conventional longitudinal and shear transducers, respectively. Also, both the wave modes were simultaneously generated/received and compared using shear transducer for developing the distributed helical wave-guide sensors. The effect of dispersion of the wave modes due to curvature effects will also be discussed.

  5. Development of a versatile intra-articular pressure sensing array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcher, J B; Popovich, J M; Hedman, T P

    2011-10-01

    A new sensor array intended to accurately and directly measure spatial and time-dependent pressures within a highly curved biological intra-articular joint was developed and tested. To evaluate performance of the new sensor array for application within intra-articular joints generally, and specifically to fit within the relatively restrictive space of the lumbar spine facet joint, geometric constraints of length, width, thickness and sensor spatial resolution were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of sensor array curvature, frequency response, linearity, drift, hysteresis, repeatability, and total system cost were assessed. The new sensor array was approximately 0.6mm in thickness, scalable to below the nominal 12 mm wide by 15 high lumbar spine facet joint size, offered no inherent limitations on the number or spacing of the sensors with less than 1.7% cross talk with sensor immediately adjacent to one another. No difference was observed in sensor performance down to a radius of curvature of 7 mm and a 0.66±0.97% change in sensor sensitivity was observed at a radius of 5.5mm. The sensor array had less than 0.07 dB signal loss up to 5.5 Hz, linearity was 0.58±0.13% full scale (FS), drift was less than 0.2% FS at 250 s and less than 0.6% FS at 700 s, hysteresis was 0.78±0.18%. Repeatability was excellent with a coefficient of variation less than 2% at pressures between 0 and 1.000 MPa. Total system cost was relatively small as standard commercially available data acquisition systems could be utilized, with no specialized software, and individual sensors within an array can be replaced as needed. The new sensor array had small and scalable geometry and very acceptable intrinsic performance including minimal to no alteration in performance at physiologically relevant ranges of joint curvature. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust Distributed Kalman Filter for Wireless Sensor Networks with Uncertain Communication Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yong Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a state estimation problem over a large-scale sensor network with uncertain communication channel. Consensus protocol is usually used to adapt a large-scale sensor network. However, when certain parts of communication channels are broken down, the accuracy performance is seriously degraded. Specifically, outliers in the channel or temporal disconnection are avoided via proposed method for the practical implementation of the distributed estimation over large-scale sensor networks. We handle this practical challenge by using adaptive channel status estimator and robust L1-norm Kalman filter in design of the processor of the individual sensor node. Then, they are incorporated into the consensus algorithm in order to achieve the robust distributed state estimation. The robust property of the proposed algorithm enables the sensor network to selectively weight sensors of normal conditions so that the filter can be practically useful.

  7. A Distributed Tactile Sensor for Intuitive Human-Robot Interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cirillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of human-robot physical interaction is enabled not only by suitable robot control strategies but also by suitable sensing technologies. For example, if distributed tactile sensors were available on the robot, they could be used not only to detect unintentional collisions, but also as human-machine interface by enabling a new mode of social interaction with the machine. Starting from their previous works, the authors developed a conformable distributed tactile sensor that can be easily conformed to the different parts of the robot body. Its ability to estimate contact force components and to provide a tactile map with an accurate spatial resolution enables the robot to handle both unintentional collisions in safe human-robot collaboration tasks and intentional touches where the sensor is used as human-machine interface. In this paper, the authors present the characterization of the proposed tactile sensor and they show how it can be also exploited to recognize haptic tactile gestures, by tailoring recognition algorithms, well known in the image processing field, to the case of tactile images. In particular, a set of haptic gestures has been defined to test three recognition algorithms on a group of 20 users. The paper demonstrates how the same sensor originally designed to manage unintentional collisions can be successfully used also as human-machine interface.

  8. Micro-array versus nano-array platforms: a comparative study for ODN detection based on SPR enhanced ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celen, Burcu; Piskin, Erhan; Demirel, Goekhan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and sensitive detection of DNA has recently attracted worldwide attention for a variety of disease diagnoses and detection of harmful bacteria in food and drink. In this paper, we carried out a comparative study based on surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometry (SPREE) for the detection of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) using micro- and nano-array platforms. The micro-arrayed surfaces were fabricated by a photolithography approach using different types of mask having varying size and shape. Well-ordered arrays of high aspect ratio polymeric nanotubes were also obtained using high molecular weight polystyrene (PS) and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having 200 nm pore diameters. The SPREE sensors were then prepared by direct coupling of thiolated probe-ODNs, which contain suitable spacer arms, on gold-coated micro- and nano-arrayed surfaces. We experimentally demonstrated that, for the first time, gold-coated free standing polymeric nano-arrayed platforms can easily be produced and lead to a significant sensor sensitivity gain compared to that of the conventional SPREE surfaces of about four times. We believe that such an enhancement in sensor response could be useful for next generation sensor systems.

  9. Micro-array versus nano-array platforms: a comparative study for ODN detection based on SPR enhanced ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celen, Burcu; Demirel, Gökhan; Piskin, Erhan

    2011-04-01

    The rapid and sensitive detection of DNA has recently attracted worldwide attention for a variety of disease diagnoses and detection of harmful bacteria in food and drink. In this paper, we carried out a comparative study based on surface plasmon resonance enhanced ellipsometry (SPREE) for the detection of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) using micro- and nano-array platforms. The micro-arrayed surfaces were fabricated by a photolithography approach using different types of mask having varying size and shape. Well-ordered arrays of high aspect ratio polymeric nanotubes were also obtained using high molecular weight polystyrene (PS) and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having 200 nm pore diameters. The SPREE sensors were then prepared by direct coupling of thiolated probe-ODNs, which contain suitable spacer arms, on gold-coated micro- and nano-arrayed surfaces. We experimentally demonstrated that, for the first time, gold-coated free standing polymeric nano-arrayed platforms can easily be produced and lead to a significant sensor sensitivity gain compared to that of the conventional SPREE surfaces of about four times. We believe that such an enhancement in sensor response could be useful for next generation sensor systems.

  10. Proceedings of the Adaptive Sensor Array Processing Workshop (12th) Held in Lexington, MA on 16-18 March 2004 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, F

    2004-01-01

    ...: The twelfth annual workshop on Adaptive Sensor Array Processing presented a diverse agenda featuring new work on adaptive methods for communications, radar and sonar, algorithmic challenges posed...

  11. High-resolution parallel-detection sensor array using piezo-phototronics effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L.; Pan, Caofeng

    2015-07-28

    A pressure sensor element includes a substrate, a first type of semiconductor material layer and an array of elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures extending upwardly from the first type of semiconductor material layer. A p-n junction is formed between each nanostructure and the first type semiconductor layer. An insulative resilient medium layer is infused around each of the elongated light-emitting piezoelectric nanostructures. A transparent planar electrode, disposed on the resilient medium layer, is electrically coupled to the top of each nanostructure. A voltage source is coupled to the first type of semiconductor material layer and the transparent planar electrode and applies a biasing voltage across each of the nanostructures. Each nanostructure emits light in an intensity that is proportional to an amount of compressive strain applied thereto.

  12. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  13. Isotropic gates in large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the angular distribution information extracted from high-fold gamma-gamma coincidence events is analyzed. It is shown that a correct quasi-isotropic gate setting, available at the modern large gamma-ray detector arrays, essentially preserves the quality of the angular information. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of Sensitivities and Drift Effects of the Arrayed Flexible Chloride Sensor Based on RuO2/GO at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chang Tseng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the temperature effect on sensing characteristics and drift effect of an arrayed flexible ruthenium dioxide (RuO2/graphene oxide (GO chloride sensor at different solution temperatures between 10 °C and 50 °C. The average sensor sensitivities according to our experimental results were 28.2 ± 1.4 mV/pCl (10 °C, 42.5 ± 2.0 mV/pCl (20 °C, 47.1 ± 1.8 mV/pCl (30 °C, 54.1 ± 2.01 mV/pCl (40 °C and 46.6 ± 2.1 mV/pCl (50 °C. We found the drift effects of an arrayed flexible RuO2/GO chloride sensor in a 1 M NaCl solution to be between 8.2 mV/h and 2.5 mV/h with solution temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C.

  15. Investigation of Sensitivities and Drift Effects of the Arrayed Flexible Chloride Sensor Based on RuO2/GO at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shi-Chang; Wu, Tong-Yu; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lai, Chih-Hsien; Yan, Siao-Jie; Tseng, Ting-Wei

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the temperature effect on sensing characteristics and drift effect of an arrayed flexible ruthenium dioxide (RuO2)/graphene oxide (GO) chloride sensor at different solution temperatures between 10 °C and 50 °C. The average sensor sensitivities according to our experimental results were 28.2 ± 1.4 mV/pCl (10 °C), 42.5 ± 2.0 mV/pCl (20 °C), 47.1 ± 1.8 mV/pCl (30 °C), 54.1 ± 2.01 mV/pCl (40 °C) and 46.6 ± 2.1 mV/pCl (50 °C). We found the drift effects of an arrayed flexible RuO2/GO chloride sensor in a 1 M NaCl solution to be between 8.2 mV/h and 2.5 mV/h with solution temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C. PMID:29461506

  16. Integrating distributed Bayesian inference and reinforcement learning for sensor management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grappiolo, C.; Whiteson, S.; Pavlin, G.; Bakker, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a sensor management approach that integrates distributed Bayesian inference (DBI) and reinforcement learning (RL). DBI is implemented using distributed perception networks (DPNs), a multiagent approach to performing efficient inference, while RL is used to automatically

  17. Blood leakage detection during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with array photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Xing; Huang, Ping-Tzan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Li, Chien-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious life-threatening complications occurring during dialysis therapy. These events have been of concerns to both healthcare givers and patients. More than 40% of adult blood volume can be lost in just a few minutes, resulting in morbidities and mortality. The authors intend to propose the design of a warning tool for the detection of blood leakage/blood loss during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with an array of photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory (HAM) model. Photocell sensors are arranged in an array on a flexible substrate to detect blood leakage via the resistance changes with illumination in the visible spectrum of 500-700 nm. The HAM model is implemented to design a virtual alarm unit using electricity changes in an embedded system. The proposed warning tool can indicate the risk level in both end-sensing units and remote monitor devices via a wireless network and fog/cloud computing. The animal experimental results (pig blood) will demonstrate the feasibility.

  18. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Gijs; Floris, Arjan; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theo; Wiegerink, Remco

    2007-05-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities close to thermal threshold. In this work we describe hair-sensors fabricated by a combination of sacrificial poly-silicon technology, to form silicon-nitride suspended membranes, and SU8 polymer processing for fabrication of hairs with diameters of about 50 μm and up to 1 mm length. The membranes have thin chromium electrodes on top forming variable capacitors with the substrate that allow for capacitive read-out. Previously these sensors have been shown to exhibit acoustic sensitivity. Like for the crickets, the MEMS hair-sensors are positioned on elongated structures, resembling the cercus of crickets. In this work we present optical measurements on acoustically and electrostatically excited hair-sensors. We present adaptive control of flow-sensitivity and resonance frequency by electrostatic spring stiffness softening. Experimental data and simple analytical models derived from transduction theory are shown to exhibit good correspondence, both confirming theory and the applicability of the presented approach towards adaptation.

  19. Distributed acoustic fibre optic sensors for condition monitoring of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussels, Maria-Teresa; Chruscicki, Sebastian; Habib, Abdelkarim; Krebber, Katerina

    2016-05-01

    Industrial piping systems are particularly relevant to public safety and the continuous availability of infrastructure. However, condition monitoring systems based on many discrete sensors are generally not well-suited for widespread piping systems due to considerable installation effort, while use of distributed fibre-optic sensors would reduce this effort to a minimum. Specifically distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) is employed for detection of third-party threats and leaks in oil and gas pipelines in recent years and can in principle also be applied to industrial plants. Further possible detection routes amenable by DAS that could identify damage prior to emission of medium are subject of a current project at BAM, which aims at qualifying distributed fibre optic methods such as DAS as a means for spatially continuous monitoring of industrial piping systems. Here, first tests on a short pipe are presented, where optical fibres were applied directly to the surface. An artificial signal was used to define suitable parameters of the measurement system and compare different ways of applying the sensor.

  20. Enhancement of Frequency Stability Using Synchronization of a Cantilever Array for MEMS-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro and nano electromechanical resonators have been widely used as single or multiple-mass detection sensors. Smaller devices with higher resonance frequencies and lower masses offer higher mass responsivities but suffer from lower frequency stability. Synchronization phenomena in multiple MEMS resonators have become an important issue because they allow frequency stability improvement, thereby preserving mass responsivity. The authors present an array of five cantilevers (CMOS-MEMS system that are forced to vibrate synchronously to enhance their frequency stability. The frequency stability has been determined in closed-loop configuration for long periods of time by calculating the Allan deviation. An Allan deviation of 0.013 ppm (@ 1 s averaging time for a 1 MHz cantilever array MEMS system was obtained at the synchronized mode, which represents a 23-fold improvement in comparison with the non-synchronized operation mode (0.3 ppm.

  1. A method to design high SNR nanoscale magnetic sensors using an array of tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, P; Litvinov, D; Khizroev, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method to design and calculate tunnelling magneto-resistance (TMR) sensors with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The sensing module consists of four TMR devices arranged in a Wheatstone-bridge configuration. Closed-form equations were obtained to calculate TMR sensor current, array output voltage, magneto-resistance ratio, overall noise (thermal and shot) and SNR for a given bandwidth. Using this technique we were able to maximize the SNR by tuning the many parameters of the TMR devices. Typical SNR values are in excess of 45 dB

  2. Infrared detectors, focal plane arrays, and imaging sensors; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert T.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advancements in IR detectors, Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays, CCD image analysis, and HgCdTe materials gives attention to a 256 x 256 PtSi array for IR astronomy, proposals for a second-generation meteosat's advanced optical payload, cryogenic bipolar technology for on-focal-plane signal processing, a parallel cellular processing system for fast generation of perspective plots, and ultrahigh-speed CCD image sensors for scanning applications. Also discussed are MBE GaAs rib waveguide experiments at 10.6 microns, an interferometric thermal detector, the development status of superconducting IR detector research, the absorption coefficients of n-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te samples, and the influence of the surface channel on crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic arrays.

  3. Multipoint dynamically reconfigure adaptive distributed fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense) system for condition based maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Connie; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes preliminary results obtained under a Navy SBIR contract by Redondo Optics Inc. (ROI), in collaboration with Northwestern University towards the development and demonstration of a next generation, stand-alone and fully integrated, dynamically reconfigurable, adaptive fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense™) system for the in-situ unattended detection and localization of shock events, impact damage, cracks, voids, and delaminations in new and aging critical infrastructures found in ships, submarines, aircraft, and in next generation weapon systems. ROI's FAESense™ system is based on the integration of proven state-of-the-art technologies: 1) distributed array of in-line fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensors sensitive to strain, vibration, and acoustic emissions, 2) adaptive spectral demodulation of FBG sensor dynamic signals using two-wave mixing interferometry on photorefractive semiconductors, and 3) integration of all the sensor system passive and active optoelectronic components within a 0.5-cm x 1-cm photonic integrated circuit microchip. The adaptive TWM demodulation methodology allows the measurement of dynamic high frequnency acoustic emission events, while compensating for passive quasi-static strain and temperature drifts. It features a compact, low power, environmentally robust 1-inch x 1-inch x 4-inch small form factor (SFF) package with no moving parts. The FAESense™ interrogation system is microprocessor-controlled using high data rate signal processing electronics for the FBG sensors calibration, temperature compensation and the detection and analysis of acoustic emission signals. Its miniaturized package, low power operation, state-of-the-art data communications, and low cost makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of applications in naval and maritime industries, aerospace, civil structures, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications.

  4. Distributed sensor and actuator reconfiguration for fault-tolerant networked control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; Araujo, Jose; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of distributed reconfiguration of networked control systems upon the removal of misbehaving sensors and actuators. In particular, we consider systems with redundant sensors and actuators cooperating to recover from faults. Reconfiguration is performed while

  5. DNA-Catalytically Active Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates-Based Colorimetric Multidimensional Sensor Array for Protein Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangcong; Chen, Zhengbo; Tan, Lulu; Lou, Tianhong; Zhao, Yan

    2017-01-03

    A series of single-strand oligonucleotides functionalized catalytically active gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) as nonspecific receptors have been designed to build a protein sensing array. We take advantage of the correlation between the catalytic activity and the exposed surface area of AuNPs, i.e., DNA-proteins interactions mask the surface area of AuNPs, leading to poor catalytic performance of AuNPs. As the number of DNA-bound proteins increases, the surfaces of AuNPs become more masked; thus, the time of 4- nitrophenol/NaBH 4 reaction for color change (yellow → colorless) of the solution increases. Taking advantage of three nonspecific SH-labeled DNA sequences (A15, C15, and T15) as array sensing elements and the color-change time (CCT) of the solution as signal readout, colorimetric response patterns can be obtained on the array and identified via linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Eleven proteins have been completely distinguished with 100% accuracy with the naked eye at the 30 nM level. Remarkably, two similar proteins (bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin), two different proteins (bovine serum albumin and concanavalin) at the same concentration, and the mixtures of the two proteins with different molar ratios have been discriminated with 100%. The practicability of this sensor array is further validated by high accuracy (100%) identification of 11 proteins in human serum samples.

  6. The Design and Comparison of Central and Distributed Light Sensored Smart LED Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Özçelik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of published peer-reviewed research comparing the efficiencies of distributed versus central sensor-controlled LED lighting systems. This research proposes improving the smart illumination of a room with external fenestration using central and distributed light sensors. The optical and electrical measurements of the daylight have been made in the case where the light was not distributed evenly and not sufficient. Test results show that the proposed distributed light sensor illumination system has increased the efficiency by 28% when compared to the proposed central system. It has also been shown that the two tested systems are more cost-effective than common smart illumination systems.

  7. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  8. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  9. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  10. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotirmoy; Gupta, Karunesh K.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2018-02-01

    New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS) approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor nodes and soft computing framework for computational modelling. Soft computing framework utilizes the applications of Python for user interface and fuzzy sciences for decision making. Introduction of multiple sensors in a water distribution network generates a huge number of data matrices, which are sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. Therefore, the proposed system framework also intends to simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and to support decision making for water engineers through a soft computing framework. The target of this proposed research is to provide a simple and efficient method to identify and detect presence of contamination in a water distribution network using applications of CPS.

  11. Apodization Optimization of FBG Strain Sensor for Quasi-Distributed Sensing Measurement Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Chaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimized apodization of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor (FBGS for quasi-distributed strain sensing applications is developed and introduced in this paper. The main objective of the proposed optimization is to obtain a reflectivity level higher than 90% and a side lobe level around −40 dB, which is suitable for use in quasi-distributed strain sensing application. For this purpose, different design parameters as apodization profile, grating length, and refractive index have been investigated to enhance and optimize the FBGS design. The performance of the proposed apodization has then been compared in terms of reflectivity, side lobe level (SLL, and full width at half maximum (FWHM with apodization profiles proposed by other authors. The optimized sensor is integrated on quasi-distributed sensing system of 8 sensors demonstrating high reliability. Wide strain sensitivity range for each channel has also been achieved in the quasi-distributed system. Results prove the efficiency of the proposed optimization which can be further implemented for any quasi-distributed sensing application.

  12. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Michael C; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a 'nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  13. Highly ordered nanowire arrays on plastic substrates for ultrasensitive flexible chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Michael C.; Ahmad, Habib; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2007-05-01

    The development of a robust method for integrating high-performance semiconductors on flexible plastics could enable exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications. One area of vital relevance is chemical and biological sensing, which if implemented on biocompatible substrates, could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable monitoring systems. Semiconducting nanowires (and nanotubes) are particularly sensitive chemical sensors because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. Here, we present a scalable and parallel process for transferring hundreds of pre-aligned silicon nanowires onto plastic to yield highly ordered films for low-power sensor chips. The nanowires are excellent field-effect transistors, and, as sensors, exhibit parts-per-billion sensitivity to NO2, a hazardous pollutant. We also use SiO2 surface chemistries to construct a `nano-electronic nose' library, which can distinguish acetone and hexane vapours via distributed responses. The excellent sensing performance coupled with bendable plastic could open up opportunities in portable, wearable or even implantable sensors.

  14. A Matrix-Based Proactive Data Relay Algorithm for Large Distributed Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Haixiao; Liu, Ming

    2016-08-16

    In large-scale distributed sensor networks, sensed data is required to be relayed around the network so that one or few sensors can gather adequate relative data to produce high quality information for decision-making. In regards to very high energy-constraint sensor nodes, data transmission should be extremely economical. However, traditional data delivery protocols are potentially inefficient relaying unpredictable sensor readings for data fusion in large distributed networks for either overwhelming query transmissions or unnecessary data coverage. By building sensors' local model from their previously transmitted data in three matrixes, we have developed a novel energy-saving data relay algorithm, which allows sensors to proactively make broadcast decisions by using a neat matrix computation to provide balance between transmission and energy-saving. In addition, we designed a heuristic maintenance algorithm to efficiently update these three matrices. This can easily be deployed to large-scale mobile networks in which decisions of sensors are based on their local matrix models no matter how large the network is, and the local models of these sensors are updated constantly. Compared with some traditional approaches based on our simulations, the efficiency of this approach is manifested in uncertain environment. The results show that our approach is scalable and can effectively balance aggregating data with minimizing energy consumption.

  15. Distributed Database Semantic Integration of Wireless Sensor Network to Access the Environmental Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaidillah Umar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN works continuously to gather information from sensors that generate large volumes of data to be handled and processed by applications. Current efforts in sensor networks focus more on networking and development services for a variety of applications and less on processing and integrating data from heterogeneous sensors. There is an increased need for information to become shareable across different sensors, database platforms, and applications that are not easily implemented in traditional database systems. To solve the issue of these large amounts of data from different servers and database platforms (including sensor data, a semantic sensor web service platform is needed to enable a machine to extract meaningful information from the sensor’s raw data. This additionally helps to minimize and simplify data processing and to deduce new information from existing data. This paper implements a semantic web data platform (SWDP to manage the distribution of data sensors based on the semantic database system. SWDP uses sensors for temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, luminosity, and noise. The system uses the Sesame semantic web database for data processing and a WSN to distribute, minimize, and simplify information processing. The sensor nodes are distributed in different places to collect sensor data. The SWDP generates context information in the form of a resource description framework. The experiment results demonstrate that the SWDP is more efficient than the traditional database system in terms of memory usage and processing time.

  16. Multi-sensor Array for High Altitude Balloon Missions to the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tim; McClurg, Bryce; Sohl, John

    2008-10-01

    We have designed and built a microprocessor controlled and expandable multi-sensor array for data collection on near space missions. Weber State University has started a high altitude research balloon program called HARBOR. This array has been designed to data log a base set of measurements for every flight and has room for six guest instruments. The base measurements are absolute pressure, on-board temperature, 3-axis accelerometer for attitude measurement, and 2-axis compensated magnetic compass. The system also contains a real time clock and circuitry for logging data directly to a USB memory stick. In typical operation the measurements will be cycled through in sequence and saved to the memory stick along with the clock's time stamp. The microprocessor can be reprogrammed to adapt to guest experiments with either analog or digital interfacing. This system will fly with every mission and will provide backup data collection for other instrumentation for which the primary task is measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature. The attitude data will be used to determine the orientation of the onboard camera systems to aid in identifying features in the images. This will make these images easier to use for any future GIS (geographic information system) remote sensing missions.

  17. Flow-through nanohole array based sensor implemented on analogue smartphone components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cruz, Juan; Nair, Srijit; Ascanio, Gabriel; Escobedo, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Mobile communications have massively populated the consumer electronics market over the past few years and it is now ubiquitous, providing a timeless opportunity for the development of smartphone-based technologies as point-of-care (POC) diagnosis tools1 . The expectation for a fully integrated smartphone-based sensor that enables applications such as environmental monitoring, explosive detection and biomedical analysis has increased among the scientific community in the past few years2,3. The commercialization forecast for smartphone-based sensing technologies is very promising, but reliable, miniature and cost-effective sensing platforms that can adapt to portable electronics in still under development. In this work, we present an integrated sensing platform based on flow-through metallic nanohole arrays. The nanohole arrays are 260 nm in diameter and 520 nm in pitch, fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography. A white LED resembling a smartphone flash LED serves as light source to excite surface plasmons and the signal is recorded via a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) module. The sensing abilities of the integrated sensing platform is demonstrated for the detection of (i) changes in bulk refractive index (RI), (ii) real-time monitoring of surface modification by receptor-analyte system of streptavidin-biotin.

  18. Woven electrochemical fabric-based test sensors (WEFTS): a new class of multiplexed electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tripurari; Rajamanickam, G P; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2015-05-07

    We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

  19. Multiple Distributed Smart Microgrids with a Self-Autonomous, Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Kheng Tan, Yen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter covers the smart wireless sensors for microgrids, as well as the energy harvesting technology used to sustain the operations of these sensors. Last, a case study on the multiple distributed smart microgrids with a self-autonomous, energy harvesting wireless sensor network is presented....

  20. Determining the confidence levels of sensor outputs using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broten, G S; Wood, H C [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach for determining the confidence level of a sensor output using multi-sensor arrays, sensor fusion and artificial neural networks. The authors have shown in previous work that sensor fusion and artificial neural networks can be used to learn the relationships between the outputs of an array of simulated partially selective sensors and the individual analyte concentrations in a mixture of analyses. Other researchers have shown that an array of partially selective sensors can be used to determine the individual gas concentrations in a gaseous mixture. The research reported in this paper shows that it is possible to extract confidence level information from an array of partially selective sensors using artificial neural networks. The confidence level of a sensor output is defined as a numeric value, ranging from 0% to 100%, that indicates the confidence associated with a output of a given sensor. A three layer back-propagation neural network was trained on a subset of the sensor confidence level space, and was tested for its ability to generalize, where the confidence level space is defined as all possible deviations from the correct sensor output. A learning rate of 0.1 was used and no momentum terms were used in the neural network. This research has shown that an artificial neural network can accurately estimate the confidence level of individual sensors in an array of partially selective sensors. This research has also shown that the neural network`s ability to determine the confidence level is influenced by the complexity of the sensor`s response and that the neural network is able to estimate the confidence levels even if more than one sensor is in error. The fundamentals behind this research could be applied to other configurations besides arrays of partially selective sensors, such as an array of sensors separated spatially. An example of such a configuration could be an array of temperature sensors in a tank that is not in

  1. Determining the confidence levels of sensor outputs using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broten, G.S.; Wood, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for determining the confidence level of a sensor output using multi-sensor arrays, sensor fusion and artificial neural networks. The authors have shown in previous work that sensor fusion and artificial neural networks can be used to learn the relationships between the outputs of an array of simulated partially selective sensors and the individual analyte concentrations in a mixture of analyses. Other researchers have shown that an array of partially selective sensors can be used to determine the individual gas concentrations in a gaseous mixture. The research reported in this paper shows that it is possible to extract confidence level information from an array of partially selective sensors using artificial neural networks. The confidence level of a sensor output is defined as a numeric value, ranging from 0% to 100%, that indicates the confidence associated with a output of a given sensor. A three layer back-propagation neural network was trained on a subset of the sensor confidence level space, and was tested for its ability to generalize, where the confidence level space is defined as all possible deviations from the correct sensor output. A learning rate of 0.1 was used and no momentum terms were used in the neural network. This research has shown that an artificial neural network can accurately estimate the confidence level of individual sensors in an array of partially selective sensors. This research has also shown that the neural network's ability to determine the confidence level is influenced by the complexity of the sensor's response and that the neural network is able to estimate the confidence levels even if more than one sensor is in error. The fundamentals behind this research could be applied to other configurations besides arrays of partially selective sensors, such as an array of sensors separated spatially. An example of such a configuration could be an array of temperature sensors in a tank that is not in

  2. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  3. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  4. Source localization using a non-cocentered orthogonal loop and dipole (NCOLD) array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhaoting; Xu Tongyang

    2013-01-01

    A uniform array of scalar-sensors with intersensor spacings over a large aperture size generally offers enhanced resolution and source localization accuracy, but it may also lead to cyclic ambiguity. By exploiting the polarization information of impinging waves, an electromagnetic vec-tor-sensor array outperforms the unpolarized scalar-sensor array in resolving this cyclic ambiguity. However, the electromagnetic vector-sensor array usually consists of cocentered orthogonal loops and dipoles (COLD), which is easily subjected to mutual coupling across these cocentered dipoles/loops. As a result, the source localization performance of the COLD array may substantially degrade rather than being improved. This paper proposes a new source localization method with a non-cocentered orthogonal loop and dipole (NCOLD) array. The NCOLD array contains only one dipole or loop on each array grid, and the intersensor spacings are larger than a half-wave-length. Therefore, unlike the COLD array, these well separated dipoles/loops minimize the mutual coupling effects and extend the spatial aperture as well. With the NCOLD array, the proposed method can efficiently exploit the polarization information to offer high localization precision.

  5. Position Reconstruction and Charge Distribution in LHCb VELO Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Versloot, TW; Akiba, K; Artuso, M; Van Beuzekom, M; Borel, J; Bowcock, TJV; Buytaert, J; Collins, P; Dumps, R; Dwyer, L; Eckstein, D; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Frei, R; Gersabek M; Haefeli, G; Hennessy, K; Huse, T; Jans, E; John, M; Ketel, TJ; Keune, A; Lastoviicka, T; Mountain, R; Neufeld, N; Parkes, C; Stone, S; Szumlak, T; Tobin, M; Van Lysebetten, A; Viret, S; De Vries, H; Wang, J

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, a partially equipped LHCb VELO detector half was characterised in a test beam experiment (Alignment Challenge and Detector Commissioning, ACDC3). The position reconstruction and resolution for 2-strip R-sensor clusters was studied as a function of strip pitch and track inclination on the sensor surface. The Charge Density Distribution (CDD) is derived from the weighted charge distribution. It becomes asymmetric for tracks non-perpendicular to the strip surface. It is shown that the asymmetric broadening of the CDD around the track intercept position results in a linear eta-function at higher angles (>6 degrees). The sensor spatial resolution is determined both using a linear weighted mean of strip charges, as well as a third-order polynomial approximation via a eta-correction. The experimental results are in agreement with previous simulations. Future studies are underway to determine the angle and pitch dependent parameters which will be implemented in the LHCb VELO cluster position software tools.

  6. Jet array impingement flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics. Effects of initial crossflow and nonuniform array geometry. [gas turbine engine component cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Su, C. C.; Isoda, Y.; Tseng, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the heat transfer surface. The configurations considered are intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The effects of an initial crossflow which approaches the array through an upstream extension of the channel are considered. Flow distributions as well as heat transfer coefficients and adiabatic wall temperatures resolved to one streamwise hole spacing were measured as a function of the initial crossflow rate and temperature relative to the jet flow rate and temperature. Both Nusselt number profiles and dimensionless adiabatic wall temperature (effectiveness) profiles are presented and discussed. Special test results which show a significant reduction of jet orifice discharge coefficients owing to the effect of a confined crossflow are also presented, along with a flow distribution model which incorporates those effects. A nonuniform array flow distribution model is developed and validated.

  7. Blood leakage detection during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with array photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Xing; Huang, Ping-Tzan; Li, Chien-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Blood leakage and blood loss are serious life-threatening complications occurring during dialysis therapy. These events have been of concerns to both healthcare givers and patients. More than 40% of adult blood volume can be lost in just a few minutes, resulting in morbidities and mortality. The authors intend to propose the design of a warning tool for the detection of blood leakage/blood loss during dialysis therapy based on fog computing with an array of photocell sensors and heteroassociative memory (HAM) model. Photocell sensors are arranged in an array on a flexible substrate to detect blood leakage via the resistance changes with illumination in the visible spectrum of 500–700 nm. The HAM model is implemented to design a virtual alarm unit using electricity changes in an embedded system. The proposed warning tool can indicate the risk level in both end-sensing units and remote monitor devices via a wireless network and fog/cloud computing. The animal experimental results (pig blood) will demonstrate the feasibility. PMID:29515815

  8. A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjian; Wang, Linbing; Hou, Yue; Yan, Guannan

    2017-10-19

    The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development.

  9. Pseudo-Coherence-Based MVDR Beamformer for Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Speech enhancement with distributed arrays has been met with various methods. On the one hand, data independent methods require information about the position of sensors, so they are not suitable for dynamic geometries. On the other hand, Wiener-based methods cannot assure a distortionless output....... This paper proposes minimum variance distortionless response filtering based on multichannel pseudo-coherence for speech enhancement with ad hoc microphone arrays. This method requires neither position information nor control of the trade-off used in the distortion weighted methods. Furthermore, certain...

  10. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonkuk; Pi, Jae-Eun; Cho, Sung Haeung; Kang, Seung-Youl; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Jeon, Ho-Sik; Kim, Jong-Uk; Lee, Myunghee

    2018-01-19

    In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT) sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC) are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE) amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC). To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger's ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  11. Towards a cyber-physical era: soft computing framework based multi-sensor array for water quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bhardwaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New concepts and techniques are replacing traditional methods of water quality parameter measurement systems. This paper introduces a cyber-physical system (CPS approach for water quality assessment in a distribution network. Cyber-physical systems with embedded sensors, processors and actuators can be designed to sense and interact with the water environment. The proposed CPS is comprised of sensing framework integrated with five different water quality parameter sensor nodes and soft computing framework for computational modelling. Soft computing framework utilizes the applications of Python for user interface and fuzzy sciences for decision making. Introduction of multiple sensors in a water distribution network generates a huge number of data matrices, which are sometimes highly complex, difficult to understand and convoluted for effective decision making. Therefore, the proposed system framework also intends to simplify the complexity of obtained sensor data matrices and to support decision making for water engineers through a soft computing framework. The target of this proposed research is to provide a simple and efficient method to identify and detect presence of contamination in a water distribution network using applications of CPS.

  12. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  13. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  14. Biomimetic micromechanical adaptive flow-sensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Floris, J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2007-01-01

    We report current developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound with energy sensitivities

  15. Impact of sensor detection limits on protecting water distribution systems from contamination events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Sean Andrew; Hart, David Blaine; Yarrington, Lane

    2006-01-01

    Real-time water quality sensors are becoming commonplace in water distribution systems. However, field deployable, contaminant-specific sensors are still in the development stage. As development proceeds, the necessary operating parameters of these sensors must be determined to protect consumers from accidental and malevolent contamination events. This objective can be quantified in several different ways including minimization of: the time necessary to detect a contamination event, the population exposed to contaminated water, the extent of the contamination within the network, and others. We examine the ability of a sensor set to meet these objectives as a function of both the detection limit of the sensors and the number of sensors in the network. A moderately sized distribution network is used as an example and different sized sets of randomly placed sensors are considered. For each combination of a certain number of sensors and a detection limit, the mean values of the different objectives across multiple random sensor placements are calculated. The tradeoff between the necessary detection limit in a sensor and the number of sensors is evaluated. Results show that for the example problem examined here, a sensor detection limit of 0.01 of the average source concentration is adequate for maximum protection. Detection of events is dependent on the detection limit of the sensors, but for those events that are detected, the values of the performance measures are not a function of the sensor detection limit. The results of replacing a single sensor in a network with a sensor having a much lower detection limit show that while this replacement can improve results, the majority of the additional events detected had performance measures of relatively low consequence.

  16. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  17. Distributed Input and State Estimation Using Local Information in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distributed input and state estimation architecture is introduced and analyzed for heterogeneous sensor networks. Specifically, nodes of a given sensor network are allowed to have heterogeneous information roles in the sense that a subset of nodes can be active (that is, subject to observations of a process of interest and the rest can be passive (that is, subject to no observation. Both fixed and varying active and passive roles of sensor nodes in the network are investigated. In addition, these nodes are allowed to have non-identical sensor modalities under the common underlying assumption that they have complimentary properties distributed over the sensor network to achieve collective observability. The key feature of our framework is that it utilizes local information not only during the execution of the proposed distributed input and state estimation architecture but also in its design in that global uniform ultimate boundedness of error dynamics is guaranteed once each node satisfies given local stability conditions independent from the graph topology and neighboring information of these nodes. As a special case (e.g., when all nodes are active and a positive real condition is satisfied, the asymptotic stability can be achieved with our algorithm. Several illustrative numerical examples are further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  18. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  19. Biquaternion beamspace with its application to vector-sensor array direction findings and polarization estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Xu, Feng; Jiang, Jing Fei; Zhang, Jian Qiu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a biquaternion beamspace, constructed by projecting the original data of an electromagnetic vector-sensor array into a subspace of a lower dimension via a quaternion transformation matrix, is first proposed. To estimate the direction and polarization angles of sources, biquaternion beamspace multiple signal classification (BB-MUSIC) estimators are then formulated. The analytical results show that the biquaternion beamspaces offer us some additional degrees of freedom to simultaneously achieve three goals. One is to save the memory spaces for storing the data covariance matrix and reduce the computation efforts of the eigen-decomposition. Another is to decouple the estimations of the sources' polarization parameters from those of their direction angles. The other is to blindly whiten the coherent noise of the six constituent antennas in each vector-sensor. It is also shown that the existing biquaternion multiple signal classification (BQ-MUSIC) estimator is a specific case of our BB-MUSIC ones. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the analytical ones.

  20. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  1. A quick responding quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polyacrylic acids coating for selective identification of aldehydes in body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sunil K; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2015-03-01

    In present work, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array has been developed for prompt identification of primary aldehydes in human body odor. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are prepared using the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer matrix and three organic acids (propenoic acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid) as template molecules, and utilized as QCM surface coating layer. The performance of MIP films is characterized by 4-element QCM sensor array (three coated with MIP layers and one with pure PAA for reference) dynamic and static responses to target aldehydes: hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in single, binary, and tertiary mixtures at distinct concentrations. The target aldehydes were selected subsequent to characterization of body odor samples with solid phase-micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS). The hexanoic acid and octanoic acid imprinted PAA exhibit fast response, and better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility than the propenoic acid, and non-imprinted PAA in array. The response time and recovery time for hexanoic acid imprinted PAA are obtained as 5 s and 12 s respectively to typical concentrations of binary and tertiary mixtures of aldehydes using the static response. Dynamic sensor array response matrix has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for visual, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier for quantitative identification of target odors. Aldehyde odors were identified successfully in principal component (PC) space. SVM classifier results maximum recognition rate 79% for three classes of binary odors and 83% including single, binary, and tertiary odor classes in 3-fold cross validation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, J [National Cancer Center, Ilsan, Gyeonggi-do, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J [National Cancer Center, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, U [National Medical Center in Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7∼ 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

  3. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  4. In-situ growth of ZnO nanowire arrays on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for high-performance NO2 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangxiang; Shen, Yanbai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Wei, Dezhou; Lu, Rui; Zhu, Lijia; Li, Hansen; Shen, Yansong

    2018-03-01

    ZnO nanowire (ZNW) arrays were in-situ grown on the sensing electrode via a facile hydrothermal route for NO2 sensing application. ZNW arrays were prepared by a seed layer deposition on the surface of the sensing electrode using a dipping process in a Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O ethanol solution followed by a seed growth using a hydrothermal route in the Zn(NO3)2·6H2O-HMTA (C6H12N4) system. The microstructural characterizations of the ZNW arrays by means of XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS showed that ZnO nanowires with the diameters of 80-90 nm and the lengths of 0.6-1 μm had a single crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure. Gas sensing properties demonstrated the response of the sensor based on the ZNW arrays was linearly proportional to the NO2 concentration in the range of 1-30 ppm with good reproducibility and selectivity. The maximum sensor response to NO2 was obtained at an operating temperature of 250 °C. The response and recovery times reduced rapidly with increasing the operating temperature. The growth mechanism and sensing mechanism of the ZNW arrays were discussed in accordance with the deposition of the seed layer and the modulation of the depletion layer, respectively.

  5. A Matrix-Based Proactive Data Relay Algorithm for Large Distributed Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale distributed sensor networks, sensed data is required to be relayed around the network so that one or few sensors can gather adequate relative data to produce high quality information for decision-making. In regards to very high energy-constraint sensor nodes, data transmission should be extremely economical. However, traditional data delivery protocols are potentially inefficient relaying unpredictable sensor readings for data fusion in large distributed networks for either overwhelming query transmissions or unnecessary data coverage. By building sensors’ local model from their previously transmitted data in three matrixes, we have developed a novel energy-saving data relay algorithm, which allows sensors to proactively make broadcast decisions by using a neat matrix computation to provide balance between transmission and energy-saving. In addition, we designed a heuristic maintenance algorithm to efficiently update these three matrices. This can easily be deployed to large-scale mobile networks in which decisions of sensors are based on their local matrix models no matter how large the network is, and the local models of these sensors are updated constantly. Compared with some traditional approaches based on our simulations, the efficiency of this approach is manifested in uncertain environment. The results show that our approach is scalable and can effectively balance aggregating data with minimizing energy consumption.

  6. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  7. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkuk Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC. To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger’s ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  8. Simulation of ultrasonic and EMAT arrays using FEM and FDTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuedong; Yin, Wuliang; Liu, Zenghua; Peyton, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method which combines electromagnetic simulation and ultrasonic simulation to build EMAT array models. For a specific sensor configuration, Lorentz forces are calculated using the finite element method (FEM), which then can feed through to ultrasonic simulations. The propagation of ultrasound waves is numerically simulated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to describe their propagation within homogenous medium and their scattering phenomenon by cracks. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  10. In-Space Distributed Fiber Optic Hydrogen Leak Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broadband Photonics Inc. proposes development of a patent-pending distributed fiber optic sensor for in-space hydrogen leak detection. Reliable and fast detection of...

  11. Mutual trust method for forwarding information in wireless sensor networks using random secret pre-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsueh Lin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensing information must be transmitted from sensor nodes to the base station by multiple hopping. Every sensor node is a sender and a relay node that forwards the sensing information that is sent by other nodes. Under an attack, the sensing information may be intercepted, modified, interrupted, or fabricated during transmission. Accordingly, the development of mutual trust to enable a secure path to be established for forwarding information is an important issue. Random key pre-distribution has been proposed to establish mutual trust among sensor nodes. This article modifies the random key pre-distribution to a random secret pre-distribution and incorporates identity-based cryptography to establish an effective method of establishing mutual trust for a wireless sensor network. In the proposed method, base station assigns an identity and embeds n secrets into the private secret keys for every sensor node. Based on the identity and private secret keys, the mutual trust method is utilized to explore the types of trust among neighboring sensor nodes. The novel method can resist malicious attacks and satisfy the requirements of wireless sensor network, which are resistance to compromising attacks, masquerading attacks, forger attacks, replying attacks, authentication of forwarding messages, and security of sensing information.

  12. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shibo, E-mail: Shibo-Xu@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-electronics Information Technology (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands.

  13. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands.

  14. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shibo; Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands

  15. A distributed fluid level sensor suitable for monitoring fuel load on board a moving fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkwright, John W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Papageorgiou, Anthony W.

    2018-02-01

    A temperature insensitive fiber Bragg grating sensing array has been developed for monitoring fluid levels in a moving tank. The sensors are formed from two optical fibers twisted together to form a double helix with pairs of fiber Bragg gratings located above one another at the points where the fibers are vertically disposed. The sensing mechanism is based on a downwards deflection of the section of the double helix containing the FBGs which causes the tension in the upper FBG to decrease and the tension in the lower FBG to increase with concomitant changes in Bragg wavelength in each FBG. Changes in ambient temperature cause a common mode increase in Bragg wavelength, thus monitoring the differential change in wavelength provides a temperature independent measure of the applied pressure. Ambient temperature can be monitored simultaneously by taking the average wavelength of the upper and lower FBGs. The sensors are able to detect variations in pressure with resolutions better than 1 mmH2O and when placed on the bottom of a tank can be used to monitor fluid level based on the recorded pressure. Using an array of these sensors located along the bottom of a moving tank it was possible to monitor the fluid level at multiple points and hence dynamically track the total fluid volume in the tank. The outer surface of the sensing array is formed from a thin continuous Teflon sleeve, making it suitable for monitoring the level of volatile fluids such as aviation fuel and gasoline.

  16. GMR biosensor arrays: a system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D A; Gaster, R S; Lin, T; Osterfeld, S J; Han, S; Murmann, B; Wang, S X

    2010-05-15

    Giant magnetoresistive biosensors are becoming more prevalent for sensitive, quantifiable biomolecular detection. However, in order for magnetic biosensing to become competitive with current optical protein microarray technology, there is a need to increase the number of sensors while maintaining the high sensitivity and fast readout time characteristic of smaller arrays (1-8 sensors). In this paper, we present a circuit architecture scalable for larger sensor arrays (64 individually addressable sensors) while maintaining a high readout rate (scanning the entire array in less than 4s). The system utilizes both time domain multiplexing and frequency domain multiplexing in order to achieve this scan rate. For the implementation, we propose a new circuit architecture that does not use a classical Wheatstone bridge to measure the small change in resistance of the sensor. Instead, an architecture designed around a transimpedance amplifier is employed. A detailed analysis of this architecture including the noise, distortion, and potential sources of errors is presented, followed by a global optimization strategy for the entire system comprising the magnetic tags, sensors, and interface electronics. To demonstrate the sensitivity, quantifiable detection of two blindly spiked samples of unknown concentrations has been performed at concentrations below the limit of detection for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lastly, the multiplexing capability and reproducibility of the system was demonstrated by simultaneously monitoring sensors functionalized with three unique proteins at different concentrations in real-time. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based Deployment Strategy for a Distributed Mobile Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P. Bhondekar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor deployment scheme highly governs the effectiveness of distributed wireless sensor network. Issues such as energy conservation and clustering make the deployment problem much more complex. A multiobjective Fuzzy Inference System based strategy for mobile sensor deployment is presented in this paper. This strategy gives a synergistic combination of energy capacity, clustering and peer-to-peer deployment. Performance of our strategy is evaluated in terms of coverage, uniformity, speed and clustering. Our algorithm is compared against a modified distributed self-spreading algorithm to exhibit better performance.

  18. A Review of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors for Civil Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrias, António; Casas, Joan R.; Villalba, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures has been a developing studied and practiced topic, that has allowed for a better understanding of structures’ conditions and increasingly lead to a more cost-effective management of those infrastructures. In this field, the use of fiber optic sensors has been studied, discussed and practiced with encouraging results. The possibility of understanding and monitor the distributed behavior of extensive stretches of critical structures it’s an enormous advantage that distributed fiber optic sensing provides to SHM systems. In the past decade, several R & D studies have been performed with the goal of improving the knowledge and developing new techniques associated with the application of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) in order to widen the range of applications of these sensors and also to obtain more correct and reliable data. This paper presents, after a brief introduction to the theoretical background of DOFS, the latest developments related with the improvement of these products by presenting a wide range of laboratory experiments as well as an extended review of their diverse applications in civil engineering structures. PMID:27223289

  19. A Review of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors for Civil Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrias, António; Casas, Joan R; Villalba, Sergi

    2016-05-23

    The application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures has been a developing studied and practiced topic, that has allowed for a better understanding of structures' conditions and increasingly lead to a more cost-effective management of those infrastructures. In this field, the use of fiber optic sensors has been studied, discussed and practiced with encouraging results. The possibility of understanding and monitor the distributed behavior of extensive stretches of critical structures it's an enormous advantage that distributed fiber optic sensing provides to SHM systems. In the past decade, several R & D studies have been performed with the goal of improving the knowledge and developing new techniques associated with the application of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) in order to widen the range of applications of these sensors and also to obtain more correct and reliable data. This paper presents, after a brief introduction to the theoretical background of DOFS, the latest developments related with the improvement of these products by presenting a wide range of laboratory experiments as well as an extended review of their diverse applications in civil engineering structures.

  20. A Review of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors for Civil Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Barrias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of structural health monitoring (SHM systems to civil engineering structures has been a developing studied and practiced topic, that has allowed for a better understanding of structures’ conditions and increasingly lead to a more cost-effective management of those infrastructures. In this field, the use of fiber optic sensors has been studied, discussed and practiced with encouraging results. The possibility of understanding and monitor the distributed behavior of extensive stretches of critical structures it’s an enormous advantage that distributed fiber optic sensing provides to SHM systems. In the past decade, several R & D studies have been performed with the goal of improving the knowledge and developing new techniques associated with the application of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS in order to widen the range of applications of these sensors and also to obtain more correct and reliable data. This paper presents, after a brief introduction to the theoretical background of DOFS, the latest developments related with the improvement of these products by presenting a wide range of laboratory experiments as well as an extended review of their diverse applications in civil engineering structures.

  1. Three dimensional multi perspective imaging with randomly distributed sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahrain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a three dimensional (3D) passive imaging system that exploits the visual information captured from the scene from multiple perspectives to reconstruct the scene voxel by voxel in 3D space. The primary contribution of this work is to provide a computational reconstruction scheme based on randomly distributed sensor locations in space. In virtually all of multi perspective techniques (e.g. integral imaging, synthetic aperture integral imaging, etc), there is an implicit assumption that the sensors lie on a simple, regular pickup grid. Here, we relax this assumption and suggest a computational reconstruction framework that unifies the available methods as its special cases. The importance of this work is that it enables three dimensional imaging technology to be implemented in a multitude of novel application domains such as 3D aerial imaging, collaborative imaging, long range 3D imaging and etc, where sustaining a regular pickup grid is not possible and/or the parallax requirements call for a irregular or sparse synthetic aperture mode. Although the sensors can be distributed in any random arrangement, we assume that the pickup position is measured at the time of capture of each elemental image. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results.

  2. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  3. Temperature Sensors Integrated into a CMOS Image Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Prouza, A.N.; Xie, S.; Markenhof, Jules; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image sensor consists of

  4. Magnetization reversal in magnetic dot arrays: Nearest-neighbor interactions and global configurational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Wiele, Ben [Department of Electrical Energy, Systems and Automation, Ghent University, Technologiepark 913, B-9052 Ghent-Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Fin, Samuele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Pancaldi, Matteo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Vavassori, Paolo [CIC nanoGUNE, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sarella, Anandakumar [Physics Department, Mount Holyoke College, 211 Kendade, 50 College St., South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States); Bisero, Diego [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); CNISM, Unità di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-28

    Various proposals for future magnetic memories, data processing devices, and sensors rely on a precise control of the magnetization ground state and magnetization reversal process in periodically patterned media. In finite dot arrays, such control is hampered by the magnetostatic interactions between the nanomagnets, leading to the non-uniform magnetization state distributions throughout the sample while reversing. In this paper, we evidence how during reversal typical geometric arrangements of dot