Distributed Parameter Modelling Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers and the d......Here the issue of distributed parameter models is addressed. Spatial variations as well as time are considered important. Several applications for both steady state and dynamic applications are given. These relate to the processing of oil shale, the granulation of industrial fertilizers...... sands processing. The fertilizer granulation model considers the dynamics of MAP-DAP (mono and diammonium phosphates) production within an industrial granulator, that involves complex crystallisation, chemical reaction and particle growth, captured through population balances. A final example considers...
varying elastic parameters distributions
Moussawi, Ali
2014-12-01
The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Haiyan; FEI Heliang
2005-01-01
Because of the importance of grouped data, many scholars have been devoted to the study of this kind of data. But, few documents have been concerned with the threshold parameter. In this paper, we assume that the threshold parameter is smaller than the first observing point. Then, on the basis of the two-parameter exponential distribution, the maximum likelihood estimations of both parameters are given, the sufficient and necessary conditions for their existence and uniqueness are argued, and the asymptotic properties of the estimations are also presented, according to which approximate confidence intervals of the parameters are derived. At the same time, the estimation of the parameters is generalized, and some methods are introduced to get explicit expressions of these generalized estimations. Also, a special case where the first failure time of the units is observed is considered.
Spicing thing up: Synthetic cannabinoids
Spaderna, Max; Addy, Peter H; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril
2013-01-01
Rationale Recently, products containing synthetic cannabinoids, collectively referred to as Spice, are increasingly being used recreationally. Objectives The availability, acute subjective effects—including self-reports posted on Erowid—laboratory detection, addictive potential, and regulatory challenges of the Spice phenomenon are reviewed. Results Spice is sold under the guise of potpourri or incense. Unlike THC, the synthetic cannabinoids present in Spice are high-potency, high-efficacy, cannabinoid-receptor full agonists. Since standard urine toxicology does not test for the synthetic cannabinoids in Spice, it is often used by those who want to avoid detection of drug use. These compounds have not yet been subjected to rigorous testing in humans. Acute psychoactive effects include changes in mood, anxiety, perception, thinking, memory, and attention. Adverse effects include anxiety, agitation, panic, dysphoria, psychosis, and bizarre behavior. Psychosis outcomes associated with Spice provide additional data linking cannabinoids and psychosis. Adverse events necessitating intervention by Poison Control Centers, law enforcement, emergency responders, and hospitals are increasing. Despite statutes prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, and sale of Spice products, manufacturers are replacing banned compounds with newer synthetic cannabinoids that are not banned. Conclusions There is an urgent need for better research on the effects of synthetic cannabinoids to help clinicians manage adverse events and to better understand cannabinoid pharmacology in humans. The reported psychosis outcomes associated with synthetic cannabinoids contribute to the ongoing debate on the association between cannabinoids and psychosis. Finally, drug-detection tests for synthetic cannabinoids need to become clinically available. PMID:23836028
Parton Distributions in Impact Parameter Space
Dahiya, H; Ray, S
2007-01-01
Fourier transform of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) at zero skewness with respect to the transverse momentum transfer gives the distribution of partons in the impact parameter space. We investigate the GPDs as well as the impact parameter dependent parton distributions (ipdpdfs) by expressing them in terms of overlaps of light front wave functions (LFWFs) and present a comparative study using three different model LFWFs.
Parameter Estimation in Multivariate Gamma Distribution
V S Vaidyanathan; R Vani Lakshmi
2015-01-01
Multivariate gamma distribution finds abundant applications in stochastic modelling, hydrology and reliability. Parameter estimation in this distribution is a challenging one as it involves many parameters to be estimated simultaneously. In this paper, the form of multivariate gamma distribution proposed by Mathai and Moschopoulos [10] is considered. This form has nice properties in terms of marginal and conditional densities. A new method of estimation based on optimal search is proposed for...
Parameter Estimation in Multivariate Gamma Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V S Vaidyanathan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Multivariate gamma distribution finds abundant applications in stochastic modelling, hydrology and reliability. Parameter estimation in this distribution is a challenging one as it involves many parameters to be estimated simultaneously. In this paper, the form of multivariate gamma distribution proposed by Mathai and Moschopoulos [10] is considered. This form has nice properties in terms of marginal and conditional densities. A new method of estimation based on optimal search is proposed for estimating the parameters using the marginal distributions and the concepts of maximum likelihood, spacings and least squares. The proposed methodology is easy to implement and is free from calculus. It optimizes the objective function by searching over a wide range of values and determines the estimate of the parameters. The consistency of the estimates is demonstrated in terms of mean, standard deviation and mean square error through simulation studies for different choices of parameters.
Inference for ordered parameters in multinomial distributions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
This paper discusses inference for ordered parameters of multinomial distributions. We first show that the asymptotic distributions of their maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are not always normal and the bootstrap distribution estimators of the MLEs can be inconsistent. Then a class of weighted sum estimators (WSEs) of the ordered parameters is proposed. Properties of the WSEs are studied, including their asymptotic normality. Based on those results, large sample inferences for smooth functions of the ordered parameters can be made. Especially, the confidence intervals of the maximum cell probabilities are constructed. Simulation results indicate that this interval estimation performs much better than the bootstrap approaches in the literature. Finally, the above results for ordered parameters of multinomial distributions are extended to more general distribution models.
ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
muhammad zahid rashid
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR, moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes
ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
muhammad zahid rashid
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR, moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes
基于电场分布特性的环形栅器件SPICE模型研究%SPICE Model of Annular Gate Device Based on Electric Field Distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张波; 肖立伊; 付方发
2012-01-01
A novel and universal model to calculate the effective width of edgeless FETs has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem that the calculations of effective width in commercial SPICE model does not fit annular gate devices. This model is based on channel electric field distribution in annular gate and can be used for most shapes of annular gate devices. Corrections of SPICE model parameters have been proposed to make the model more accurate. Verifications have also been done with different gate geometries in different ways such as TCAD (Technology Computer Aided Design) and so on. Simulations results show a good accuracy of the proposed model.%提出了一种新颖的、更加通用的环形栅器件版图等效宽度提取方法，用于解决目前商用SPICE模型中版图宽度提取方法不适用于环形栅器件这一问题．该方法基于环形栅中沟道电场分布特性，可用于提取多种形状环形栅版图宽度．提出了SPICE模型中模型参数的修改方法，使SPICE环形栅器件模型仿真更为精准．通过TCAD（计算机辅助设计）等多种仿真途径对该模型进行验证，结果表明该模型具有较高的精确度．
Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters
Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry
2014-05-01
Statistical distributions of soil hydraulic parameters have to be known when synthetic fields of soil hydraulic properties need to be generated in ensemble modeling of soil water dynamics and soil water content data assimilation. Pedotransfer functions that provide statistical distributions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity parameters for textural classes are most often used in the parameter field generation. Presence of strong correlations can substantially influence the parameter generation results. The objective of this work was to review and evaluate available data on correlations between van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model parameters. So far, two different approaches were developed to estimate these correlations. The first approach uses pedotransfer functions to generate VGM parameters for a large number of soil compositions within a textural class, and then computes parameter correlations for each of the textural classes. The second approach computes the VGM parameter correlations directly from parameter values obtained by fitting VGM model to measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for soil samples belonging to a textural class. Carsel and Parish (1988) used the Rawls et al. (1982) pedotransfer functions, and Meyer et al. (1997) used the Rosetta pedotransfer algorithms (Schaap, 2002) to develop correlations according to the first approach. We used the UNSODA database (Nemes et al. 2001), the US Southern Plains database (Timlin et al., 1999), and the Belgian database (Vereecken et al., 1989, 1990) to apply the second approach. A substantial number of considerable (>0.7) correlation coefficients were found. Large differences were encountered between parameter correlations obtained with different approaches and different databases for the same textural classes. The first of the two approaches resulted in generally higher values of correlation coefficients between VGM parameters. However, results of the first approach application depend
Density Matrix for Mesoscopic Distributed Parameter Circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Ying-Hua; WANG Qi; LUO Hai-Mei; LEI Min-Sheng
2005-01-01
Under the Born-von-Karmann periodic boundary condition, we propose a quantization scheme for nondissipative distributed parameter circuits (i.e. a uniform periodic transmission line). We find the unitary operator for diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the uniform periodic transmission line. The unitary operator is expressed in a coordinate representation that brings convenience to deriving the density matrix p(q, q',β). The quantum fluctuations of charge and current at a definite temperature have been studied. It is shown that quantum fluctuations of distributed parameter circuits, which also have distributed properties, are related to both the circuit parameters and the positions and the mode of signals and temperature T. The higher the temperature is, the stronger quantum noise the circuit exhibits.
Compositional modelling of distributed-parameter systems
Maschke, Bernhard; Schaft, van der Arjan; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, F.; Loría, A.; Panteley, E.
2005-01-01
The Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems has been a challenging reserach area for quite some time. (A nice introduction, especially with respect to systems stemming from fluid dynamics, can be found in [26], where also a historical account is provided.) The identification of the
... feeling relaxed and having only mild changes in perception. Spice has only been around a few years, ... High School and Youth Trends Monitoring the Future (University of Michigan): Monitoring the Future Substance Abuse and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
1996-01-01
Can we believe in the results of our circuit simulators ? Is it possible to distinguish between results due to numerical chaos and resultsdue to the eventual chaotic nature of our modelsof physical systems ?. Three experiments with SPICE are presented: (1) A "stable" active RCcircuit with poles i...... in the models of the circuits to be analyzed. If trimmed properly SPICE normally gives the correct result....
Distribution Development for STORM Ingestion Input Parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fulton, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-07-01
The Sandia-developed Transport of Radioactive Materials (STORM) code suite is used as part of the Radioisotope Power System Launch Safety (RPSLS) program to perform statistical modeling of the consequences due to release of radioactive material given a launch accident. As part of this modeling, STORM samples input parameters from probability distributions with some parameters treated as constants. This report described the work done to convert four of these constant inputs (Consumption Rate, Average Crop Yield, Cropland to Landuse Database Ratio, and Crop Uptake Factor) to sampled values. Consumption rate changed from a constant value of 557.68 kg / yr to a normal distribution with a mean of 102.96 kg / yr and a standard deviation of 2.65 kg / yr. Meanwhile, Average Crop Yield changed from a constant value of 3.783 kg edible / m ^{2} to a normal distribution with a mean of 3.23 kg edible / m ^{2} and a standard deviation of 0.442 kg edible / m ^{2} . The Cropland to Landuse Database ratio changed from a constant value of 0.0996 (9.96%) to a normal distribution with a mean value of 0.0312 (3.12%) and a standard deviation of 0.00292 (0.29%). Finally the crop uptake factor changed from a constant value of 6.37e^{-4} (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) to a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean value of 3.38e^{-4} (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg) and a standard deviation value of 3.33 (Bq crop /kg)/(Bq soil /kg)
Distributed parameter statics of magnetic catheters.
Tunay, Ilker
2011-01-01
We discuss how to use special Cosserat rod theory for deriving distributed-parameter static equilibrium equations of magnetic catheters. These medical devices are used for minimally-invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and can be operated remotely or controlled by automated algorithms. The magnetic material can be lumped in rigid segments or distributed in flexible segments. The position vector of the cross-section centroid and quaternion representation of an orthonormal triad are selected as DOF. The strain energy for transversely isotropic, hyperelastic rods is augmented with the mechanical potential energy of the magnetic field and a penalty term to enforce the quaternion unity constraint. Numerical solution is found by 1D finite elements. Material properties of polymer tubes in extension, bending and twist are determined by mechanical and magnetic experiments. Software experiments with commercial FEM software indicate that the computational effort with the proposed method is at least one order of magnitude less than standard 3D FEM.
Blankinship, Ross M.; Breakwell, John A.; Dettmer, J. W.; Hamilton, Brian D.; Richardson, John M.
The Space Integrated Controls Experiment (SPICE) testbed brings active and passive techniques together in an integrated application to a large flexible precision structure. One of the objectives of the SPICE Precision Pointing Experiment is to demonstrate a factor of 100 to 1 reduction in the root-mean-square line-of-sight jitter in the presence of specified mechanical disturbances. To accomplish this challenging task, active control is being used to achieve the principal improvement, while passive damping ensures a robustly stable system. This paper describes the integration of the various pieces that make up the SPICE Precision Pointing Experiment: the 5m telescope, the active control system, the control actuators, the passive damping approach, the optical measurement system, and the intensive system identification effort that supports the experiment. The Precision Pointing Experiment will commence during the second half of Government fiscal year 1992, so this paper will present the mature designs ready for the hardware test phase of the program.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garnsworthy A.B.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
1996-01-01
Can we believe in the results of our circuit simulators ? Is it possible to distinguish between results due to numerical chaos and resultsdue to the eventual chaotic nature of our modelsof physical systems ?. Three experiments with SPICE are presented: (1) A "stable" active RCcircuit with poles i...
Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.
2005-01-01
The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.
Hirose, Hideo
1998-01-01
TYPES OF THE DISTRIBUTION:13;Normal distribution (2-parameter)13;Uniform distribution (2-parameter)13;Exponential distribution ( 2-parameter)13;Weibull distribution (2-parameter)13;Gumbel Distribution (2-parameter)13;Weibull/Frechet Distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized extreme-value distribution (3-parameter)13;Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized ...
Hirose, Hideo
1998-01-01
TYPES OF THE DISTRIBUTION:13;Normal distribution (2-parameter)13;Uniform distribution (2-parameter)13;Exponential distribution ( 2-parameter)13;Weibull distribution (2-parameter)13;Gumbel Distribution (2-parameter)13;Weibull/Frechet Distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized extreme-value distribution (3-parameter)13;Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Gamma distribution (3-parameter)13;Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Extended Log-normal distribution (3-parameter)13;Generalized ...
The SPICE Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) Subsystem
Bachman, N. J.
2017-06-01
The DSK subsystem is the component of SPICE concerned with detailed shape models. The DSK subsystem enables SPICE-based applications to conveniently and efficiently use detailed shape data in geometry computations performed by SPICE routines.
On the Confidence Interval for the parameter of Poisson Distribution
Bityukov, S I; Taperechkina, V A
2000-01-01
In present paper the possibility of construction of continuous analogue of Poisson distribution with the search of bounds of confidence intervals for parameter of Poisson distribution is discussed and the results of numerical construction of confidence intervals are presented.
Optimal control of nonsmooth distributed parameter systems
Tiba, Dan
1990-01-01
The book is devoted to the study of distributed control problems governed by various nonsmooth state systems. The main questions investigated include: existence of optimal pairs, first order optimality conditions, state-constrained systems, approximation and discretization, bang-bang and regularity properties for optimal control. In order to give the reader a better overview of the domain, several sections deal with topics that do not enter directly into the announced subject: boundary control, delay differential equations. In a subject still actively developing, the methods can be more important than the results and these include: adapted penalization techniques, the singular control systems approach, the variational inequality method, the Ekeland variational principle. Some prerequisites relating to convex analysis, nonlinear operators and partial differential equations are collected in the first chapter or are supplied appropriately in the text. The monograph is intended for graduate students and for resea...
Estimation of Parameters of the Beta-Extreme Value Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zafar Iqbal
2008-09-01
Full Text Available In this research paper The Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution which is developed by Zafar and Aleem (2007 is considered and parameters are estimated by using moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and moments of the Beta-Extreme Value (Type III Distribution when the parameters ‘m��� & ‘n’ are integers and then a Comparison between rth moments about origin when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are real and when parameters are ‘m’ & ‘n’ are integers. At the end second method, method of Maximum Likelihood is used to estimate the unknown parameters of the Beta Extreme Value Type (III distribution.
A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup
2016-07-17
In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.
Parameter estimation of stable distribution based on zero - order statistics
Chen, Jian; Chen, Hong; Cai, Xiaoxia; Weng, Pengfei; Nie, Hao
2017-08-01
With the increasing complexity of the channel, there are many impulse noise signals in the real channel. The statistical properties of such processes are significantly deviated from the Gaussian distribution, and the Alpha stable distribution provides a very useful theoretical tool for this process. This paper focuses on the parameter estimation method of the Alpha stable distribution. First, the basic theory of Alpha stable distribution is introduced. Then, the concept of logarithmic moment and geometric power are proposed. Finally, the parameter estimation of Alpha stable distribution is realized based on zero order statistic (ZOS). This method has better toughness and precision.
Distributed Weighted Parameter Averaging for SVM Training on Big Data
Das, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Sourangshu
2015-01-01
Two popular approaches for distributed training of SVMs on big data are parameter averaging and ADMM. Parameter averaging is efficient but suffers from loss of accuracy with increase in number of partitions, while ADMM in the feature space is accurate but suffers from slow convergence. In this paper, we report a hybrid approach called weighted parameter averaging (WPA), which optimizes the regularized hinge loss with respect to weights on parameters. The problem is shown to be same as solving...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
These are therefore evidently a group of plants, which have not fully been utilized in food technology. ... light on the history and uses of the spices in the ancient world with ... When artificial .... clove, which inhibited growth and acid production.
Interval Estimations of the Two-Parameter Exponential Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lai Jiang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In applied work, the two-parameter exponential distribution gives useful representations of many physical situations. Confidence interval for the scale parameter and predictive interval for a future independent observation have been studied by many, including Petropoulos (2011 and Lawless (1977, respectively. However, interval estimates for the threshold parameter have not been widely examined in statistical literature. The aim of this paper is to, first, obtain the exact significance function of the scale parameter by renormalizing the p∗-formula. Then the approximate Studentization method is applied to obtain the significance function of the threshold parameter. Finally, a predictive density function of the two-parameter exponential distribution is derived. A real-life data set is used to show the implementation of the method. Simulation studies are then carried out to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed methods.
On Estimating the Parameters of Truncated Trivariate Normal Distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. N. Bhattacharyya
1969-07-01
Full Text Available Maximum likehood estimates of the parameters of a trivariate normal distribution, with single truncation on two-variates, have been derived in this paper. The information matrix has also been given from which the asymptotic variances and covariances might be obtained for the estimates of the parameters of the restricted variables. Numerical examples have been worked out.
Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena
2016-01-01
State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parle Milind
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
Impact Parameter Dependent Parton Distributions for a Composite Relativistic System
Chakraborty, D
2004-01-01
We investigate the impact parameter dependent parton distributions for a relativistic composite system in light-front framework. We take an effective two-body spin-1/2 state, namely an electron dressed with a photon in QED. We express the impact parameter dependent parton distributions in terms of overlaps of light-cone wave functions. We obtain the scale dependence of both fermion and gauge boson distributions and show the distortion of the pdfs in the transverse space for transverse polarization of the state at one loop level.
Stabilization of stochastic Hopfield neural network with distributed parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Qi; DENG Feiqi; BAO Jundong; ZHAO Birong; FU Yuli
2004-01-01
In this paper, the stability of stochastic Hopfield neural network with distributed parameters is studied. To discuss the stability of systems, the main idea is to integrate the solution to systems in the space variable. Then, the integration is considered as the solution process of corresponding neural networks described by stochastic ordinary differential equations. A Lyapunov function is constructed and It(o) formula is employed to compute the derivative of the mean Lyapunov function along the systems, with respect to the space variable. It is difficult to treat stochastic systems with distributed parameters since there is no corresponding It(o) formula for this kind of system. Our method can overcome this difficulty. Till now, the research of stability and stabilization of stochastic neural networks with distributed parameters has not been considered.
Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.
1987-01-01
Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.
An SPICE model for phase-change memory simulations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Xi; Song Zhitang; Cai Daolin; Chen Xiaogang; Chen Houpeng
2011-01-01
Along with a series of research works on the physical prototype and properties of the memory cell,an SPICE model for phase-change memory (PCM) simulations based on Verilog-A language is presented.By handling it with the heat distribution algorithm,threshold switching theory and the crystallization kinetic model,the proposed SPICE model can effectively reproduce the physical behaviors of the phase-change memory cell.In particular,it can emulate the cell's temperature curve and crystallinity profile during the programming process,which can enable us to clearly understand the PCM's working principle and program process.
Identification for a class of distributed parameter systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This paper discusses the identification for the distributed parameter system of gas reservoirs with het erogeneous carbonate matrices. Based on the relationship between the ad hoc function and the geological feature, we set up a general model with double porous structure, clarify its effect and significance, and present a series of results of sys tem identifications, including the basic content and methods, stabilizing functional and parameter identifiability etc. Us ing the perturbation of spectra of self-adjoint operators, the identifiability of the porosities and the ad hoc coefficient is demonstrated for the general structure model. This project indicates that the identification of a distributed parameter sys tem involves parameters, boundary position and structure.
Spatio-temporal modeling of nonlinear distributed parameter systems
Li, Han-Xiong
2011-01-01
The purpose of this volume is to provide a brief review of the previous work on model reduction and identifi cation of distributed parameter systems (DPS), and develop new spatio-temporal models and their relevant identifi cation approaches. In this book, a systematic overview and classifi cation on the modeling of DPS is presented fi rst, which includes model reduction, parameter estimation and system identifi cation. Next, a class of block-oriented nonlinear systems in traditional lumped parameter systems (LPS) is extended to DPS, which results in the spatio-temporal Wiener and Hammerstein s
Fungal and bacterial contaminants of six spices and spice products ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Aijay
The impact of media advertisement on the use of various spices and herbs to ... standards and that contamination was probably due to ... Jose were analysed in the laboratory. .... CSIR-Ghana, following the method outlined by Pons (1979). The ... pH measurement ..... order to advance this present study and make it widely.
Kaubanduskeskus Spice Riias = Spice shopping centre in Riga
2007-01-01
Riias Lielirbes iela 29 asuva kaubanduskeskuse Spice sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Aivar Oja (FRA Disain OÜ), kaasa töötas Riin Luuk (Vaikla Disain). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 2 plaani, 7 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest
Kaubanduskeskus Spice Riias = Spice shopping centre in Riga
2007-01-01
Riias Lielirbes iela 29 asuva kaubanduskeskuse Spice sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Aivar Oja (FRA Disain OÜ), kaasa töötas Riin Luuk (Vaikla Disain). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. 2 plaani, 7 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest
Chandrasekhar equations and computational algorithms for distributed parameter systems
Burns, J. A.; Ito, K.; Powers, R. K.
1984-01-01
The Chandrasekhar equations arising in optimal control problems for linear distributed parameter systems are considered. The equations are derived via approximation theory. This approach is used to obtain existence, uniqueness, and strong differentiability of the solutions and provides the basis for a convergent computation scheme for approximating feedback gain operators. A numerical example is presented to illustrate these ideas.
Distributed parameter modelling of flexible spacecraft: Where's the beef?
Hyland, D. C.
1994-01-01
This presentation discusses various misgivings concerning the directions and productivity of Distributed Parameter System (DPS) theory as applied to spacecraft vibration control. We try to show the need for greater cross-fertilization between DPS theorists and spacecraft control designers. We recommend a shift in research directions toward exploration of asymptotic frequency response characteristics of critical importance to control designers.
Port controlled Hamiltonian representation of distributed parameter systems
Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan
2000-01-01
A port controlled Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of distributed parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. This port controlled
Control synthesis of linear distributed parameter switched systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Leping Bao; Shumin Fei; Lin Chai
2015-01-01
The control synthesis for switched systems is extended to distributed parameter switched systems in Hilbert space. Based on semigroup and operator theory, by means of multiple Lyapunov method incorporated average dwel time approach, sufficient con-ditions are derived in terms of linear operator inequalities frame-work for distributed parameter switched systems. Being applied to one dimensional heat propagation switched systems, these lin-ear operator inequalities are reduced to linear matrix inequalities subsequently. In particular, the state feedback gain matrices and the switching law are designed, and the state decay estimate is explicitly given whose decay coefficient completely depends on the system’s parameter and the boundary condition. Final y, two numerical examples are given to il ustrate the proposed method.
Adaptive distributed parameter and input estimation in linear parabolic PDEs
Mechhoud, Sarra
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the on-line estimation of distributed source term, diffusion, and reaction coefficients of a linear parabolic partial differential equation using both distributed and interior-point measurements. First, new sufficient identifiability conditions of the input and the parameter simultaneous estimation are stated. Then, by means of Lyapunov-based design, an adaptive estimator is derived in the infinite-dimensional framework. It consists of a state observer and gradient-based parameter and input adaptation laws. The parameter convergence depends on the plant signal richness assumption, whereas the state convergence is established using a Lyapunov approach. The results of the paper are illustrated by simulation on tokamak plasma heat transport model using simulated data.
Decontamination of nuts and spices
The social and economic impacts of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and food recalls connected to consumption of microbiologically contaminated nuts, spices or their products have become important food safety concerns. Initiatives have been undertaken by regulatory and public health agencies, indust...
Spices: Potential Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease.
Satheeshkumar, N; Vijayan, R S K; Lingesh, A; Santhikumar, S; Vishnuvardhan, Ch
2016-01-01
India has traditionally been known to all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Spices exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In contemporary, Indian spices are used to rustle up delicious delicacies. However, the Indian spices are more than just adjuvant which adds aroma and fragrance to foods. A few spices are very widely used and grown commercially in many countries, contain many important chemical constituents in the form of essential oil, oleoresin, oleogum, and resins, which impart flavor, pungency, and color to the prepared dishes, simultaneously exerts diverse therapeutic benefits. Ayurveda, the traditional systems of medicine in India has many evidences for the utilization of spices to cure various diseases. Some of the activities have been scientifically proven. Among various indications central nervous system disorders are of prime importance and it has been evident in traditional books and published reports that spices in fact protect and cure neuronal ailments. Likewise there are many spices found in India used for culinary purpose and have been found to have reported specific activities against brain disorders. About 400 B.C., Hippocrates rightly said "Let food be thy medicine and medicine thy food." This review focuses on the importance of spices in therapeutics and the till date scientific findings of Indian spices in CNS pharmacology and explores the potential of Indian spices to cure CNS disorders.
Iterative methods for distributed parameter estimation in parabolic PDE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogel, C.R. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Wade, J.G. [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)
1994-12-31
The goal of the work presented is the development of effective iterative techniques for large-scale inverse or parameter estimation problems. In this extended abstract, a detailed description of the mathematical framework in which the authors view these problem is presented, followed by an outline of the ideas and algorithms developed. Distributed parameter estimation problems often arise in mathematical modeling with partial differential equations. They can be viewed as inverse problems; the `forward problem` is that of using the fully specified model to predict the behavior of the system. The inverse or parameter estimation problem is: given the form of the model and some observed data from the system being modeled, determine the unknown parameters of the model. These problems are of great practical and mathematical interest, and the development of efficient computational algorithms is an active area of study.
Control of Groundwater Remediation Process as Distributed Parameter System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mendel M.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Pollution of groundwater requires the implementation of appropriate solutions which can be deployed for several years. The case of local groundwater contamination and its subsequent spread may result in contamination of drinking water sources or other disasters. This publication aims to design and demonstrate control of pumping wells for a model task of groundwater remediation. The task consists of appropriately spaced soil with input parameters, pumping wells and control system. Model of controlled system is made in the program MODFLOW using the finitedifference method as distributed parameter system. Control problem is solved by DPS Blockset for MATLAB & Simulink.
Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)
2002-02-01
This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.
Thermal Diffusivity Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems to Sea Ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liqiong Shi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A method of optimal control is presented as a numerical tool for solving the sea ice heat transfer problem governed by a parabolic partial differential equation. Taken the deviation between the calculated ice temperature and the measurements as the performance criterion, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems with specific constraints of thermal properties of sea ice was proposed to determine the thermal diffusivity of sea ice. Based on sea ice physical processes, the parameterization of the thermal diffusivity was derived through field data. The simulation results illustrated that the identified parameterization of the thermal diffusivity is reasonably effective in sea ice thermodynamics. The direct relation between the thermal diffusivity of sea ice and ice porosity is physically significant and can considerably reduce the computational errors. The successful application of this method also explained that the optimal control model of distributed parameter systems in conjunction with the engineering background has great potential in dealing with practical problems.
Impact Parameter Dependent Parton Distributions for a Relativistic Composite System
Chakraborty, D
2004-01-01
We investigate the impact parameter dependent parton distributions for a relativistic composite system in light-front framework. We express them in terms of overlaps of light-cone wave functions for a self consistent two-body spin-1/2 state, namely an electron dressed with a photon in QED. The pdfs are distorted in the transverse space for transverse polarization of the state at one loop level.
Flaw strength distributions and statistical parameters for ceramic fibers: The normal distribution
R'Mili, M.; Godin, N.; Lamon, J.
2012-05-01
The present paper investigates large sets of ceramic fibre failure strengths (500 to 1000 data) produced using tensile tests on tows that contained either 500 or 1000 filaments. The probability density function was determined through acoustic emission monitoring which allowed detection and counting of filament fractures. The statistical distribution of filament strengths was described using the normal distribution. The Weibull equation was then fitted to this normal distribution for estimation of statistical parameters. A perfect agreement between both distributions was obtained, and a quite negligible scatter in statistical parameters was observed, as opposed to the wide variability that is reported in the literature. Thus it was concluded that flaw strengths are distributed normally and that the statistical parameters that were derived are the true ones. In a second step, the conventional method of estimation of Weibull parameters was applied to these sets of data and, then, to subsets selected randomly. The influence of other factors involved in the conventional method of determination of statistical parameters is discussed. It is demonstrated that selection of specimens, sample size, and method of construction of so-called Weibull plots are responsible for statistical parameters variability.
Solar abundances with the SPICE spectral imager on Solar Orbiter
Giunta, Alessandra; Haberreiter, Margit; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Harrison, Richard; Parenti, Susanna; Innes, Davina; Schmutz, Werner; Buchlin, Eric; Chamberlin, Phillip; Thompson, William; Bocchialini, Karine; Gabriel, Alan; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Auchere, Frederic; Curdt, Werner; Teriaca, Luca; Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, Craig; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats; Philippon, Anne; Janvier, Miho; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Griffin, Douglas; Baudin, Frederic; Davila, Joseph; Fludra, Andrzej; Waltham, Nick; Eccleston, Paul; Gottwald, Alexander; Klein, Roman; Hanley, John; Walls, Buddy; Howe, Chris; Schuehle, Udo; Gyo, Manfred; Pfiffner, Dany
2016-07-01
Elemental composition of the solar atmosphere and in particular abundance bias of low and high First Ionization Potential (FIP) elements are a key tracer of the source regions of the solar wind. These abundances and their spatio-temporal variations, as well as the other plasma parameters , will be derived by the SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) EUV spectral imager on the upcoming Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE is designed to provide spectroheliograms (spectral images) using a core set of emission lines arising from ions of both low-FIP and high-FIP elements. These lines are formed over a wide range of temperatures, enabling the analysis of the different layers of the solar atmosphere. SPICE will use these spectroheliograms to produce dynamic composition maps of the solar atmosphere to be compared to in-situ measurements of the solar wind composition of the same elements (i.e. O, Ne, Mg, Fe). This will provide a tool to study the connectivity between the spacecraft (the Heliosphere) and the Sun. We will discuss the SPICE capabilities for such composition measurements.
Effects of irradiation upon spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-04-01
ESR studies were performed on untreated and irradiated samples of paprika powder, ground black pepper, and a spice mixture of the following composition: paprika, 55%; black pepper, 14%; allspice, 9%; coriander, 9%; marjoram, 7%; cumin, 4%; and nutmeg, 2%. Gamma radiation doses from 0.5 to 5 Mrad were applied. In the case of paprika samples, the effect of moisture content on the formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals was also investigated. Shortly after irradiation (on the day of radiation treatment) high amounts of free radicals were detected in irradiated spice samples but they diminished upon storage. After a period of 3 months the ESR signals of the irradiated samples approximated those of the controls. The free radicals found in unirradiated ground spices did not disappear during a storage period as long as one year. The formation and disappearance of radiation-induced free radicals were found to be strongly affected by the moisture content of samples. If a sample of low moisture content containing a high free radical concentration after irradiation was placed in an atmosphere of higher moisture content, the free radicals decayed rapidly.
Spice Tools Supporting Planetary Remote Sensing
Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.
2016-06-01
NASA's "SPICE"* ancillary information system has gradually become the de facto international standard for providing scientists the fundamental observation geometry needed to perform photogrammetry, map making and other kinds of planetary science data analysis. SPICE provides position and orientation ephemerides of both the robotic spacecraft and the target body; target body size and shape data; instrument mounting alignment and field-of-view geometry; reference frame specifications; and underlying time system conversions. SPICE comprises not only data, but also a large suite of software, known as the SPICE Toolkit, used to access those data and subsequently compute derived quantities-items such as instrument viewing latitude/longitude, lighting angles, altitude, etc. In existence since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus, the SPICE system has continuously grown to better meet the needs of scientists and engineers. For example, originally the SPICE Toolkit was offered only in Fortran 77, but is now available in C, IDL, MATLAB, and Java Native Interface. SPICE calculations were originally available only using APIs (subroutines), but can now be executed using a client-server interface to a geometry engine. Originally SPICE "products" were only available in numeric form, but now SPICE data visualization is also available. The SPICE components are free of cost, license and export restrictions. Substantial tutorials and programming lessons help new users learn to employ SPICE calculations in their own programs. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)-a component of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). * Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, Events
PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF THE HYBRID CENSORED LOMAX DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir Kamel Ashour
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Survival analysis is used in various fields for analyzing data involving the duration between two events. It is also known as event history analysis, lifetime data analysis, reliability analysis or time to event analysis. One of the difficulties which arise in this area is the presence of censored data. The lifetime of an individual is censored when it cannot be exactly measured but partial information is available. Different circumstances can produce different types of censoring. The two most common censoring schemes used in life testing experiments are Type-I and Type-II censoring schemes. Hybrid censoring scheme is mixture of Type-I and Type-II censoring scheme. In this paper we consider the estimation of parameters of Lomax distribution based on hybrid censored data. The parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The Fisher information matrix has been obtained and it can be used for constructing asymptotic confidence intervals.
Control of complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakravarti, S.; Marek, M.; Ray, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1995-12-31
This paper discusses a methodology for controlling complex dynamics and chaos in distributed parameter systems. The reaction-diffusion system with Brusselator kinetics, where the torus-doubling or quasi-periodic (two characteristic incommensurate frequencies) route to chaos exists in a defined range of parameter values, is used as an example. Poincare maps are used for characterization of quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. The dominant modes or topos, which are inherent properties of the system, are identified by means of the Singular Value Decomposition. Tested modal feedback control schemas based on identified dominant spatial modes confirm the possibility of stabilization of simple quasi-periodic trajectories in the complex quasi-periodic or chaotic spatiotemporal patterns.
Optimal Sensor Networks Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems
Patan, Maciej
2012-01-01
Sensor networks have recently come into prominence because they hold the potential to revolutionize a wide spectrum of both civilian and military applications. An ingenious characteristic of sensor networks is the distributed nature of data acquisition. Therefore they seem to be ideally prepared for the task of monitoring processes with spatio-temporal dynamics which constitute one of most general and important classes of systems in modelling of the real-world phenomena. It is clear that careful deployment and activation of sensor nodes are critical for collecting the most valuable information from the observed environment. Optimal Sensor Network Scheduling in Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems discusses the characteristic features of the sensor scheduling problem, analyzes classical and recent approaches, and proposes a wide range of original solutions, especially dedicated for networks with mobile and scanning nodes. Both researchers and practitioners will find the case studies, the proposed al...
A practical guide to geometric regulation for distributed parameter systems
Aulisa, Eugenio
2015-01-01
A Practical Guide to Geometric Regulation for Distributed Parameter Systems provides an introduction to geometric control design methodologies for asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection of infinite-dimensional systems. The book also introduces several new control algorithms inspired by geometric invariance and asymptotic attraction for a wide range of dynamical control systems. The first part of the book is devoted to regulation of linear systems, beginning with the mathematical setup, general theory, and solution strategy for regulation problems with bounded input and output operators.
Transfer function modeling of damping mechanisms in distributed parameter models
Slater, J. C.; Inman, D. J.
1994-01-01
This work formulates a method for the modeling of material damping characteristics in distributed parameter models which may be easily applied to models such as rod, plate, and beam equations. The general linear boundary value vibration equation is modified to incorporate hysteresis effects represented by complex stiffness using the transfer function approach proposed by Golla and Hughes. The governing characteristic equations are decoupled through separation of variables yielding solutions similar to those of undamped classical theory, allowing solution of the steady state as well as transient response. Example problems and solutions are provided demonstrating the similarity of the solutions to those of the classical theories and transient responses of nonviscous systems.
Bayesian Approach in Estimation of Scale Parameter of Nakagami Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azam Zaka
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Nakagami distribution is a flexible life time distribution that may offer a good fit to some failure data sets. It has applications in attenuation of wireless signals traversing multiple paths, deriving unit hydrographs in hydrology, medical imaging studies etc. In this research, we obtain Bayesian estimators of the scale parameter of Nakagami distribution. For the posterior distribution of this parameter, we consider Uniform, Inverse Exponential and Levy priors. The three loss functions taken up are Squared Error Loss function, Quadratic Loss Function and Precautionary Loss function. The performance of an estimator is assessed on the basis of its relative posterior risk. Monte Carlo Simulations are used to compare the performance of the estimators. It is discovered that the PLF produces the least posterior risk when uniform priors is used. SELF is the best when inverse exponential and Levy Priors are used. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY
Ranjan Katyal; Deepak Prashar
2015-01-01
Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also a...
SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhu Xuan; Zhou Jing; Huang Da
2013-01-01
Unipolar memristive devices are an important kind of resistive switching devices.However,few circuit models of them have been proposed.In this paper,we propose the SPICE modeling of flux-controlled unipolar memristive devices based on the memristance versus state map.Using our model,the flux thresholds,ON and OFF resistance,and compliance current can easily be set as model parameters.We simulate the model in HSPICE using model parameters abstracted from real devices,and the simulation results show that the proposed model caters to the real device data very well,thus demonstrating that the model is correct.Using the same modeling methodology,the SPICE model of charge-controlled unipolar memristive devices could also be developed.The proposed model could be used to model resistive memory cells,logical gates as well as synapses in artificial neural networks.
Optimal vibration control of curved beams using distributed parameter models
Liu, Fushou; Jin, Dongping; Wen, Hao
2016-12-01
The design of linear quadratic optimal controller using spectral factorization method is studied for vibration suppression of curved beam structures modeled as distributed parameter models. The equations of motion for active control of the in-plane vibration of a curved beam are developed firstly considering its shear deformation and rotary inertia, and then the state space model of the curved beam is established directly using the partial differential equations of motion. The functional gains for the distributed parameter model of curved beam are calculated by extending the spectral factorization method. Moreover, the response of the closed-loop control system is derived explicitly in frequency domain. Finally, the suppression of the vibration at the free end of a cantilevered curved beam by point control moment is studied through numerical case studies, in which the benefit of the presented method is shown by comparison with a constant gain velocity feedback control law, and the performance of the presented method on avoidance of control spillover is demonstrated.
SPICE Supports Planetary Science Observation Geometry
Hall Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Semenov, Boris V.; Wright, Edward D.
2015-11-01
"SPICE" is an information system, comprising both data and software, providing scientists with the observation geometry needed to plan observations from instruments aboard robotic spacecraft, and to subsequently help in analyzing the data returned from those observations. The SPICE system has been used on the majority of worldwide planetary exploration missions since the time of NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter. Along with its "free" price tag, portability and the absence of licensing and export restrictions, its stable, enduring qualities help make it a popular choice. But stability does not imply rigidity-improvements and new capabilities are regularly added. This poster highlights recent additions that could be of interest to planetary scientists.Geometry Finder allows one to find all the times or time intervals when a particular geometric condition exists (e.g. occultation) or when a particular geometric parameter is within a given range or has reached a maximum or minimum.Digital Shape Kernel (DSK) provides means to compute observation geometry using accurately modeled target bodies: a tessellated plate model for irregular bodies and a digital elevation model for large, regular bodies.WebGeocalc (WGC) provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to a SPICE "geometry engine" installed at a mission operations facility, such as the one operated by NAIF. A WGC user need have only a computer with a web browser to access this geometry engine. Using traditional GUI widgets-drop-down menus, check boxes, radio buttons and fill-in boxes-the user inputs the data to be used, the kind of calculation wanted, and the details of that calculation. The WGC server makes the specified calculations and returns results to the user's browser.Cosmographia is a mission visualization program. This tool provides 3D visualization of solar system (target) bodies, spacecraft trajectory and orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and footprints, and more.The research described in this
C -parameter distribution at N3LL' including power corrections
Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W.
2015-05-01
We compute the e+e- C -parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O (αs3), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments Ωn. To eliminate an O (ΛQCD) renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switch from the MS ¯ to a short distance "Rgap" scheme to define the leading power correction parameter Ω1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in Ω1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C -parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for αs(mZ) and Ω1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ≃ 2.5 % at Q =mZ.
Inversion of generalized relaxation time distributions with optimized damping parameter
Florsch, Nicolas; Revil, André; Camerlynck, Christian
2014-10-01
Retrieving the Relaxation Time Distribution (RDT), the Grains Size Distribution (GSD) or the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) from low-frequency impedance spectra is a major goal in geophysics. The “Generalized RTD” generalizes parametric models like Cole-Cole and many others, but remains tricky to invert since this inverse problem is ill-posed. We propose to use generalized relaxation basis function (for instance by decomposing the spectra on basis of generalized Cole-Cole relaxation elements instead of the classical Debye basis) and to use the L-curve approach to optimize the damping parameter required to get smooth and realistic inverse solutions. We apply our algorithm to three examples, one synthetic and two real data sets, and the program includes the possibility of converting the RTD into GSD or PSD by choosing the value of the constant connecting the relaxation time to the characteristic polarization size of interest. A high frequencies (typically above 1 kHz), a dielectric term in taken into account in the model. The code is provided as an open Matlab source as a supplementary file associated with this paper.
Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices.
Shobana, S; Naidu, K A
2000-02-01
Spices and vegetables possess antioxidant activity that can be applied for preservation of lipids and reduce lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The potential antioxidant activities of selected spices extracts (water and alcohol 1:1) were investigated on enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Water and alcoholic extract (1:1) of commonly used spices (garlic, ginger, onion, mint, cloves, cinnamon and pepper) dose-dependently inhibited oxidation of fatty acid, linoleic acid in presence of soybean lipoxygenase. Among the spices tested, cloves exhibited highest while onion showed least antioxidant activity. The relative antioxidant activities decreased in the order of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, garlic, mint and onion. Spice mix namely ginger, onion and garlic; onion and ginger; ginger and garlic showed cumulative inhibition of lipid peroxidation thus exhibiting their synergistic antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts were retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C, indicating that the spice constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation. The antioxidant activity of these dietary spices suggest that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, they possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation.
SPICE model of memristive devices with threshold
Pershin, Y V
2013-01-01
Although memristive devices with threshold voltages are the norm rather than the exception in experimentally realizable systems, their SPICE programming has not yet been suggested. Here, we show how to implement such systems in the SPICE environment. We expect this implementation to find widespread use in circuits design and testing.
SPICE: A Means for Determining Observation Geometry
Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Diaz Del Rio, J.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.; Yamamoto, Y.
2011-10-01
The "SPICE"1system is the NASA Planetary Science Division's method of conveniently packaging, archiving, and subsequently accessing observation geometry needed to understand science data returned from robotic spacecraft. This paper provides an overview of "SPICE"-what it is and how it's used- and then offers a glimpse into how it is being extended to better support the space science community.
On a six-parameter generalized Burr XII distribution
A. K. Olapade
2008-01-01
In this paper, we derive a probability density function that generalizes the Burr XII distribution. The cumulative distribution function and the $n^{th}$ moment of the generalized distribution are obtained while the distribution of some order statistics of the distribution are established. A theorem that relate the new distribution to another statistical distribution is established.
Numerical studies of identification in nonlinear distributed parameter systems
Banks, H. T.; Lo, C. K.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.
1989-01-01
An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory for the identification of first and second order nonlinear distributed parameter systems developed previously by the authors and reported on in detail elsewhere are summarized and discussed. The theory is based upon results for systems whose dynamics can be described by monotone operators in Hilbert space and an abstract approximation theorem for the resulting nonlinear evolution system. The application of the theory together with numerical evidence demonstrating the feasibility of the general approach are discussed in the context of the identification of a first order quasi-linear parabolic model for one dimensional heat conduction/mass transport and the identification of a nonlinear dissipation mechanism (i.e., damping) in a second order one dimensional wave equation. Computational and implementational considerations, in particular, with regard to supercomputing, are addressed.
Influence of Geant4 parameters on proton dose distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Merouani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The proton therapy presents a great precision during the radiation dose delivery. It is useful when the tumor is located in a sensitive area like brain or eyes. The Monte Carlo (MC simulations are usually used in treatment planning system (TPS to estimate the radiation dose. In this paper we are interested in estimating the proton dose statistical uncertainty generated by the MC simulations. Methods: Geant4 was used in the simulation of the eye’s treatment room for 62 MeV protons therapy, installed in the Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS-INFN facility in Catania. This code is a Monte Carlo based on software dedicated to simulate the passage of particles through the matter. In this work, we are interested in optimizing the Geant4 parameters on energy deposit distribution by proton to achieve the spatial resolution of dose distribution required for cancer therapy. We propose various simulations and compare the corresponding dose distribution inside water to evaluate the statistical uncertainties. Results: The simulated Bragg peak, based on facility model is in agreement with the experimental data, The calculations show that the mean statistical uncertainty is less than 1% for a simulation set with 5 × 104 events, 10-3 mm production threshold and a 10-2 mm step limit. Conclusion: The set of Geant4 cut and step limit values can be chosen in combination with the number of events to reach precision recommended from International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU in Monte Carlo codes for proton therapy treatment.
Semigroup approximation and robust stabilization of distributed parameter systems
Kurdila, A. J.; Fabiano, R.; Strganac, T.; Hsu, S.
1994-01-01
Theoretical results that enable rigorous statements of convergence and exponential stability of Galerkin approximations of LQR controls for infinite dimensional, or distributed parameter, systems have proliferated over the past ten years. In addition, extensive progress has been made over the same time period in the derivation of robust control design strategies for finite dimensional systems. However, the study of the convergence of robust finite dimensional controllers to robust controllers for infinite dimensional systems remains an active area of research. We consider a class of soft-constrained differential games evolving in a Hilbert space. Under certain conditions, a saddle point control can be given in feedback form in terms of a solution to a Riccati equation. By considering a related LQR problem, we can show a convergence result for finite dimensional approximations of this differential game. This yields a computational algorithm for the feedback gain that can be derived from similar strategies employed in infinite dimensional LQR control design problems. The approach described in this paper also inherits the additional properties of stability robustness common to game theoretic methods in finite dimensional analysis. These theoretical convergence and stability results are verified in several numerical experiments.
Data-Driven H∞ Control for Nonlinear Distributed Parameter Systems.
Luo, Biao; Huang, Tingwen; Wu, Huai-Ning; Yang, Xiong
2015-11-01
The data-driven H∞ control problem of nonlinear distributed parameter systems is considered in this paper. An off-policy learning method is developed to learn the H∞ control policy from real system data rather than the mathematical model. First, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is used to compute the empirical eigenfunctions, which are then employed to derive a reduced-order model (ROM) of slow subsystem based on the singular perturbation theory. The H∞ control problem is reformulated based on the ROM, which can be transformed to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, theoretically. To learn the solution of the HJI equation from real system data, a data-driven off-policy learning approach is proposed based on the simultaneous policy update algorithm and its convergence is proved. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)- based action-critic structure is developed, where a critic NN and two action NNs are employed to approximate the value function, control, and disturbance policies, respectively. Subsequently, a least-square NN weight-tuning rule is derived with the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed data-driven off-policy learning approach is applied to a nonlinear diffusion-reaction process, and the obtained results demonstrate its effectiveness.
Multivariate phase type distributions - Applications and parameter estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meisch, David
and reducing model uncertainties. Research has shown that the errors on cost estimates for infrastructure projects clearly do not follow a normal distribution but is skewed towards cost overruns. This skewness can be described using phase type distributions. Cost benefit analysis assesses potential future...... to the class of phase type distributions. Phase type distributions have several advantages. They are versatile in the sense that they can be used to approximate any given probability distribution on the positive reals. There exist general probabilistic results for the entire class of phase type distributions......, allowing for different estimation methods for the whole class or subclasses of phase type distributions. These attributes make this class of distributions an interesting alternative to the normal distribution. When facing multivariate problems, the only general distribution that allows for estimation...
Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.
Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara
2005-02-01
Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases.
SPICE Module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)
Coggi, John; Carnright, Robert; Hildebrand, Claude
2008-01-01
A SPICE module for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) precisely represents complex motion and maneuvers in an interactive, 3D animated environment with support for user-defined quantitative outputs. (SPICE stands for Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, and Events). This module enables the SOAP software to exploit NASA mission ephemeris represented in the JPL Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) SPICE formats. Ephemeris types supported include position, velocity, and orientation for spacecraft and planetary bodies including the Sun, planets, natural satellites, comets, and asteroids. Entire missions can now be imported into SOAP for 3D visualization, playback, and analysis. The SOAP analysis and display features can now leverage detailed mission files to offer the analyst both a numerically correct and aesthetically pleasing combination of results that can be varied to study many hypothetical scenarios. The software provides a modeling and simulation environment that can encompass a broad variety of problems using orbital prediction. For example, ground coverage analysis, communications analysis, power and thermal analysis, and 3D visualization that provide the user with insight into complex geometric relations are included. The SOAP SPICE module allows distributed science and engineering teams to share common mission models of known pedigree, which greatly reduces duplication of effort and the potential for error. The use of the software spans all phases of the space system lifecycle, from the study of future concepts to operations and anomaly analysis. It allows SOAP software to correctly position and orient all of the principal bodies of the Solar System within a single simulation session along with multiple spacecraft trajectories and the orientation of mission payloads. In addition to the 3D visualization, the user can define numeric variables and x-y plots to quantitatively assess metrics of interest.
Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.
Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin
2016-08-12
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.
Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.
Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
2017-02-15
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications.
The impact of spices on vegetable consumption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona;
2015-01-01
This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...... significantly for broccoli with spices compared to plain broccoli, but there was no significant difference for cauliflower or spinach. No significant differences were noted in any of the visual analog scale (VAS) responses. This study suggests that adding spices may increase vegetable intake, but more studies...
Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers
Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin
2016-01-01
Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277
Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.
Nam, Jong Kuk
2014-08-01
This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.
Parameter specification for the degree distribution of simulated Barabási-Albert graphs
Mohd-Zaid, Fairul; Kabban, Christine M. Schubert; Deckro, Richard F.; White, Edward D.
2017-01-01
The degree distribution of a simulated Barabási-Albert graph under linear preferential attachment is investigated. Specifically, the parameters of the power law distribution are estimated and compared against the theoretical values derived using mean field theory. Least squares method and MLE-nonparametric method were utilized to estimate the distribution parameters on 1000 simulated Barabási-Albert graphs for edge parameter m ∈ { 2 , 4 , 6 } and size n ∈ {2k : k = 5 , 6 , … , 14 , 15 } . Goodness of fit metrics were computed on a second set of simulated graphs for the median of the estimated parameters and other hypothetical values for the distribution parameters. The results suggest that the distribution of the parameters from simulated graphs are significantly different from the theoretical distribution and is also dependent on m. Further results confirm the finding that the parameter of the power law distribution, β, increases as m increases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sghaier T
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of both Normal and two-parameter Weibull distributions in describing diameter distribution of Tetraclinis articulata stands in north-east Tunisia. The parameters of the Weibull function were estimated using the moments method and maximum likelihood approaches. The data used in this study came from temporary plots. The three diameter distribution models were compared firstly by estimating the parameters of the distribution directly from individual tree measurements taken in each plot (parameter estimation method, and secondly by predicting the same parameters from stand variables (parameter prediction method. The comparison was based on bias, mean absolute error, mean square error and the Reynolds’ index error (as a percentage. On the basis of the parameter estimation method, the Normal distribution gave slightly better results, whereas the Weibull distribution with the maximum likelihood approach gave the best results for the parameter prediction method. Hence, in the latter case, the Weibull distribution with the maximum likelihood approach appears to be the most suitable to estimate the parameters for reducing the different comparison criteria for the distribution of trees by diameter class in Tetraclinis articulata forests in Tunisia.
Estimating the Parameters of the Beta-Binomial Distribution.
Wilcox, Rand R.
1979-01-01
For some situations the beta-binomial distribution might be used to describe the marginal distribution of test scores for a particular population of examinees. Several different methods of approximating the maximum likelihood estimate were investigated, and it was found that the Newton-Raphson method should be used when it yields admissable…
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for Estimating the Parameters of the Gamma/Gompertz Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Extensive research has been devoted to the estimation of the parameters of frequently used distributions. However, little attention has been paid to estimation of parameters of Gamma/Gompertz distribution, which is often encountered in customer lifetime and mortality risks distribution literature. This distribution has three parameters. In this paper, we proposed an algorithm for estimating the parameters of Gamma/Gompertz distribution based on maximum likelihood estimation method. Iterated local search (ILS is proposed to maximize likelihood function. Finally, the proposed approach is computationally tested using some numerical examples and results are analyzed.
Spices: the savory and beneficial science of pungency.
Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni
2013-01-01
Spicy food does not only provide an important hedonic input in daily life, but has also been anedoctically associated to beneficial effects on our health. In this context, the discovery of chemesthetic trigeminal receptors and their spicy ligands has provided the mechanistic basis and the pharmacological means to investigate this enticing possibility. This review discusses in molecular terms the connection between the neurophysiology of pungent spices and the "systemic" effects associated to their trigeminality. It commences with a cultural and historical overview on the Western fascination for spices, and, after analysing in detail the mechanisms underlying the trigeminality of food, the main dietary players from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are introduced, also discussing the "alien" distribution of taste receptors outside the oro-pharingeal cavity. The modulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by spices is next described, discussing how spicy sensations can be turned into hedonic pungency, and analyzing the mechanistic bases for the health benefits that have been associated to the consumption of spices. These include, in addition to a beneficial modulation of gastro-intestinal and cardio-vascular function, slimming, the optimization of skeletal muscle performance, the reduction of chronic inflammation, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We conclude by reviewing the role of electrophilic spice constituents on cancer prevention in the light of their action on pro-inflammatory and pro-cancerogenic nuclear factors like NFκB, and on their interaction with the electrophile sensor protein Keap1 and the ensuing Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. Spicy compounds have a complex polypharmacology, and just like any other bioactive agent, show a balance of beneficial and bad actions. However, at least for moderate consumption, the balance seems definitely in favour of the positive side, suggesting that a spicy diet, a caveman
Variations in epidemic distribution with some characteristic parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhen-Zhen; Wang Xing-Yuan; Wang Mao-Ji
2012-01-01
Considering the spread of an epidemic among a population of mobile agents that can get infected and maintain the infection for a period,we investigate the variation in the homogeneity of the distribution of the epidemic with the remaining time of infection τ,the velocity modulus of the agent υ,and the infection rate α.We find that the distribution of the infected cluster size is always exponential.By analyzing the variation of the characteristic infected cluster size coefficient,we show that the inhomogeneity of epidemic distribution increases with an increase in τ for very low υ,while it decreases with an increase in τ for moderate υ.The epidemic distribution also tends to a homogeneous state as both υ and α increase.
Simulated Galactic methanol maser distribution to constrain Milky Way parameters
Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Reid, M. J.; Green, J. A.
2017-08-01
Context. Using trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of masers associated with massive young stars, the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy (BeSSeL) survey has reported the most accurate values of the Galactic parameters so far. The determination of these parameters with high accuracy has a widespread impact on Galactic and extragalactic measurements. Aims: This research is aimed at establishing the confidence with which such parameters can be determined. This is relevant for the data published in the context of the BeSSeL survey collaboration, but also for future observations, in particular from the southern hemisphere. In addition, some astrophysical properties of the masers can be constrained, notably the luminosity function. Methods: We have simulated the population of maser-bearing young stars associated with Galactic spiral structure, generating several samples and comparing them with the observed samples used in the BeSSeL survey. Consequently, we checked the determination of Galactic parameters for observational biases introduced by the sample selection. Results: Galactic parameters obtained by the BeSSeL survey do not seem to be biased by the sample selection used. In fact, the published error estimates appear to be conservative for most of the parameters. We show that future BeSSeL data and future observations with southern arrays will improve the Galactic parameters estimates and smoothly reduce their mutual correlation. Moreover, by modeling future parallax data with larger distance values and, thus, greater relative uncertainties for a larger numbers of sources, we found that parallax-distance biasing is an important issue. Hence, using fractional parallax uncertainty in the weighting of the motion data is imperative. Finally, the luminosity function for 6.7 GHz methanol masers was determined, allowing us to estimate the number of Galactic methanol masers.
SPICES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: A REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saha Rajsekhar
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The sources of drug are classified as plant, animal, minerals sources. The products from plants are used in many ways by human in there day today life. The best and the most important use are as food, and as spices. It does not matter which ever the civilization, what ever be the race and color of humans the main food comes from the plant. The spices are the vegetative substances used for to flavor the food. They are also used as preservative and are useful for the humans in many other ways. A spice could be dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavor a dish or to hide other flavors. In the kitchen, spices are distinguished from herbs, which are leafy, green plant parts used for flavoring or as garnish. The above article is an effort to bring out the importance of some daily used spices as antimicrobial agents.
Cubic spline approximation techniques for parameter estimation in distributed systems
Banks, H. T.; Crowley, J. M.; Kunisch, K.
1983-01-01
Approximation schemes employing cubic splines in the context of a linear semigroup framework are developed for both parabolic and hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation parameter estimation problems. Convergence results are established for problems with linear and nonlinear systems, and a summary of numerical experiments with the techniques proposed is given.
Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices
Ortolano, Massimo
2015-01-01
Quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices are a pillar of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided.
Improving Distribution Resiliency with Microgrids and State and Parameter Estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Kevin P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, Yannan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Yin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2015-09-30
Modern society relies on low-cost reliable electrical power, both to maintain industry, as well as provide basic social services to the populace. When major disturbances occur, such as Hurricane Katrina or Hurricane Sandy, the nation’s electrical infrastructure can experience significant outages. To help prevent the spread of these outages, as well as facilitating faster restoration after an outage, various aspects of improving the resiliency of the power system are needed. Two such approaches are breaking the system into smaller microgrid sections, and to have improved insight into the operations to detect failures or mis-operations before they become critical. Breaking the system into smaller sections of microgrid islands, power can be maintained in smaller areas where distribution generation and energy storage resources are still available, but bulk power generation is no longer connected. Additionally, microgrid systems can maintain service to local pockets of customers when there has been extensive damage to the local distribution system. However, microgrids are grid connected a majority of the time and implementing and operating a microgrid is much different than when islanded. This report discusses work conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory that developed improvements for simulation tools to capture the characteristics of microgrids and how they can be used to develop new operational strategies. These operational strategies reduce the cost of microgrid operation and increase the reliability and resilience of the nation’s electricity infrastructure. In addition to the ability to break the system into microgrids, improved observability into the state of the distribution grid can make the power system more resilient. State estimation on the transmission system already provides great insight into grid operations and detecting abnormal conditions by leveraging existing measurements. These transmission-level approaches are expanded to using
A spectroscopic charge pumping model in spice for the low dimensional MOSFET's
Kahouadji, M.; Djahli, F.
2002-01-01
We have simulated the experimental spectroscopic charge pumping technique by the implementation of a model in the electrical simulator SPICE3F4. This model takes into account the temperature effect on the geometrical and electrical parameters of the studied transistor. The simulated results are in a good agreement with recent and different experimental results.
Modeling and Control in Distributed Parameter Physical Systems.
2007-11-02
describe the transport of solutes within the liver. Our particular interest is the chemical compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachloroclibenzo-p-dioxin ( TCDD ). TCDD ...herbicides. In particular, TCDD is an unwanted by- product in the manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) which was a primary component...describe the hep- atic uptake, distribution, and elimination of TCDD have generally used the well- stirred or venous-equilibrium model to describe
On Parameters Estimation of Lomax Distribution under General Progressive Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bander Al-Zahrani
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the estimation problem of the probability S=P(Y
Influence of heat sterilization on the organoleptic quality of spices
Maarse, H.; Nijssen, L.M.; Nowak, M.
1982-01-01
Heat sterilization and storage of food products containing spices often results in a change of their organoleptic quality. Our knowledge about the stability of individual spices, however, is low. Therefore the heat stability of 8 different spices most frequently used has been investigated: cinnamon,
Influence of heat sterilization on the organoleptic quality of spices
Maarse, H.; Nijssen, L.M.; Nowak, M.
1982-01-01
Heat sterilization and storage of food products containing spices often results in a change of their organoleptic quality. Our knowledge about the stability of individual spices, however, is low. Therefore the heat stability of 8 different spices most frequently used has been investigated: cinnamon,
A TRUST REGION METHOD FOR SOLVING DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yan-fei Wang; Ya-xiang Yuan
2003-01-01
This paper is concerned with the ill-posed problems of identifying a parameter in an elliptic equation which appears in many applications in science and industry. Its solution is obtained by applying trust region method to a nonlinear least squares error problem.Trust region method has long been a popular method for well-posed problems. This paper indicates that it is also suitable for ill-posed problems. Numerical experiment is given to compare the trust region method with the Tikhonov regularization method. It seems that the trust region method is more promising.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rania, M. Shalaby
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with Bayesian and non-Bayesian methods for estimating parameters of the bivariate Pareto (BP distribution based on censored samples are considered with shape parameters λ and known scale parameter β. The maximum likelihood estimators MLE of the unknown parameters are derived. The Bayes estimators are obtained with respect to the squared error loss function and the prior distributions allow for prior dependence among the components of the parameter vector. .Posterior distributions for parameters of interest are derived and their properties are described. If the scale parameter is known, the Bayes estimators of the unknown parameters can be obtained in explicit forms under the assumptions of independent priors. An extensive computer simulation is used to compare the performance of the proposed estimators using MathCAD (14.
Simulation of a class of delay stochastic system with distributed parameter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Song Yanan; Deng Feiqi; Luo Qi
2005-01-01
Simulation of a class of delay stochastic system with distributed parameter is discussed. Difference schemes for the numerical computation of delay stochastic system are obtained. The precision of the difference scheme and the efficiency of the difference scheme in simulation of delay stochastic system with distributed parameter are analyzed. Examples are given to illustrate the application of the method.
Asymptotic Results for the Two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet Distribution
Feng, Shui
2009-01-01
The two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet distribution is the law of a sequence of decreasing nonnegative random variables with total sum one. It can be constructed from stable and Gamma subordinators with the two-parameters, $\\alpha$ and $\\theta$, corresponding to the stable component and Gamma component respectively. The moderate deviation principles are established for the two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet distribution and the corresponding homozygosity when $\\theta$ approaches infinity, and the large deviation principle is established for the two-parameter Poisson-Dirichlet distribution when both $\\alpha$ and $\\theta$ approach zero.
A Comparison of Estimation Techniques for the Three Parameter Pareto Distribution
1985-12-01
1897 Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), an Italian-born Swiss professor of economics, formulated an empirical law which bears his name (16:233). Pareto’s Law...DTIC00• _ZLECTE! CD S A COMPARISON OF ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR THICTHE REE PARAMETER PARETO DISTRIBUTION THESIS "Dennis J. Charek Major, USAF AFIT...TECHNIQUES FOR THE THREE PARAMETER PARETO DISTRIBUTION THESIS Dennis J. Charek Major, USAF AFIT/GSO/MA/8SD-3 Approved for public release; distribution
SAMDIST: A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leal, L.C.
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
SAMDIST A Computer Code for Calculating Statistical Distributions for R-Matrix Resonance Parameters
Leal, L C
1995-01-01
The: SAMDIST computer code has been developed to calculate distribution of resonance parameters of the Reich-Moore R-matrix type. The program assumes the parameters are in the format compatible with that of the multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. SAMDIST calculates the energy-level spacing distribution, the resonance width distribution, and the long-range correlation of the energy levels. Results of these calculations are presented in both graphic and tabular forms.
Zhangcha Duck (Spiced and Smoked Duck)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Preparation: Buy a ready cooked Zhangcha Duck—a kind of duck stewed in sugar, spiced with tea leaves and smoked, which can be bought at the takeout departments of many Chinese restaurants. Bring the duck home and fry in oil until the skin is crisp. Slice thickly and serve with steamed bread, sliced
Experience with spice teaching power electronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2009-01-01
A free Spice version allowing general circuit simulation is used teaching power electronics. There is no lock on the circuit size, stabile and user friendly operation is experienced. A collection of transformer, converter and drive system models are implemented to investigate the usability...... of the programme in high power electronics....
The impact of spices on vegetable consumption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona
2015-01-01
in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...
Spices: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Health.
Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh
2017-01-01
Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to provide information on the recent scientific findings on some common spices that have a distinct place in folk medicine in several of the Asian countries as well as on their traditional uses for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases and which may be useful in defining cost effective and inexpensive interventions for the prevention and control of CVDs. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peerreviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the recent scientific findings on four common spices viz. Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases. Although they have been used by many cultures since ancient times and have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties, current research shows that they can also be effectively used for the prevention and control of CVDs. Although scientific evidences supporting
NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF FOUR COMMON SPICES USED IN DENTISTRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjan Katyal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Spices are used for aroma, flavor, colour and preservation of foodstuff. Spices may be derived from many parts of the plant viz bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves, rhizomes, roots, seeds and the entire plant. Spices are frequently desiccated, dehydrated, processed or distilled to prepare extracts such as essential oils from the raw spice material. These processing techniques may hamper the nutritional aspect of these spices. Moreover, the pharmacological activity of these spices is also altered by these processing methods. Better nutritional prospect of any natural product helps in proper growth of gums in case of dentistry. The current review tries to focus on the nutritional aspects of four common spices used in dentistry.
Mycotoxins in spices and herbs-An update.
Kabak, Bulent; Dobson, Alan D W
2017-01-02
Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature. However, spices and herbs cultivated mainly in tropic and subtropic areas can be exposed to contamination with toxigenic fungi and subsequently mycotoxins. This review provides an overview on the mycotoxin risk in widely consumed spices and aromatic herbs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzin Shabani
Full Text Available Using CLIMEX and the Taguchi Method, a process-based niche model was developed to estimate potential distributions of Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm, an economically important crop in many counties. Development of the model was based on both its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out in terms of its extensive distribution in Iran. To identify model parameters having greatest influence on distribution of date palm, a sensitivity analysis was carried out. Changes in suitability were established by mapping of regions where the estimated distribution changed with parameter alterations. This facilitated the assessment of certain areas in Iran where parameter modifications impacted the most, particularly in relation to suitable and highly suitable locations. Parameter sensitivities were also evaluated by the calculation of area changes within the suitable and highly suitable categories. The low temperature limit (DV2, high temperature limit (DV3, upper optimal temperature (SM2 and high soil moisture limit (SM3 had the greatest impact on sensitivity, while other parameters showed relatively less sensitivity or were insensitive to change. For an accurate fit in species distribution models, highly sensitive parameters require more extensive research and data collection methods. Results of this study demonstrate a more cost effective method for developing date palm distribution models, an integral element in species management, and may prove useful for streamlining requirements for data collection in potential distribution modeling for other species as well.
Sensitivity analysis of CLIMEX parameters in modelling potential distribution of Lantana camara L.
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Subhashni Taylor
Full Text Available A process-based niche model of L. camara L. (lantana, a highly invasive shrub species, was developed to estimate its potential distribution using CLIMEX. Model development was carried out using its native and invasive distribution and validation was carried out with the extensive Australian distribution. A good fit was observed, with 86.7% of herbarium specimens collected in Australia occurring within the suitable and highly suitable categories. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the model parameters that had the most influence on lantana distribution. The changes in suitability were assessed by mapping the regions where the distribution changed with each parameter alteration. This allowed an assessment of where, within Australia, the modification of each parameter was having the most impact, particularly in terms of the suitable and highly suitable locations. The sensitivity of various parameters was also evaluated by calculating the changes in area within the suitable and highly suitable categories. The limiting low temperature (DV0, limiting high temperature (DV3 and limiting low soil moisture (SM0 showed highest sensitivity to change. The other model parameters were relatively insensitive to change. Highly sensitive parameters require extensive research and data collection to be fitted accurately in species distribution models. The results from this study can inform more cost effective development of species distribution models for lantana. Such models form an integral part of the management of invasive species and the results can be used to streamline data collection requirements for potential distribution modelling.
Distributed parameter modeling and thermal analysis of a spiral water wall in a supercritical boiler
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Zheng Shu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed parameter model for the evaporation system of a supercritical spiral water wall boiler is developed based on a 3-D temperature field. The mathematical method is formulated for predicting the heat flux and the metal-surface temperature. The results show that the influence of the heat flux distribution is more obvious than that of the heat transfer coefficient distribution in the spiral water wall tube, and the peak of the heat transfer coefficient decreases with an increment of supercritical pressure. This distributed parameter model can be used for a 600 MW supercritical-pressure power plant.
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Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we develop approximate Bayes estimators of the parameters,reliability, and hazard rate functions of the Logistic distribution by using Lindley’sapproximation, based on progressively type-II censoring samples. Noninformativeprior distributions are used for the parameters. Quadratic, linexand general Entropy loss functions are used. The statistical performances of theBayes estimates relative to quadratic, linex and general entropy loss functionsare compared to those of the maximum likelihood based on simulation study.
SPICE ROUTE: LOGISTIC JOURNEY OF SPICES IN RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN PERSPECTIVE
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Paulrajan Rajkumar
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the study of the routes and the distance traveled by spices from the farming location to the consumer in traditional and organised retailing. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaires with players in the spice supply chain. The study is to track the spice routes by the retailers for assessing the current state of the supply chain management practices, and evaluate ‘food mileage’ clocked by them. ‘Food miles’ is a relatively recent concept in retailing and result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in the case of organised retailers. Longer food miles of spices are an indicator of the shift towards organised retailing. The speed at which spices reach their destination as well as the time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study, and also the scope for further research. The research study is not aimed at finding the factors related to the food mileage.
Three-parameter discontinuous distributions for hydrological samples with zero values
Weglarczyk, Stanislaw; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Singh, Vijay P.
2005-10-01
A consistent approach to the frequency analysis of hydrologic data in arid and semiarid regions, i.e. the data series containing several zero values (e.g. monthly precipitation in dry seasons, annual peak flow discharges, etc.), requires using discontinuous probability distribution functions. Such an approach has received relatively limited attention. Along the lines of physically based models, the extensions of the Muskingum-based models to three parameter forms are considered. Using 44 peak flow series from the USGS data bank, the fitting ability of four three-parameter models was investigated: (1) the Dirac delta combined with Gamma distribution; (2) the Dirac delta combined with two-parameter generalized Pareto distribution; (3) the Dirac delta combined with two-parameter Weibull (DWe) distribution; (4) the kinematic diffusion with one additional parameter that controls the probability of the zero event (KD3). The goodness of fit of the models was assessed and compared both by evaluation of discrepancies between the results of both estimation methods (i.e. the method of moments (MOM) and the maximum likelihood method (MLM)) and using the log of likelihood function as a criterion. In most cases, the DWe distribution with MLM-estimated parameters showed the best fit of all the three-parameter models.
[Determination of ochratoxin a in spices].
Czerwiecki, Ludwik; Wilczyńska, Grazyna
2005-01-01
The method of determination of ochratoxin A in some spices: coriander, cloves, ginger, paprika, black pepper was described. Depending on kind of matrix, extraction with metanol/water (80/20) or with solution of 1% NaHCO3 and several variants of clean-up on IAC columns were investigated. The most useful extraction solvent appeared water solution of 1% NaHCO3. In case of cloves only, none of the methods of extraction and clean-up variants was appropriate. The mean recovery of the method, dependent on kind of sample, was 61-82% and RSD% 1.4 and 7.8. The estimated LOD and LOQ were 0.02 and 0.06 microg/kg, respectively. In samples of spice used for method preparation, ochratoxin A was detected on the level 3.4-4.6 microg/kg.
Sharma, Pratibha; Walker, Alex; Wheeldon, Jeff; Schriemer, Henry; Hinzer, Karin
2013-10-01
Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology has come a long way, with multi-junction solar cell efficiencies now reaching up to 44.4%. Front contact grid design, crucial for improving efficiency, is typically performed for uniform illumination, but this does not account for the real world conditions of non-homogeneous irradiance distributions. In this work, we aim to optimize finger spacing for a linear grid under non-uniform illumination by using Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) analysis. A two-dimensional distributed resistance model is used to simulate a lattice matched, triple-junction solar cell whose design parameters are determined by curve-fitting current-voltage curves from each sub-cell to a two-diode equivalent-circuit model. Cell efficiency is considered to be a unimodal function that varies with finger spacing so a golden-section search optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal spacing. Various Gaussian profiles are used to simulate non-uniform illumination and their effects on device performance. Designs based on optimal spacing for non-uniform illumination show an efficiency increase of more than 0.5% absolute at concentrations greater than 500 suns.
From conservation laws to port-Hamiltonian representations of distributed-parameter systems
Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, van der A.J.; Piztek, P.
2005-01-01
Abstract: In this paper it is shown how the port-Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems is closely related to the general thermodynamic framework of systems of conservation laws and closure equations. The situation turns out to be similar to the lumped-parameter case where the Dira
Simulation MLE of Parameters of the Mixture Distribution in the Presence of Two Outliers
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Einolah Deiri
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the presence paper, we deal with the estimation of parameters of the Exponentiated Gamma (EG distribution with presence of multiple(r=2 outliers. The maximum likelihood and moment of the estimators are derived. These estimators are compared empirically using Monte Carlo simulation when all the parameters are unknown. There bias and MSE are investigated with help of numerical technique.
Spatial variability of the parameters of a semi-distributed hydrological model
de Lavenne, Alban; Thirel, Guillaume; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles; Ramos, Maria-Helena
2016-05-01
Ideally, semi-distributed hydrologic models should provide better streamflow simulations than lumped models, along with spatially-relevant water resources management solutions. However, the spatial distribution of model parameters raises issues related to the calibration strategy and to the identifiability of the parameters. To analyse these issues, we propose to base the evaluation of a semi-distributed model not only on its performance at streamflow gauging stations, but also on the spatial and temporal pattern of the optimised value of its parameters. We implemented calibration over 21 rolling periods and 64 catchments, and we analysed how well each parameter is identified in time and space. Performance and parameter identifiability are analysed comparatively to the calibration of the lumped version of the same model. We show that the semi-distributed model faces more difficulties to identify stable optimal parameter sets. The main difficulty lies in the identification of the parameters responsible for the closure of the water balance (i.e. for the particular model investigated, the intercatchment groundwater flow parameter).
SURVEY ON MEDICINAL SPICES OF THE NILGIRIS
Viswanathan, K.
1995-01-01
A survey is made on the medicinal spices of the Nilgiris. Totally, there are 25 species available in various parts of the Nilgiris and they belong to 16 different families of angiosperms. Gudalur, Kothagiri, Kookalthorai, Aruvankadu, Coonoor, Burliar, Masinagudi and Ootacamund are some of the important places in the Nilgiris have a variety of medicinal properties that are put to use in homoeopathic and ayurvedic preparations.
Survey on medicinal spices of the nilgiris.
Viswanathan, K
1995-04-01
A survey is made on the medicinal spices of the Nilgiris. Totally, there are 25 species available in various parts of the Nilgiris and they belong to 16 different families of angiosperms. Gudalur, Kothagiri, Kookalthorai, Aruvankadu, Coonoor, Burliar, Masinagudi and Ootacamund are some of the important places in the Nilgiris have a variety of medicinal properties that are put to use in homoeopathic and ayurvedic preparations.
Spice Modeling of the Vilnius Chaotic Oscillator
Peters, R D
2005-01-01
``A simple chaotic oscillator for educational purposes'' was recently described in the literature [1]. In addition to their hardware description, the authors of this paper generated a bifurcation diagram from the model equations presented in their paper. In the present treatment of their circuit the `simulation program for integrated circuit engineering' (Spice) has been used to generate some insightful graphs that were not shown by the Lithuania group.
MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF RETAIL HERBS AND SPICES
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A. Santoro
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In the present study, 80 samples of herbs and spices were analyzed for the presence of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp., , Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriacaee, total mesophilic and psychrophilic aerobic organisms, and fungi. Samples were packaged in polyethylene bags or glass containers.High levels of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms were found in most of the samples. B. cereus was present in 27 samples, Clostrium perfringens was isolated from 3 samples, Salmonella spp. was not detected.
Identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method (TL)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))
In this paper the results of the investigation of identification of irradiated spices by the use of thermoluminescence method is reported. The materials used were black and red peppers, turmeric, cinnamon, and garlic powder. Gamma Cell 220 was used for irradiating samples at dose values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy respectively. The TL intensity of the unirradiated spices as well as the fading characteristics of the irradiated samples having received a dose of 10 kGy have been measured. Post-irradiation temperature treatment of the irradiated (10 kGy) and unirradiated samples at 60[sup o]C and 100[sup o]C for 24 hours have also been performed. The results show that the TL intensities of unirradiated and irradiated samples from different batches of each spice are fairly distributed. A reasonable TL intensity versus dose has been observed in nearly all cases. Based on the observation made it is possible to distinguish irradiated spices after (4-9) months post-irradiation. (author).
The Distribution Population-based Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Optimization PID Controller
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENQing-Geng; WANGNing; HUANGShao-Feng
2005-01-01
Enlightened by distribution of creatures in natural ecology environment, the distribution population-based genetic algorithm (DPGA) is presented in this paper. The searching capability of the algorithm is improved by competition between distribution populations to reduce the search zone.This method is applied to design of optimal parameters of PID controllers with examples, and the simulation results show that satisfactory performances are obtained.
Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices
Alberto Ritieni; Vincenzo Fogliano; Rosalia Ferracane; Giulia Graziani; Monica Gallo
2010-01-01
Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanic...
Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ibrahim; Abdulkarim; Al; Mofleh
2010-01-01
Spices and herbal remedies have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of disorders. It has been experimentally demonstrated that spices, herbs, and their extracts possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antimutagenic and anticancer activities, besides their gastroprotective and anti-ulcer activities. Despite a number of reports on the toxicity of herbs and spices, they are generally accepted as safer alternatives to conventional...
Validation of InnoSPICE for technology transfer
Mitašiūnas, Antanas; Besson, Jeremy Daniel; Boronowsky, Michael; Woronowicz, Tanja
2015-01-01
Innovation and technology transfer consist mainly of process-oriented activities and can be described in process-oriented terms by an innovation and technology transfer process capability model such as InnoSPICE. To verify such a thesis, an extended validation of the InnoSPICE adequacy for different factual innovation and technology transfer activities is needed. The purpose of this paper is to validate the InnoSPICE model for technology transfer led by a technology developer based on capabil...
On the Electrical and Magnetic Properties of some Indian Spices
Baby, Samson K
2010-01-01
We have made experimental measurements of electrical conductivity, pH and relative magnetic susceptibility of the aqueous solutions of 24 indian spices. The measured values of electrical conductance of these spices are found to be linearly related to their ash content and bulk calorific values reported in literature. The physiological relevance of the pH and diamagnetic susceptibility of spices when consumed as food or medicine will be also discussed.
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Anupam Pathak
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Problem Statement: The two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution has been widely used especially in the modelling of life time event data. It provides a statistical model which has a wide variety of application in many areas and the main advantage is its ability in the context of life time event among other distributions. The uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimation methods are the way to estimate the parameters of the distribution. In this study we explore and compare the performance of the uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the reliability function R(t=P(X>t and P=P(X>Y for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution. Approach: A new technique of obtaining these parametric functions is introduced in which major role is played by the powers of the parameter(s and the functional forms of the parametric functions to be estimated are not needed. We explore the performance of these estimators numerically under varying conditions. Through the simulation study a comparison are made on the performance of these estimators with respect to the Biasness, Mean Square Error (MSE, 95% confidence length and corresponding coverage percentage. Conclusion: Based on the results of simulation study the UMVUES of R(t and ‘P’ for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution found to be superior than MLES of R(t and ‘P’.
Estimating the distribution of radionuclides in agricultural soils - dependence on soil parameters.
Hormann, Volker; Fischer, Helmut W
2013-10-01
In this study it is shown how radionuclide distributions in agricultural soils and their dependence on soil parameters can be quantitatively estimated. The most important sorption and speciation processes have been implemented into a numerical model using the geochemical code PHREEQC that is able to include specific soil and soil solution compositions. Using this model, distribution coefficients (Kd values) for the elements Cs, Ni, U and Se have been calculated for two different soil types. Furthermore, the dependencies of these Kd values on various soil parameters (e.g. pH value or organic matter content) have been evaluated. It is shown that for each element, an individual set of soil parameters is relevant for its solid-liquid distribution. The model may be used for the calculation of input parameters used by reference biosphere models (e.g. used for the risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors
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Jilin Zhang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT. Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP, which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS. This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.
A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors.
Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei
2017-09-21
In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.
The effects spicing on quality of mozzarella cheese
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G. Akarca
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, 3 different spice mixes were added just after blanching to mozzarella cheese produced by high moisture production method. The dough was kneaded and filled into to fibrous cases. After filling process, cheeses were stored for 28 days at 4 °C and 85 % of relative humidity. The following characteristics were measured: color parameters, milk acidity, total dry matter, maturation index, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, coagulase positive staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, species of Lactococcus bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, lipolytic bacteria and mold /yeast count were examined on 0, 5, 15,21 and 28 days after storage. Although L* (lightness and a* (redness values decreased during storage period, while moreover b* (yellowness values increased. In addition acidity, dry matter and maturation index values increased during storage. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus spp., lipolytic bacteria and mold/ yeast counts decreased, but proteolytic bacteria count increased.
Frank, T. D.; Kim, S.; Dotov, D. G.
2013-11-01
Canonical-dissipative nonequilibrium energy distributions play an important role in the life sciences. In one of the most fundamental forms, such energy distributions correspond to two-parametric normal distributions truncated to the left. We present an implicit moment method involving the first and second energy moments to estimate the distribution parameters. It is shown that the method is consistent with Cohen's 1949 formula. The implementation of the algorithm is discussed and the range of admissible parameter values is identified. In addition, an application to an earlier study on human oscillatory hand movements is presented. In this earlier study, energy was conceptualized as the energy of a Hamiltonian oscillator model. The canonical-dissipative approach allows for studying the systematic change of the model parameters with oscillation frequency. It is shown that the results obtained with the implicit moment method are consistent with those derived in the earlier study by other means.
Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)
1999-09-01
Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)
Detection of irradiated spices by different physical techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chabane, S. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, LARQUA, CEA/DSV/DEVM, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France); Pouliquen-Sonaglia, I. [Laboratoire de Methodologie de la Recherche Experimentale, LMRE, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France); Raffi, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Qualite des Aliments, LARQUA, CEA/DSV/DEVM, Faculte de Saint-Jerome, Marseille (France)
2001-02-01
We used thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, and viscosimetric measurements to establish whether or not a spice had been irradiated. Thermoluminescence, using the 1788 EN official protocol with an alternative method for the extraction of mineral impurities, led to proof of irradiation or proof of no treatment. Electron spin resonance led to different spectrum shapes depending on the chemical composition of the spices; ESR could only be used as proof of irradiation up to several weeks after irradiation, and only for some spices. Viscosimetric measurements carried out on spice suspensions led to a presumption of treatment (or of no treatment) and possibly to of of irradiation. (author)
Influence of Processing Parameters on Granularity Distribution of Superalloy Powders during PREP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huanming CHEN; Benfu HU; Yiwen ZHANG; Huiying LI; Quanmao YU
2003-01-01
In order to investigate the influence of processing parameters on the granularity distribution of superalloy powders during the atomization of plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP), in this paper FGH95 superalloy powders is prepared under different processing conditions by PREP and the influence of PREP processing parameters on the granularity distribution of FGH95 superalloy powders is discussed based on fractal geometry theory. The results show that with the increase of rotating velocity of the self-consuming electrode, the fractal dimension of the granularity distribution increases linearly, which results in the increase of the proportion of smaller powders. The change of interval between plasma gun and the self-consuming electrode has a little effect on the granularity distribution, also the fractal dimension of the granularity distribution changed a little correspondingly.
Roll maneuvering of flexible aircraft with distributed-parameter actuation via modal synthesis
Oz, Hayrani; Khot, Narendra S.
1999-06-01
The focus is on obtaining and identifying optimal distributed- parameter-control equivalent actuation profiles for desired roll maneuvers by a modal synthesis approach. The solution for distributed-parameter-control of an aeroelastic system is developed by synthesis of modal-state-space controllers designed via the globally power optimal Independent Modal- Space Control (IMSC) technique. The desired maneuver (set- point) control performance is achieved by a modal-performance- output synthesis (MPOS) approach. The MPOS approach requires that each independent modal controller be allocated a desired portion of the total desired output performance. In view of this, a modal performance-output allocation optimization problem is also defined, which minimizes a hybrid measure of control power and elastic strain energy of the structure during aeroelastic control. Insight to distributed-parameter- control equivalent actuation solutions are sought by considering the aeroservoelastic interactions among vehicle motion, aerodynamics, structural flexibility and control actuators from the perspective of work-energy, control power, and control loading requirements. The modal synthesis approach is illustrated for a flight vehicle wing design to achieve a 90 deg/sec roll-rate in a Mach 2 flight condition at altitude (20000 ft) via distributed-parameter equivalent actuation. The preliminary results indicate that such a roll-rate maneuver can be accomplished via distributed-parameter actuation with feasible levels of control power, work-energy, and control loadings through eliciting favorable aeroservoelastic interactions.
Off-line tracking of series parameters in distribution systems using AMI data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin
2016-05-01
Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.
Pasari, S.; Kundu, D.; Dikshit, O.
2012-12-01
Earthquake recurrence interval is one of the important ingredients towards probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for any location. Exponential, gamma, Weibull and lognormal distributions are quite established probability models in this recurrence interval estimation. However, they have certain shortcomings too. Thus, it is imperative to search for some alternative sophisticated distributions. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter (location, scale and shape) exponentiated exponential distribution and investigate the scope of this distribution as an alternative of the afore-mentioned distributions in earthquake recurrence studies. This distribution is a particular member of the exponentiated Weibull distribution. Despite of its complicated form, it is widely accepted in medical and biological applications. Furthermore, it shares many physical properties with gamma and Weibull family. Unlike gamma distribution, the hazard function of generalized exponential distribution can be easily computed even if the shape parameter is not an integer. To contemplate the plausibility of this model, a complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogue of 20 events (M ≥ 7.0) spanning for the period 1846 to 1995 from North-East Himalayan region (20-32 deg N and 87-100 deg E) has been used. The model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and method of moment estimator (MOME). No geological or geophysical evidences have been considered in this calculation. The estimated conditional probability reaches quite high after about a decade for an elapsed time of 17 years (i.e. 2012). Moreover, this study shows that the generalized exponential distribution fits the above data events more closely compared to the conventional models and hence it is tentatively concluded that generalized exponential distribution can be effectively considered in earthquake recurrence studies.
SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining
Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.
2013-01-01
SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community
Distributed and decentralized state estimation in gas networks as distributed parameter systems.
Ahmadian Behrooz, Hesam; Boozarjomehry, R Bozorgmehry
2015-09-01
In this paper, a framework for distributed and decentralized state estimation in high-pressure and long-distance gas transmission networks (GTNs) is proposed. The non-isothermal model of the plant including mass, momentum and energy balance equations are used to simulate the dynamic behavior. Due to several disadvantages of implementing a centralized Kalman filter for large-scale systems, the continuous/discrete form of extended Kalman filter for distributed and decentralized estimation (DDE) has been extended for these systems. Accordingly, the global model is decomposed into several subsystems, called local models. Some heuristic rules are suggested for system decomposition in gas pipeline networks. In the construction of local models, due to the existence of common states and interconnections among the subsystems, the assimilation and prediction steps of the Kalman filter are modified to take the overlapping and external states into account. However, dynamic Riccati equation for each subsystem is constructed based on the local model, which introduces a maximum error of 5% in the estimated standard deviation of the states in the benchmarks studied in this paper. The performance of the proposed methodology has been shown based on the comparison of its accuracy and computational demands against their counterparts in centralized Kalman filter for two viable benchmarks. In a real life network, it is shown that while the accuracy is not significantly decreased, the real-time factor of the state estimation is increased by a factor of 10.
Rau, Markus Michael; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella
2016-01-01
Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by common suboptimal binning techniques and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to $6 \\, \\sigma$ for the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalised resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surve...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patarawan Sangnawakij
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The problem of estimating parameters in a gamma distribution has been widely studied with respect to both theories and applications. In special cases, when the parameter space is bounded, the construction of the confidence interval based on the classical Neyman procedure is unsatisfactory because the information regarding the restriction of the parameter is disregarded. In order to develop the estimator for this issue, the confidence intervals for the coefficient of variation for the case of a gamma distribution were proposed. Extending to two populations, the confidence intervals for the difference and the ratio of coefficients of variation with restricted parameters were presented. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the performance of the proposed estimators. The results showed that the proposed confidence intervals performed better than the compared estimators in terms of expected length, especially when the coefficients of variation were close to the boundary. Additionally, two examples using real data were analyzed to illustrate the findings of the paper.
Parameter estimation in nonlinear distributed systems - Approximation theory and convergence results
Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.
1988-01-01
An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory is described for Galerkin approximations applied to inverse problems involving nonlinear distributed parameter systems. Parameter estimation problems are considered and formulated as the minimization of a least-squares-like performance index over a compact admissible parameter set subject to state constraints given by an inhomogeneous nonlinear distributed system. The theory applies to systems whose dynamics can be described by either time-independent or nonstationary strongly maximal monotonic operators defined on a reflexive Banach space which is densely and continuously embedded in a Hilbert space. It is demonstrated that if readily verifiable conditions on the system's dependence on the unknown parameters are satisfied, and the usual Galerkin approximation assumption holds, then solutions to the approximating problems exist and approximate a solution to the original infinite-dimensional identification problem.
Parameter estimation for the Pearson type 3 distribution using order statistics
Rocky Durrans, S.
1992-05-01
The Pearson type 3 distribution and its relatives, the log Pearson type 3 and gamma family of distributions, are among the most widely applied in the field of hydrology. Parameter estimation for these distributions has been accomplished using the method of moments, the methods of mixed moments and generalized moments, and the methods of maximum likelihood and maximum entropy. This study evaluates yet another estimation approach, which is based on the use of the properties of an extreme-order statistic. Based on the hypothesis that the population is distributed as Pearson type 3, this estimation approach yields both parameter and 100-year quantile estimators that have lower biases and variances than those of the method of moments approach as recommended by the US Water Resources Council.
Zalvidea; Colautti; Sicre
2000-05-01
An analysis of the Strehl ratio and the optical transfer function as imaging quality parameters of optical elements with enhanced focal length is carried out by employing the Wigner distribution function. To this end, we use four different pupil functions: a full circular aperture, a hyper-Gaussian aperture, a quartic phase plate, and a logarithmic phase mask. A comparison is performed between the quality parameters and test images formed by these pupil functions at different defocus distances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azam Zaka
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the modifications of maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators of the two parameter Power function distribution. Sampling behavior of the estimators is indicated by Monte Carlo simulation. For some combinations of parameter values, some of the modified estimators appear better than the traditional maximum likelihood, moments and percentile estimators with respect to bias, mean square error and total deviation.
Bayes Estimation of Shape Parameter of Minimax Distribution under Different Loss Functions
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Lanping Li
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The object of this study is to study the Bayes estimation of the unknown shape parameter of Minimax distribution. The prior distribution used here is the non-informative quasi-prior of the parameter. Bayes estimators are derived under squared error loss function and three asymmetric loss functions, which are the LINEX loss, precaution loss and entropy loss functions. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of these Bayes estimates under different situations. Finally, we summarize the result and give the conclusion of this study.
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Shujing Su
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.
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Xisheng Dai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Iterative learning control is an intelligent control algorithm which imitates human learning process. Based on this concept, this paper discussed iterative learning control problem for a class parabolic linear distributed parameter systems with uncertainty coefficients. Iterative learning control algorithm with forgetting factor is proposed and the conditions for convergence of algorithm are established. Combining the matrix theory with the basic theory of distributed parameter systems gives rigorous convergence proof of the algorithm. Finally, by using the forward difference scheme of partial differential equation to solve the problems, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm.
A Study on Spice Usage Habits of Women
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Yasemin Demircioglu
2007-06-01
Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the total of 662 women to determine their habits on the use of spices. The results indicated that 94.6% of women use spices at their home. When they cook meal, they generally use black pepper, red pepper flakes, pepper mint, oregano, red pepper and cumin. Sage, peppers mint and oregano are the most used spices for herbal therapy. Most of the women buy their spices on supermarket in wrapped products (67.1%, look the production and expiration dates of spices products (44.3%, keep them in colorless glass jar (63.6%, never consume expired date spices (88.8% and add spices to meal with a spoon that they use during meal preparation (48.2%. According to the results, the consumers should buy spices in a wrapped product with production and expiration dates from reliable companies. Morover, they must be kept from light, air, moisture and temperature and they must be kept in covered and dark-color glass jars and in cool places. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 161-168
The SPICE Center at Bluefield State College. Final Report.
Roberts, David Harrill
The writing center at Bluefield State College (West Virginia) is called the SPICE Center, SPICE being an acronym for Self Paced Instruction for Competency in English. In addition to emphasizing skill acquisition and flexibility, it stresses face-to-face evaluation of written work, and places heavy emphasis on writing as process instead of writing…
Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.
Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu
2016-10-02
Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs.
Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices
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Karan Dragica D.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.
Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE
Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated.
On the estimation of the structure parameter of a normal distribution of order p
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Angelo M. Mineo
2007-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we compare four different approaches to estimate the structure parameter of a normal distribution of order p (often called exponential power distribution. In particular, we have considered the maximization of the log-likelihood, of the profile log-likelihood, of the conditional profile log-likelihood and a method based on an index of kurtosis. The results of a simulation study seem to indicate the latter approach as the best.
Exact run length distribution of the double sampling x-bar chart with estimated process parameters
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Teoh, W. L.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Since the run length distribution is generally highly skewed, a significant concern about focusing too much on the average run length (ARL criterion is that we may miss some crucial information about a control chart’s performance. Thus it is important to investigate the entire run length distribution of a control chart for an in-depth understanding before implementing the chart in process monitoring. In this paper, the percentiles of the run length distribution for the double sampling (DS X chart with estimated process parameters are computed. Knowledge of the percentiles of the run length distribution provides a more comprehensive understanding of the expected behaviour of the run length. This additional information includes the early false alarm, the skewness of the run length distribution, and the median run length (MRL. A comparison of the run length distribution between the optimal ARL-based and MRL-based DS X chart with estimated process parameters is presented in this paper. Examples of applications are given to aid practitioners to select the best design scheme of the DS X chart with estimated process parameters, based on their specific purpose.
SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE) at TRIUMF-ISAC
Smallcombe, J.; Moukaddam, M.; Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hallam, S.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bolton, C.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Constable, M.; Cross, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R.; Ketelhut, S.; Kruecken, R.; Kurchaninov, L.; Park, J.; Pore, J. L.; Rand, E. T.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Smith, J. K.; Svensson, C. E.; Williams, M.
2016-09-01
A new ancillary detector, SPICE (SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons) has been constructed and recently commissioned for use with radioactive ion beams at the TRIUMF-ISAC II facility. SPICE is designed to be operated in conjunction with the TIGRESS High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) spectrometer to perform combined in-beam γ-ray and internal-conversion-electron spectroscopy. The main feature of SPICE is high effciency over a wide range of electron energies from 100 to 3500 keV, with an effective reduction of beam-induced backgrounds. SPICE will be a powerful tool to measure conversion coeffcients and E0 transitions in atomic nuclei. A recent in-beam commissioning experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of the basic design concept of SPICE in background suppression.
Dai, Mi; Wang, Yun
2016-06-01
In order to obtain robust cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, we have applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to SN Ia lightcurve fitting. We develop a method for sampling the resultant probability density distributions (pdf) of the SN Ia lightcuve parameters in the MCMC likelihood analysis to constrain cosmological parameters, and validate it using simulated data sets. Applying this method to the `joint lightcurve analysis (JLA)' data set of SNe Ia, we find that sampling the SN Ia lightcurve parameter pdf's leads to cosmological parameters closer to that of a flat Universe with a cosmological constant, compared to the usual practice of using only the best-fitting values of the SN Ia lightcurve parameters. Our method will be useful in the use of SN Ia data for precision cosmology.
Helsel, D.R.; Gilliom, R.J.
1986-01-01
Estimates of distributional parameters (mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range) are often desired for data sets containing censored observations. Eight methods for estimating these parameters have been evaluated by R. J. Gilliom and D. R. Helsel (this issue) using Monte Carlo simulations. To verify those findings, the same methods are now applied to actual water quality data. The best method (lowest root-mean-squared error (rmse)) over all parameters, sample sizes, and censoring levels is log probability regression (LR), the method found best in the Monte Carlo simulations. Best methods for estimating moment or percentile parameters separately are also identical to the simulations. Reliability of these estimates can be expressed as confidence intervals using rmse and bias values taken from the simulation results. Finally, a new simulation study shows that best methods for estimating uncensored sample statistics from censored data sets are identical to those for estimating population parameters.
Athira, P.; Sudheer, K.
2013-12-01
Parameter estimation is one of the major tasks in the application of any physics based distributed model. Generally the calibration does not consider the heterogeneity of the parameters across the basin, and as a result the model simulation conforms to the location for which it has been calibrated for. However, the major advantage of distributed hydrological models is to have reasonably good simulations on various locations in the watershed, including ungauged locations. While multi-site calibration can address this issue to some extent, the availability of more gauge sites in a watershed is always not guaranteed. When single site calibration is performed, generally a uniform variation of the parameters is considered across the basin which does not ensure the true heterogeneity of the parameters in the basin. The primary objective of this study is to compare the effect of uniform variation of the parameter with a procedure that identifies actual heterogeneity of the parameters across the basin, while performing calibration of distributed hydrological models. In order to demonstrate the objective, a case study of two watersheds in the USA using the model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is presented and discussed. Initially, the SWAT model is calibrated for both the watersheds in the traditional way considering uniform variation of the sensitive parameters during the calibration. Further, the hydrological response units (HRU) delineated in the SWAT are classified into various clusters based the land use, soil type and slope. A random perturbation of the parameters is performed in these clusters during calibration. The rationale behind this approach was to identify plausible parameter values that simulate the hydrological process in these clusters appropriately. The proposed procedure is applied to both the basins. The results indicate that the simulations obtained for upstream ungauged locations (other than that used for calibration) are much better when a
Kuleshova, E. O.; Plyusnin, A. A.; Shandarova, E. B.; Tikhomirova, O. V.
2016-04-01
This paper considers the simulation capability of nonuniform distributed-parameter circuit transients by using MatLab Simulink. This approach is capable of determining currents and voltages of nodes for power networks of any configurations and modes. The paper contains results of nonuniform line simulations in idle, short-circuit and load modes.
On modeling of lifetime data using two-parameter Gamma and Weibull distributions
Shanker, Rama; Shukla, Kamlesh Kumar; Shanker, Ravi; Leonida, Tekie Asehun
2016-01-01
The analysis and modeling of lifetime data are crucial in almost all applied sciences including medicine, insurance, engineering, behavioral sciences and finance, amongst others. The main objective of this paper is to have a comparative study of two-parameter gamma and Weibull distributions for mode
Eliciting hyperparameters of prior distributions for the parameters of paired comparison models
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Nasir Abbas
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA In the study of paired comparisons (PC, items may be ranked or issues may be prioritized through subjective assessment of certain judges. PC models are developed and then used to serve the purpose of ranking. The PC models may be studied through classical or Bayesian approach. Bayesian inference is a modern statistical technique used to draw conclusions about the population parameters. Its beauty lies in incorporating prior information about the parameters into the analysis in addition to current information (i.e. data. The prior and current information are formally combined to yield a posterior distribution about the population parameters, which is the work bench of the Bayesian statisticians. However, the problems the Bayesians face correspond to the selection and formal utilization of prior distribution. Once the type of prior distribution is decided to be used, the problem of estimating the parameters of the prior distribution (i.e. elicitation still persists. Different methods are devised to serve the purpose. In this study an attempt is made to use Minimum Chi-square (hence forth MCS for the elicitation purpose. Though it is a classical estimation technique, but is used here for the election purpose. The entire elicitation procedure is illustrated through a numerical data set.
Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
O'Leary, D P
2012-07-01
Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.
An EOQ Model with Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration and Price-Dependent Demand
Mukhopadhyay, Sushanta; Mukherjee, R. N.; Chaudhuri, K. S.
2005-01-01
An inventory replenishment policy is developed for a deteriorating item and price-dependent demand. The rate of deterioration is taken to be time-proportional and the time to deterioration is assumed to follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution. A power law form of the price dependence of demand is considered. The model is solved analytically…
Empirical Bayes Test for the Parameter of Rayleigh Distribution with Error of Measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG JUAN
2011-01-01
For the data with error of measurement in historical samples,the empirical Bayes test rule for the parameter of Rayleigh distribution is constructed,and the asymptotically optimal property is obtained.It is shown that the convergence rate of the proposed EB test rule can be arbitrarily close to O(n-1/2) under suitable conditions.
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N. K. Sajeevkumar
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we derived the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE of the location parameter of certain distributions with known coefficient of variation by record values. Efficiency comparisons are also made on the proposed estimator with some of the usual estimators. Finally we give a real life data to explain the utility of results developed in this article.
Izsak, F.
2006-01-01
A numerical maximum likelihood (ML) estimation procedure is developed for the constrained parameters of multinomial distributions. The main dif��?culty involved in computing the likelihood function is the precise and fast determination of the multinomial coef��?cients. For this the coef��?cients are
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum: a precious spice
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Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Clove (Syzygium aromaticum is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.
A New Approach for Parameter Estimation of Mixed Weibull Distribution:A Case Study in Spindle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dongwei Gu; Zhiqiong Wang; Guixiang Shen; Yingzhi Zhang; Xilu Zhao
2016-01-01
In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of graphical method and maximum likelihood estimation ( MLE) in Mixed Weibull distribution parameters estimation, Graphical-GA combines the advantage of graphical method and genetic algorithm ( GA) is proposed. Firstly, with the analysis of Weibull probability paper (WPP), mixed Weibull is identified to data fitting. Secondly, the observed value of shape and scale parameters are obtained by graphical method with least square, then optimizing the parameters of mixed Weibull with GA. Thirdly, with the comparative analysis on graphical method, piecewise Weibull and two⁃Weibull, it shows graphical⁃GA mixed Weibull is the best. Finally, the spindle MTBF point estimation and interval estimation are got based on mixed Weibull distribution. The results indicate that graphical⁃GA are improved effectively and the evaluation of spindle can provide the basis for design and reliability growth.
THE STUDY ON A KIND OF CONTROL SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR PARABOLIC DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周建军; 徐燕侯
2002-01-01
The modelling of one kind of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter control system with moving boundary, which had extensive applications was presented. Two methods were used to investigate the basic characteristics of the system: 1 ) transforming the system in the variable domain into that in the fixed domain; 2) transforming the distributed parameter system into the lumped parameter system. It is found that there are two critical values for the control variable: the larger one determines whether or not the boundary would move, while the smaller one determines whether or not the boundary would stop automatically. For one-dimensional system of planar, cylindrical and spherical cases the definite solution problem can be expressed as a unified form. By means of the computer simulation the open-loop control system and close-cycle feedback control system have been investigated. Numerical results agree well with theoretical results. The computer simulation shows that the system is well posed, stable, measurable and controllable.
Sensitivity analysis of distributed parameter elements In high-speed circuit networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei DOU; Zhiquan WANG
2007-01-01
This paper presents an analysis method,based on MacCormack's technique,for the evaluation of the time domain sensitivity of distributed parameter elements in high-speed circuit networks.Sensitivities can be calculated from electrical and physical parameters of the distributed parameter elements.The proposed method is a direct numerical method of time-space discretization and does not require complicated mathematical deductive process.Therefore,it is very convenient to program this method.It can be applied to sensitivity analysis of general transmission lines in linear or nonlinear circuit networks.The proposed method is second-order-accurate.Numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.
Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors
Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki
2016-11-01
Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.
Comparison of Two Methods Used to Model Shape Parameters of Pareto Distributions
Liu, C.; Charpentier, R.R.; Su, J.
2011-01-01
Two methods are compared for estimating the shape parameters of Pareto field-size (or pool-size) distributions for petroleum resource assessment. Both methods assume mature exploration in which most of the larger fields have been discovered. Both methods use the sizes of larger discovered fields to estimate the numbers and sizes of smaller fields: (1) the tail-truncated method uses a plot of field size versus size rank, and (2) the log-geometric method uses data binned in field-size classes and the ratios of adjacent bin counts. Simulation experiments were conducted using discovered oil and gas pool-size distributions from four petroleum systems in Alberta, Canada and using Pareto distributions generated by Monte Carlo simulation. The estimates of the shape parameters of the Pareto distributions, calculated by both the tail-truncated and log-geometric methods, generally stabilize where discovered pool numbers are greater than 100. However, with fewer than 100 discoveries, these estimates can vary greatly with each new discovery. The estimated shape parameters of the tail-truncated method are more stable and larger than those of the log-geometric method where the number of discovered pools is more than 100. Both methods, however, tend to underestimate the shape parameter. Monte Carlo simulation was also used to create sequences of discovered pool sizes by sampling from a Pareto distribution with a discovery process model using a defined exploration efficiency (in order to show how biased the sampling was in favor of larger fields being discovered first). A higher (more biased) exploration efficiency gives better estimates of the Pareto shape parameters. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.
A distributed probabilistic system for adaptive regulation of image processing parameters.
Morino, V; Foresti, G L; Regazzoni, C S
1996-01-01
A distributed optimization framework and its application to the regulation of the behavior of a network of interacting image processing algorithms are presented. The algorithm parameters used to regulate information extraction are explicitly represented as state variables associated with all network nodes. Nodes are also provided with message-passing procedures to represent dependences between parameter settings at adjacent levels. The regulation problem is defined as a joint-probability maximization of a conditional probabilistic measure evaluated over the space of possible configurations of the whole set of state variables (i.e., parameters). The global optimization problem is partitioned and solved in a distributed way, by considering local probabilistic measures for selecting and estimating the parameters related to specific algorithms used within the network. The problem representation allows a spatially varying tuning of parameters, depending on the different informative contents of the subareas of an image. An application of the proposed approach to an image processing problem is described. The processing chain chosen as an example consists of four modules. The first three algorithms correspond to network nodes. The topmost node is devoted to integrating information derived from applying different parameter settings to the algorithms of the chain. The nodes associated with data-transformation processes to be regulated are represented by an optical sensor and two filtering units (for edge-preserving and edge-extracting filterings), and a straight-segment detection module is used as an integration site.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.
Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid
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Frolov M. Yu.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.
Devak, Manjula; Dhanya, Ct
2017-04-01
The scrupulous selection of critical spatial and temporal resolution and the evaluation of optimum values for various model parameters are essential aspects in any hydrological modelling study. The accurate assessment of various model parameters is vitally important for the detailed and complete representation of the various physical processes illustrating land-atmosphere interaction. Studies in the past have taken up various auto-calibration and parameter transferability schemes to address these; but the heterogeneity of calibration parameters across grids is greatly ignored often. In many studies, heterogeneity is often compromised through the usual interpolation approaches adopted across grids. In the present study, we focus to analyze the response of a catchment by adopting a heterogeneous and homogeneous parameter distribution in the hydrological model. The semi-distributed hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L) model, which offers sub-grid variability in soil moisture storage capacity and vegetation classes, is used for this comparison. Nine model parameters are selected for calibrating the VIC-3L model, namely variable infiltration curve parameter (infilt), maximum velocity of base flow for each grid cells (DSmax), fraction of DSmax where non-linear base flow begins (DS, fraction of maximum soil moisture where non-linear base flow occurs (WS), depth of 2nd soil layer (D2), depth of 3rd soil layer (D3), exponent used in baseflow curve (c), advection coefficient (C) and diffusion coefficient (D). Latin-Hypercube sampling is adopted to sample these nine parameters. In homogenous approach, the traditional way of constant soil parameter distribution (HoSCP) is adopted to prepare the parameter set. While, in heterogeneous approach, grid-to-grid variability is ensured by constructing a Heterogeneous Soil Calibration Parameter (HeSCP) set through systematic sampling of already sampled set. The sampling size is made equal to the number of grids
Constraining cosmological parameters when taking into account the distribution of candles
Qin, Y P; Dong, Y M; Zhang, F W; Li, H Z; Jia, L W; Mao, L S; Lu, R J; Yi, T F; Cui, X H; Zhang, Z B; Qin, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Dong, Yun-Ming; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Li, Huai-Zhen; Jia, Lan-Wei; Mao, Li-Sheng; Lu, Rui-Jing; Yi, Ting-Feng; Cui, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Bin
2005-01-01
We study in detail the effect of the distribution of cosmological candles. First,we propose to perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to check if the hypothesis that there is not a distribution of the deduced relative luminosity distance moduli of a sample, when the measurement uncertainty is negligible, is true. If there exists such a distribution, the statistic chi2 cannot be defined since the distribution itself is unclear. Second, we suggest replacing the conventional minimizing chi2 2 method with the least square method to find the best estimated cosmological parameters due to this definition problem. Once the cosmological parameters are determined with the least square method, the bare distribution (the intrinsic distribution which is independent of the measurement uncertainty)can be estimated and then a lower and upper limits of chi2 can be determined. With these two extreme values of chi2,we are able to make the confidence contour plot in the conventional way. In addition to the gold SN Ia sample and the GR...
Mat Jan, Nur Amalina; Shabri, Ani
2017-01-01
TL-moments approach has been used in an analysis to identify the best-fitting distributions to represent the annual series of maximum streamflow data over seven stations in Johor, Malaysia. The TL-moments with different trimming values are used to estimate the parameter of the selected distributions namely: Three-parameter lognormal (LN3) and Pearson Type III (P3) distribution. The main objective of this study is to derive the TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 methods for LN3 and P3 distributions. The performance of TL-moments ( t 1,0), t 1 = 1,2,3,4 was compared with L-moments through Monte Carlo simulation and streamflow data over a station in Johor, Malaysia. The absolute error is used to test the influence of TL-moments methods on estimated probability distribution functions. From the cases in this study, the results show that TL-moments with four trimmed smallest values from the conceptual sample (TL-moments [4, 0]) of LN3 distribution was the most appropriate in most of the stations of the annual maximum streamflow series in Johor, Malaysia.
Budic, Lara; Didenko, Gregor; Dormann, Carsten F
2016-01-01
In species distribution analyses, environmental predictors and distribution data for large spatial extents are often available in long-lat format, such as degree raster grids. Long-lat projections suffer from unequal cell sizes, as a degree of longitude decreases in length from approximately 110 km at the equator to 0 km at the poles. Here we investigate whether long-lat and equal-area projections yield similar model parameter estimates, or result in a consistent bias. We analyzed the environmental effects on the distribution of 12 ungulate species with a northern distribution, as models for these species should display the strongest effect of projectional distortion. Additionally we choose four species with entirely continental distributions to investigate the effect of incomplete cell coverage at the coast. We expected that including model weights proportional to the actual cell area should compensate for the observed bias in model coefficients, and similarly that using land coverage of a cell should decrease bias in species with coastal distribution. As anticipated, model coefficients were different between long-lat and equal-area projections. Having progressively smaller and a higher number of cells with increasing latitude influenced the importance of parameters in models, increased the sample size for the northernmost parts of species ranges, and reduced the subcell variability of those areas. However, this bias could be largely removed by weighting long-lat cells by the area they cover, and marginally by correcting for land coverage. Overall we found little effect of using long-lat rather than equal-area projections in our analysis. The fitted relationship between environmental parameters and occurrence probability differed only very little between the two projection types. We still recommend using equal-area projections to avoid possible bias. More importantly, our results suggest that the cell area and the proportion of a cell covered by land should be
Zhan, Hanyu; Voelz, David G.
2016-12-01
The polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF) describes the relationships between incident and scattered Stokes parameters, but the familiar surface-only microfacet pBRDF cannot capture diffuse scattering contributions and depolarization phenomena. We propose a modified pBRDF model with a diffuse scattering component developed from the Kubelka-Munk and Le Hors et al. theories, and apply it in the development of a method to jointly estimate refractive index, slope variance, and diffuse scattering parameters from a series of Stokes parameter measurements of a surface. An application of the model and estimation approach to experimental data published by Priest and Meier shows improved correspondence with measurements of normalized Mueller matrix elements. By converting the Stokes/Mueller calculus formulation of the model to a degree of polarization (DOP) description, the estimation results of the parameters from measured DOP values are found to be consistent with a previous DOP model and results.
Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake
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JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.
Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.
Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A
2014-12-01
Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.
Rau, Markus Michael; Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella
2017-04-01
Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by choosing a suboptimal redshift histogram bin width and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small-scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to 6σ for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalized resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surveys to obtain unbiased cosmological parameter constraints using a minimum number of spectroscopic calibration data. For a DES-like galaxy clustering forecast, we obtain unbiased results with respect to errors caused by suboptimal histogram bin width selection, using only 5k representative spectroscopic calibration objects per tomographic redshift bin.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michala Jakubcová
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The presented paper provides the analysis of selected versions of the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The tested versions of the PSO were combined with the shuffling mechanism, which splits the model population into complexes and performs distributed PSO optimization. One of them is a new proposed PSO modification, APartW, which enhances the global exploration and local exploitation in the parametric space during the optimization process through the new updating mechanism applied on the PSO inertia weight. The performances of four selected PSO methods were tested on 11 benchmark optimization problems, which were prepared for the special session on single-objective real-parameter optimization CEC 2005. The results confirm that the tested new APartW PSO variant is comparable with other existing distributed PSO versions, AdaptW and LinTimeVarW. The distributed PSO versions were developed for finding the solution of inverse problems related to the estimation of parameters of hydrological model Bilan. The results of the case study, made on the selected set of 30 catchments obtained from MOPEX database, show that tested distributed PSO versions provide suitable estimates of Bilan model parameters and thus can be used for solving related inverse problems during the calibration process of studied water balance hydrological model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)
2016-05-15
Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Castaings
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Variational methods are widely used for the analysis and control of computationally intensive spatially distributed systems. In particular, the adjoint state method enables a very efficient calculation of the derivatives of an objective function (response function to be analysed or cost function to be optimised with respect to model inputs.
In this contribution, it is shown that the potential of variational methods for distributed catchment scale hydrology should be considered. A distributed flash flood model, coupling kinematic wave overland flow and Green Ampt infiltration, is applied to a small catchment of the Thoré basin and used as a relatively simple (synthetic observations but didactic application case.
It is shown that forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis provide a local but extensive insight on the relation between the assigned model parameters and the simulated hydrological response. Spatially distributed parameter sensitivities can be obtained for a very modest calculation effort (~6 times the computing time of a single model run and the singular value decomposition (SVD of the Jacobian matrix provides an interesting perspective for the analysis of the rainfall-runoff relation.
For the estimation of model parameters, adjoint-based derivatives were found exceedingly efficient in driving a bound-constrained quasi-Newton algorithm. The reference parameter set is retrieved independently from the optimization initial condition when the very common dimension reduction strategy (i.e. scalar multipliers is adopted.
Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis results suggest that most of the variability in this high-dimensional parameter space can be captured with a few orthogonal directions. A parametrization based on the SVD leading singular vectors was found very promising but should be combined with another regularization strategy in order to prevent overfitting.
Milella, Pamela; Bisantino, Tiziana; Gentile, Francesco; Iacobellis, Vito; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana
2012-11-01
SummaryThe paper suggests a methodology, based on performance metrics, to select the optimal set of input and parameters to be used for the simulation of river flow discharges with a semi-distributed hydrologic model. The model is applied at daily scale in a semi-arid basin of Southern Italy (Carapelle river, basin area: 506 km2) for which rainfall and discharge series for the period 2006-2009 are available. A classification of inputs and parameters was made in two subsets: the former - spatially distributed - to be selected among different options, the latter - lumped - to be calibrated. Different data sources of (or methodologies to obtain) spatially distributed data have been explored for the first subset. In particular, the FAO Penman-Monteith, Hargreaves and Thornthwaite equations were tested for the evaluation of reference evapotranspiration that, in semi-arid areas, represents a key role in hydrological modeling. The availability of LAI maps from different remote sensing sources was exploited in order to enhance the characterization of the vegetation state and consequently of the spatio-temporal variation in actual evapotranspiration. Different type of pedotransfer functions were used to derive the soil hydraulic parameters of the area. For each configuration of the first subset of data, a manual calibration of the second subset of parameters was carried out. Both the manual calibration of the lumped parameters and the selection of the optimal distributed dataset were based on the calculation and the comparison of different performance metrics measuring the distance between observed and simulated discharge data series. Results not only show the best options for estimating reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, LAI values and hydraulic properties of soil, but also provide significant insights regarding the use of different performance metrics including traditional indexes such as RMSE, NSE, index of agreement, with the more recent Benchmark
Castaings, W.; Dartus, D.; Le Dimet, F.-X.; Saulnier, G.-M.
2009-04-01
Variational methods are widely used for the analysis and control of computationally intensive spatially distributed systems. In particular, the adjoint state method enables a very efficient calculation of the derivatives of an objective function (response function to be analysed or cost function to be optimised) with respect to model inputs. In this contribution, it is shown that the potential of variational methods for distributed catchment scale hydrology should be considered. A distributed flash flood model, coupling kinematic wave overland flow and Green Ampt infiltration, is applied to a small catchment of the Thoré basin and used as a relatively simple (synthetic observations) but didactic application case. It is shown that forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis provide a local but extensive insight on the relation between the assigned model parameters and the simulated hydrological response. Spatially distributed parameter sensitivities can be obtained for a very modest calculation effort (~6 times the computing time of a single model run) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Jacobian matrix provides an interesting perspective for the analysis of the rainfall-runoff relation. For the estimation of model parameters, adjoint-based derivatives were found exceedingly efficient in driving a bound-constrained quasi-Newton algorithm. The reference parameter set is retrieved independently from the optimization initial condition when the very common dimension reduction strategy (i.e. scalar multipliers) is adopted. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis results suggest that most of the variability in this high-dimensional parameter space can be captured with a few orthogonal directions. A parametrization based on the SVD leading singular vectors was found very promising but should be combined with another regularization strategy in order to prevent overfitting.
Estimation of Model and Parameter Uncertainty For A Distributed Rainfall-runoff Model
Engeland, K.
The distributed rainfall-runoff model Ecomag is applied as a regional model for nine catchments in the NOPEX area in Sweden. Ecomag calculates streamflow on a daily time resolution. The posterior distribution of the model parameters is conditioned on the observed streamflow in all nine catchments, and calculated using Bayesian statistics. The distribution is estimated by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The Bayesian method requires a definition of the likelihood of the parameters. Two alter- native formulations are used. The first formulation is a subjectively chosen objective function describing the goodness of fit between the simulated and observed streamflow as it is used in the GLUE framework. The second formulation is to use a more statis- tically correct likelihood function that describes the simulation errors. The simulation error is defined as the difference between log-transformed observed and simulated streamflows. A statistical model for the simulation errors is constructed. Some param- eters are dependent on the catchment, while others depend on climate. The statistical and the hydrological parameters are estimated simultaneously. Confidence intervals, due to the uncertainty of the Ecomag parameters, for the simulated streamflow are compared for the two likelihood functions. Confidence intervals based on the statis- tical model for the simulation errors are also calculated. The results indicate that the parameter uncertainty depends on the formulation of the likelihood function. The sub- jectively chosen likelihood function gives relatively wide confidence intervals whereas the 'statistical' likelihood function gives more narrow confidence intervals. The statis- tical model for the simulation errors indicates that the structural errors of the model are as least as important as the parameter uncertainty.
Solution of distributive problems with synthesis of radar information fields parameters
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А. В. Нестеров
1999-05-01
Full Text Available Considered is the approach to solution of the problems of synthesis of radar and information fields parameters. It is proposed that, as the result of the synthesis, the structure of location of ground radar components should be determined. The optimal location of radar and information system is supposed to be determined by the results of the solution of the distribution problems. Considered are three sets of problems: method of linear programming, method of non-linear programming, method of scanning theory. Described are the distinctive features of each method, their advantages and disadvantages also the groups of determining parameters; an advice is given as to the use of particular approach
Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety
Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.
2016-01-01
Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620
[Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices in industrial use].
Müller, R; Theobald, R
1995-03-01
A range of decontaminated species of industrial use have been examined for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material.
Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety.
Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K
2016-01-01
Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient.
Block-Nordsieck summation and partonic distributions in impact parameter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corsetti, A. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza (Italy). INFN, Dept. of Physics; Grau, A. [Universidada de Granada (Spain). Dep. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Pancheri, G. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Srivastava, Y.N. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). INFN, Dept. of Physics
1996-02-01
A model for the parton distributions of hadrons in impact parameter space has been constructed using soft gluon summation. This model incorporates the salient features of distributions obtained from the intrinsic transverse momentum behaviour of hadrons. Under the assumption that the intrinsic behaviour is dominated by soft gluon emission stimulated by the scattering process, the b-spectrum becomes softer and softer as the scattering energy increases. In minijet models for the inclusive cross-sections, this will counter the increase from {sigma}{sub j}et.
McGinn, Christopher F.
2016-12-01
The flow of the quenched energy in imbalanced dijet events has been previously studied by transverse vector sum of charged particles with the CMS detector, namely the missing pT measurement. The results have led to new theoretical insights to order to explain the wide angle radiation. The missing pT technique has been improved so that it allows the study of angular distribution of the energy flow with respect to the dijet axis. The measurements are performed using different distance parameters R with the anti-kT clustering algorithm, which provide information about how the angular distribution of the quenched energy depends on the jet width.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. C. Winsemius
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, land surface related parameter distributions of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model are constrained by employing time series of satellite-based evaporation estimates during the dry season as explanatory information. The approach has been applied to the ungauged Luangwa river basin (150 000 (km^{2} in Zambia. The information contained in these evaporation estimates imposes compliance of the model with the largest outgoing water balance term, evaporation, and a spatially and temporally realistic depletion of soil moisture within the dry season. The model results in turn provide a better understanding of the information density of remotely sensed evaporation. Model parameters to which evaporation is sensitive, have been spatially distributed on the basis of dominant land cover characteristics. Consequently, their values were conditioned by means of Monte-Carlo sampling and evaluation on satellite evaporation estimates. The results show that behavioural parameter sets for model units with similar land cover are indeed clustered. The clustering reveals hydrologically meaningful signatures in the parameter response surface: wetland-dominated areas (also called dambos show optimal parameter ranges that reflect vegetation with a relatively small unsaturated zone (due to the shallow rooting depth of the vegetation which is easily moisture stressed. The forested areas and highlands show parameter ranges that indicate a much deeper root zone which is more drought resistent. Clustering was consequently used to formulate fuzzy membership functions that can be used to constrain parameter realizations in further calibration. Unrealistic parameter ranges, found for instance in the high unsaturated soil zone values in the highlands may indicate either overestimation of satellite-based evaporation or model structural deficiencies. We believe that in these areas, groundwater uptake into the root zone and lateral movement of
On the design derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for distributed parameter systems
Reiss, R.
1985-01-01
In this paper, analytic expressions are obtained for the design derivatives of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of self-adjoint linear distributed parameter systems. Explicit treatment of boundary conditions is avoided by casting the eigenvalue equation into integral form. Results are expressed in terms of the linear operators defining the eigenvalue problem, and are therefore quite general. Sufficiency conditions appropriate to structural optimization of eigenvalues are obtained.
Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices
Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.
2012-08-01
Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.
On The Estimation of Survival Function and Parameter Exponential Life Time Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadeel S. Al-Kutubi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The study and research of survival or reliability or life time belong to the same area of study but they may belong to a different area of application. In survival analysis one can use several life time distribution, exponential distribution with mean life time θ is one of them. To estimate this parameter and survival function we must be used estimation procedures with less MSE and MPE. Approach: The only statistical theory that combined modeling inherent uncertainty and statistical uncertainty is Bayesian statistics. The theorem of Bayes provided a solution to how learn from data. Bayes theorem was depending on prior and posterior distribution and standard Bayes estimator depends on Jeffery prior information. In this study we annexed Jeffery prior information to get the modify Bayes estimator and then compared it with standard Bayes estimator and maximum likelihood estimator to find the best (less MSE and MPE. Results: when we derived Bayesian and Maximum likelihood of the scale parameter and survival functions. Simulation study was used to compare between estimators and Mean Square Error (MSE and Mean Percentage Error (MPE of estimators are computed. Conclusion: The new proposed estimator of modify Bayes estimator in parameter and survival function was the best estimator (less MSE and MPE when we compared it with standard Bayes and maximum likelihood estimator.
Rafal Podlaski; Francis A. Roesch
2013-01-01
Study assessed the usefulness of various methods for choosing the initial values for the numerical procedures for estimating the parameters of mixture distributions and analysed variety of mixture models to approximate empirical diameter at breast height (dbh) distributions. Two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution were...
Teergele, Jane; Danai, Kourosh
2015-12-01
A method of sensor location selection is introduced for distributed parameter systems. In this method, the sensitivities of spatial outputs to model parameters are computed by a model and transformed via continuous wavelet transforms into the time-scale domain to characterise the shape attributes of output sensitivities and accentuate their differences. Regions are then sought in the time-scale plane wherein the wavelet coefficient of an output sensitivity surpasses all the others' as indication of the output sensitivity's distinctness. This yields a comprehensive account of identifiability each output provides to the model parameters as the basis of output selection. The proposed output selection strategy is demonstrated for a numerical case of pollutant dispersion by advection and diffusion in a two-dimensional area.
A new algorithm for importance analysis of the inputs with distribution parameter uncertainty
Li, Luyi; Lu, Zhenzhou
2016-10-01
Importance analysis is aimed at finding the contributions by the inputs to the uncertainty in a model output. For structural systems involving inputs with distribution parameter uncertainty, the contributions by the inputs to the output uncertainty are governed by both the variability and parameter uncertainty in their probability distributions. A natural and consistent way to arrive at importance analysis results in such cases would be a three-loop nested Monte Carlo (MC) sampling strategy, in which the parameters are sampled in the outer loop and the inputs are sampled in the inner nested double-loop. However, the computational effort of this procedure is often prohibitive for engineering problem. This paper, therefore, proposes a newly efficient algorithm for importance analysis of the inputs in the presence of parameter uncertainty. By introducing a 'surrogate sampling probability density function (SS-PDF)' and incorporating the single-loop MC theory into the computation, the proposed algorithm can reduce the original three-loop nested MC computation into a single-loop one in terms of model evaluation, which requires substantially less computational effort. Methods for choosing proper SS-PDF are also discussed in the paper. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm have been demonstrated by results of several examples.
Blanco, Walter; Arias, María Laura; Pérez, Cristian; Rodríguez, César; Chaves, Carolina
2009-12-01
Bacillus cereus is a Gram positive rod widely distributed in nature and associated to different types of food that, under some circumstances, may cause pathology to human beings. Diarrheic and emetic strains have been described based on the type of toxins produced. In order to determine the risk to health represented by this bacteria, the toxigenic potential of strains isolated from cheese with spices, spread cheese with spices and dehydrated milk, all sold in San José, Costa Rica, were determined using a multiplex PCR technique with oligonucleotides specific for the genes coding toxins HBL and Nhe. From 45 samples collected, 15 isolates of B cereus were obtained (60% coming from spread cheese with spices 7% from dehydrated milk and 13% from cheese with spices). All the strains analyzed presented at least one of the genes analyzed; six of them, coming from dehydrated milk and spread cheese, showed molecular evidence of the genes nheB, nheA, nheC, hblD, hblA y hblC, confirming the correlation described for the presence of operons codifying for HBL and Nhe. Nevertheless, the no detection of a gene cannot be considered as a definitive proof of its absence, given the existence of polymorphism in the sequences of the genes analyzed. The results obtained show that multiple of the B cereus strains found in lactic products from Costa Rica have the necessary genes for synthesizing toxins, so the correct handling of these products is very important since they can represent a risk for public health.
Worms, Julien
2010-01-01
Let $X_1, \\ldots, X_n$ be some i.i.d. observations from a heavy tailed distribution $F$, i.e. such that the common distribution of the excesses over a high threshold $u_n$ can be approximated by a Generalized Pareto Distribution $G_{\\gamma,\\sigma_n}$ with $\\gamma >0$. This work is devoted to the problem of finding confidence regions for the couple $(\\gamma,\\sigma_n)$ : combining the empirical likelihood methodology with estimation equations (close but not identical to the likelihood equations) introduced by J. Zhang (Australian and New Zealand J. Stat n.49(1), 2007), asymptotically valid confidence regions for $(\\gamma,\\sigma_n)$ are obtained and proved to perform better than Wald-type confidence regions (especially those derived from the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimators). By profiling out the scale parameter, confidence intervals for the tail index are also derived.
Consistency of change point estimators for symmetrical stable distribution with parameters shift
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI XiaoPing; MIAO BaiQi; GE ChunLei
2008-01-01
Assume that the characteristic index α of stable distribution satisfies 1<α<2, and that the distribution is symmetrical about its mean. We consider the change point estimators for stable distribution with a or scale parameter β shift. For the one case that mean is a known constant, if or β changes, then density function will change too. To this end, we suppose the kernel estimation for a change point. For the other case that mean is an unknown constant, we suppose to apply empirical characteristic function to estimate the change-point location. In the two cases, we consider the consistency and strong convergence rate of estimators. Furthermore, we consider the mean shift case. If mean changes, then corresponding characteristic function will change too. To this end, we also apply empirical characteristic function to estimate change point. We obtain the similar convergence rate. Finally, we consider its application on the detection of mean shift in financial market.
Antimicrobial properties of three spices used in the preparation of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-05-18
May 18, 2009 ... destroy the spices. For example, ultra violet light does not ... Studies in the past decade confirm that the growth of both gram-positive ..... extract of Eugenia aromatica (L) Baill (Myrtaceae) against some plant pathogenic molds.
Kynurenic Acid Content in Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal P. Turski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA is present in various types of food in varying concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to check whether KYNA is present in culinary herbs and spices. Achieved results indicate that KYNA is present in all 19 selected culinary herbs and spices. The highest concentration of KYNA was found in basil and thyme, 14.08 and 8.87 μg/g, respectively, while the lowest content of KYNA was found in cumin and black pepper, 0.64 and 0.10 μg/g, respectively. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in culinary herbs and spices. The need for more detailed investigation of dietary supplementation with culinary herbs and spices containing KYNA is suggested.
Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.
Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza
2013-05-01
The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.
Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SITI SUSIARTI
2005-10-01
Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.
Effect of Spices and different Packaging Materials on acceptability ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Effect of Spices and different Packaging Materials on acceptability and shelf-life of ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... garlic and nutmeg) as preservatives and use of different packaging materials ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. C. Winsemius
2008-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, land surface related parameter distributions of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model are estimated by employing time series of satellite-based evaporation estimates during the dry season as explanatory information. A key application for this approach is to identify part of the parameter distribution space in ungauged river basins without the need for ground data. The information, contained in the evaporation estimates implicitly imposes compliance of the model with the largest water balance term, evaporation, and a spatially and temporally realistic depletion of soil moisture within the dry season. Furthermore, the model results can provide a better understanding of the information density of remotely sensed evaporation.
The approach has been applied to the ungauged Luangwa river basin (150 000 (km^{2} in Zambia. Model units were delineated on the basis of similar land cover. For each model unit, model parameters for which evaporation is sensitive, have been conditioned on the evaporation estimates by means of Monte-Carlo sampling. The results show that behavioural parameter sets for model units with similar land cover, are indeed clustered. The clustering reveals hydrologically meaningful signatures in the parameter response surface: wetland-dominated areas (also called dambos show optimal parameter ranges that reflect a relatively small unsaturated zone (due to the shallow rooting depth of the vegetation and moisture stressed vegetation. The forested areas and evergreen highlands show parameter ranges that indicate a much deeper root zone and drought resistance.
Unrealistic parameter ranges, found for instance in the high optimal field capacity values in the highlands may indicate model structural deficiencies. We believe that in these areas, groundwater uptake into the root zone and lateral movement of groundwater should be included in the model structure. Furthermore, a less distinct
Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation
Naderi, G. H.; Narges J Dinani; S Asgary; M Taher; Nikkhoo, N.; Boshtam, M.
2014-01-01
Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/...
Distributed parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks using fused local observations
Fanaei, Mohammad; Valenti, Matthew C.; Schmid, Natalia A.; Alkhweldi, Marwan M.
2012-05-01
The goal of this paper is to reliably estimate a vector of unknown deterministic parameters associated with an underlying function at a fusion center of a wireless sensor network based on its noisy samples made at distributed local sensors. A set of noisy samples of a deterministic function characterized by a nite set of unknown param- eters to be estimated is observed by distributed sensors. The parameters to be estimated can be some attributes associated with the underlying function, such as its height, its center, its variances in dierent directions, or even the weights of its specic components over a predened basis set. Each local sensor processes its observation and sends its processed sample to a fusion center through parallel impaired communication channels. Two local processing schemes, namely analog and digital, are considered. In the analog local processing scheme, each sensor transmits an amplied version of its local analog noisy observation to the fusion center, acting like a relay in a wireless network. In the digital local processing scheme, each sensor quantizes its noisy observation before trans- mitting it to the fusion center. A at-fading channel model is considered between the local sensors and fusion center. The fusion center combines all of the received locally-processed observations and estimates the vector of unknown parameters of the underlying function. Two dierent well-known estimation techniques, namely maximum-likelihood (ML), for both analog and digital local processing schemes, and expectation maximization (EM), for digital local processing scheme, are considered at the fusion center. The performance of the proposed distributed parameter estimation system is investigated through simulation of practical scenarios for a sample underlying function.
Reliable estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters using adequate pore size distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husseinzadeh, Danial; Shahsavand, Akbar [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-05-15
The equilibrium adsorption isotherm has a crucial effect on various characteristics of the solid adsorbent (e.g., pore volume, bulk density, surface area, pore geometry). A historical paradox exists in conventional estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters. Traditionally, the total amount of adsorb material (total adsorption isotherm) has been considered equivalent to the local adsorption isotherm. This assumption is only valid when the corresponding pore size or energy distribution (PSD or ED) of the porous adsorbent can be successfully represented with the Dirac delta function. In practice, the actual PSD (or ED) is far from such assumption, and the traditional method for prediction of local adsorption isotherm parameters leads to serious errors. Up to now, the powerful combination of inverse theory and linear regularization technique has drastically failed when used for extraction of PSD from real adsorption data. For this reason, all previous researches used synthetic data because they were not able to extract proper PSD from the measured total adsorption isotherm with unrealistic parameters of local adsorption isotherm. We propose a novel approach that can successfully provide the correct values of local adsorption isotherm parameters without any a priori and unrealistic assumptions. Two distinct methods are suggested and several illustrative (synthetic and real experimental) examples are presented to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly proposed methods on computing the correct values of local adsorption isotherm parameters. The so-called Iterative and Optima methods' impressive performances on extraction of correct PSD are validated using several experimental data sets.
Kostunin, D; Hiller, R; Schröder, F G; Lenok, V; Levinson, E
2016-01-01
We investigate features of the lateral distribution function (LDF) of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air-showers with primary energies $> 0.1$~EeV and its connection to air-shower parameters such as energy and shower maximum using CoREAS simulations made for the configuration of the Tunka-Rex antenna array. Taking into account all significant contributions to the total radio emission, such as by the geomagnetic effect, the charge excess, and the atmospheric refraction we parameterize the radio LDF. This parameterization is two-dimensional and has several free parameters. The large number of free parameters is not suitable for experiments of sparse arrays operating at low SNR (signal-to-noise ratios). Thus, exploiting symmetries, we decrease the number of free parameters and reduce the LDF to a simple one-dimensional function. The remaining parameters can be fit with a small number of points, i.e. as few as the signal from three antennas above detection threshold. Finally, we present a method for the r...
Carvalho, C Sofia
2016-01-01
We use a kinematic parametrisation of the luminosity distance to measure the angular distribution on the sky of time derivatives of the scale factor, in particular the Hubble parameter H_0, the deceleration parameter q_0 and the jerk parameter j_0. We apply the method introduced in Carvalho & Marques (2015) to complement probing the inhomogeneity of the large-scale structure by means of the inhomogeneity in the cosmic expansion. This parametrisation is independent of the cosmological equation of state, which renderes it adequate to test interpretations of the cosmic acceleration alternative to the cosmological constant. We also measure the anisotropy of the parameters by computing the power spectrum of the corresponding parameters' maps up to ell=3. Finally for an analytical toy model of an inhomogeneous ensemble of homogenous pixels, we derive the backreaction term in j_0 due to the fluctuations of {H_0,q_0} and measure it to be of order 0.01 the corresponding average over the pixels in the absence of ba...
Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic.
Gupta, Subash C; Sung, Bokyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Prasad, Sahdeo; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B
2013-09-01
Although much has been published about curcumin, which is obtained from turmeric, comparatively little is known about turmeric itself. Turmeric, a golden spice obtained from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, has been used to give color and taste to food preparations since ancient times. Traditionally, this spice has been used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of such ailments as gynecological problems, gastric problems, hepatic disorders, infectious diseases, and blood disorders. Modern science has provided the scientific basis for the use of turmeric against such disorders. Various chemical constituents have been isolated from this spice, including polyphenols, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids. Curcumin, which constitutes 2-5% of turmeric, is perhaps the most-studied component. Although some of the activities of turmeric can be mimicked by curcumin, other activities are curcumin-independent. Cell-based studies have demonstrated the potential of turmeric as an antimicrobial, insecticidal, larvicidal, antimutagenic, radioprotector, and anticancer agent. Numerous animal studies have shown the potential of this spice against proinflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, depression, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. At the molecular level, this spice has been shown to modulate numerous cell-signaling pathways. In clinical trials, turmeric has shown efficacy against numerous human ailments including lupus nephritis, cancer, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, acne, and fibrosis. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen is now exhibiting activities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss the chemical constituents of turmeric, its biological activities, its molecular targets, and its potential in the clinic.
Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.
Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P
2012-06-01
Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.
Elevated aerosols and role of circulation parameters in aerosol vertical distribution
Prijith, S. S.; Aloysius, Marina; Mohan, Mannil; Rao, P. V. N.
2016-01-01
The study examines aerosol loading in different vertical layers of the atmosphere and explores the role of atmospheric circulation parameters in vertical distribution of aerosols and in its seasonal variability. Aerosol vertical distribution over the globe is examined, using long term satellite observations, by considering aerosol loading in different layers of atmosphere upto ∼6 km altitudes from surface and fractional contribution of each of these layers to total columnar aerosol loading. Aerosols are observed residing close to the surface in most of the oceanic environments, except over certain regions which are in the close proximity of continents where upper level winds are conducive for long range aerosol transport. In contrast, considerable vertical spread in aerosol distribution with strong seasonal variability, minimum occurring in winter months and maximum in summer, is observed over the continental regions. Vertical spread in aerosol distribution is observed highest over north eastern and north western parts of Africa during northern hemispheric summer, when the convection activity peaks over these regions due to large solar insolation and associated surface heating. Seasonal variation of aerosol vertical spread over both of these regions is observed in phase with variation in atmospheric convergence and vorticity. During summer months, when the aerosol vertical spread is highest, strong surface level convergence and associated cyclonic vorticity is observed along with an upper level (700-600 hPa) divergence. The surface level convergence and upper level divergence together induce an upward flow of air which carries aerosols from ground to higher altitudes. This mechanism of aerosol vertical transport is further corroborated through the correlation and regression relations of surface convergence/vorticity with aerosol loading above different elevations and hence the study reveals role of circulation parameters in aerosol vertical distribution.
Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway
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S. Beldring
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A distributed version of the HBV-model using 1 km2 grid cells and daily time step was used to simulate runoff from the entire land surface of Norway for the period 1961-1990. The model was sensitive to changes in small scale properties of the land surface and the climatic input data, through explicit representation of differences between model elements, and by implicit consideration of sub-grid variations in moisture status. A geographically transferable set of model parameters was determined by a multi-criteria calibration strategy, which simultaneously minimised the residuals between model simulated and observed runoff from 141 Norwegian catchments located in areas with different runoff regimes and landscape characteristics. Model discretisation units with identical landscape classification were assigned similar parameter values. Model performance was evaluated by simulating discharge from 43 independent catchments. Finally, a river routing procedure using a kinematic wave approximation to open channel flow was introduced in the model, and discharges from three additional catchments were calculated and compared with observations. The model was used to produce a map of average annual runoff for Norway for the period 1961-1990. Keywords: distributed model, multi-criteria calibration, global parameters, ungauged catchments.
Mohammadi, Hiwa; Bayrak, Yusuf
2016-04-01
The Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (GIII) of the extreme value method is employed to evaluate the earthquake hazard parameters in the Iranian Plateau. This research quantifies spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters like annual and 100-year mode beside their 90 % probability of not being exceeded (NBE) in the Iranian Plateau. Therefore, we used a homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1900-2013 with magnitude M w ≥ 4.0, and the Iranian Plateau is separated into equal area mesh of 1° late × 1° long. The estimated result of annual mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to exceed the values of M w 6.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, most parts of Central and East Iran, Kopeh Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan, and SE Zagros. The 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to overpass the value of M w 7.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, Central and East Iran, Alborz, Kopeh Dagh, and Azerbaijan. The spatial distribution of 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE uncovers the high values of earthquake hazard parameters which are frequently connected with the main tectonic regimes of the studied area. It appears that there is a close communication among the seismicity and the tectonics of the region.
Bayesian Hierarchical Random Intercept Model Based on Three Parameter Gamma Distribution
Wirawati, Ika; Iriawan, Nur; Irhamah
2017-06-01
Hierarchical data structures are common throughout many areas of research. Beforehand, the existence of this type of data was less noticed in the analysis. The appropriate statistical analysis to handle this type of data is the hierarchical linear model (HLM). This article will focus only on random intercept model (RIM), as a subclass of HLM. This model assumes that the intercept of models in the lowest level are varied among those models, and their slopes are fixed. The differences of intercepts were suspected affected by some variables in the upper level. These intercepts, therefore, are regressed against those upper level variables as predictors. The purpose of this paper would demonstrate a proven work of the proposed two level RIM of the modeling on per capita household expenditure in Maluku Utara, which has five characteristics in the first level and three characteristics of districts/cities in the second level. The per capita household expenditure data in the first level were captured by the three parameters Gamma distribution. The model, therefore, would be more complex due to interaction of many parameters for representing the hierarchical structure and distribution pattern of the data. To simplify the estimation processes of parameters, the computational Bayesian method couple with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm and its Gibbs Sampling are employed.
Yu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Song; Jianfang, Li; Fei, Gao
2017-05-01
Cable overheating will lead to the cable insulation level reducing, speed up the cable insulation aging, even easy to cause short circuit faults. Cable overheating risk identification and warning is nessesary for distribution network operators. Cable overheating risk warning method based on impedance parameter estimation is proposed in the paper to improve the safty and reliability operation of distribution network. Firstly, cable impedance estimation model is established by using least square method based on the data from distribiton SCADA system to improve the impedance parameter estimation accuracy. Secondly, calculate the threshold value of cable impedance based on the historical data and the forecast value of cable impedance based on the forecasting data in future from distribiton SCADA system. Thirdly, establish risks warning rules library of cable overheating, calculate the cable impedance forecast value and analysis the change rate of impedance, and then warn the overheating risk of cable line based on the overheating risk warning rules library according to the variation relationship between impedance and line temperature rise. Overheating risk warning method is simulated in the paper. The simulation results shows that the method can identify the imedance and forecast the temperature rise of cable line in distribution network accurately. The result of overheating risk warning can provide decision basis for operation maintenance and repair.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Álvaro Gutiérrez
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tudor DRUGAN
2003-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the usefulness of the binomial distribution in studying of the contingency tables and the problems of approximation to normality of binomial distribution (the limits, advantages, and disadvantages. The classification of the medical keys parameters reported in medical literature and expressing them using the contingency table units based on their mathematical expressions restrict the discussion of the confidence intervals from 34 parameters to 9 mathematical expressions. The problem of obtaining different information starting with the computed confidence interval for a specified method, information like confidence intervals boundaries, percentages of the experimental errors, the standard deviation of the experimental errors and the deviation relative to significance level was solves through implementation in PHP programming language of original algorithms. The cases of expression, which contain two binomial variables, were separately treated. An original method of computing the confidence interval for the case of two-variable expression was proposed and implemented. The graphical representation of the expression of two binomial variables for which the variation domain of one of the variable depend on the other variable was a real problem because the most of the software used interpolation in graphical representation and the surface maps were quadratic instead of triangular. Based on an original algorithm, a module was implements in PHP in order to represent graphically the triangular surface plots. All the implementation described above was uses in computing the confidence intervals and estimating their performance for binomial distributions sample sizes and variable.
Jevtić, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Alvaro
2011-01-01
Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the distributed bees algorithm (DBA), previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA's control parameters by means of a genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots' distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.
SPICE modeling of memristors with multilevel resistance states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Xu-Dong; Tang Yu-Hua; Wu Jun-Jie
2012-01-01
With CMOS technologies approaching the scaling ceiling,novel memory technologies have thrived in recent years,among which the memristor is a rather promising candidate for future resistive memory (RRAM).Memristor's potential to store multiple bits of information as different resistance levels allows its application in multilevel cell (MCL) technology,which can significantly increase the memory capacity.However,most existing memristor models are built for binary or continuous memristance switching.In this paper,we propose the simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis (SPICE) modeling of charge-controlled and flux-controlled memristors with multilevel resistance states based on the memristance versus state map.In our model,the memristance switches abruptly between neighboring resistance states.The proposed model allows users to easily set the number of the resistance levels as parameters,and provides the predictability of resistance switching time if the input current/voltage waveform is given.The functionality of our models has been validated in HSPICE.The models can be used in multilevel RRAM modeling as well as in artificial neural network simulations.
Optimal Configuration of Fault-Tolerance Parameters for Distributed Server Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daidone, Alessandro; Renier, Thibault; Bondavalli, Andrea
2013-01-01
Server replication is a common fault-tolerance strategy to improve transaction dependability for services in communications networks. In distributed architectures, fault-diagnosis and recovery are implemented via the interaction of the server replicas with the clients and other entities such as e...... in replicated server architectures. In order to obtain insight into the system behaviour, a set of relevant environment parameters and controllable fault-tolerance parameters are chosen and the dependability/performance trade-off is evaluated....... such as enhanced name servers. Such architectures provide an increased number of redundancy configuration choices. The influence of a (wide area) network connection can be quite significant and induce trade-offs between dependability and user-perceived performance. This paper develops a quantitative stochastic...
An approximation theory for the identification of nonlinear distributed parameter systems
Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.
1990-01-01
An abstract approximation framework for the identification of nonlinear distributed parameter systems is developed. Inverse problems for nonlinear systems governed by strongly maximal monotone operators (satisfying a mild continuous dependence condition with respect to the unknown parameters to be identified) are treated. Convergence of Galerkin approximations and the corresponding solutions of finite dimensional approximating identification problems to a solution of the original finite dimensional identification problem is demonstrated using the theory of nonlinear evolution systems and a nonlinear analog of the Trotter-Kato appproximation result for semigroups of bounded linear operators. The nonlinear theory developed here is shown to subsume an existing linear theory as a special case. It is also shown to be applicable to a broad class of nonlinear elliptic operators and the corresponding nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations to which they lead. An application of the theory to a quasilinear model for heat conduction or mass transfer is discussed.
One-Bit Quantization and Distributed Detection with an Unknown Scale Parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Gao
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We examine a distributed detection problem in a wireless sensor network, where sensor nodes collaborate to detect a Gaussian signal with an unknown change of power, i.e., a scale parameter. Due to power/bandwidth constraints, we consider the case where each sensor quantizes its observation into a binary digit. The binary data are then transmitted through error-prone wireless links to a fusion center, where a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT detector is employed to perform a global decision. We study the design of a binary quantizer based on an asymptotic analysis of the GLRT. Interestingly, the quantization threshold of the quantizer is independent of the unknown scale parameter. Numerical results are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed quantizer and GLRT in binary symmetric channels (BSCs.
Suo, Qiangbo; Han, Yiping; Cui, Zhiwei
2017-09-01
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral, the analytical expressions for the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and kurtosis parameter of partially coherent flat-topped vortex (PCFTV) beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence and free space are derived. The WDF and kurtosis parameter of PCFTV beams through turbulent atmosphere are discussed with numerical examples. The numerical results show that the beam quality depends on the structure constants, the inner scale turbulence, the outer scale turbulence, the spatial correlation length, the wave length and the beam order. PCFTV beams are less affected by turbulence than partially flat-topped coherent (PCFT) beams under the same conditions, and will be useful in free-space optical communications.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei DOU; Zhiquan WANG
2005-01-01
In the field of high-speed circuits,the analysis of mixed circuit networks containing both distributed parameter elements and lumped parameter elements becomes ever important.This paper presents a new method for analyzing mixed circuit networks.It adds transmission line end currents to the circuit variables of the classical modified nodal approach and can be applied directly to the mixed circuit networks.We also introduce a frequency-domain technique without requiring decoupling for multiconductor transmission lines.The two methods are combined together to efficiently analyze high-speed circuit networks containing uniform,nonuniform,and frequency-dependent transmission lines.Numerical experiment is presented and the results are compared with that computed by PSPICE.
Modulated Pulses Based High Spatial Resolution Distributed Fiber System for Multi-Parameter Sensing
Zhang, Jingdong; Zhou, Huan; Li, Yang; Liu, Min; Huang, Wei
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a hybrid distributed fiber sensing system for multi-parameter detection. The integration of phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\\Phi}-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) enables measurement of vibration, temperature and strain. Exploiting the fast changing property of vibration and the static property of temperature and strain, the laser pulse width and intensity are modulated and then injected into the single-mode sensing fiber proportionally, so that the three concerned parameters can be extracted simultaneously by only one photo-detector and data acquisition channel. Combining with advanced data processing methods, the modulation of laser pulse brings additional advantages because of trade and balance between the backscattering light power and nonlinear effect noise, which enhances the signal-to-noise ratio, and enables sub-meter level spatial resolution together with long sensing distance. The proposed method realizes up to 4.8 kHz vibration sensin...
Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu
2016-03-01
In paleodemography, the Bayesian approach has been suggested to provide an effective means by which mortality profiles of past populations can be adequately estimated, and thus avoid problems of "age-mimicry" inherent in conventional approaches. In this study, we propose an application of the Gompertz model using an "informative" prior probability distribution by revising a recent example of the Bayesian approach based on an "uninformative" distribution. Life-table data of 134 human populations including those of contemporary hunter-gatherers were used to determine the Gompertz parameters of each population. In each population, we used both raw life-table data and the Gompertz parameters to calculate some demographic values such as the mean life-span, to confirm representativeness of the model. Then, the correlation between the two Gompertz parameters (the Strehler-Mildvan correlation) was re-established. We incorporated the correlation into the Bayesian approach as an "informative" prior probability distribution, and tested its effectiveness using simulated data. Our analyses showed that the mean life-span (≥ age 15) and the proportion of living persons aging over 45 were well-reproduced by the Gompertz model. The simulation showed that using the correlation as an informative prior provides a narrower estimation range in the Bayesian approach than does the uninformative prior. The Gompertz model can be assumed to accurately estimate the mean life-span and/or the proportion of old people in a population. We suggest that the Strehler-Mildvan correlation can be used as a useful constraint in demographic reconstructions of past human populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang
2008-12-01
A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.
Mu, Wenying; Cui, Baotong; Li, Wen; Jiang, Zhengxian
2014-07-01
This paper proposes a scheme for non-collocated moving actuating and sensing devices which is unitized for improving performance in distributed parameter systems. By Lyapunov stability theorem, each moving actuator/sensor agent velocity is obtained. To enhance state estimation of a spatially distributes process, two kinds of filters with consensus terms which penalize the disagreement of the estimates are considered. Both filters can result in the well-posedness of the collective dynamics of state errors and can converge to the plant state. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the effectiveness of such a moving actuator-sensor network in enhancing system performance and the consensus filters converge faster to the plant state when consensus terms are included.
Bolboacă, Sorana; Jäntschi, Lorentz
2005-01-01
Likelihood Ratio medical key parameters calculated on categorical results from diagnostic tests are usually express accompanied with their confidence intervals, computed using the normal distribution approximation of binomial distribution. The approximation creates known anomalies,especially for limit cases. In order to improve the quality of estimation, four new methods (called here RPAC, RPAC0, RPAC1, and RPAC2) were developed and compared with the classical method (called here RPWald), using an exact probability calculation algorithm.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. We defined and implemented the functions of the four new methods and the five criterions of confidence interval assessment. The experiments run for samples sizes which vary in 14 - 34 range, 90 - 100 range (0 binomial variables (1
Approximation Methods for the Identification and Control of Distributed Parameter Systems.
1987-11-20
Computacional , 5 (1986), 139-168. 12. The Identification of a Distributed Parameter Model for a Flexible Structure, (with H.T. Banks, S.S. Gates and Y. Wang...Science and Engineering, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, and Mat. Applicada e Computacional , 5 (1986). [7] H.T. Banks and P.L. Daniel (Lamm...Bericht 83-26, Techn. Universitat Graz, December 1983; Mat. Aplicada e Computacional 4 (1985), pp. 95-124. [27] J.L. Lions, Optimal Control of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KOTSUR, M.
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We give a solution of optimal control problem for distributed parameter systems described by nonlinear partial differential equations with nonstandard boundary conditions. The variational method is used to obtain the general form of the necessary conditions of optimality. A suitable algorithm based on the numerical method of successive approximations has been constructed for computing the optimal control functions. The results are applied for optimization of transient thermoelectric cooling process. Optimal dependences of current on time have been calculated for thermoelectric cooler power supply with the purpose of minimizing the cooling temperature within a preset time interval.
Zhang, Ke; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng
2017-02-01
In this paper, a novel adjustable parameter (AP)-based distributed fault estimation observer (DFEO) is proposed for multiagent systems (MASs) with the directed communication topology. First, a relative output estimation error is defined based on the communication topology of MASs. Then a DFEO with AP is constructed with the purpose of improving the accuracy of fault estimation. Based on H ∞ and H 2 with pole placement, multiconstrained design is given to calculate the gain of DFEO. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed DFEO design with AP.
Parameters of the best approximation of reduced neutron widths distribution. Actinides
Sukhovoj, A M
2011-01-01
The data of ENDF/B-VII library on reduced neutron widths for nuclei 231Pa, 232Th, 233,234,235,236,238U, 237Np, 239,240,241,242Pu, 241,243Am and 243Cm (including p-resonances of 232Th, 238U, 239Pu) in form of cumulative sums in function on Gamma0n/ were approximated by variable number K of partial items 0
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirela Ahmadi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.
Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.
Krishnaswamy, Kamala
2008-01-01
India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.
Turmeric: A spice with multifunctional medicinal properties
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Nasri Hamid
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Curcuma longa (Turmeric, belonging to Zingiberaceae family is one of the most useful herbal medicinal plants. Extensive researches have proven that most of the turmeric activities of the turmeric are due to curcumin. It has various useful properties with antioxidant activities and is useful in conditions such as inflammation, ulcer and cancer. It also has antifungal, antimicrobial renal and hepatoprotective activities. Therefore, it has the potential against various cancer, diabetes, allergies, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and other chronic and hard curable diseases. The purpose of this review was to provide a brief summary of the new and current knowledge of the effects of curcumin. The recently published papers in international cites such as PubMed/Medline, Science Citation Index and Google Scholar about turmeric were searched. Recent studies have authenticated the use of turmeric for various diseases especially oxidative stress induced ones such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory disorders. It also is used as hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticoagulant and anti-HIV to combat AIDS. Curcumin, as a spice, exhibits great promise as a therapeutic agent. It has very low toxicity, too. As the global scenario is now changing towards the use of non-toxic plant products having traditional medicinal use, development of modern drugs from turmeric should be emphasized for the control of various diseases. Further evaluation needs to be carried out on turmeric in order to explore the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the welfare of mankind.
Mycotoxigenic molds in spices from Macedonian stores
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Kungulovski Džoko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Twenty-six samples of spices most frequently occurring in the stores of the Republic of Macedonia were examined for their fungal contamination and the incidence of Aspergillus and Penicillium species and their teleomorphs. It included mainly commercial packages most frequently occurring in the stores of the Republic of Macedonia. According to the relative frequency of each of the isolated species, the typical mycoflora of these samples includes A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, P. chrysogenum and Eurotium sp. Fungal counts varied from log10 < 2 CFU g-1 (DG18 at 25oC; DRBC at 25oC, for a sample of paprika, to log10 6.17 CFU g-1 (DG18 at 25oC, for a sample of bay leaf. During the experiment, A. flavus was detected in 17 samples, out of which 7 isolates were capable of producing Af-B1, and 4 isolates produced Af-B2. All isolates of A. nomius and A. parasiticus, in the experimental conditions, produced Af-B1, Af-B2, Af-G1 and Af-G2.
Pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in mice
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Jun Wang
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Jun Wang1, Yue Chen1, Baoan Chen1, Jiahua Ding1, Guohua Xia1, Chong Gao1, Jian Cheng1, Nan Jin1, Ying Zhou1, Xiaomao Li1, Meng Tang2, Xue Mei Wang21Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Clinical Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 1Department of Physics, University of Saarland, D-266041 Saarbruechen, Germany; 2National Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: This study explored the pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs in imprinting control region (ICR mice.Methods: The Fe3O4 MNPs were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation, and their morphology and appearance were observed by transmission electron microscopy. ICR mice were divided into a control group and a Fe3O4 MNP-treated group. Probable target organs in ICR mice were observed, and the pharmacokinetic parameters and biodistribution of Fe3O4 MNPs in tissues were identified using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Results: Fe3O4 MNPs were spherical with a well distributed particle diameter, and were distributed widely in various target organs and tissues including the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, brain, stomach, small intestine, and bone marrow. The majority of Fe3O4 MNPs were distributed to the liver and the spleen. Fe3O4 MNP levels in brain tissue were higher in the Fe3O4 MNP-treated group than in the control group, indicating that Fe3O4 MNPs can penetrate the blood–brain barrier.Conclusion: These results suggest that the distribution of Fe3O4 MNPs was mostly in the liver and spleen, so the curative effect of these compounds could be more pronounced for liver tumors. Furthermore, Fe3O4 MNPs might be used as drug carriers to overcome physiologic barriers.Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Fe3O4, tissue distribution, mice
Effect of tissue and atmosphere's parameters on human eye temperature distribution.
Firoozan, Mohammad Sadegh; Porkhial, Soheil; Nejad, Ali Salmani
2015-01-01
A three dimensional finite element method analysis was employed to investigate the effect of tissue and atmosphere parameters namely, ambient temperature, ambient convection coefficient, local blood temperature, and blood convection coefficient upon temperature distribution of human eyes. As a matter of simplification, only eye ball and skull bone are considered as the system of eye modeling. Decreasing the local blood temperature and keeping it cool is one of the most important ways to control bleeding during surgeries. By lower temperature of body organs such as the eye, the need for oxygenated blood is reduced, allowing for an extension in time for surgery. With this in mind, this study is done to see which one of parameters, such as ambient temperature, ambient convection coefficient, local blood temperature, and blood convection coefficient, has an effective role in decreasing the temperature of the eye. To this end, 3 different paths were employed to find out about the temperature distribution through the eye. The analysis of the three paths demonstrates the interaction of ambient and blood temperature in modeling temperature changes in specific locations of the eye. These data will be important in applications such as eye surgery, relaxation, and sleep therapy.
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Pradeep K. Goyal
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted on the probabilistic distribution of key cyclone parameters and the cyclonic wind speed by analyzing the cyclone track records obtained from India meteorological department for east coast region of India. The dataset of historical landfalling storm tracks in India from 1975–2007 with latitude /longitude and landfall locations are used to map the cyclone tracks in a region of study. The statistical tests were performed to find a best fit distribution to the track data for each cyclone parameter. These parameters include central pressure difference, the radius of maximum wind speed, the translation velocity, track angle with site and are used to generate digital simulated cyclones using wind field simulation techniques. For this, different sets of values for all the cyclone key parameters are generated randomly from their probability distributions. Using these simulated values of the cyclone key parameters, the distribution of wind velocity at a particular site is obtained. The same distribution of wind velocity at the site is also obtained from actual track records and using the distributions of the cyclone key parameters as published in the literature. The simulated distribution is compared with the wind speed distributions obtained from actual track records. The findings are useful in cyclone disaster mitigation.
Prieto, C Allende; Schlesinger, K J; Lee, Y S; Morrison, H L; Schneider, D P; Beers, T C; Bizyaev, D; Ebelke, G; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Oravetz, D; Pan, K; Simmons, A; Simmerer, J; Sobeck, J; Robin, A C
2014-01-01
We analyze a sample of tens of thousands of spectra of halo turnoff stars, obtained with the optical spectrographs of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), to characterize the stellar halo population "in situ" out to a distance of a few tens of kpc from the Sun. In this paper we describe the derivation of atmospheric parameters. We also derive the overall stellar metallicity distribution based on F-type stars observed as flux calibrators for the Baryonic Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Our analysis is based on an automated method that determines the set of parameters of a model atmosphere that reproduces each observed spectrum best. We used an optimization algorithm and evaluate model fluxes by means of interpolation in a precomputed grid. In our analysis, we account for the spectrograph's varying resolution as a function of fiber and wavelength. Our results for early SDSS (pre-BOSS upgrade) data compare well with those from the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), except for stars with logg (cgs...
Kalinina, N. V.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Pankova, E. I.; Chernousenko, G. I.; Koroleva, P. V.
2016-11-01
The subdistrict zoning map distinguishes 27 subjects of the Russian Federation, 109 municipal districts, and 142 districts and subdistricts along the latitude line at 53°44' N in Russia. Among them, soil salinization is observed in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation, 39 municipal districts, and 41 districts and subdistricts. The total length of the transect is 6354 m. The relationship between the distribution of saline soils and climatic parameters has been analyzed in the districts and subdistricts of the subdistrict zoning map. Information about soil salinity has been borrowed from the Soil Salinization Map of Russia (2003) and some regional salinization maps (Khakassia, Barguzin Depression). Climate is the main factor affecting the distribution of soil salinity. Among the analyzed climatic parameters, the Ivanov wetting coefficient (WC) best describes the relationship between climate and soil salinity. The share of saline soils in a district is inversely proportional to the WC value. The degrees of drainage and dissection of the area limit the effect of climate on soil salinity. It is proposed to subdivide the relief into three groups depending on the degree of dissection in order to correct the calculations of relationship between WC and soil salinity. With consideration for relief features, the relationship between soil salinity and WC is represented by a segment of the coordinate plane with WC as the ordinate and the share of saline soils as the abscissa. The segment is limited by two lines corresponding to the maximum and minimum soil salinities at given WC values. The use of the limiting equations allows predicting, with a high probability, the presence and distribution area of saline soils at a given latitude at 0.85 ≥ WC ≥ 0.5.
Consistency of change point estimators for symmetrical stable distribution with parameters shift
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Assume that the characteristic indexαof stable distribution satisfies 1<α<2,and that the distribution is symmetrical about its mean.We consider the change point estimators for stable distribution withαor scale parameterβshift.For the one case that mean is a known constant,ifαorβchanges,then density function will change too.To this end,we suppose the kernel estimation for a change point.For the other case that mean is an unknown constant,we suppose to apply empirical characteristic function to estimate the change-point location.In the two cases,we consider the consistency and strong convergence rate of estimators.Furthermore,we consider the mean shift case.If mean changes,then corresponding characteristic function will change too.To this end,we also apply empirical characteristic function to estimate change point.We obtain the similar convergence rate.Finally,we consider its application on the detection of mean shift in financial market.
A simple method for identification of irradiated spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behere, A.; Desai, S.R.P.; Nair, P.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Food Technology and Enzyme Engineering Div.); Rao, S.M.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Div.)
1992-07-01
Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of curry powder, a salt containing spice mixture, and three different ground spices, viz, chilli, turmeric and pepper, were compared with TL of table salt. The spices other than curry powder, did not exhibit characteristic TL in the absence of salt. Therefore studies were initiated to develop a simple and reliable method using common salt for distinguishing irradiated spices (10 kGy) from unirradiated ones under normal conditions of storage. Common salt exhibited a characteristic TL glow at 170{sup o}C. However, when present in curry powder, the TL glow of salt showed a shift to 208{sup o}C. It was further observed that upon storage up to 6 months, the TL of irradiated curry powder retained about 10% of the original intensity and still could be distinguished from the untreated samples. From our results it is evident that common salt could be used as an indicator either internally or externally in small sachets for incorporating into prepacked spices. (author).
Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan
Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen
2016-01-01
The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067
Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry
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Deogade
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20
The occurrence of aflatoxins in selected spices and dried fruits
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Renata Stanisławczyk
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic substances formed by fungi which are a potential danger for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination with the aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in selected spices and dried fruits available in trade in the Podkarpackie province. The studies confirm the widespread occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in spices, spices mixtures and dried fruits, however, in none of the tested samples there was exceeded the permissible concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2. The highest content of aflatoxin B1 was determined in red pepper and universal spices mixture while the smallest in figs and raisins. The monitoring of aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 showed similar results. The highest level was determined in universal spices mixture and in red pepper.
Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan
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Narjis Naz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity.
Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.
Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna
2016-02-01
Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry.
Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.
Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz
2016-07-01
The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ren-Jie He; Zhen-Yu Yang
2012-01-01
Differential evolution (DE) has become a very popular and effective global optimization algorithm in the area of evolutionary computation.In spite of many advantages such as conceptual simplicity,high efficiency and ease of use,DE has two main components,i.e.,mutation scheme and parameter control,which significantly influence its performance.In this paper we intend to improve the performance of DE by using carefully considered strategies for both of the two components.We first design an adaptive mutation scheme,which adaptively makes use of the bias of superior individuals when generating new solutions.Although introducing such a bias is not a new idea,existing methods often use heuristic rules to control the bias.They can hardly maintain the appropriate balance between exploration and exploitation during the search process,because the preferred bias is often problem and evolution-stage dependent.Instead of using any fixed rule,a novel strategy is adopted in the new adaptive mutation scheme to adjust the bias dynamically based on the identified local fitness landscape captured by the current population.As for the other component,i.e.,parameter control,we propose a mechanism by using the Lévy probability distribution to adaptively control the scale factor F of DE.For every mutation in each generation,an Fi is produced from one of four different Lévy distributions according to their historical performance.With the adaptive mutation scheme and parameter control using Lévy distribution as the main components,we present a new DE variant called Lévy DE (LDE).Experimental studies were carried out on a broad range of benchmark functions in global numerical optimization.The results show that LDE is very competitive,and both of the two main components have contributed to its overall performance.The scalability of LDE is also discussed by conducting experiments on some selected benchmark functions with dimensions from 30 to 200.
On the distribution of scaling hydraulic parameters in a spatially anisotropic banana field
Regalado, Carlos M.
2005-06-01
When modeling soil hydraulic properties at field scale it is desirable to approximate the variability in a given area by means of some scaling transformations which relate spatially variable local hydraulic properties to global reference characteristics. Seventy soil cores were sampled within a drip irrigated banana plantation greenhouse on a 14×5 array of 2.5 m×5 m rectangles at 15 cm depth, to represent the field scale variability of flow related properties. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention characteristics were measured in these 70 soil cores. van Genuchten water retention curves (WRC) with optimized m ( m≠1-1/ n) were fitted to the WR data and a general Mualem-van Genuchten model was used to predict hydraulic conductivity functions for each soil core. A scaling law, of the form ν=ανi*, was fitted to soil hydraulic data, such that the original hydraulic parameters νi were scaled down to a reference curve with parameters νi*. An analytical expression, in terms of Beta functions, for the average suction value, hc, necessary to apply the above scaling method, was obtained. A robust optimization procedure with fast convergence to the global minimum is used to find the optimum hc, such that dispersion is minimized in the scaled data set. Via the Box-Cox transformation P(τ)=(αiτ-1)/τ, Box-Cox normality plots showed that scaling factors for the suction ( αh) and hydraulic conductivity ( αk) were approximately log-normally distributed (i.e. τ=0), as it would be expected for such dynamic properties involving flow. By contrast static soil related properties as αθ were found closely Gaussian, although a power τ=3/4 was best for approaching normality. Application of four different normality tests (Anderson-Darling, Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 goodness-of-fit tests) rendered some contradictory results among them, thus suggesting that this widely extended practice is not recommended for providing a suitable probability
Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients
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Helder Novais e Bastos
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. METHODS: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years. The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1, in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2, in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3, in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4, in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016, a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025, and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003. The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients.
Heavy Metal Contents in Spices from Markets in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Huremović, J.; Badema, B.; Muhić-Šarac, T.; Selović,, A.; Memić, M.
2014-01-01
Spices are some of the most common foods in the human diet around the world. Spices are dried parts of plants used often as diet components to improve aroma and acceptability of food. The aim of this work was to determine the contents of seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in spices available at local markets in Sarajevo. Metal concentrations in six spice samples (black pepper (Piper nigrum), basil (Ocimum...
Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.
Gallo, Monica; Ferracane, Rosalia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo
2010-09-09
Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus). The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.
SPICES: Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems
Boccaletti, Anthony; Traub, Wes; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Stam, Daphne; Gratton, Raffaele; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Snik, Frans; Baudoz, Pierre; Galicher, Raphael; Reess, Jean-Michel; Mawet, Dimitri; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Patience, Jennifer; Kuchner, Marc; Wyatt, Mark; Pantin, Eric; Maire, Anne-Lise; Verinaud, Christophe; Ronayette, Samuel; Dubreuil, Didier; Min, Michiel; Rodenhuis, Michiel; Mesa, Dino; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Tamura, Motohide; Murakami, Naoshi; Beerer, Ingrid Mary
2012-01-01
SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450 - 900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By 2020/22, present and near-term instruments will have found several tens of planets that SPICES will be able to observe and study in detail. Equipped with a 1.5 m telescope, SPICES can preferentially access exoplanets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars ($<$25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses to Super Earths ($\\sim$2 Earth radii, $\\sim$10 M$_{\\oplus}$) as well as circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System.
Reliable SPICE Simulations of Memristors, Memcapacitors and Meminductors
Biolek, D; Pershin, Y V
2013-01-01
Memory circuit elements, namely memristive, memcapacitive and meminductive systems, are gaining considerable attention due to their ubiquity and use in diverse areas of science and technology. Their modeling within the most widely used environment, SPICE, is thus critical to make substantial progress in the design and analysis of complex circuits. Here, we present a collection of models of different memory circuit elements and provide a methodology for their accurate and reliable modeling in the SPICE environment. We also provide codes of these models written in the most popular SPICE versions (PSpice, LTspice, HSPICE) for the benefit of the reader. We expect this to be of great value to the growing community of scientists interested in the wide range of applications of memory circuit elements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jain Sanjay
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this present paper an inventory model is developed with ramp type demand, starting with shortage and three - parameter Weibull distribution deterioration. A brief analysis of the cost involved is carried out by an example.
Retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution parameters from polarized reflectance measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Alexandrov
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We present an algorithm for retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP measurements. The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS, which is due to be launched as part of the NASA Glory Project. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectances in 9 spectral channels with center wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. For cloud droplet size retrievals we utilize the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 140 and 170 degrees where they exhibit rainbow. The shape of the rainbow is determined mainly by single-scattering properties of the cloud particles, that simplifies the inversions and reduces retrieval uncertainties. The retrieval algorithm was tested using realistically simulated cloud radiation fields. Our retrievals of cloud droplet sizes from actual RSP measurements made during two recent field campaigns were compared with the correlative in situ observations.
A spatial bootstrap technique for parameter estimation of rainfall annual maxima distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Uboldi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Estimation of extreme event distributions and depth-duration-frequency (DDF curves is achieved at any target site by repeated sampling among all available raingauge data in the surrounding area. The estimate is computed over a gridded domain in Northern Italy, using precipitation time series from 1929 to 2011, including data from historical analog stations and from the present-day automatic observational network. The presented local regionalisation naturally overcomes traditional station-point methods, with their demand of long historical series and their sensitivity to very rare events occurring at very few stations, possibly causing unrealistic spatial gradients in DDF relations. At the same time, the presented approach allows for spatial dependence, necessary in a geographical domain such as Lombardy, complex for both its topography and its climatology. The bootstrap technique enables evaluating uncertainty maps for all estimated parameters and for rainfall depths at assigned return periods.
Linking particle and pore-size distribution parameters to soil gas transport properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per
2012-01-01
Accurate estimation of soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do, the ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (ka) from basic texture and pore characteristics will be highly valuable for modeling soil gas transport and emission and their field-scale variations. From......, respectively) and the Campbell water retention parameter b were used to characterize particle and pore size distributions, respectively. Campbell b yielded a wide interval (4.6–26.2) and was highly correlated with α, β, and volumetric clay content. Both Dp/Do and ka followed simple power-law functions (PLFs...... also well (but relatively more weakly) correlated with the basic soil characteristics, again with the best correlations to volumetric clay content and b. As a first attempt at developing a simple Dp/Do model useful at the field scale, we extended the classical Buckingham Dp/Do model (εa2) by a scaling...
Ansari, A. A.; Sartale, S. D.
2016-08-01
A simple method to grow uniform sized Ag nanoparticles with narrow size distribution on flat support (glass and Si substrates) via spin coating of Ag+ ions (AgNO3) solution followed by thermal reduction in H2 is presented. These grown nanoparticles can be used as model catalytic system to study size dependent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. Ag nanoparticles formation was confirmed by local surface plasmon resonance and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Influences of process parameters (revolution per minute (rpm), ramp and salt concentration) on grown Ag nanoparticles size, density and size uniformity are studied. With increase in rpm and ramp the size decreases and the particle number density increases, whereas the size dispersion improves. The catalytic activity of the grown Ag particles for ORR is studied and it is found that the catalytic performance is dependent on the size as well as the number density of the grown Ag nanoparticles.
Meiners, K. M.; Arndt, S.; Bestley, S.; Krumpen, T.; Ricker, R.; Milnes, M.; Newbery, K.; Freier, U.; Jarman, S.; King, R.; Proud, R.; Kawaguchi, S.; Meyer, B.
2017-07-01
Antarctic pack ice serves as habitat for microalgae which contribute to Southern Ocean primary production and serve as important food source for pelagic herbivores. Ice algal biomass is highly patchy and remains severely undersampled by classical methods such as spatially restricted ice coring surveys. Here we provide an unprecedented view of ice algal biomass distribution, mapped (as chlorophyll a) in a 100 m by 100 m area of a Weddell Sea pack ice floe, using under-ice irradiance measurements taken with an instrumented remotely operated vehicle. We identified significant correlations (p < 0.001) between algal biomass and concomitant in situ surface measurements of snow depth, ice thickness, and estimated sea ice freeboard levels using a statistical model. The model's explanatory power (r2 = 0.30) indicates that these parameters alone may provide a first basis for spatial prediction of ice algal biomass, but parameterization of additional determinants is needed to inform more robust upscaling efforts.
Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)
2015-07-15
Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.
Results of Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells Dependent on Operation Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zbigniew A. Styczynski
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents in situ measurements of a newly developed current density measurement system for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. While the functional principle and technical evaluation of the measurement system were presented in a previous paper, this paper analyzes the influence of various operation parameters, including multiple start-stop operation, at the anode, cathode and cooling locations on the distribution and long-term development of the current density. The system was operated for 500 h over two years with long periods of inactivity between measurements. The measurement results are evaluated and provide additional information on how to optimize the operation modes of fuel cells, including the start and stop of such systems as well as the water balance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
商立群; 施围
2006-01-01
A new fault location algorithm for double-circuit transmission lines is described in this paper. The proposed method uses data extracted from two ends of the transmission lines and thus eliminates the effects of the source impedance and the fault resistance. The distributed parameter model and the modal transformation are also employed. Depending on modal transformation, the coupled equations of the lines are converted into decoupled ones. In this way, the mutual coupling effects between adjacent circuits of the lines are eliminated and therefore an accurate fault location can be achieved. The proposed method is tested via digital simulation using EMTP in conjunction with MATLAB. The test results corroborate the high accuracy of the proposed method.
Reynolds Puga, Jose Eduardo; Halldin, Sven; Xu, Chong-Yu; Seibert, Jan
2016-04-01
Flood forecasting at sub-daily time scales are commonly required in regions where sub-daily observational data are not available. This has led to approaches to estimate model parameters at sub-daily time scales from data with a lower time resolution. Reynolds et al. (2015) show that parameters inferred at one time scale (e.g., daily) may be used directly for runoff simulations at other time scales (e.g., 1 h) when the modelling time step is the same and sufficiently small during calibration and simulation periods. Their approach produced parameter distributions at daily and sub-daily time scales that were similar and relatively constant across the time scales. The transfer of parameter values across time scales resulted in small model-performance decrease as opposed to when the parameter sets inferred at their respective time scale were used. This decrease in performance may be attributed to the degree of information lost, in terms of the physical processes occurring at short time scales, when the rainfall-runoff data used during the parameter-inference phase become coarser. It is not yet fully understood how the aggregation (or disaggregation) of the rainfall-runoff data affects parameter inference. In this study we analyse the impacts of the temporal distribution of rainfall for inferring model parameters at a coarse time scale and their effects in model performance when they are used at finer time scales, where data may not be available for calibration. The motivation is to improve runoff predictions and model performance at sub-daily time scales when parameters inferred at the daily scale are used for simulating at these scales. First, we calibrated the HBV-light conceptual hydrological model at the daily scale, but modelled discharge internally in 1-h time steps using 3 disaggregation procedures of the rainfall data. This was done in an attempt to maximise the information content of the input data used for calibration at the daily scale. One disaggregation
The vertical distribution of physical parameters in the Gulf of Riga for future climate projections.
Valainis, Aigars; Sennikovs, Juris
2010-05-01
Our goal was to investigate the vertical distribution of physical parameters (temperature, salinity) in the Gulf of Riga for the contemporay climate and for future climate projections. The Gulf of Riga is a semi-enclosed subbasin of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. The area of the Gulf of Riga is about 18,000 sq. km. The maximum depth is 67 m. The island of Saaremaa partially separates it from the rest of the Baltic Sea. The main connection of the Gulf with the Baltic Proper is the Irbe Strait allowing limited exchanges with Baltic see. The Gulf of Riga was modelled with 1D model. Calculations were made for 55 m deep water column, taking into account hypsographic curve. The General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) was used. Second order dynamic k-e equation with parameterization from Cheng (2002) was used for turbulence description. The result sensitivity was evaluated regarding models choice. Data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) where used for calibration and verification period. Data included ECMWF ERA 40 for time period 1957-2002, and ECMWF ERA Interim for 1989-2009. Regional climate models (RCM) and scenarios for future climate change were obtained from Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE) project. Time period for future physical parameter vertical distribution simulation was 2071-2100. We applied the bias correction (via histogram equalisation) of RCM data. We employed the setup of hydrological models to generate the contemporary and future river run-off data series Our results conclude that in future the Gulf won't freeze over. In summer surface temperature will increase at least by 2 degrees Celsius. Vertical stratification will begin a month earlier - as a consequence the time period of full mixing will be shorter.
Parameter identification of a distributed runoff model by the optimization software Colleo
Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Mamoru; Yamakage, Yuzuru; Tsuda, Morimasa; Anai, Hirokazu; Iwami, Yoichi
2015-04-01
The introduction of Colleo (Collection of Optimization software) is presented and case studies of parameter identification for a distributed runoff model are illustrated. In order to calculate discharge of rivers accurately, a distributed runoff model becomes widely used to take into account various land usage, soil-type and rainfall distribution. Feasibility study of parameter optimization is desired to be done in two steps. The first step is to survey which optimization algorithms are suitable for the problems of interests. The second step is to investigate the performance of the specific optimization algorithm. Most of the previous studies seem to focus on the second step. This study will focus on the first step and complement the previous studies. Many optimization algorithms have been proposed in the computational science field and a large number of optimization software have been developed and opened to the public with practically applicable performance and quality. It is well known that it is important to use suitable algorithms for the problems to obtain good optimization results efficiently. In order to achieve algorithm comparison readily, optimization software is needed with which performance of many algorithms can be compared and can be connected to various simulation software. Colleo is developed to satisfy such needs. Colleo provides a unified user interface to several optimization software such as pyOpt, NLopt, inspyred and R and helps investigate the suitability of optimization algorithms. 74 different implementations of optimization algorithms, Nelder-Mead, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm, are available with Colleo. The effectiveness of Colleo was demonstrated with the cases of flood events of the Gokase River basin in Japan (1820km2). From 2002 to 2010, there were 15 flood events, in which the discharge exceeded 1000m3/s. The discharge was calculated with the PWRI distributed hydrological model developed by ICHARM. The target
Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desouky, O.S. E-mail: omardesouky@yahoo.com; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M
2002-07-01
Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10 deg. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 A{sup -1}, where x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.
Low-angle X-ray scattering from spices
Desouky, Omar S.; Ashour, Ahmed H.; Abdullah, Mohamed I.; Elshemey, Wael M.
2002-07-01
Low-angle scattering of X-rays is characterized by the presence of one or more peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks are due to the interference of photons coherently scattered from the molecules of the medium. Thus these patterns are closely linked to the molecular structure of the investigated medium. In this work, low-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) profiles of five spices; pimpinella anisum (anise), coriandrum sativum (coriander), cuminum cyminum (cumin), foenculum vulgare (fennel) and nigella sativa (nigella or black cumin) are presented after extensive measurements. It is found that all spices exhibit one characteristic peak at a scattering angle around 10°. This is equivalent to a value x=0.0565 Å -1, where x=sin( θ⧸2)⧸ λ. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this peak is found to be characteristic for each type of the investigated spices. The possibility to detect the irradiation of these spices from their LAXS profiles is also examined after 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy doses of gamma radiation. Except for anise, coriander and cumin at 40 kGy, there are no detectable deviations from the control samples in the scattering profiles of irradiated samples. These results comply with the recommendations of the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) which defines 30 kGy as the maximum dose for irradiation of spices. The present technique could be used to detect over-irradiation, which causes damage to the molecular structure of some spices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cleymans, J., E-mail: jean.cleymans@gmail.com [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape (South Africa); Lykasov, G.I. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Parvan, A.S. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, Moldova Academy of Sciences, MD-2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Sorin, A.S.; Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Worku, D. [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape (South Africa)
2013-06-25
Changes in the transverse momentum distributions with beam energy are studied using the Tsallis distribution as a parameterization. The dependence of the Tsallis parameters q, T and the volume are determined as a function of beam energy. The Tsallis parameter q shows a weak but clear increase with beam energy with the highest value being approximately 1.15. The Tsallis temperature and volume are consistent with being independent of beam energy within experimental uncertainties.
WebGeocalc and Cosmographia: Modern Tools to Access SPICE Archives
Semenov, B. V.; Acton, C. H.; Bachman, N. J.; Ferguson, E. W.; Rose, M. E.; Wright, E. D.
2017-06-01
The WebGeocalc (WGC) web client-server tool and the SPICE-enhanced Cosmographia visualization program are two new ways for accessing space mission geometry data provided in the PDS SPICE kernel archives and by mission operational SPICE kernel sets.
21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...
21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. J. Vélez
2009-02-01
Full Text Available A Regional Water Resources study was performed at basins within and draining to the Basque Country Region (N of Spain, with a total area of approximately 8500 km^{2}. The objective was to obtain daily and monthly long-term discharges in 567 points, most of them ungauged, with basin areas ranging from 0.25 to 1850 km^{2}. In order to extrapolate the calibrations at gauged points to the ungauged ones, a distributed and conceptually based model called TETIS was used. In TETIS the runoff production is modelled using five linked tanks at the each cell with different outflow relationships at each tank, which represents the main hydrological processes as snowmelt, evapotranspiration, overland flow, interflow and base flow. The routing along the channels' network couples its geomorphologic characteristics with the kinematic wave approach. The parameter estimation methodology tries to distinguish between the effective parameter used in the model at the cell scale, and the watershed characteristic estimated from the available information, being the best estimation without losing its physical meaning. The relationship between them can be considered as a correction function or, in its simple form, a correction factor. The correction factor can take into account the model input errors, the temporal and spatial scale effects and the watershed characteristics. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume the correction factor is the same for each parameter to all cells within the watershed. This approach reduces drastically the number of parameter to be calibrated, because only the common correction factors are calibrated instead of parameter maps (number of parameters times the number of cells. In this way, the calibration can be performed using automatic methodologies. In this work, the Shuffled Complex Evolution – University of Arizona, SCE-UA algorithm was used. The available recent year's data was used to calibrate the model in 20 of
Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway
Beldring, Stein; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Roald, Lars A.; Roar Sælthun, Nils; Voksø, Astrid
A distributed version of the HBV-model using 1 km2 grid cells and daily time step was used to simulate runoff from the entire land surface of Norway for the period 1961-1990. The model was sensitive to changes in small scale properties of the land surface and the climatic input data, through explicit representation of differences between model elements, and by implicit consideration of sub-grid variations in moisture status. A geographically transferable set of model parameters was determined by a multi-criteria calibration strategy, which simultaneously minimised the residuals between model simulated and observed runoff from 141 Norwegian catchments located in areas with different runoff regimes and landscape characteristics. Model discretisation units with identical landscape classification were assigned similar parameter values. Model performance was evaluated by simulating discharge from 43 independent catchments. Finally, a river routing procedure using a kinematic wave approximation to open channel flow was introduced in the model, and discharges from three additional catchments were calculated and compared with observations. The model was used to produce a map of average annual runoff for Norway for the period 1961-1990.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arakelyan Sh. Kh.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We suggest to apply the Bubnov–Galerkin procedure to solve scanning control problems for systems with distributed parameters. The algorithm is described in details for three-dimensional linear heat equation It allows to reduce the solution of control problem to finite-dimensional nonlinear moments problem. The procedure of derivation of moments problem is illustrated in details on the example of one-dimensional equation of thermal conductivity. The solution of obtained moments problem is found in a particular case. Based on obtained results a computer simulation is done using COMSOL Multiphysics platform in one-dimensional case for a rod. The main dependences of control function against input data of the problem are revealed. The state of the rod for several (constant values of the source intensity is expressed in terms of graphs and illustrations. Corresponding illustrations are brought in case of control absence (null-power source for comparison. An effective numerical scheme for solving the obtained system of nonlinear constraints is suggested in the case of extended class of admissible controls. Calculation of control parameters is reduced to the simplest problem of nonlinear programming.
C-parameter Distribution at N${}^3$LL$^\\prime$ including Power Corrections
Hoang, André H; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W
2014-01-01
We compute the $e^+ e^-$ C-parameter distribution using the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory with a resummation to N${}^3$LL$^\\prime$ accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to ${\\cal O} (\\alpha_s^3)$, a numerical determination of the two loop non-logarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for $C$ in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments $\\Omega_n$. In order to eliminate an ${\\cal O} (\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD})$ renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switch from the $\\overline {\\rm MS}$ to a short distance "Rgap" scheme to define the leading power correction parameter $\\Omega_1$. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in $\\Omega_1$ due to renormalon subtractions and hadron mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C-para...
Alessandri, Angelo; Gaggero, Mauro; Zoppoli, Riccardo
2012-06-01
Optimal control for systems described by partial differential equations is investigated by proposing a methodology to design feedback controllers in approximate form. The approximation stems from constraining the control law to take on a fixed structure, where a finite number of free parameters can be suitably chosen. The original infinite-dimensional optimization problem is then reduced to a mathematical programming one of finite dimension that consists in optimizing the parameters. The solution of such a problem is performed by using sequential quadratic programming. Linear combinations of fixed and parameterized basis functions are used as the structure for the control law, thus giving rise to two different finite-dimensional approximation schemes. The proposed paradigm is general since it allows one to treat problems with distributed and boundary controls within the same approximation framework. It can be applied to systems described by either linear or nonlinear elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations in arbitrary multidimensional domains. Simulation results obtained in two case studies show the potentials of the proposed approach as compared with dynamic programming.
Rodriguez, L.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Zhukov, A. N.; Gulisano, A. M.; Mierla, M.; Kilpua, E.; West, M.; Lacatus, D.; Paraschiv, A.; Janvier, M.
2016-08-01
Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). They are important because of their simple internal magnetic field configuration, which resembles a magnetic flux rope, and because they represent one of the most geoeffective types of solar transients. In this study, we analyze their internal structure using a superposed epoch method on 63 events observed at L1 by the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE), between 1998 and 2006. In this way, we obtain an average profile for each plasma and magnetic field parameter at each point of the cloud. Furthermore, we take a fixed time-window upstream and downstream from the MC to also sample the regions preceding the cloud and the wake trailing it. We then perform a detailed analysis of the internal characteristics of the clouds and their surrounding solar wind environments. We find that the parameters studied are compatible with log-normal distribution functions. The plasma β and the level of fluctuations in the magnetic field vector are the best parameters to define the boundaries of MCs. We find that one third of the events shows a peak in plasma density close to the trailing edge of the flux ropes. We provide several possible explanations for this result and investigate if the density peak is of a solar origin ( e.g. erupting prominence material) or formed during the magnetic cloud travel from the Sun to 1 AU. The most plausible explanation is the compression due to a fast overtaking flow, coming from a coronal hole located to the east of the solar source region of the magnetic cloud.
Kynurenic Acid Content in Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices
Michal P. Turski; Monika Turska; Tomasz Kocki; Turski, Waldemar A.; Piotr Paluszkiewicz
2015-01-01
Previous studies demonstrated that kynurenic acid (KYNA) is present in various types of food in varying concentrations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to check whether KYNA is present in culinary herbs and spices. Achieved results indicate that KYNA is present in all 19 selected culinary herbs and spices. The highest concentration of KYNA was found in basil and thyme, 14.08 and 8.87 μg/g, respectively, while the lowest content of KYNA was found in cumin and black pepper, 0.64 and 0.10 μg...
Neural-Based Models of Semiconductor Devices for SPICE Simulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanene B. Hammouda
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The paper addresses a simple and fast new approach to implement Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models for the MOS transistor into SPICE. The proposed approach involves two steps, the modeling phase of the device by NN providing its input/output patterns, and the SPICE implementation process of the resulting model. Using the Taylor series expansion, a neural based small-signal model is derived. The reliability of our approach is validated through simulations of some circuits in DC and small-signal analyses.
SPICE as an IAU Recommendation for Planetary Ephemerides
Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel; Folkner, William M.; Hilton, James
2015-08-01
In 2010 the IAU Commission 4 Working Group (WG) on Standardizing Access to Ephemerides and File Format Specification was formed to define a portable standard for planetary ephemeris files. The standard would have to work for all three sources of ephemerides-NASA/JPL, Institut de mécanique céleste de calcul des éphémérides (IMCCE), and Institute of Applied Astronomy (IAA). The WG decided to base its standard on the existing "SPICE"* Spacecraft/Planet kernel (SPK) format.The SPK format was created for use with the "SPICE" information system, used by many scientists and engineers worldwide to compute the geometry needed to plan and analyze data from robotic missions. SPICE is comprised of both data files and associated software, all freely available. SPICE data files, usually referred to as "kernels," provide ephemerides and size, shape and orientation of solar system bodies; spacecraft trajectory and orientation; reference frame specifications and implementations; instrument field-of-view geometry; and time system conversion data.Standard SPICE ephemeris files use the TDB time system-the WG requested SPICE be extended to accommodate ephemerides based on the TCB time system. Extensions were also needed to accommodate the IAA ephemeris representation as well as the integrated difference between coordinate time and proper time in the form of TT-TDB and TCG-TCB.Software to read the SPK kernels defined to accommodate planetary ephemerides is available in the SPICE toolkit, and also in stand-alone kernel readers available from IMCEE and IAA.SPK is also used within the SPICE community for natural satellites, asteroids, and comets. Future IAU discussions might lead to an expansion of the work done for planets to provide more general standards for these bodies.Portions of the research described in this publication was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Santos-Martins, Diogo; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João
2016-11-01
In the context of SAMPL5, we submitted blind predictions of the cyclohexane/water distribution coefficient (D) for a series of 53 drug-like molecules. Our method is purely empirical and based on the additive contribution of each solute atom to the free energy of solvation in water and in cyclohexane. The contribution of each atom depends on the atom type and on the exposed surface area. Comparatively to similar methods in the literature, we used a very small set of atomic parameters: only 10 for solvation in water and 1 for solvation in cyclohexane. As a result, the method is protected from overfitting and the error in the blind predictions could be reasonably estimated. Moreover, this approach is fast: it takes only 0.5 s to predict the distribution coefficient for all 53 SAMPL5 compounds, allowing its application in virtual screening campaigns. The performance of our approach (submission 49) is modest but satisfactory in view of its efficiency: the root mean square error (RMSE) was 3.3 log D units for the 53 compounds, while the RMSE of the best performing method (using COSMO-RS) was 2.1 (submission 16). Our method is implemented as a Python script available at https://github.com/diogomart/SAMPL5-DC-surface-empirical.
Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.
1975-01-01
New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical Parameters of Idealized Ambient Particle Size Distributions F Table F-3 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment....5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-3 Table F-3 to Subpart F of Part 53—Critical Parameters of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meliopoulos, Sakis [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cokkinides, George [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fardanesh, Bruce [New York Power Authority, NY (United States); Hedrington, Clinton [U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands)
2013-12-31
This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based
SPICE benchmark for global tomographic methods
Qin, Yilong; Capdeville, Yann; Maupin, Valerie; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Lebedev, Sergei; Beucler, Eric
2008-11-01
The existing global tomographic methods result in different models due to different parametrization, scale resolution and theoretical approach. To test how current imaging techniques are limited by approximations in theory and by the inadequacy of data quality and coverage, it is necessary to perform a global-scale benchmark to understand the resolving properties of each specific imaging algorithm. In the framework of the Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network (SPICE) project, it was decided to perform a benchmark experiment of global inversion algorithms. First, a preliminary benchmark with a simple isotropic model is carried out to check the feasibility in terms of acquisition geometry and numerical accuracy. Then, to fully validate tomographic schemes with a challenging synthetic data set, we constructed one complex anisotropic global model, which is characterized by 21 elastic constants and includes 3-D heterogeneities in velocity, anisotropy (radial and azimuthal anisotropy), attenuation, density, as well as surface topography and bathymetry. The intermediate-period (>32 s), high fidelity anisotropic modelling was performed by using state-of-the-art anisotropic anelastic modelling code, that is, coupled spectral element method (CSEM), on modern massively parallel computing resources. The benchmark data set consists of 29 events and three-component seismograms are recorded by 256 stations. Because of the limitation of the available computing power, synthetic seismograms have a minimum period of 32 s and a length of 10 500 s. The inversion of the benchmark data set demonstrates several well-known problems of classical surface wave tomography, such as the importance of crustal correction to recover the shallow structures, the loss of resolution with depth, the smearing effect, both horizontal and vertical, the inaccuracy of amplitude of isotropic S-wave velocity variation, the difficulty of retrieving the magnitude of azimuthal
Zakarienė, Gintarė; Rokaitytė, Anita; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Mulkytė, Kristina; Zaborskienė, Gintarė; Malakauskas, Mindaugas
2015-03-01
The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on inoculated fresh broiler wings was investigated. Experiments were carried out with 1 strain of C. jejuni and 6 marinades. Four experimental marinades were composed for the study and contained spices (thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram, and so on) and different combination of bioactive compounds. Two marinades were commercial and contained spices (black pepper, sweet red pepper, and so on) and chemical additives (monosodium glutamate, sodium diacetate, calcium lactate), 1 commercial marinade was also enriched with bioactive compounds (linalool, cinnamaldehyde, lactic acid). Total aerobic bacterial count was examined to estimate the possible effect of tested marinades on the shelf-life of marinated broiler wings. Study revealed that thyme-based marinade was the most effective against C. jejuni on broiler wings and reduced the numbers of campylobacters by 1.04 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g (P ≤ 0.05) during storage for 168 h at 4 °C temperature. Moreover, it was more effective against C. jejuni than commercial marinade with 0.47 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) reduction effect. Both experimental and commercial marinades had very similar effect on the total aerobic bacterial count. Although experimental and commercial marinades had different effect on pH of broiler wings, this parameter did not show a major impact on the antimicrobial effect of tested marinades (P ≥ 0.05). Our study shows that experimental natural thyme-based marinade can reduce numbers of C. jejuni more effectively than tested commercial marinades.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pouget, V.; Lapuyade, H.; Lewis, D.; Deval, Y.; Fouillat, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., IXL, 33 - Talence (France); Sarger, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CPMOH, 33 - Talence (France)
1999-07-01
A new SPICE model of irradiated MOSFET taking into account the real response of the 4 electrodes is proposed. The component that has been simulated is an NMOS transistor issued from the AMS BiCMOS 0.8 {mu}m technology. A comparison between SPICE-generated transients and PISCES device simulation demonstrates the accuracy benefits when used in complex electronic architectures. This model could be used when designing electronic circuits able to sustain hardening due to SEE (single event effect), it will be an efficient complement to the physical simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Bhattacharya
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The wind resource varies with of the day and the season of the year and even some extent from year to year. Wind energy has inherent variances and hence it has been expressed by distribution functions. In this paper, we present some methods for estimating Weibull parameters in case of a low wind speed characterization, namely, shape parameter (k, scale parameter (c and characterize the discrete wind data sample by the discrete Hilbert transform. We know that the Weibull distribution is an important distribution especially for reliability and maintainability analysis. The suitable values for both shape parameter and scale parameters of Weibull distribution are important for selecting locations of installing wind turbine generators. The scale parameter of Weibull distribution also important to determine whether a wind farm is good or not. Thereafter the use of discrete Hilbert transform (DHT for wind speed characterization provides a new era of using DHT besides its application in digital signal processing. Basically in this paper, discrete Hilbert transform has been applied to characterize the wind sample data measured on College of Engineering and Management, Kolaghat, East Midnapore, India in January 2011.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢恒堃; 乐波; 孙翔; 宋建成
2003-01-01
Objective To investigate the characteristic parameters employed to describe the aging extent of stator insulation of large generator and study the aging laws. Methods Multi-stress aging tests of model generator stator bar specimens were performed and PD measurements were conducted using digital PD detector with frequency range from 40*!kHz to 400*!kHz at different aging stage. Results From the test results of model specimens it was found that the skewness of phase resolved PD distribution might be taken as the characterization parameters for aging extent assessment of generator insulation. Furthermore, the measurement results of actual generator stator bars showed that the method based on statistical parameters of PD distributions are prospective for aging extent assessment and residual lifetime estimation of large generator insulation. Conclusion Statistical parameters of phase resolved PD distribution was proposed for aging extent assessment of large generator insulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. KRASAKOPOULOU
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Data on the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (measured as TCO2 and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf were obtained during May 1997. High TCO2 concentrations were recorded close to the bottom, especially in the northern part of the gulf, as a result of organic matter remineralisation. The positive relatively good correlation between TCO2 and both apparent oxygen utilisation (AOU and phosphate at the last sampling depth confi rmed the regenerative origin of a large proportion of TCO2. The comparatively conservative behaviour of alkalinity, together with the relatively low value of the homogenous buffer factor β (β = ∂lnfCO2/∂lnTCO2 revealed that calcifi cation or carbonate dissolution takes place on a very small scale, simultaneously with the organic carbon production. The correlations between fCO2 and chlorophyll α, as well as AOU and the surface temperature, revealed that the carbon dioxide fi xation through the biological activity is the principal factor that modulates the variability of fCO2. A rough first estimate of the magnitude of the air-sea CO2 exchange and the potential role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the transfer of atmospheric CO2 was also obtained. The results showed that during May 1997, the Thermaikos Gulf acted as a weak sink for atmospheric CO2 at a rate of -0.60 - -1.43 mmol m-2 d-1, depending on which formula for the gas transfer velocity was used, and in accordance to recent reports regarding other temperate continental shelves. Extensive study of the dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters, and continuous shipboard measurements of fCO2 a and fCO2 w during all seasons are necessary to safely quantify the role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the context of the coastal margins CO2 dynamics.
COMPOSITION OF MAJOR ORGANIC ACIDS IN VEGETABLES AND SPICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liga Priecina
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Organic acids are one of the major phytochemicals in vegetables and responsible for food taste and odor. Different organic acids are analyzed in fruits and cereals, but least in vegetables and spices. Organic acids has been analyzed because of their high importance in the formation of other phytochemical and increased antioxidant activity. The aim of the current research was to determine the oxalic, tartaric, quinic, malic, malonic, ascorbic, citric, fumaric, succinic, salicylic and benzoic acid content in fresh and pre-treated (with steam vegetables and spices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Major organic acids in highest concentrations in spices and vegetables are quinic, malic, malonic and citric acids. Spices contain higher total organic acid content than vegetables. Using steaming as pre-treatment, some of the organic acids content significantly decreased. Obtained changes could be explained by the organic acid formation into more complex chemicals in food or metabolic process. For the future, these changes will be combined with individual phenolic compound changes in analyzed samples.
Assessment of food fraud vulnerability in the spices chain
Silvis, I.C.J.; Ruth, van S.M.; Fels, van der Ine; Luning, P.A.
2017-01-01
Recent scandals have increased the need to strengthen companies’ ability to combat fraud within their own organizations and across their supply chain. Vulnerability assessments are a first step towards the inventory of fraud vulnerability and fraud mitigation plans. Spices are reported frequently
Spice Up Your Life: Adipose Tissue and Inflammation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anil K. Agarwal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Cells of the immune system are now recognized in the adipose tissue which, in obesity, produces proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines. Several herbs and spices have been in use since ancient times which possess anti-inflammatory properties. In this perspective, I discuss and propose the usage of these culinary delights for the benefit of human health.
Hot spices influence permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayers.
Jensen-Jarolim, E; Gajdzik, L; Haberl, I; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O; Graf, J
1998-03-01
Indirect evidence suggests that hot spices may interact with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract to modulate their transport properties. Using HCT-8 cells, a cell line from a human ileocoecal carcinoma, we studied the effects of spices on transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), permeability for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextrans with graded molecular weight, and morphological alterations of tight junctions by immunofluorescence using an anti-ZO-1 antibody, a marker for tight junction integrity. Two different reactivity patterns were observed: paprika and cayenne pepper significantly decreased the TER and increased permeability for 10-, 20- and 40-kDa dextrans but not for -70 kDa dextrans. Simultaneously, tight junctions exhibited a discontinuous pattern. Applying extracts from black or green pepper, bay leaf or nutmeg increased the TER and macromolecular permeability remained low. Immunofluorescence ZO-1 staining was preserved. In accordance with the above findings, capsaicin transiently reduced resistance and piperine increased resistance, making them candidates for causing the effects seen with crude spice extracts. The observation that Solanaceae spices (paprika, cayenne pepper) increase permeability for ions and macromolecules might be of pathophysiological importance, particularly with respect to food allergy and intolerance.
SpiceyPy, a Python Wrapper for SPICE
Annex, A.
2017-06-01
SpiceyPy is an open source Python wrapper for the NAIF SPICE toolkit. It is available for macOS, Linux, and Windows platforms and for Python versions 2.7.x and 3.x as well as Anaconda. SpiceyPy can be installed by running: “pip install spiceypy.”
Isolation and Analysis of Essential Oils from Spices
O'Shea, Stephen K.; Von Riesen, Daniel D.; Rossi, Lauren L.
2012-01-01
Natural product isolation and analysis provide an opportunity to present a variety of experimental techniques to undergraduate students in introductory organic chemistry. Eugenol, anethole, and carvone were extracted from six common spices using steam-distillation and diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. Students assessed the purity of their…
Isolation and Analysis of Essential Oils from Spices
O'Shea, Stephen K.; Von Riesen, Daniel D.; Rossi, Lauren L.
2012-01-01
Natural product isolation and analysis provide an opportunity to present a variety of experimental techniques to undergraduate students in introductory organic chemistry. Eugenol, anethole, and carvone were extracted from six common spices using steam-distillation and diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. Students assessed the purity of their…
Digestive stimulant action of three Indian spice mixes in experimental rats.
Platel, Kalpana; Rao, Alkananda; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K
2002-12-01
The present study examined the favourable influence of three spice mixes derived from a few commonly consumed spices of known digestive stimulant action on digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine, and on bile secretion and composition in experimental rats. The common ingredients of these mixes were coriander, turmeric, red chilli, black pepper and cumin, while the spice mix II additionally had ginger, and spice mix III contained onion. All the three spice mixes favourably enhanced the activities of pancreatic lipase, chymotrypsin and amylase when consumed during the diet. In addition, these spice mixes brought about a pronounced stimulation of bile flow and of bile acid secretion. Among the three spice mixes examined, spice mix III which is customized so as to include spices that are desirable from the point of view of stimulation of digestion, had the highest stimulatory influence particularly on bile secretion, bile acid output and the activities of pancreatic enzymes. While activities of pancreatic lipase, amylase and chymotrypsin were elevated by 40, 16 and 77%, respectively, the bile volume as well as the bile acid secretion were almost doubled in spice mix III treatment. The higher secretion of bile especially with an elevated level of bile acids and a beneficial stimulation of pancreatic digestive enzymes, particularly of lipase could probably be the two mechanisms by which these combinations of spices aid in digestion.
Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices
Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Schultz, David J.; Gupta, Ramesh C.
2017-01-01
Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in control
Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farrukh Aqil
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα. The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92
Effect of geometrical parameters on pressure distributions of impulse manufacturing technologies
Brune, Ryan Carl
major and minor strains for each sample type to compare limit strain results. Overall testing indicated decreased formability at high velocity for 304 DDQ stainless steel and increased formability at high velocity for 3003-H14 aluminum. Microstructural and fractographic analysis helped dissect and analyze the observed differences in these cases. Overall, these studies comprehensively explore the effects of geometrical parameters on magnitude and distribution of impulse manufacturing generated pressure, establishing key guidelines and models for continued development and implementation in commercial applications.
Large scale integration of CVD-graphene based NEMS with narrow distribution of resonance parameters
Arjmandi-Tash, Hadi; Allain, Adrien; (Vitto Han, Zheng; Bouchiat, Vincent
2017-06-01
We present a novel method for the fabrication of the arrays of suspended micron-sized membranes, based on monolayer pulsed-CVD graphene. Such devices are the source of an efficient integration of graphene nano-electro-mechanical resonators, compatible with production at the wafer scale using standard photolithography and processing tools. As the graphene surface is continuously protected by the same polymer layer during the whole process, suspended graphene membranes are clean and free of imperfections such as deposits, wrinkles and tears. Batch fabrication of 100 μm-long multi-connected suspended ribbons is presented. At room temperature, mechanical resonance of electrostatically-actuated devices show narrow distribution of their characteristic parameters with high quality factor and low effective mass and resonance frequencies, as expected for low stress and adsorbate-free membranes. Upon cooling, a sharp increase of both resonant frequency and quality factor is observed, enabling to extract the thermal expansion coefficient of CVD graphene. Comparison with state-of-the-art graphene NEMS is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klencsár, Zoltán, E-mail: z.klencsar@mosswinn.hu [Pitvar u. 11., Budapest 1141 (Hungary)
2014-10-27
Accurate quantitative analysis of Mössbauer spectra displaying thickness effects requires the consideration of the so-called transmission integral when modeling the spectral shape. Whereas this is straightforward when the correct model for the decomposition of the absorber's nuclear resonance absorption cross-section into individual components is a priori known, in the absence of such knowledge and notably in the presence of hyperfine parameter distributions with an unknown profile, the so-called model-independent evaluation methods could be used to fit the spectra. However, the methods available for this purpose were developed for the analysis of spectra for which the thin absorber approximation is valid, and thus they do not take the sample thickness and related effects into account. Consequently, in order to use them for spectra displaying thickness effects, their usage needs to be generalized by combining them with transmission integral fitting. A new algorithm realizing such a generalized version of the Hesse-Rübartsch model-independent evaluation method was developed recently as an integral part of the MossWinn program. In the present work, the working principle of the newly developed algorithm is described in details along with examples illustrating the capabilities of the method for the case of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.
Kinetic parameters and tissue distribution of 5-oxo-L-prolinase determined by a fluorimetric assay.
Weber, P; Jäger, M; Bangsow, T; Knell, G; Piechaczek, K; Koch, J; Wolf, S
1999-01-13
5-Oxo-L-prolinase (5-OPase) catalyses the hydrolysis of 5-oxo-L-proline to glutamate with concomitant stoichiometric cleavage of ATP to ADP, a reaction which is known to be part of the gamma-glutamyl cycle-an interrelated series of reactions involved in the synthesis and metabolism of glutathione. As recent studies indicate, this cyclic pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of amino acid transport. Apparently, the intermediate product 5-oxo-L-proline functions as a second messenger molecule that upregulates the activity of certain amino acid transport systems. Thus, the degradation of 5-oxo-L-proline by 5-OPase leads to the downregulation of this stimulus. In this study, a new sensitive fluorimetric assay for 5-OPase activity was established which is based on the derivatization of glutamate with o-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of thiols and subsequent separation of the products by HPLC. The method is suitable for the screening of chromatography fractions as well as for the determination of the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax of purified 5-OPase. Additionally, it can be used for the measurement of enzyme activity in crude cell extracts and evaluation of tissue distribution.
Vibration suppression of distributed parameter flexible structures by Integral Consensus Control
Omidi, Ehsan; Mahmoodi, S. Nima
2016-03-01
Integral Consensus Control (ICC) is proposed and implemented in this paper for the first time, as a novel approach for vibration control in distributed parameter flexible structures. The ICC consists of multiple parallel first-order lossy integrators, with the goal of targeting all major participating resonant modes in the oscillation of the structure. The vibration control design is taken to a different level, by integrating the concept of consensus control design into the new dynamics. Each control patch on the flexible structure is considered as a node of a network, and a communication topology with consensus control terms are augmented in the controller design dynamics. The result is an effective vibration controller, which is also robust to failures and inconsistencies in the control system. A cantilever is used as a sample flexible structure to investigate the control method. Multi-agent representation of the system, state estimator dynamics and the ICC model are designed for the structure. Extensive numerical simulations have been conducted to show the suppression performance of the ICC under different input disturbances. A comparative study is presented to show the advantage of the decentralized design over the conventional centralized approach. The new consensus control design provides new possibilities to vibration control problems, where an effective, robust and synchronized suppression is needed.
Dinh, Thanh Vu; Cabon, Béatrice; Daoud, Nahla; Chilo, Jean
1992-11-01
This paper presents a simple and efficient method for calculating the propagating line parameters (actually, a microstrip one) and its magnetic fields, by simulating an original equivalent circuit with an electrical nodal simulator (SPICE). The losses in the normal conducting line (due to DC losses and to skin effect losses) and also in the superconducting one can be investigated. This allows us to integrate the electromagnetic solutions to the CAD softwares. Dans ce papier, une méthode simple et efficace pour calculer les paramètres de propagation d'une ligne microruban et les champs magnétiques qu'elle engendre est présentée; pour cela, nous simulons un circuit original équivalent à l'aide du simulateur nodal SPICE. Les pertes dans une ligne conductrice (pertes continues et par effet de peau) ainsi que dans une ligne supraconductrice peuvent être considérées. Les solutions électromagnétiques peuvent être intégrées dans les simulateurs de CAO.
Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly
2011-03-01
Astropecten marginatus is a sea star widely distributed in Northern and Eastern South America, found on sandy and muddy bottoms, in shallow and deep waters. To describe some of its ecological characteristics, we calculated it spatial-temporal distribution, population parameters (based on size and weight) and diet in the Orinoco Delta ecoregion (Venezuela). The ecoregion was divided in three sections: Golfo de Paria, Boca de Serpiente and Plataforma Deltana. Samples for the rainy and dry seasons came from megabenthos surveys of the "Línea Base Ambiental Plataforma Deltana (LBAPD)" and "Corocoro Fase I (CFI)" projects. The collected sea stars were measured, weighted and dissected by the oral side to extract their stomach and identify the preys consumed. A total of 570 sea stars were collected in LBAPD project and 306 in CFI one. The highest densities were found during the dry season in almost all sections. In LBAPD project the highest density was in "Plataforma Deltana" section (0.007 +/- 0.022 ind/m2 in dry season and 0.014 +/- 0.06 ind/m2 in rainy season) and in the CFI project the densities in "Golfo de Paria" section were 0.705 +/- 0.829 ind/m2 in rainy season and 1.027 +/- 1.107 ind/m2 in dry season. The most frequent size range was 3.1-4.6cm. The highest biomass was found in "Golfo de Paria" section (7.581 +/- 0.018 mg/m2 in dry season and 0.005 +/- 6.542 x 10(-06) mg/m2 in rainy season for 2004-2005 and 3.979 +/- 4.024 mg/m2 in dry season; and 3.117 +/- 3.137 mg/m2 in rainy season for 2006). A linear relationship was found between the sea star size and its weight but no relationship was observed between its size and the depth where it was collected. Mollusks are dominant in the sea star diet (47.4% in abundance). The diet in any of the sections, seasons or between projects or size class was heterogeneous, using multivariate ordinations (MDS) and SIMPER analysis and there was no difference in the prey number or food elements that a sea star can eat. Although A
Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M
2014-01-22
The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.
Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.
1988-01-01
Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.
Jurgens, Bryant; Bohlke, John Karl; Kauffman, Leon J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.
2016-01-01
A partial exponential lumped parameter model (PEM) was derived to determine age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened production wells. The PEM can simulate age distributions for wells screened over any finite interval of an aquifer that has an exponential distribution of age with depth. The PEM has 3 parameters – the ratio of saturated thickness to the top and bottom of the screen and mean age, but these can be reduced to 1 parameter (mean age) by using well construction information and estimates of the saturated thickness. The PEM was tested with data from 30 production wells in a heterogeneous alluvial fan aquifer in California, USA. Well construction data were used to guide parameterization of a PEM for each well and mean age was calibrated to measured environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFC-113, and 14C). Results were compared to age distributions generated for individual wells using advective particle tracking models (PTMs). Age distributions from PTMs were more complex than PEM distributions, but PEMs provided better fits to tracer data, partly because the PTMs did not simulate 14C accurately in wells that captured varying amounts of old groundwater recharged at lower rates prior to groundwater development and irrigation. Nitrate trends were simulated independently of the calibration process and the PEM provided good fits for at least 11 of 24 wells. This work shows that the PEM, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) in general, can often identify critical features of the age distributions in wells that are needed to explain observed tracer data and nonpoint source contaminant trends, even in systems where aquifer heterogeneity and water-use complicate distributions of age. While accurate PTMs are preferable for understanding and predicting aquifer-scale responses to water use and contaminant transport, LPMs can be sensitive to local conditions near individual wells that may be inaccurately represented or missing in an aquifer-scale flow model.
Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J. K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.
2016-12-01
A partial exponential lumped parameter model (PEM) was derived to determine age distributions and nitrate trends in long-screened production wells. The PEM can simulate age distributions for wells screened over any finite interval of an aquifer that has an exponential distribution of age with depth. The PEM has 3 parameters - the ratio of saturated thickness to the top and bottom of the screen and mean age, but these can be reduced to 1 parameter (mean age) by using well construction information and estimates of the saturated thickness. The PEM was tested with data from 30 production wells in a heterogeneous alluvial fan aquifer in California, USA. Well construction data were used to guide parameterization of a PEM for each well and mean age was calibrated to measured environmental tracer data (3H, 3He, CFC-113, and 14C). Results were compared to age distributions generated for individual wells using advective particle tracking models (PTMs). Age distributions from PTMs were more complex than PEM distributions, but PEMs provided better fits to tracer data, partly because the PTMs did not simulate 14C accurately in wells that captured varying amounts of old groundwater recharged at lower rates prior to groundwater development and irrigation. Nitrate trends were simulated independently of the calibration process and the PEM provided good fits for at least 11 of 24 wells. This work shows that the PEM, and lumped parameter models (LPMs) in general, can often identify critical features of the age distributions in wells that are needed to explain observed tracer data and nonpoint source contaminant trends, even in systems where aquifer heterogeneity and water-use complicate distributions of age. While accurate PTMs are preferable for understanding and predicting aquifer-scale responses to water use and contaminant transport, LPMs can be sensitive to local conditions near individual wells that may be inaccurately represented or missing in an aquifer-scale flow model.
Spice: discovery of phenotype-determining component interplays
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Chen Zhengzhang
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A latent behavior of a biological cell is complex. Deriving the underlying simplicity, or the fundamental rules governing this behavior has been the Holy Grail of systems biology. Data-driven prediction of the system components and their component interplays that are responsible for the target system’s phenotype is a key and challenging step in this endeavor. Results The proposed approach, which we call System Phenotype-related Interplaying Components Enumerator (Spice, iteratively enumerates statistically significant system components that are hypothesized (1 to play an important role in defining the specificity of the target system’s phenotype(s; (2 to exhibit a functionally coherent behavior, namely, act in a coordinated manner to perform the phenotype-specific function; and (3 to improve the predictive skill of the system’s phenotype(s when used collectively in the ensemble of predictive models. Spice can be applied to both instance-based data and network-based data. When validated, Spice effectively identified system components related to three target phenotypes: biohydrogen production, motility, and cancer. Manual results curation agreed with the known phenotype-related system components reported in literature. Additionally, using the identified system components as discriminatory features improved the prediction accuracy by 10% on the phenotype-classification task when compared to a number of state-of-the-art methods applied to eight benchmark microarray data sets. Conclusion We formulate a problem—enumeration of phenotype-determining system component interplays—and propose an effective methodology (Spice to address this problem. Spice improved identification of cancer-related groups of genes from various microarray data sets and detected groups of genes associated with microbial biohydrogen production and motility, many of which were reported in literature. Spice also improved the predictive skill of the
Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Bartlein, Patrick J.
2006-01-01
Climate is the primary factor in controlling the continental-scale distribution of plant species, although the relations between climatic parameters and species' ranges is only now beginning to be quantified. Preceding volumes of this atlas explored the continental-scale relations between climatic parameters and the distributions of woody plant species across all of the continent of North America. This volume presents similar information for important woody species, groups of species, and ecoregions in more detail for the State of Alaska. For these analyses, we constructed a 25-kilometer equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America from instrumental weather records. We obtained a digital representation of the geographic distribution of each species or ecoregion, either from a published source or by digitizing the published distributions ourselves. The presence or absence of each species or ecoregion was then determined for each point on the 25-kilometer grid, thus providing a basis for comparison of the climatic data with the geographic distribution of each species or ecoregion. The relations between climate and these distributions are presented in graphical and tabular form.
The Probability Distribution of the Drought Parameters of the Central Anatolian Closed Watershed
KÖSE, ÖMER
2002-01-01
In this research, first the various descriptions of drought were presented and then the statistical characteristics of drought parameters based on monthly data of four streams within the Central Anatolian Closed Watershed were analysed. These parameters are drought duration, drought severity and drought magnitude. The stationarity and randomness analyses of the drought parameters were performed. Trend analysis based upon Student's t-test was used for the stationarity analysis a...
van der Duyn Schouten, F.A.; Bar-Lev, S.K.
2003-01-01
Based on a type-2 censored sample we consider a likelihood-based inference for the reliability parameter R(t) of the location and scale exponential distribution.More specifically, we derive the profile and marginal likelihoods of R(t).A numerical example is presented demonstrating the flavor of
Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.
2012-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce a simplicial Dirac structure as a discrete analogue of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate
Seslija, Marko; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; van der Schaft, Arjan
2011-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce simplicial Dirac structures as discrete analogues of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate t
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdalroof M.S.; Zhao Zhi-wen; Wang De-hui
2014-01-01
In this paper, the estimation of parameters based on a progressively type-I interval censored sample from a Pareto distribution is studied. Different methods of estimation are discussed, which include mid-point approximation estimator, the maximum likelihood estimator and moment estimator. The estimation procedures are discussed in details and compared via Monte Carlo simulations in terms of their biases.
Search for β-Secretase Inhibitors from Natural Spices.
Matsumura, Shinichi; Murata, Kazuya; Yoshioka, Yuri; Matsuda, Hideaki
2016-04-01
The growing number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients prompted us to seek effective natural resources for the prevention of AD. We focused on the inhibition of β-secretase, which is known to catalyze the production of senile plaque. Sixteen spices used in Asian countries were selected for the screening. Among the extracts tested, hexane extracts obtained from turmeric, cardamom, long pepper, cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, betel, white turmeric and aromatic ginger showed potent inhibitory activities. Their active principles were identified as sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives and phenylpropanoids using GC-MS analyses. The chemical structures and IC50 values of the compounds are disclosed. The results suggest that long-term consumption'of aromatic compounds from spices could be effective in the prevention of AD.
The importance of selected spices in cardiovascular diseases.
Kulczyński, Bartosz; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna
2016-11-14
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases. Many studies also demonstrate their antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of selected spices (garlic, cinnamon, ginger, coriander and turmeric) in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
The importance of selected spices in cardiovascular diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bartosz Kulczyński
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Literature data indicate that, due to these diseases, approximately 17.5 million people died in 2012. Types of cardiovascular disease include ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. Proper nutrition is an important factor in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. An interesting element of our diets is spices. For thousands of years, they have been used in the treatment of many diseases: bacterial infections, coughs, colds, and liver diseases. Many studies also demonstrate their antioxidant, chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of selected spices (garlic, cinnamon, ginger, coriander and turmeric in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Zhang, Yonggen; Schaap, Marcel G.
2017-04-01
Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) have been widely used to predict soil hydraulic parameters in favor of expensive laboratory or field measurements. Rosetta (Schaap et al., 2001, denoted as Rosetta1) is one of many PTFs and is based on artificial neural network (ANN) analysis coupled with the bootstrap re-sampling method which allows the estimation of van Genuchten water retention parameters (van Genuchten, 1980, abbreviated here as VG), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and their uncertainties. In this study, we present an improved set of hierarchical pedotransfer functions (Rosetta3) that unify the water retention and Ks submodels into one. Parameter uncertainty of the fit of the VG curve to the original retention data is used in the ANN calibration procedure to reduce bias of parameters predicted by the new PTF. One thousand bootstrap replicas were used to calibrate the new models compared to 60 or 100 in Rosetta1, thus allowing the uni-variate and bi-variate probability distributions of predicted parameters to be quantified in greater detail. We determined the optimal weights for VG parameters and Ks, the optimal number of hidden nodes in ANN, and the number of bootstrap replicas required for statistically stable estimates. Results show that matric potential-dependent bias was reduced significantly while root mean square error (RMSE) for water content were reduced modestly; RMSE for Ks was increased by 0.9% (H3w) to 3.3% (H5w) in the new models on log scale of Ks compared with the Rosetta1 model. It was found that estimated distributions of parameters were mildly non-Gaussian and could instead be described rather well with heavy-tailed α-stable distributions. On the other hand, arithmetic means had only a small estimation bias for most textures when compared with the mean-like ;shift; parameter of the α-stable distributions. Arithmetic means and (co-)variances are therefore still recommended as summary statistics of the estimated distributions. However, it
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Büttner, M., E-mail: Markus.Buettner@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schiffler, M. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena (Germany); Weber, P.; Seidel, P. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2013-11-15
Distributions of energy barriers in systems of magnetic nanoparticles have been calculated by means of the path integral method and the results have been compared with distributions previously obtained in our experiments by means of the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method. The path integral method allowed to obtain energies of the interactions of magnetic moments of nanoparticles with axes of their easy magnetisation as well as energies of mutual interactions of magnetic moments. Calculated distributions of energy barriers have been described satisfactorily by curves of the lognormal distribution. We found an agreement between the theory and the experiment at temperatures above approximately 100 K. The influence of the volume concentration of nanoparticles and agglomeration on the energy barrier distribution has been investigated. - Highlights: • The path integral method of calculation allows to satisfactorily reproduce the quantitative experimental results. • The simulations of the energy barrier distributions reflect the lognormal distribution of the MNP found in real experiments. • Higher particle volume concentration leads to a broadening of the simulated energy barrier distribution. • At low particle concentration there is only anisotropy energy. • In case of agglomeration the energy barrier distribution broadens.
Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices
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Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.
Microbiological Spoilage of Spices, Nuts, Cocoa, and Coffee
Pinkas, Joan M.; Battista, Karen; Morille-Hinds, Theodora
Spices, nuts, cocoa, and coffee are raw materials that may be used alone or as ingredients in the manufacture of processed food products. The control of microbiological spoilage of these raw materials at the ingredient stage will enable the food processor to better assure the production of high-quality foods with an acceptable shelf life. While this chapter is limited to four materials, many of the spoilage control procedures recommended can also be applied to other raw materials of a similar nature.
Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.
Identification of the distribution parameters of additive and multiplicative non-Gaussian noise
Artyushenko, V. M.; Volovach, V. I.
2017-05-01
This paper considers issues related to the identification of the parameters and form of the probability density function of generally non-Gaussian additive and multiplicative noise affecting the signal. The results of numerical simulation of methods for estimating the information parameters of random processes with a non-Gaussian probability density function for a finite sample.
Ulbrich, C. W.; Atlas, D.
1977-01-01
A method of determining precipitation parameters from two remotely measurable quantities, the radar reflectivity factor and the optical extinction, is described. The raindrop size spectrum is approximated by a two-parameter exponential form; when these parameters are evaluated in terms of the radar reflectivity factor and the optical extinction, an exponential spectrum is obtained that is generally in very good agreement with the observed size spectrum. Other calculated precipitation parameters, such as rainfall rate and liquid water content, which are derived from the exponential approximation, also agree with experimental data. It is indicated that other combinations of two remote measurables can also be used to obtain more accurate estimates of precipitation parameters than can be obtained by the use of an empirical relationship.
Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted spices.
Thongson, C; Davidson, P M; Mahakarnchanakul, W; Weiss, J
2004-01-01
The objective of this research was to determine the antimicrobial activity of conventional and high-intensity ultrasound-assisted (HI-US) solvent-extracted Thai spices, including ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose), fingerroot (Bosenbergia pandurata Holtt) and turmeric (Curouma longa Linn). Extracts were obtained using hexane, isopropanol and a 7 : 3 isopropanol : hexane mixture as solvents with and without HI-US. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assayed against four strains each of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 using an agar dilution assay. Application of HI-US did not alter antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium, but antilisterial activity of some HI-US spice extracts decreased. Solvent type affected antimicrobial efficacy of extracts with hexane producing the least antimicrobial activity. Fingerroot extracted with isopropanol-hexane and without HI-US had the best antilisterial effect while HI-US-isopropanol fingerroot extract had the greatest antimicrobial efficacy against S. Typhimurium. Application of HI-US reduced time of extraction to 5 min, compared with the 24 h required for conventional extraction and maintained antimicrobial activity against Salmonella but slightly reduced activity against Listeria. HI-US in combination with proper solvent selection may offer a new tool to optimize extraction of spice essential oil for use as antimicrobial agents, and reduce processing time and costs.
Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.
Srinivasan, K
2014-01-01
Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.
Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Commercial Spices in Iran
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Maryam Jalili
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A total of 80 sample of spices (red pepper, black pepper, turmeric and cinnamon, commercialized in Iran, was analyzed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with a fluorescence detector (FD. A mixture of acetonitrile–methanol–water (17:29:54; v/v was used as the mobile phase and an immunoaffinity column (IAC applied as a cleanup method. All kinds of spice samples were spiked with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 at levels of 1, 10, and 30 ng/g and recovery values were determined. Results showed recoveries ranged from 76.4±5.6 to 98.3±3.2 for AFG1 in cinnamon (spiked at 1ng/g and AFB2 in turmeric (spiked at 10ng/g respectively. Thirty-two out of 80 (40% samples were contaminated with aflatoxins ranged from 0.85±0.10 to 24.60±0.12. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the contaminated samples at the highest concentration as compared with other aflatoxins. Red pepper was significantly (p≤0.05 more contaminated than other spices.
Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices
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Alberto Ritieni
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.
EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices
Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim
2007-06-01
The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.
EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)
2007-06-15
The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.
Lumped element modelling of superconducting circuits with SPICE
Baveco, Maurice Antoine
2015-01-01
In this project research is carried out aimed at benchmarking a general-purpose circuit simulation software tool (”SPICE”). The project lasted for 8 weeks, from 29 June 2015 until 21 August 2015 at Performance Evaluation section at CERN. The goal was to apply it on a model of superconducting magnets, namely the main dipole circuit (RB circuit) of the the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), developed by members of the section. Then the strengths and the flaws of the tool were investigated. Transient effects were the main simulation focus point. In the first stage a simplified RB circuit was modelled in SPICE based on subcircuits. The first results were promising but still not with a perfect agreement. After implementing more detailed subcircuits there is an improvement and promising agreement achieved between SPICE and the results of the paper (PSpice) [2]. In general there are more strengths than drawbacks of simulating with SPICE. For example, it should have a shorter simulation time than PSpice for the same mo...
Cancer cell signaling pathways targeted by spice-derived nutraceuticals.
Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yadav, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B
2012-01-01
Extensive research within the last half a century has revealed that cancer is caused by dysregulation of as many as 500 different gene products. Most natural products target multiple gene products and thus are ideally suited for prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, including cancer. Dietary agents such as spices have been used extensively in the Eastern world for a variety of ailments for millennia, and five centuries ago they took a golden journey to the Western world. Various spice-derived nutraceuticals, including 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, anethole, capsaicin, cardamonin, curcumin, dibenzoylmethane, diosgenin, eugenol, gambogic acid, gingerol, thymoquinone, ursolic acid, xanthohumol, and zerumbone derived from galangal, anise, red chili, black cardamom, turmeric, licorice, fenugreek, clove, kokum, ginger, black cumin, rosemary, hop, and pinecone ginger, respectively, are the focus of this review. The modulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, protein kinases, and inflammatory mediators by these spice-derived nutraceuticals are described. The anticancer potential through the modulation of various targets is also the subject of this review. Although they have always been used to improve taste and color and as a preservative, they are now also used for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer.
FDTD-SPICE for Characterizing Metamaterials Integrated with Electronic Circuits
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Zhengwei Hao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A powerful time-domain FDTD-SPICE simulator is implemented and applied to the broadband analysis of metamaterials integrated with active and tunable circuit elements. First, the FDTD-SPICE modeling theory is studied and details of interprocess communication and hybridization of the two techniques are discussed. To verify the model, some simple cases are simulated with results in both time domain and frequency domain. Then, simulation of a metamaterial structure constructed from periodic resonant loops integrated with lumped capacitor elements is studied, which demonstrates tuning resonance frequency of medium by changing the capacitance of the integrated elements. To increase the bandwidth of the metamaterial, non-Foster transistor configurations are integrated with the loops and FDTD-SPICE is applied to successfully bridge the physics of electromagnetic and circuit topologies and to model the whole composite structure. Our model is also applied to the design and simulation of a metasurface integrated with nonlinear varactors featuring tunable reflection phase characteristic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Scharnagl
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to accurately and precisely estimate all the soil hydraulic parameters. In this case study, we explored to which degree prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters can help improve parameter identifiability in inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics under natural boundary conditions. We used percentages of sand, silt, and clay as input variables to the ROSETTA pedotransfer function that predicts the parameters in the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM model of the soil hydraulic functions. To derive additional information about the correlation structure of the predicted parameters, which is not readily provided by ROSETTA, we employed a Monte Carlo approach. We formulated three prior distributions that incorporate to different extents the prior information about the VGM parameters derived with ROSETTA. The inverse problem was posed in a formal Bayesian framework and solved using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM algorithm. Synthetic and real-world soil water content data were used to illustrate the approach. The results of this study demonstrated that prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters significantly improved parameter identifiability and that this approach was effective and robust, even in case of biased prior information. To be effective and robust, however, it was essential to use a prior distribution that incorporates information about parameter correlation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Bandaragoda
2011-05-01
Full Text Available To support the goal of distributed hydrologic and instream model predictions based on physical processes, we explore multi-dimensional parameterization determined by a broad set of observations. We present a systematic approach to using various data types at spatially distributed locations to decrease parameter bounds sampled within calibration algorithms that ultimately provide information regarding the extent of individual processes represented within the model structure. Through the use of a simulation matrix, parameter sets are first locally optimized by fitting the respective data at one or two locations and then the best results are selected to resolve which parameter sets perform best at all locations, or globally. This approach is illustrated using the Two-Zone Temperature and Solute (TZTS model for a case study in the Virgin River, Utah, USA, where temperature and solute tracer data were collected at multiple locations and zones within the river that represent the fate and transport of both heat and solute through the study reach. The result was a narrowed parameter space and increased parameter certainty which, based on our results, would not have been as successful if only single objective algorithms were used. We also found that the global optimum is best defined by multiple spatially distributed local optima, which supports the hypothesis that there is a discrete and narrowly bounded parameter range that represents the processes controlling the dominant hydrologic responses. Further, we illustrate that the optimization process itself can be used to determine which observed responses and locations are most useful for estimating the parameters that result in a global fit to guide future data collection efforts.
Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas
Taneesha Chawla; Nida Itrat Abbasi; Aishwarya Tandon; Suneetha V
2014-01-01
Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on...
Chalfoun,Sára Maria; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Mario Lúcio V. Resende; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Silva,Rozane Aparecida da
2004-01-01
The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...
Spice: A New Legal Herbal Mixture Abused by Young Active Duty Military Personnel
2012-01-01
kinase, serum ethanol level mg/dL, and urine drug screen was neg- ative for amphetamines , barbiturates, benzodi- azepines, cocaine, methadone...ABSTRACT. Spice is an herbal mixture smoked for euphoria and mixed with synthetic cannabinoids that are undetected on urine drug screens. Spice use has...increased in the military because it is con- sidered legal and is not detected on urine drug screen. The authors describe 3 cases of Spice use in
Spatial distribution of sound channel and its parameters in north Indian ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Ashalatha, K.; Murty, T.V.R.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.
The Present work reports the variability of the derived sound channel and its parameters (surface sound velocity, conjugate depth, SLD (Sonic Layer depth) and SOFAR(Sound Fixing and Ranging) depth) has been presented over the Bay of Bengal...
Laio, Francesco
2004-09-01
The use of goodness of fit tests based on Cramer-von Mises and Anderson-Darling statistics is discussed, with reference to the composite hypothesis that a sample of observations comes from a distribution, FH, whose parameters are unspecified. When this is the case, the critical region of the test has to be redetermined for each hypothetical distribution FH. To avoid this difficulty, a transformation is proposed that produces a new test statistic which is independent of FH. This transformation involves three coefficients that are determined using the asymptotic theory of tests based on the empirical distribution function. A single table of coefficients is thus sufficient for carrying out the test with different hypothetical distributions; a set of probability models of common use in extreme value analysis is considered here, including the following: extreme value 1 and 2, normal and lognormal, generalized extreme value, three-parameter gamma, and log-Pearson type 3, in all cases with parameters estimated using maximum likelihood. Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine small sample corrections and to assess the power of the tests compared to alternative approaches.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Sarma, V.V.; Rao, T.V.N.; RamaRaju, V.S.; Rathod, V.; Suguna, C.
in dissolved oxygen concentration (Delta 02) values was noticed The distribution of nutrients showed two major peaks A significant correlation between nitrate and phosphate in surface and bottom waters indicated the prominence and association of these nutrients...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Mora-Melia
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA applied to the design of water distribution networks. Generally, one of the major disadvantages of the traditional SFLA is the high number of parameters that need to be calibrated for proper operation of the algorithm. A method for calibrating these parameters is presented and applied to the design of three benchmark medium-sized networks widely known in the literature (Hanoi, New York Tunnel, and GoYang. For each of the problems, over 35,000 simulations were conducted. Then, a statistical analysis was performed, and the relative importance of each of the parameters was analyzed to achieve the best possible configuration of the modified SFLA. The main conclusion from this study is that not all of the original SFL algorithm parameters are important. Thus, the fraction of frogs in the memeplex q can be eliminated, while the other parameters (number of evolutionary steps Ns, number of memeplexes m, and number of frogs n may be set to constant values that run optimally for all medium-sized networks. Furthermore, the modified acceleration parameter C becomes the key parameter in the calibration process, vastly improving the results provided by the original SFLA.
He, Qing-yuan; He, Dong-qi; Han, Hong-bin; Yuan, Lan; Yang, Xiao-hong; Peng, Yun; Ka, Wei-bo; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-long; Li, Ke-jia; Xu, Feng; Tian, Jin; Liu, Xiao-hua; Xue, Xiao-qi
2013-06-18
To build a mathematical model to simulate the drug distribution accompanying with diffusion, distribution and clearance in the brain extracellular space (ECS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology was used to monitor changes in the signal-intensity-related tracer gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acidm(Gd-DTPA), as an external drug which was injected into the rat brain, and then the mathematical model was built by using the data to establish the diffusion, distribution and clearance process of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS. The model equation was resolved by Laplace transform. In the sphere coordinates, the linear regressive model was adopted to obtain the estimation method of diffusion coefficient, clearance rate of drugs distribution in the brain ECS. The diffusion coefficient D and the clearance rate k were obtained as (2.73±0.364)×10(-4) mm(2)/s and (1.40±0.206)×10(-5) /s, respectively. The proposed method can accurately reflect the isotropic drug distribution in the brain ECS, and can serve as the foundation to further solve problems about the orthotropic distribution in the brain ECS.
Determine the Dose Distribution Using Ultrasound Parameters in MAGIC-f Polymer Gels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Masoumi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, using methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper (MAGIC-f polymer gel after megavoltage energy exposure, the sensitivity of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient dose-dependent parameters was evaluated. The MAGIC-f polymer gel was irradiated under 1.25 MeV cobalt-60, ranging from 0 to 60 Gy in 2-Gy steps, and received dose uniformity and accuracy of ±2%. After calibration of the ultrasonic systems with a frequency of 500 kHz, the parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient of the irradiated gel samples were measured. According to the dose–response curve, the ability of ultrasonic parameters was evaluated in dose rate readings. Based on a 4-order polynomial curve, fitted on the dose–response parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient and observed at 24 hours after irradiation, ultrasonic parameters had more sensitivity. The sensitivity of the dose–velocity and dose-attenuation coefficient curves was observed as 50 m/s/Gy and 0.06 dB/MHz/Gy over the linear range of 4 to 44 Gy, respectively. The ultrasonic parameters at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C on the gel dosimeter after 0 to 60 Gy irradiation showed that readings at 25°C have higher sensitivity compared to 15°C and 5°C. Maximum sensitivity time and temperature readings of the MAGIC-f ultrasonic parameters were concluded 24 hours after irradiation and at a temperature of 25°C.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. S. Edmonds
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In high chromaticity circular accelerators, rapid decoherence of the betatron motion of a particle beam can make the measurement of lattice and bunch values, such as Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron amplitude, difficult. A method for reconstructing the momentum distribution of a beam from beam position measurements is presented. Further analysis of the same beam position monitor data allows estimates to be made of the Courant-Snyder parameters and the amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the beam. The methods are tested through application to data taken on the linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, EMMA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spangenberg, Jon; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2011-01-01
during the casting process may lead to variations of local mechanical properties and hence to a potential decrease in load carrying capacity of the structure. This paper presents a methodology for optimization of SCC casting aiming at having a homogeneous aggregate distribution; a beam has been used...... of the filling etc., however since this work is the initial feasibility study in this field, only three process parameters are considered. Despite the reduction in the number of process parameters, the complexity involved in the considered casting process results in a non trivial optimal design set....
Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W
2009-12-01
In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, D. [SSBB and Senior Member-ASQ, Kolkata (India); Mandal, S.N. [Kalyani Govt Engg College, Kalyani (India); Mukherjee, D.; Bhadra Chaudhuri, S.R. [Dept of E. and T. C. Engg, B.E.S.U., Shibpur (India)
2010-10-15
System efficiency and payback time are yet to attain a commercially viable level for solar photovoltaic energy projects. Despite huge development in prediction of solar radiation data, there is a gap in extraction of pertinent information from such data. Hence the available data cannot be effectively utilized for engineering application. This is acting as a barrier for the emerging technology. For making accurate engineering and financial calculations regarding any solar energy project, it is crucial to identify and optimize the most significant statistic(s) representing insolation availability by the Photovoltaic setup at the installation site. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique has been applied for identifying the statistic(s), which are of high significance from a project designer's point of view. A MATLAB trademark program has been used to build the annual frequency distribution of hourly insolation over any module plane at a given location. Descriptive statistical analysis of such distributions is done through MINITAB trademark. For Building Integrated Photo Voltaic (BIPV) installation, similar statistical analysis has been carried out for the composite frequency distribution, which is formed by weighted summation of insolation distributions for different module planes used in the installation. Vital most influential statistic(s) of the composite distribution have been optimized through Artificial Neural Network computation. This approach is expected to open up a new horizon in BIPV system design. (author)
Walker, Matthew G; Olszewski, Edward W; Sen, Bodhisattva; Woodroofe, Michael
2008-01-01
(abridged) We develop an algorithm for estimating parameters of a distribution sampled with contamination, employing a statistical technique known as ``expectation maximization'' (EM). Given models for both member and contaminant populations, the EM algorithm iteratively evaluates the membership probability of each discrete data point, then uses those probabilities to update parameter estimates for member and contaminant distributions. The EM approach has wide applicability to the analysis of astronomical data. Here we tailor an EM algorithm to operate on spectroscopic samples obtained with the Michigan-MIKE Fiber System (MMFS) as part of our Magellan survey of stellar radial velocities in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. These samples are presented in a companion paper and contain discrete measurements of line-of-sight velocity, projected position, and Mg index for ~1000 - 2500 stars per dSph, including some fraction of contamination by foreground Milky Way stars. The EM algorithm quantifies both dSp...
The Identification of a Distributed Parameter Model for a Flexible Structure,
1986-08-01
Computer Applications in Science and Engineering, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, 1984, Mat, Aplicada e Computacional , to appear. (3] H. T...Parameter estimation for the Euler- Bernoulli beam, Mat. Aplioada e Computacional , A, (1985), pp.95-124. (9] J. L. Lions, Optimal Control of Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loubet, Bastien; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Lomholt, Michael Andersen
2013-01-01
We investigate the electrostatic contribution to the lipid membrane mechanical parameters: tension, bending rigidity, spontaneous curvature, and ﬂexocoefﬁcient, using an approach where stress in the membrane is explicitly balanced. Our model includes an applied electrostatic potential as well as ...
A Precise Determination of $\\alpha_s$ from the C-parameter Distribution
Hoang, André H; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W
2015-01-01
We present a global fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$, analyzing the available C-parameter data measured at center-of-mass energies between $Q=35$ and $207$ GeV. The experimental data is compared to a N$^3$LL$^\\prime$ + $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ + $\\Omega_1$ theoretical prediction (up to the missing 4-loop cusp anomalous dimension), which includes power corrections coming from a field theoretical nonperturbative soft function. The dominant hadronic parameter is its first moment $\\Omega_1$, which is defined in a scheme which eliminates the $\\mathcal{O}(\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD})$ renormalon ambiguity. The resummation region plays a dominant role in the C-parameter spectrum, and in this region a fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ and $\\Omega_1$ is sufficient. We find $\\alpha_s(m_Z)=0.1123\\pm 0.0015$ and $\\Omega_1=0.421\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm GeV}$ with $\\chi^2/\\rm{dof}=0.988$ for $404$ bins of data. These results agree with the prediction of universality for $\\Omega_1$ between thrust and C-parameter within 1-$\\sigma$.
Uncertainty propagation in up-scaling of subsoil parameters, no fixed distributions allowed
Lourens, Aris; van Geer, Frans C.
2013-01-01
When creating numerical groundwater models, the structure and properties of the subsoil is indispensable information. Like all model data, these data are subject to uncertainty. Building a groundwater model, the available geological information, like the geological structure and parameter values, ha
2002-01-01
This paper presents recursive least-squares (RLS) estimation algorithms using the covariance information in linear discrete-time distributed parameter systems. The signal is estimated with the observations containing some uncertain observations. In the uncertain observations, there are cases where the observed value does not contain the signal and consists of observation noise only. The probability that the signal exists in the observed value is used in the estimation algorithms. The algorith...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdalroof M S; Zhao Zhi-wen; Wang De-hui
2015-01-01
In this paper, the estimation of parameters based on a progressively type-I interval censored sample from a Rayleigh distribution is studied. Different methods of estimation are discussed. They include mid-point approximation estima-tor, the maximum likelihood estimator, moment estimator, Bayes estimator, sampling adjustment moment estimator, sampling adjustment maximum likelihood estimator and estimator based on percentile. The estimation procedures are discussed in details and compared via Monte Carlo simulations in terms of their biases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanchen Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Physically based distributed hydrological models were used to describe small-scale hydrological information in detail. However, the sensitivity of the model to spatially varied parameters and inputs limits the accuracy for application. In this paper, relevant influence factors and sensitive parameters were analyzed to solve this problem. First, a set of digital elevation model (DEM resolutions and channel thresholds were generated to extract the hydrological influence factors. Second, a numerical relationship between sensitive parameters and influence factors was established to define parameters reasonably. Next, the topographic index (TI was computed to study the similarity. At last, simulation results were analyzed in two different ways: (1 to observe the change regularity of influence factors and sensitive parameters through the variation of DEM resolutions and channel thresholds and (2 to compare the simulation accuracy of the nested catchment, particularly in the subcatchments and interior grids. Increasing the grid size from 250 m to 1000 m, the TI increased from 9.08 to 11.16 and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE decreased from 0.77 to 0.75. Utilizing the parameters calculated by the established relationship, the simulation results show the same NSE in the outlet and a better NSE in the simple subcatchment than the calculated interior grids.
The distribution of some intrinsic parameters of head-tail radio sources
Valentijn, E. A.
1979-01-01
The properties of a sample comprising 44 head-tail galaxies for which radio observations have been published are presented. The distributions of the absolute photographic magnitude, the radio power at 610 MHz, and opening-angle of these sources are presented confirming the results of Owen and
Estimation of scale parameters of logistic distribution by linear functions of sample quantiles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The large sample estimation of standard deviation of logistic distribution employs the asymptotically best linear unbiased estimators based on sample quantiles. The sample quantiles are established from a pair of single spacing. Finally, a table of the variances and efficiencies of the estimator for 5 ≤ n ≤ 65 is provided and comparison is made with other linear estimators.
Dependence of Weibull distribution parameters on the CNR threshold i wind lidar data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Floors, Rogier Ralph;
2015-01-01
The increase in height and area swept by the blades of wind turbines that harvest energy from the air flow in the lower atmosphere have raised a need for better understanding of the structure of the profiles of the wind, its gusts and the monthly to annual long-term, statistical distribution...
The distribution of some intrinsic parameters of head-tail radio sources
Valentijn, E. A.
1979-01-01
The properties of a sample comprising 44 head-tail galaxies for which radio observations have been published are presented. The distributions of the absolute photographic magnitude, the radio power at 610 MHz, and opening-angle of these sources are presented confirming the results of Owen and Rudnic
Duijns, S.; Knot, I.E.; Piersma, T.; van Gils, J.A.
2015-01-01
1.Mechanistic insights and predictive understanding of the spatial distributions of foragers are typically derived by fitting either field measurements on intake rates and food abundance, or observations from controlled experiments, to functional response models. It has remained unclear, however, wh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralf Hesse
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The SRTM data set is the highest resolution DEM with global or continental coverage. It is therefore theDEM of choice for continental-scale geomorphological mapping and quantitative analysis. In this study,SRTM data are used for the identification and characterisation of endorheic basins in southern SouthAmerica (south of 19°S. The results show the feasibility of continental-scale quantitative geomorphologybased on SRTM data and provide insights into the distribution of closed basins. The largest endorheicbasin is located in the Puna region and consists of several interconnected sub-basins. This basin accountsfor 38.6 % (7877 km3 of the total volume of the endorheic basins identified in this study. Analyses of thegeographic distribution show a narrow longitudinal distribution between 64.5 and 71.5° W and a multimodallatitudinal distribution which is characterised by two groups of basins at 22.5–27.5°S and 37.5–50.0° Sand an almost complete absence of basins between 27.5 and 37.5° S. Problems and sources ofmisinterpretation arising from data quality and resolution are discussed. Further research, targeting in particularthe genesis and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of closed basins in southern Argentina, iscalled for.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Cornelissen
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Parameterization of physically based and distributed hydrological models for mesoscale catchments remains challenging because the commonly available data base is insufficient for calibration. In this paper, we parameterize a mesoscale catchment for the distributed model HydroGeoSphere by transferring evapotranspiration parameters calibrated at a highly-equipped headwater catchment in addition to literature data. Based on this parameterization, the sensitivity of the mesoscale catchment to spatial variability in land use, potential evapotranspiration and precipitation and of the headwater catchment to mesoscale soil and land use data was conducted. Simulations of the mesoscale catchment with transferred parameters reproduced daily discharge dynamics and monthly evapotranspiration of grassland, deciduous and coniferous vegetation in a satisfactory manner. Precipitation was the most sensitive input data with respect to total runoff and peak flow rates, while simulated evapotranspiration components and patterns were most sensitive to spatially distributed land use parameterization. At the headwater catchment, coarse soil data resulted in a change in runoff generating processes based on the interplay between higher wetness prior to a rainfall event, enhanced groundwater level rise and accordingly, lower transpiration rates. Our results indicate that the direct transfer of parameters is a promising method to benefit highly equipped simulations of the headwater catchments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. KOCHED
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Spatial distribution and ecology of the larvae of three tuna species (Thunnus thynnus, Auxis rochei and Euthynnus alletteratus were studied during an ichthyoplankton survey carried out in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia in June and July 2009. A total of 80 stations, distributed on a regular sampling grid, were sampled. The main objectives of this survey were to provide information on tuna larvae distribution in the Gulf of Gabes in relation to the environmental parameters. Regarding small tunas, larvae of A. rochei (bullet tuna showed the more widespread distribution, being found at both inshore and offshore stations. E. alletteratus (Atlantic black skipjack larvae were mainly found at the inshore stations covering the wide continental shelf of this region. On the other hand, larvae of the large migratory tuna T. Thynnus (Atlantic bluefin tuna, were mainly recorded at offshore stations, suggesting that spawning possibly takes place mainly near the shelf break. Regarding the biological and physical parameters examined, our results indicate that tuna larvae were mainly collected in oligotrophic and mixed waters resulting from the confluence of surface water of recent Atlantic origin and resident surface Mediterranean waters, as shown by their preference for lower chlorophyll a concentrations (from 1.4 to 2.5 mg m-3 and moderate salinity values (between 37.35 and 37.75. Significantly, tuna larvae seemed to avoid the more eutrophic and saltier waters of the gulf situated very close to the coast and around Kerkennah and Djerba islands.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. KOCHED
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Spatial distribution and ecology of the larvae of three tuna species (Thunnus thynnus, Auxis rochei and Euthynnus alletteratus were studied during an ichthyoplankton survey carried out in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia in June and July 2009. A total of 80 stations, distributed on a regular sampling grid, were sampled. The main objectives of this survey were to provide information on tuna larvae distribution in the Gulf of Gabes in relation to the environmental parameters. Regarding small tunas, larvae of A. rochei (bullet tuna showed the more widespread distribution, being found at both inshore and offshore stations. E. alletteratus (Atlantic black skipjack larvae were mainly found at the inshore stations covering the wide continental shelf of this region. On the other hand, larvae of the large migratory tuna T. Thynnus (Atlantic bluefin tuna, were mainly recorded at offshore stations, suggesting that spawning possibly takes place mainly near the shelf break. Regarding the biological and physical parameters examined, our results indicate that tuna larvae were mainly collected in oligotrophic and mixed waters resulting from the confluence of surface water of recent Atlantic origin and resident surface Mediterranean waters, as shown by their preference for lower chlorophyll a concentrations (from 1.4 to 2.5 mg m-3 and moderate salinity values (between 37.35 and 37.75. Significantly, tuna larvae seemed to avoid the more eutrophic and saltier waters of the gulf situated very close to the coast and around Kerkennah and Djerba islands.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirchner, M., E-mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Faus-Kessler, T.; Jakobi, G.; Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kotalik, J.; Zsolnay, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardy (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)
2009-12-15
In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. - Caused by temperature-dependent processes regarding deposition, re-volatilization and decomposition of POPs, the concentration of organochlorine pesticides varies in the Alpine region with altitude.
Rixrath, E; Wendling-Mansuy, S; Flecher, X; Chabrand, P; Argenson, J N
2008-01-01
We have developed a mathematical model to calculate the contact stress distribution in total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis between the articulating surfaces. The model uses the clearance between bearing surfaces as well as the inclination and thickness of the Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly-Ethylene (UHMWPE) cup to achieve this. We have used this mathematical model to contrast the maximal force during normal gait and during jogging. This is based on the assumption that the contact stress is proportional to the radial deformation of the cup. The results show that the magnitude of the maximal contact stress remains constant for inclination values in the range of [0-35 degrees ] and increase significantly with the cup clearance and liner thickness for inclination values in the range of [35-65 degrees ]. A major use for this model would be the calculation of spatial contact stress distribution during normal gait or jogging for different couples of bearing surfaces.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhenliang DING; Li ZHONG; Feng YUAN
2007-01-01
In this paper, the mechanical construction, thermal regulator design and temperature measurement system of a local area were set up for large-scale linear measurement. Numerical analysis based on temperature correlated characteristic is discussed to obtain optimal observation points for the measurements. The horizontal temperature distribution of the measured area is compared with the measurement of the variation of temperature at 15℃ and 20℃ over time, and characteristic of dynamic response is also discussed. In addition, the long-time stability of measured temperature is analyzed by means of using the standard deviation. It characterizes the temperature distribution performance of a large area and how it may impact the measurement of a large-scale object.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SANKU DEY
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The generalized exponential (GE distribution proposed by Gupta and Kundu (1999 is an important lifetime distribution in survival analysis. In this article, we propose to obtain Bayes estimators and its associated risk based on a class of non-informative prior under the assumption of three loss functions, namely, quadratic loss function (QLF, squared log-error loss function (SLELF and general entropy loss function (GELF. The motivation is to explore the most appropriate loss function among these three loss functions. The performances of the estimators are, therefore, compared on the basis of their risks obtained under QLF, SLELF and GELF separately. The relative efficiency of the estimators is also obtained. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performances of the Bayes estimates under different situations.
Coupled electrothermal modeling of microheaters using SPICE
Swart, Nicholas R.; Nathan, Arokia
1994-06-01
A novel simulation approach that computes both the transient and steady state electrothermal behavior in integrated circuit (IC) compatible thermally isolated microheaters is reported. The resulting distribution of heat, current density and temperature, as well as the electrical terminal behavior have been obtained for realistic device structures. The results are based on a two-dimensional solution of the coupled system of partial differential equations that govern both electrical and heat transport in the device. Unlike standard numerical approaches for coupled systems, our technique is based on the behavioural models, available in most commercial circuit simulators (e.g., HSPICE), that allow synthesis of complex, nonlinear, and coupled circuit elements. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with measurement data of steady state and transient terminal characteristics, obtained under conditions of vacuum. We note that this modeling approach allows concurrent simulation (and subsequent optimization) of the performance of both the control electronics as well as the thermal element(s), within the same IC design environment.
Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway
Beldring, S.; Engeland, K; Roald, L. A.; Sælthun, N. R.; A. Voksø
2003-01-01
A distributed version of the HBV-model using 1 km2 grid cells and daily time step was used to simulate runoff from the entire land surface of Norway for the period 1961-1990. The model was sensitive to changes in small scale properties of the land surface and the climatic input data, through explicit representation of differences between model elements, and by implicit consideration of sub-grid variations in moisture status. A geogra...
1991-01-15
stabilizability and detectability and their relation to sampling are reported in a paper which has been submitted to the IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control . 1.5... Transactions on Automatic Control , submitted. 20. Finite Rank Stabilizability and Perservation of Stabilizability under Sampling for Distributed...with J.S. Gibson and G. Tao), SIAM J. Control Opt., submitted. 19. On Stabilizability and Sampling for Infinite Dimensional Systems (with C. Wang), IEEE
Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, Pedro J.; Viger, R.J.
2002-01-01
A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Parameter Estimation In Astronomy With Poisson-Distributed Data. I. The X 2 over gamma Statistic
Mighell, K J
1999-01-01
Applying the standard weighted mean formula, [sum_i {n_i sigma^{-2}_i}] / [sum_i {sigma^{-2}_i}], to determine the weighted mean of data, n_i, drawn from a Poisson distribution, will, on average, underestimate the true mean by ~1 for all true mean values larger than ~3 when the common assumption is made that the error of the ith observation is sigma_i = max(sqrt{n_i},1). This small, but statistically significant offset, explains the long-known observation that chi-square minimization techniques which use the modified Neyman's chi-square statistic, chi^2_{N} equiv sum_i (n_i-y_i)^2 / max(n_i,1), to compare Poisson-distributed data with model values, y_i, will typically predict a total number of counts that underestimates the true total by about 1 count per bin. Based on my finding that the weighted mean of data drawn from a Poisson distribution can be determined using the formula [sum_i [n_i + min(n_i,1)] (n_i+1)^{-1}] / [sum_i (n_i+1)^{-1}], I propose that a new chi-square statistic, chi^2_gamma equiv sum_i [...
Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N
2016-07-26
Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.
Hardin, Julia P., Ed.; Moulden, Richard G., Ed.
This compilation of over 40 lesson plans on various topics in law related education was written by classroom teachers from around the United States who had participated in the fifth of an annual series called Special Programs in Citizenship Education (SPICE)--weeklong institutes devoted to learning about different cultures and laws. Called SPICE V…
Evaluation of biogas production potential of kitchen waste in the presence of spices.
Sahu, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhinav; Mishra, Priyanka; Chandrashekhar, B; Sharma, Ganesh; Kapley, Atya; Pandey, R A
2017-09-19
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of kitchen waste (KW) for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food. Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices (garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper) on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential, methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production. Analysis of the results revealed different magnitude of inhibition of the AD process of KW in the presence of different spices. Cinnamon, cardamom and clove resulted >85%, black pepper resulted 75%, while coriander, chili, turmeric and garlic resulted 55-70% reduction in cumulative biogas yield. Elemental analysis showed high concentration of heavy metals in the spices, which along with other bioactive components of the spices could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of the spices on biomethanation. Microbial examination of the digestate also showed a decrease in population of fermentative and methanogenic bacteria in the presence of spices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SBSI: an extensible distributed software infrastructure for parameter estimation in systems biology.
Adams, Richard; Clark, Allan; Yamaguchi, Azusa; Hanlon, Neil; Tsorman, Nikos; Ali, Shakir; Lebedeva, Galina; Goltsov, Alexey; Sorokin, Anatoly; Akman, Ozgur E; Troein, Carl; Millar, Andrew J; Goryanin, Igor; Gilmore, Stephen
2013-03-01
Complex computational experiments in Systems Biology, such as fitting model parameters to experimental data, can be challenging to perform. Not only do they frequently require a high level of computational power, but the software needed to run the experiment needs to be usable by scientists with varying levels of computational expertise, and modellers need to be able to obtain up-to-date experimental data resources easily. We have developed a software suite, the Systems Biology Software Infrastructure (SBSI), to facilitate the parameter-fitting process. SBSI is a modular software suite composed of three major components: SBSINumerics, a high-performance library containing parallelized algorithms for performing parameter fitting; SBSIDispatcher, a middleware application to track experiments and submit jobs to back-end servers; and SBSIVisual, an extensible client application used to configure optimization experiments and view results. Furthermore, we have created a plugin infrastructure to enable project-specific modules to be easily installed. Plugin developers can take advantage of the existing user-interface and application framework to customize SBSI for their own uses, facilitated by SBSI's use of standard data formats. All SBSI binaries and source-code are freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbsi under an Apache 2 open-source license. The server-side SBSINumerics runs on any Unix-based operating system; both SBSIVisual and SBSIDispatcher are written in Java and are platform independent, allowing use on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. The SBSI project website at http://www.sbsi.ed.ac.uk provides documentation and tutorials.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rügge, Kirsten; Pedersen, Jørn K.;
1995-01-01
, dinitrogen oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and oxygen in the groundwater samples indicate that methane production, sulfate reduction, iron reduction, manganese reduction, and nitrate reduction take place in the plume. Adjacent to the landfill, methanogenic and sulfatereducing zones were identified, while aerobic......The leachate plume stretching 300 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark) has been characterized in terms of redox-sensitive groundwater quality parameters along two longitudinal transects (285 samples). Variations in the levels of methane, sulfide, iron(ll), manganese(ll), ammonium...
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural substances used in conjunction with spices... with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for...
2010-04-01
... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...
Investigation of the Yeast and Mould Floras in Some Ground Spices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aydın Vural
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, yeast and mould floras of 60 spices samples that werecollected from different places of Diyarbakır have been investigated. Theyeast spices as Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger and mouldspices as Candida tropicalis and C. albicans have been commonly isolatedfrom the spices samples.The ratios of yeast contamination in the samples of black pepper,cumin, allspice, ground hot red pepper, flaked pepper (red and flakedpepper (black, investigated in this study, have been found as % 70, % 80,% 90, % 90, % 60 and % 30 respectively. As a result of high amount ofyeast contamination in spices samples, it is thought that there is a high riskof aflatoxin presence.Using the good and hygienically producing techniques at the stages ofharvest, production, processing, storage and selling with decontaminationapplications as sterilization, microwave and irradiation become effectiveeither in to prove the microbiological quality of the spices and eliminatingof the probable aflatoxin risk due to highly yeast contamination.
Ahn, Jae-Jun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Kwon, Joong-Ho
2014-11-19
Different spices such as turmeric, oregano, and cinnamon were γ-irradiated at 1 and 10 kGy. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nonirradiated samples were characterized by a single central signal (g = 2.006), the intensity of which was significantly enhanced upon irradiation. The EPR spectra of the irradiated spice samples were characterized by an additional triplet signal at g = 2.006 with a hyperfine coupling constant of 3 mT, associated with the cellulose radical. EPR analysis on various sample pretreatments in the irradiated spice samples demonstrated that the spectral features of the cellulose radical varied on the basis of the pretreatment protocol. Alcoholic extraction pretreatment produced considerable improvements of the EPR signals of the irradiated spice samples relative to the conventional oven and freeze-drying techniques. The alcoholic extraction process is therefore proposed as the most suitable sample pretreatment for unambiguous detection of irradiated spices by EPR spectroscopy.
Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho
2012-08-01
For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.
Ischemic stroke associated with the use of a synthetic cannabinoid (spice).
Moeller, Sebastian; Lücke, Caroline; Struffert, Tobias; Schwarze, Bernhard; Gerner, Stefan T; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin; Machold, Kristin; Philipsen, Alexandra; Müller, Helge H
2017-02-01
Synthetic cannabinoids, i.e. "spice", are psychoactive drugs with increasing use worldwide. Spice may have harmful neuropsychiatric and physical side effects. Here, we present the case of a 25-year-old man with ischemic stroke after smoking spice on the previous evening. Diagnostic work-up was negative for other common causes of stroke. Toxicology screen unveiled the cannabimimetic ADB-FUBINACA in the drug sample and in patient's urine. The cardiac sympathomimetic effect of spice might have triggered an unnoticed episode of tachyarrhythmia and resulted in stroke via cardioembolic etiology. Thus, in absence of other risk factors, a careful patient history of spice use is recommended for patients with acute neurological deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Possible Role of Common Spices as a Preventive and Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease
Mirmosayyeb, Omid; Tanhaei, Amirpouya; Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Martins, Ralph N.; Tanhaei, Mana; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali; Meamar, Rokhsareh
2017-01-01
For centuries, spices have been consumed as food additives or medicinal agents. However, there is increasing evidence indicating the plant-based foods in regular diet may lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease. Spices, as one of the most commonly used plant-based food additives may provide more than just flavors, but as agents that may prevent or even halt neurodegenerative processes associated with aging. In this article, we review the role and application of five commonly used dietary spices including saffron turmeric, pepper family, zingiber, and cinnamon. Besides suppressing inflammatory pathways, these spices may act as antioxidant and inhibit acetyl cholinesterase and amyloid β aggregation. We summarized how spice-derived nutraceuticals mediate such different effects and what their molecular targets might be. Finally, some directions for future research are briefly discussed. PMID:28250905
Possible role of common spices as a preventive and therapeutic agent for Alzheimer′s disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Mirmosayyeb
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For centuries, spices have been consumed as food additives or medicinal agents. However, there is increasing evidence indicating the plant-based foods in regular diet may lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease. Spices, as one of the most commonly used plant-based food additives may provide more than just flavors, but as agents that may prevent or even halt neurodegenerative processes associated with aging. In this article, we review the role and application of five commonly used dietary spices including saffron turmeric, pepper family, zingiber, and cinnamon. Besides suppressing inflammatory pathways, these spices may act as antioxidant and inhibit acetyl cholinesterase and amyloid β aggregation. We summarized how spice-derived nutraceuticals mediate such different effects and what their molecular targets might be. Finally, some directions for future research are briefly discussed.
Possible Role of Common Spices as a Preventive and Therapeutic Agent for Alzheimer's Disease.
Mirmosayyeb, Omid; Tanhaei, Amirpouya; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N; Tanhaei, Mana; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali; Meamar, Rokhsareh
2017-01-01
For centuries, spices have been consumed as food additives or medicinal agents. However, there is increasing evidence indicating the plant-based foods in regular diet may lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease. Spices, as one of the most commonly used plant-based food additives may provide more than just flavors, but as agents that may prevent or even halt neurodegenerative processes associated with aging. In this article, we review the role and application of five commonly used dietary spices including saffron turmeric, pepper family, zingiber, and cinnamon. Besides suppressing inflammatory pathways, these spices may act as antioxidant and inhibit acetyl cholinesterase and amyloid β aggregation. We summarized how spice-derived nutraceuticals mediate such different effects and what their molecular targets might be. Finally, some directions for future research are briefly discussed.
The statistical analysis of the color—orbit parameters and color—inclination distributions of TNOs
Nabiyev, Shaig; Simonia, Irakli
2016-10-01
The research of the surface properties of the trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) is the key factor to obtain information about past and current status of our Solar System. Because of the far distance from the Sun the photometric investigations remain the most popular approaching way to study of physical conditions of TNOs. For this reason, we examine the correlation between 294 known B-R and 259 V-R color indexes and the orbital parameters of the trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) with by classification is giving in the literature: Cubewanos (Classical KBOs), Plutinos, Sentaurs, SDOs, Other TNOs, and Resonants, and subgroups by diameters greater than 80 km. Almost all inclinations of subgroups by classifications and diameters are strongly correlated with B-R and V-R indexes. Simultaneously, the remarkable and moderate correlations with high significance levels were found in 8 cases for B-R and other orbit parameters: semi-major axis, eccentricity, perihelion and diameters by diameter subgroups and 9 cases by classifications. Moreover, only 4 of 11 moderate correlation coefficients with high significance levels for V-R were calculated by classifications and 6 cases by diameters.
Vay, Kerstin; Scheler, Stefan; Friess, Wolfgang
2011-09-15
In an emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation process for the preparation of microspheres the employed solvents have a tremendous influence on the characteristics of the resulting particles. Nevertheless the solvent selection is often based on empirical data rather than on calculated values. The purpose of this investigation was to use the concept of solubility parameters for interpretation and improved understanding of solvent effects in the process of microparticle preparation. Partial solubility parameters of 3-{2-[4-(6-Fluor-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)piperidino]ethyl}-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-on, which was used as a model drug, were determined experimentally using an extended Hansen regression model. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles were prepared with an emulsion solvent removal process employing methylene chloride and its mixtures with benzyl alcohol and n-butanol. It could be shown, that the encapsulation efficiency was influenced by the change of the solvent composition during the extraction process. Furthermore the solvent selection had an essential influence on the morphological state of the drug and it could be shown and explained, that by a decrease of the dissolving power a completely amorphous product was obtained.
Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J; Tringe, Susannah G; Herrgård, Markus J; Rusch, Douglas B
2013-01-01
The Yellowstone geothermal complex contains over 10,000 diverse geothermal features that host numerous phylogenetically deeply rooted and poorly understood archaea, bacteria, and viruses. Microbial communities in high-temperature environments are generally less diverse than soil, marine, sediment, or lake habitats and therefore offer a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of different model microbial communities using environmental metagenomics. One of the broader goals of this study was to establish linkages among microbial distribution, metabolic potential, and environmental variables. Twenty geochemically distinct geothermal ecosystems representing a broad spectrum of Yellowstone hot-spring environments were used for metagenomic and geochemical analysis and included approximately equal numbers of: (1) phototrophic mats, (2) "filamentous streamer" communities, and (3) archaeal-dominated sediments. The metagenomes were analyzed using a suite of complementary and integrative bioinformatic tools, including phylogenetic and functional analysis of both individual sequence reads and assemblies of predominant phylotypes. This volume identifies major environmental determinants of a large number of thermophilic microbial lineages, many of which have not been fully described in the literature nor previously cultivated to enable functional and genomic analyses. Moreover, protein family abundance comparisons and in-depth analyses of specific genes and metabolic pathways relevant to these hot-spring environments reveal hallmark signatures of metabolic capabilities that parallel the distribution of phylotypes across specific types of geochemical environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William P. Inskeep
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The Yellowstone geothermal complex contains over 10,000 diverse geothermal features that host numerous phylogenetically deeply-rooted and poorly understood archaea, bacteria and viruses. Microbial communities in high-temperature environments are generally less diverse than soil, marine, sediment or lake habitats and therefore offer a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of different model microbial communities using environmental metagenomics. One of the broader goals of this study was to establish linkages among microbial distribution, metabolic potential and environmental variables. Twenty geochemically distinct geothermal ecosystems representing a broad spectrum of Yellowstone hot-spring environments were used for metagenomic and geochemical analysis and included approximately equal numbers of: (1 phototrophic mats, (2 ‘filamentous streamer’ communities, and (3 archaeal-dominated sediments. The metagenomes were analyzed using a suite of complementary and integrative bioinformatic tools, including phylogenetic and functional analysis of both individual sequence reads and assemblies of predominant phylotypes. This volume identifies major environmental determinants of a large number of thermophilic microbial lineages, many of which have not been fully described in the literature nor previously cultivated to enable functional and genomic analyses. Moreover, protein family abundance comparisons and in-depth analyses of specific genes and metabolic pathways relevant to these hot-spring environments reveal hallmark signatures of metabolic capabilities that parallel the distribution of phylotypes across specific types of geochemical environments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe H. Coutinho
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Associations between microorganisms occur extensively throughout Earth’s oceans. Understanding how microbial communities are assembled and how the presence or absence of species is related to that of others are central goals of microbial ecology. Here, we investigate co-occurrence associations between marine prokaryotes by combining 180 new and publicly available metagenomic datasets from different oceans in a large-scale meta-analysis. A co-occurrence network was created by calculating correlation scores between the abundances of microorganisms in metagenomes. A total of 1,906 correlations amongst 297 organisms were detected, segregating them into 11 major groups that occupy distinct ecological niches. Additionally, by analyzing the oceanographic parameters measured for a selected number of sampling sites, we characterized the influence of environmental variables over each of these 11 groups. Clustering organisms into groups of taxa that have similar ecology, allowed the detection of several significant correlations that could not be observed for the taxa individually.
Biernaux, J; Sluse, D; Chantry, V
2016-01-01
Luminosity profiles of galaxies acting as strong gravitational lenses can be tricky to study. Indeed, strong gravitational lensing images display several lensed components, both point-like and diffuse, around the lensing galaxy. Those objects limit the study of the galaxy luminosity to its inner parts. Therefore, the usual fitting methods perform rather badly on such images. Previous studies of strong lenses luminosity profiles using software such as GALFIT or IMFITFITS and various PSF-determining methods have resulted in discrepant results. The present work aims at investigating the causes of those discrepancies, as well as at designing more robust techniques for studying the morphology of early-type lensing galaxies with the ability to subtract a lensed signal from their luminosity profiles. We design a new method to independently measure each shape parameter, namely, the position angle, ellipticity, and half-light radius of the galaxy. Our half-light radius measurement method is based on an innovative sche...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Khade
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF is used to estimate the erodibility fraction parameter field in a coupled meteorology and dust aerosol model (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS over the Sahara desert. Erodibility is often employed as the key parameter to map dust source. It is used along with surface winds (or surface wind stress to calculate dust emissions. Using the Saharan desert as a test bed, a perfect model Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs with 40 ensemble members, and observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD, the EAKF is shown to recover correct values of erodibility at about 80% of the points in the domain. It is found that dust advected from upstream grid points acts as noise and complicates erodibility estimation. It is also found that the rate of convergence is significantly impacted by the structure of the initial distribution of erodibility estimates; isotropic initial distributions exhibit slow convergence, while initial distributions with geographically localized structure converge more quickly. Experiments using observations of Deep Blue AOD retrievals from the MODIS satellite sensor result in erodibility estimates that are considerably lower than the values used operationally. Verification shows that the use of the tuned erodibility field results in better predictions of AOD over the west Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula.
Recursive Estimation of π-Line Parameters for Electric Power Distribution Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena
2016-01-01
an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) whose measurement noise covariance matrix is modified in order to account for all noisy variables in the overdetermined system. Simulations confirm the advantages of the EKF over the previously used Least-Squares (LSQ) estimator. In the low random noise cases considered......) measurements which are subject to measurement device tolerances and random noise. Building upon an earlier work which introduced a measurement tolerance compensation model, we aim to improve a) the robustness towards noisy data and b) the estimate of the parallel susceptance. For this purpose, we employ...... behavior when applied to data obtained from a laboratory distribution grid, which exhibits uncertainties that are not accounted for in the models....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Duda
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The Future Circular Collider (FCC accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar®—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.
COMPUTER MODELING OF SELECTED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojciech Kruszyński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of computer modeling of flowsand the age of the water in two rural communi-ties province Podlasie - Rutka and Jeleniewo. The model is made using Epanet. In the study, a series of variants of models simulating the behavior of existing distribution systems and water analyzes were performed century. Analysis of the age of the water in water works modeled showed areas where standing water is aging, not having the estuary and not giving way to fresh. Age of water in the pipes is an important indicator of its quality and shelf life. The longer standing water in the aqueduct, the more likely that it will develop dangerous bacteria and produce deposits which remain on the walls of the ducts.
Duda, Pawel; Chorowski, Maciej Pawel; Polinski, J
2017-01-01
The Future Circular Collider (FCC) accelerator will require a helium distribution system that will exceed the presently exploited transfer lines by almost 1 order of magnitude. The helium transfer line will contain five process pipes protected against heat leaks by a common thermal shield. The design pressure of the FCC process pipe with supercritical helium will be equal to 5.0 MPa, significantly exceeding the 2.0 MPa value in the present, state-of–art transfer lines. The increase of the design pressure requires construction changes to be introduced to the support system, the vacuum barriers and the compensation bellows. This will influence heat flows to the helium. The paper analyses the impact of the increased design pressure on the heat flow. The paper also offers a discussion of the design modifications to the compensation system, including the replacement of stainless steel with Invar—aimed at mitigating the pressure increase.
Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G H Naderi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.
Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation.
Naderi, G H; Dinani, Narges J; Asgary, S; Taher, M; Nikkhoo, N; Boshtam, M
2014-01-01
Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)：a precious spice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas; Wanderley Pereira Oliveira
2014-01-01
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.
solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farid M. Toma
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was (203×103 cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT and Ochratoxin (OT in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3 ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0 ppb respectively.
Antioxidant Activities of Nine Selected Culinary Spices from China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liang Ying; Ding Ying; Zhang Liu-juan; Liu Xian-jin
2015-01-01
The antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents of the water and/or ethanol extracts of the nine selected culinary spices from China were systematically investigated. Both ethanol extracts and water extracts had high ability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The ethanol extract of Sichuan pepper showed the highest ability of DPPH radical scavenging. The extract with the highest ABTS radical scavenging effect was that of ethanol extract of cinnamon. Both ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon possessed the high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) with the values of 4 541.87 and 1 134.52 µmol of Fe (Ⅱ)/g. The extracts with high hydroxyl radical-mediated deoxyribose degradation were all the ethanol extracts as follows:cinnamon, bay leaf, Sichuan pepper, star anise and fennel. The extracts with high antioxidant activities also had the high contents of the phenols. The study indicated that these spices might be potentially be used as natural antioxidants in food.
Cai, Xiuhong; Li, Xiang; Qi, Hong; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jianyong; Shuai, Jianwei
2016-10-01
The gating properties of the inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) are determined by the binding and unbinding capability of Ca2+ ions and IP3 messengers. With the patch clamp experiments, the stationary properties have been discussed for Xenopus oocyte type-1 IP3R (Oo-IP3R1), type-3 IP3R (Oo-IP3R3) and Spodoptera frugiperda IP3R (Sf-IP3R). In this paper, in order to provide insights about the relation between the observed gating characteristics and the gating parameters in different IP3Rs, we apply the immune algorithm to fit the parameters of a modified DeYoung-Keizer model. By comparing the fitting parameter distributions of three IP3Rs, we suggest that the three types of IP3Rs have the similar open sensitivity in responding to IP3. The Oo-IP3R3 channel is easy to open in responding to low Ca2+ concentration, while Sf-IP3R channel is easily inhibited in responding to high Ca2+ concentration. We also show that the IP3 binding rate is not a sensitive parameter for stationary gating dynamics for three IP3Rs, but the inhibitory Ca2+ binding/unbinding rates are sensitive parameters for gating dynamics for both Oo-IP3R1 and Oo-IP3R3 channels. Such differences may be important in generating the spatially and temporally complex Ca2+ oscillations in cells. Our study also demonstrates that the immune algorithm can be applied for model parameter searching in biological systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ligang WU; Changhong WANG; Huijun GAO; Qingshuang ZENG
2006-01-01
The robust stability and robust sliding mode control problems are studied for a class of linear distributed time-delay systems with polytopic-type uncertainties by applying the parameter-dependent Lyapunov functional approach combining with a new method of introducing some relaxation matrices and tuning parameters, which can be chosen properly to lead to a less conservative result. First, a sufficient condition is proposed for robust stability of the autonomic system;next, the sufficient conditions of the robust stabilization controller and the existence condition of sliding mode are developed. The results are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be solved via efficient interior-point algorithms. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the feasibility and advantages of the proposed design scheme.
Zhang, Ridong; Tao, Jili; Lu, Renquan; Jin, Qibing
2016-12-08
Modeling of distributed parameter systems is difficult because of their nonlinearity and infinite-dimensional characteristics. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), a hybrid modeling strategy that consists of a decoupled linear autoregressive exogenous (ARX) model and a nonlinear radial basis function (RBF) neural network model are proposed. The spatial-temporal output is first divided into a few dominant spatial basis functions and finite-dimensional temporal series by PCA. Then, a decoupled ARX model is designed to model the linear dynamics of the dominant modes of the time series. The nonlinear residual part is subsequently parameterized by RBFs, where genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize their hidden layer structure and the parameters. Finally, the nonlinear spatial-temporal dynamic system is obtained after the time/space reconstruction. Simulation results of a catalytic rod and a heat conduction equation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy compared to several other methods.
Zhu, Jian-Rong; Li, Jian; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-10-01
The decoy-state method has been widely used in commercial quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. In view of the practical decoy-state QKD with both source errors and statistical fluctuations, we propose a universal model of full parameter optimization in biased decoy-state QKD with phase-randomized sources. Besides, we adopt this model to carry out simulations of two widely used sources: weak coherent source (WCS) and heralded single-photon source (HSPS). Results show that full parameter optimization can significantly improve not only the secure transmission distance but also the final key generation rate. And when taking source errors and statistical fluctuations into account, the performance of decoy-state QKD using HSPS suffered less than that of decoy-state QKD using WCS.
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Asoke Kumar Bhunia
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to develop two inventory models for deteriorating items with variable demand dependent on the selling price and frequency of advertisement of items. In the first model, shortages are not allowed whereas in the second, these are allowed and partially backlogged with a variable rate dependent on the duration of waiting time up to the arrival of next lot. In both models, the deterioration rate follows three-parameter Weibull distribution and the transportation cost is considered explicitly for replenishing the order quantity. This cost is dependent on the lot-size as well as the distance from the source to the destination. The corresponding models have been formulated and solved. Two numerical examples have been considered to illustrate the results and the significant features of the results are discussed. Finally, based on these examples, the effects of different parameters on the initial stock level, shortage level (in case of second model only, cycle length along with the optimal profit have been studied by sensitivity analyses taking one parameter at a time keeping the other parameters as same.
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Jingpei Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Varied P2P trust models have been proposed recently; it is necessary to develop an effective method to evaluate these trust models to resolve the commonalities (guiding the newly generated trust models in theory and individuality (assisting a decision maker in choosing an optimal trust model to implement in specific context issues. A new method for analyzing and comparing P2P trust models based on hierarchical parameters quantization in the file downloading scenarios is proposed in this paper. Several parameters are extracted from the functional attributes and quality feature of trust relationship, as well as requirements from the specific network context and the evaluators. Several distributed P2P trust models are analyzed quantitatively with extracted parameters modeled into a hierarchical model. The fuzzy inferring method is applied to the hierarchical modeling of parameters to fuse the evaluated values of the candidate trust models, and then the relative optimal one is selected based on the sorted overall quantitative values. Finally, analyses and simulation are performed. The results show that the proposed method is reasonable and effective compared with the previous algorithms.
Toward the Distribution of Orbital Parameters of Nearby Major Galaxy Mergers
Mortazavi Karvani, Seyed Alireza
2016-01-01
In this thesis project our goal is to measure the initial conditions of a sample of ~20 local disk-disk major galaxy mergers. Measuring the orbital parameters is possible by findingthe most similar galaxy merger simulation to the morphology and kinematics of the data.We have developed an automated modeling method based on the Identikit software package,which also estimates the uncertainty of the measured initial conditions. We tested our modeling method using an independent set of GADGET simulations, and we acquired reliable results onprograde merger systems. We observed the Hα kinematics of our sample using SparsePak IFU on the WIYN telescope at KPNO, and DIS on the 3.5m telescope at APO. For the few merger systems in our sample with archival HI data available, we compare the use of HI vs Hα as the kinematic tracer. This work lays the ground-work for the analysis of larger statistical samples of mergers from on-going IFU galaxy survey such as MaNGA.
Distributed and Lumped Parameter Models for the Characterization of High Throughput Bioreactors
Conoscenti, Gioacchino; Cutrì, Elena; Tuan, Rocky S.; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Gottardi, Riccardo
2016-01-01
Next generation bioreactors are being developed to generate multiple human cell-based tissue analogs within the same fluidic system, to better recapitulate the complexity and interconnection of human physiology [1, 2]. The effective development of these devices requires a solid understanding of their interconnected fluidics, to predict the transport of nutrients and waste through the constructs and improve the design accordingly. In this work, we focus on a specific model of bioreactor, with multiple input/outputs, aimed at generating osteochondral constructs, i.e., a biphasic construct in which one side is cartilaginous in nature, while the other is osseous. We next develop a general computational approach to model the microfluidics of a multi-chamber, interconnected system that may be applied to human-on-chip devices. This objective requires overcoming several challenges at the level of computational modeling. The main one consists of addressing the multi-physics nature of the problem that combines free flow in channels with hindered flow in porous media. Fluid dynamics is also coupled with advection-diffusion-reaction equations that model the transport of biomolecules throughout the system and their interaction with living tissues and C constructs. Ultimately, we aim at providing a predictive approach useful for the general organ-on-chip community. To this end, we have developed a lumped parameter approach that allows us to analyze the behavior of multi-unit bioreactor systems with modest computational effort, provided that the behavior of a single unit can be fully characterized. PMID:27669413
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Beinarts Ivars
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the advanced monitoring system of multiple environmental parameters is presented. The purpose of the system is a long-term estimation of energy efficiency and sustainability for the research test stands which are made of different building materials. Construction of test stands, and placement of main sensors are presented in the first chapter. The structure of data acquisition system includes a real-time interface with sensors and a data logger that allows to acquire and log data from all sensors with fixed rate. The data logging system provides a remote access to the processing of the acquired data and carries out periodical saving at a remote FTP server using an Internet connection. The system architecture and the usage of sensors are explained in the second chapter. In the third chapter implementation of the system, different interfaces of sensors and energy measuring devices are discussed and several examples of data logger program are presented. Each data logger is reading data from analog and digital channels. Measurements can be displayed directly on a screen using WEB access or using data from FTP server. Measurements and acquired data graphical results are presented in the fourth chapter in the selected diagrams. The benefits of the developed system are presented in the conclusion.
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Ingo W Nader
Full Text Available Parameters of the two-parameter logistic model are generally estimated via the expectation-maximization algorithm, which improves initial values for all parameters iteratively until convergence is reached. Effects of initial values are rarely discussed in item response theory (IRT, but initial values were recently found to affect item parameters when estimating the latent distribution with full non-parametric maximum likelihood. However, this method is rarely used in practice. Hence, the present study investigated effects of initial values on item parameter bias and on recovery of item characteristic curves in BILOG-MG 3, a widely used IRT software package. Results showed notable effects of initial values on item parameters. For tighter convergence criteria, effects of initial values decreased, but item parameter bias increased, and the recovery of the latent distribution worsened. For practical application, it is advised to use the BILOG default convergence criterion with appropriate initial values when estimating the latent distribution from data.
Majumdar, Rudrodip
2016-01-01
Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions,with energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, is generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating in the fusion devices. In the current work 3-parameter Dagum speed distribution has been introduced to include the effect of suprathermal ion population in the calculation of total fusion reactivity. The extent of enhancement in the fusion reactivity, at different back-ground temperatures of the fusion fuel plasma, due to the suprathermal ion population has also been discussed.
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Ming-Yuan Cho
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Fast and accurate fault classification is essential to power system operations. In this paper, in order to classify electrical faults in radial distribution systems, a particle swarm optimization (PSO based support vector machine (SVM classifier has been proposed. The proposed PSO based SVM classifier is able to select appropriate input features and optimize SVM parameters to increase classification accuracy. Further, a time-domain reflectometry (TDR method with a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS stimulus has been used to generate a dataset for purposes of classification. The proposed technique has been tested on a typical radial distribution network to identify ten different types of faults considering 12 given input features generated by using Simulink software and MATLAB Toolbox. The success rate of the SVM classifier is over 97%, which demonstrates the effectiveness and high efficiency of the developed method.
Cho, Ming-Yuan; Hoang, Thi Thom
2017-01-01
Fast and accurate fault classification is essential to power system operations. In this paper, in order to classify electrical faults in radial distribution systems, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based support vector machine (SVM) classifier has been proposed. The proposed PSO based SVM classifier is able to select appropriate input features and optimize SVM parameters to increase classification accuracy. Further, a time-domain reflectometry (TDR) method with a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) stimulus has been used to generate a dataset for purposes of classification. The proposed technique has been tested on a typical radial distribution network to identify ten different types of faults considering 12 given input features generated by using Simulink software and MATLAB Toolbox. The success rate of the SVM classifier is over 97%, which demonstrates the effectiveness and high efficiency of the developed method.
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Urszula Ledzewicz
1993-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a general distributed parameter control problem in Banach spaces with integral cost functional and with given initial and terminal data is considered. An extension of the Dubovitskii-Milyutin method to the case of nonregular operator equality constraints, based on Avakov's generalization of the Lusternik theorem, is presented. This result is applied to obtain an extension of the Extremum Principle for the case of abnormal optimal control problems. Then a version of this problem with nonoperator equality constraints is discussed and the Extremum Principle for this problem is presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Focusing on carrying out GPS occultation observations with a receiver set on LEO satellite, this paper develops the LEO orbit simulation system based on which the occultation events can be simulated taking into account the geometric relationship of the satellites and the field of view of the receiver antenna. In this paper, the impacts of 4 types of LEO orbit parameters including argument of latitude (AOL), right ascension of ascending node (RAAN), orbit height and orbit inclination on the distribution and number of occultation events observed with a single LEO satellite are discussed through simulation and some conclusions are drawn.
Krill distribution in relation to environmental parameters in mesoscale structures in the Ross Sea
Leonori, Iole; De Felice, Andrea; Canduci, Giovanni; Costantini, Ilaria; Biagiotti, Ilaria; Giuliani, Giordano; Budillon, Giorgio
2017-02-01
Krill, a key pelagic resource of the Antarctic food web, provides an important link between primary and secondary plankton production and top predators. Since krill abundance is a crucial factor in Antarctic ecosystem functioning, its monitoring supplies vital data. Acoustic surveys are an effective approach to estimating krill abundance. An acoustic survey was conducted in the western Ross Sea in January 2014-10 years after a similar survey by our team - to estimate krill abundance and biomass and monitor oceanographic conditions. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) was detected in the northern part of the western Ross Sea and dense swarms of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) were found in its central coastal area. Data analysis revealed an inverse correlation between E. superba density and salinity in the water column, whereas a positive correlation was found between E. crystallorophias abundance and fluorescence; the latter relationship was confirmed in thematic maps of E. crystallorophias spatial distribution and fluorescence. Comparison of 2004 and 2014 biomass data showed a much greater abundance of both species in the more recent survey.
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Pedro L. Iglesias
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The Genetic Algorithms (GAs are a technique of optimization used for water distribution networks design. This work has been made with a modified pseudo genetic algorithm (PGA, whose main variation with a classical GA is a change in the codification of the chromosomes, which is made of numerical form instead of the binary codification. This variation entails a series of special characteristics in the codification and in the definition of the operations of mutation and crossover. Initially, the work displays the results of the PGA on a water network studied in the literature. The results show the kindness of the method. Also is made a statistical analysis of the obtained solutions. This analysis allows verifying the values of mutation and crossing probability more suitable for the proposed method. Finally, in the study of the analyzed water supply networks the concept of reliability in introduced. This concept is essential to understand the validity of the obtained results. The second part, starting with values optimized for the probability of crossing and mutation, the influence of the population size is analyzed in the final solutions on the network of Hanoi, widely studied in the bibliography. The aim is to find the most suitable configuration of the problem, so that good solutions are obtained in the less time.
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Pedro L. Iglesias
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The Genetic Algorithms (GAs are a technique of optimization used for water distribution networks design. This work has been made with a modified pseudo genetic algorithm (PGA, whose main variation with a classical GA is a change in the codification of the chromosomes, which is made of numerical form instead of the binary codification. This variation entails a series of special characteristics in the codification and in the definition of the operations of mutation and crossover. Initially, the work displays the results of the PGA on a water network studied in the literature. The results show the kindness of the method. Also is made a statistical analysis of the obtained solutions. This analysis allows verifying the values of mutation and crossing probability more suitable for the proposed method. Finally, in the study of the analyzed water supply networks the concept of reliability in introduced. This concept is essential to understand the validity of the obtained results. The second part, starting with values optimized for the probability of crossing and mutation, the influence of the population size is analyzed in the final solutions on the network of Hanoi, widely studied in the bibliography. The aim is to find the most suitable configuration of the problem, so that good solutions are obtained in the less time.
Sheffer, Daniel B.; Schaer, Alex R.; Baumann, Juerg U.
1989-04-01
Inclusion of mass distribution information in biomechanical analysis of motion is a requirement for the accurate calculation of external moments and forces acting on the segmental joints during locomotion. Regression equations produced from a variety of photogrammetric, anthropometric and cadaeveric studies have been developed and espoused in literature. Because of limitations in the accuracy of predicted inertial properties based on the application of regression equation developed on one population and then applied on a different study population, the employment of a measurement technique that accurately defines the shape of each individual subject measured is desirable. This individual data acquisition method is especially needed when analyzing the gait of subjects with large differences in their extremity geo-metry from those considered "normal", or who may possess gross asymmetries in shape in their own contralateral limbs. This study presents the photogrammetric acquisition and data analysis methodology used to assess the inertial tensors of two groups of subjects, one with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy and the other considered normal.
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Dafen Chen
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.
Hojaij, Flávio; Vanderlei, Felipe; Plopper, Caio; Rodrigues, Consuelo Junqueira; Jácomo, Alfredo; Cernea, Claudio; Oliveira, Leonardo; Marchi, Luis; Brandão, Lenine
2011-12-01
Parathyroid glands play an important role in controlling calcium levels, which influence muscular contraction and neurotransmission. The number of variants, localization and ectopic positions make these glands tricky during surgical exploration. Detailed anatomical knowledge of these glands is fundamental to avoid postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, such as failures during thyroidectomy and parathyroid procedures. The purposes of this work were to study and report practical knowledge for surgeons in order to localize the glands. Dissections were performed on 56 cadavers. Gland identity was confirmed by histological study. Also, mediastinal tissue and the carotid sheath were treated with Carnoy's solution to identify ectopic glands. The thyroid gland was divided and sliced to identify parathyroid glands in the parenchymal and subcapsular space. Four or more parathyroid glands were found in 89.3% of the studied specimens. Mean gland weight was 33.1 mg, and its mean measurements were 6.7 × 3.9 × 2.0 mm. In more than 90% of the cases there was a correlation with the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands: the upper glands were located in medial positions, and the lower ones were found to be located laterally. In 42.8% of cases at least one ectopic gland was observed. The main ectopic regions were the mediastinum and thymus (19.6%), thyroid subcapsular space (12.5%) and thyroid parenchyma (5.4%). Quantity, gland characteristics and location were not influenced by anthropometric and demographic parameters. Here we show the high incidence of parathyroid glands positioned at "abnormal" locations, and as a controversial topic in endocrine surgery, this matter must be continuously studied and reported in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A; Leitherer, C
2006-03-01
We examine from a theoretical viewpoint how the physical parameters of H II regions are controlled both in normal galaxies and in starburst environments. These parameters are the H II region luminosity function, the time-dependent size, the covering fraction of molecular clouds, the pressure in the ionized gas and the ionization parameter. The factors which control them are the initial mass function of the exciting stars, the cluster mass function, the metallicity and the mean pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. We investigate the sensitivity of the H{alpha} luminosity to the IMF, and find that this can translate to about 30% variation in derived star formation rates. The molecular cloud dissipation timescale is estimated from a case study of M17 to be {approx} 1 Myr. Based upon H II luminosity function fitting for nearby galaxies, we propose that the cluster mass function has a log-normal form peaking at {approx} 185M{sub {circle_dot}}. This suggests that the cluster mass function is the continuation of the stellar IMF to higher mass. The pressure in the H II regions is controlled by the mechanical luminosity flux from the central cluster. Since this is closely related to the ionizing photon flux, we show that the ionization parameter is not a free variable, and that the diffuse ionized medium may be composed of many large, faint and old H II regions. Finally, we derive theoretical probability distributions for the ionization parameter as a function of metallicity and compare these to those derived for SDSS galaxies.
Effect of gamma irradiation on essential oils and lipids in spices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaneko, Nobutada; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)
1991-11-01
Seven kinds of spices were irradiated with gamma-rays at the dose of 5 to 80 kGy. Studies of radiation effect on lipids in each spice were carried out by measuring peroxide value (POV), iodine value (IV), acid value (AV) and analysis of gas-chromatography (GC). POV in each spice was gradually increased with increasing absorbed doses. The increase of POV in nutmeg was higher than those of other spices, and it was suggested that those increase of POV values were related to lipid contents in spices. A little increase of IV and AV were also observed as same amount of POV by the irradiation up to 80 kGy. From the GC analysis of lipids in each spice, components were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy of gamma-rays. Radiation effect on components of essential oils in each spice were also analyzed by headspace-GC (HS-GC), and any degradation of components were not observed up to 50 kGy of irradiation even analyzed by GC after separation to hydrocarbon and oxygen compounds. On the contrary, essential oils of cloves sterilized by heat treatment were apparently decreased as compared with irradiated and non-irradiated cloves. (author).
Measurement of spices and seasonings in India: opportunities for cancer epidemiology and prevention.
Ferrucci, Leah M; Daniel, Carrie R; Kapur, Kavita; Chadha, Puneet; Shetty, Hemali; Graubard, Barry I; George, Preethi S; Osborne, Whitney; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Prakash C; Mathew, Aleyamma; Sinha, Rashmi
2010-01-01
Bioactive components of many foods added during cooking have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. However, epidemiologic studies generally do not collect detailed information on these items, which include spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and oils. Since India has some of the highest spice consumption in the world, we developed a computer-based food preparer questionnaire to estimate per capita consumption of 19 spices, chilies, coconuts, garlic, onions, and 13 cooking oils among 3,625 participants in the India Health Study, a multicenter pilot study in three regions of India. We observed notable regional differences in consumption of spices, chilies, coconut, garlic, and onions. In Trivandrum, over 95 percent of the participants consumed 12 different spices, while in New Delhi and Mumbai, 95 percent of participants consumed only four and five spices, respectively. Cooking oil use also varied, as ghee was most common in New Delhi (96.8%) followed by mustard seed oil (78.0%), while in Trivandrum the primary oil was coconut (88.5%) and in Mumbai it was peanut (68.5%). There was some variation in consumption by education, income, and religion. Using a novel method for assessing food items primarly added during cooking, we successfully estimated per capita consumption within an epidemiologic study. Based on basic science research and suggestive ecologic level data on cancer incidence and spice consumption, improving epidemiologic assessment of these potentially chemopreventive food items may enhance our understanding of diet and cancer risk.
Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.
Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng
2015-09-01
Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.
Ethno botany and antimicrobial perspective of Spices and Honey against Candida albicans
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Kothai Nil Seshathri
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Aim: In spite of obsessive use of spices in every Ethiopian meal, little has been investigated on the utilization of Ethiopian spices as a cure for oral opportunistic infections. Therefore the aim was to identify spices used in Ethiopian food through ethno botanical survey and study their antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Method: Ethno botanical survey of the selected Kebeles of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted using a semi structured questionnaire from October 2006 to November 2007. Antifungal nature of the spices and combination of spices and honey were evaluated by agar well diffusion assay from September 2008 to July 2010. Result: Ethno botanical survey indicated fourteen species of spices and honey play a major role in Ethiopian food and beverages. Single plant extract of Trachyspermum copticum showed highest activity against C. albicans. The same plant showed antagonistic effect when combined with brown and white honey. Cinamomum zeylanicum showed highest synergistic effect with both brown and white honey when compared to Allium ursenum, Cuminum cyminum, Nigella sativa, Rosemarinus officinalis and Occimum hodiense. Conclusion: Thus spices used in Ethiopian food could be a preventive as well as a cure for oral candidiasis caused by C.albicans. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 73-80
da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho
2017-02-01
A sensitivity analysis can categorize levels of parameter influence on a model's output. Identifying parameters having the most influence facilitates establishing the best values for parameters of models, providing useful implications in species modelling of crops and associated insect pests. The aim of this study was to quantify the response of species models through a CLIMEX sensitivity analysis. Using open-field Solanum lycopersicum and Neoleucinodes elegantalis distribution records, and 17 fitting parameters, including growth and stress parameters, comparisons were made in model performance by altering one parameter value at a time, in comparison to the best-fit parameter values. Parameters that were found to have a greater effect on the model results are termed "sensitive". Through the use of two species, we show that even when the Ecoclimatic Index has a major change through upward or downward parameter value alterations, the effect on the species is dependent on the selection of suitability categories and regions of modelling. Two parameters were shown to have the greatest sensitivity, dependent on the suitability categories of each species in the study. Results enhance user understanding of which climatic factors had a greater impact on both species distributions in our model, in terms of suitability categories and areas, when parameter values were perturbed by higher or lower values, compared to the best-fit parameter values. Thus, the sensitivity analyses have the potential to provide additional information for end users, in terms of improving management, by identifying the climatic variables that are most sensitive.
Qiao, Yao-Bin; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fang-Zhou; Ruan, Li-Ming
2016-12-01
Reconstructing the distribution of optical parameters in the participating medium based on the frequency-domain radiative transfer equation (FD-RTE) to probe the internal structure of the medium is investigated in the present work. The forward model of FD-RTE is solved via the finite volume method (FVM). The regularization term formatted by the generalized Gaussian Markov random field model is used in the objective function to overcome the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. The multi-start conjugate gradient (MCG) method is employed to search the minimum of the objective function and increase the efficiency of convergence. A modified adjoint differentiation technique using the collimated radiative intensity is developed to calculate the gradient of the objective function with respect to the optical parameters. All simulation results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm based on FD-RTE can obtain the accurate distributions of absorption and scattering coefficients. The reconstructed images of the scattering coefficient have less errors than those of the absorption coefficient, which indicates the former are more suitable to probing the inner structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51476043), the Major National Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Foundation of China (Grant No. 51327803), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51121004).
Wang, Pengbo; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Xiao; Li, Ting
2016-03-01
Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied. Recently, more and more cases are reported with positive therapeutic effect by using transcranial light emitting diodes (LEDs) illumination. Here, we developed a LLLT helmet for treating brain injuries based on LED arrays. We designed the LED arrays in circle shape and assembled them in multilayered 3D printed helmet with water-cooling module. The LED arrays can be adjust to touch the head of subjects. A control circuit was developed to drive and control the illumination of the LLLT helmet. The software portion provides the control of on and off of each LED arrays, the setup of illumination parameters, and 3D distribution of LLLT light dose in human subject according to the illumination setups. This LLLT light dose distribution was computed by a Monte Carlo model for voxelized media and the Visible Chinese Human head dataset and displayed in 3D view at the background of head anatomical structure. The performance of the whole system was fully tested. One stroke patient was recruited in the preliminary LLLT experiment and the following neuropsychological testing showed obvious improvement in memory and executive functioning. This clinical case suggested the potential of this Illumination-parameter adjustable and illuminationdistribution visible LED helmet as a reliable, noninvasive, and effective tool in treating brain injuries.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
祝效华; 易静; 刘清友
2015-01-01
In the current engineering methods for the gas horizontal drilling, the distribution features of cuttings bed remain an issue to be cleared, and the gas horizontal drilling is still in early stages of development. For on-site drilling, a 3-D transient model is established in this paper to simulate the distribution features and the transport mechanism of the cuttings bed, based on the gas-solid two-phase flow theory. The effects of major drilling parameters, such as the gas velocity, the drill pipe rotation, the cutting size and the eccentricity, on the cuttings transport efficiency are analyzed. The major findings of this study include that the cuttings begin to settle down and build up a fixed cuttings bed, in the most evident regions in front and behind the connector, the dominant parameter of the wellbore cleaning is the gas velocity, and, as the cutting size is increased, the thickness of the cuttings bed developed in the wellbore increases significantly. In addition, the eccentricity has some influence on the cuttings transport, and the drill pipe rotation has little effect on the cuttings transport.
Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan
2014-03-15
We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.
Woldtvedt, Daniel J; Womack, Wesley; Gadomski, Benjamin C; Schuldt, Dieter; Puttlitz, Christian M
2011-06-01
Current finite element modeling techniques utilize geometrically inaccurate cartilage distribution representations in the lumbar spine. We hypothesize that this shortcoming severely limits the predictive fidelity of these simulations. Specifically, it is unclear how these anatomically inaccurate cartilage representations alter range of motion and facet contact predictions. In the current study, cadaveric vertebrae were serially sectioned, and images were taken of each slice in order to identify the osteochondral interface and the articulating surface. A series of custom-written algorithms were utilized in order to quantify each facet joint's three-dimensional cartilage distribution using a previously developed methodology. These vertebrae-dependent thickness cartilage distributions were implemented on an L1 through L5 lumbar spine finite element model. Moments were applied in three principal planes of motion, and range of motion and facet contact predictions from the variable thickness and constant thickness distribution models were determined. Initial facet gap thickness dimensions were also parameterized. The data indicate that the mean and maximum cartilage thickness increased inferiorly from L1 to L5, with an overall mean thickness value of 0.57 mm. Cartilage distribution and initial facet joint gap thickness had little influence on the lumbar range of motion in any direction, whereas the mean contact pressure, total contact force, and total contact area predictions were altered considerably. The data indicate that range of motion predictions alone are insufficient to establish model validation intended to predict mechanical contact parameters. These data also emphasize the need for the careful consideration of the initial facet joint gap thickness with respect to the spinal condition being studied.
Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa
2014-10-01
There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Siniscalchi, Agata; Romano, Gerardo; Barracano, Fabio; Balasco, Marianna; Tripaldi, Simona
2017-04-01
Analyzing a 4 years of a single site MT continuous monitoring data, a systematic variation of the MT transfer function estimates was observed in the [20-100 s] period range that was shown to be connected to the global geomagnetic activity, Ap index (Romano et al., 2014). The monitored period, from 2007 to 2011, includes the global minimum of solar activity which occurred in 2009 (low MT source amplitude). It was shown that the impedance robust estimations tend to stabilize when the Ap index exceed a value of 10. In order to exclude a possible dependence of the observed fluctuation on the presence of a local cultural noise source, for a shorter period ( 2 months) the monitoring data were also processed by using a remote site. Recently Chave (2012) demonstrated that MT data can be described by alpha stable distribution family that is characterized by four-parameters that must be empirically determined. The Gaussian distribution belongs to this family as a special case when one of the four parameter, α the tail thickness, is equal to 2. Following Chave (2016), MT data are typically stably distributed with the empirical observation that 0.8 ≤α ≤1.8. In order to better understand the observed dependence of the MT continuous monitoring on the global geomagnetic activity, here we present the results a re-analysis of the MT monitoring data with a two steps processing. In the first step, we characterize the time series of the Alpha Stable Distribution Parameters (ASDP) as obtained from the whole processing of the dataset with the aim of checking for possible connections between these last and the Ap index. In the second step, we estimate the ASDP by using only the samples which satisfy the mathematical range of existence of the normalized WAL (Weaver et al.,2000) considering these last as a diagnostic tool to detect which segments of the time series in the frequency domain are strongly contaminated by noise (WAL selection criterion). The comparison between the results
Gavilán, Rosario G
2005-11-01
In this study, over 100 phytoclimatic indices and other climatic parameters were calculated using the climatic data from 260 meteorological stations in a Mediterranean territory located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The nature of these indices was very different; some of them expressed general climatic features (e.g. continentality), while others were formulated for different Mediterranean territories and included particular limits of those indices that expressed differences in vegetation distribution. We wanted to know whether all of these indices were able to explain changes in vegetation on a spatial scale, and whether their boundaries worked similarly to the original territory. As they were so numerous, we investigated whether any of them were redundant. To relate vegetation to climate parameters we preferred to use its hierarchical nature, in discrete units (characterized by one or more dominant or co-dominant species), although it is known to vary continuously. These units give clearer results in this kind of phytoclimatic study. We have therefore used the main communities that represent natural potential vegetation. Multivariate and estimative analyses were used as statistical methods. The classification showed different levels of correlation among climatic parameters, but all of them were over 0.5. One hundred and eleven parameters were grouped into five larger groups: temperature (T), annual pluviothermic indices (PTY), summer pluviothermic indices (SPT), winter potential evapotranspiration (WPET) and thermal continentality indices (K). The remaining parameters showed low correlations with these five groups; some of them revealed obvious spatial changes in vegetation, such as summer hydric parameters that were zero in most vegetation types but not in high mountain vegetation. Others showed no clear results. For example, the Kerner index, an index of thermal continentality, showed lower values than expected for certain particular types of
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Carolina E. Antoniazzi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Hypsiboas punctatus(Schneider 1799 has a wide distribution in South America, throughout a latitudinal and environmental gradient (tropical/temperate, thus, supporting significantly different pressures among populations. Until now, only tropical populations’ reproductive parameters have been recorded. Then, our goal was to study reproductive parameters on a population inhabiting a temperate climate region to evaluate differences with those inhabiting tropical regions. Studied frogs were smaller than those from tropical regions. There was no correlation between weight and size of males and their testicles volume. Conversely, females’ weight and size was positively correlated to their fertility. Fat bodies were developed in males but absent in females. When compared with other studies, our results showed the variability in reproductive parameters of H. punctatusbetween tropical and temperate regions. This variability could be the result of phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic differentiation between distant populations. This variability may be one of the keys that allow H. punctatusto thrive in diverse ecosystems with different characteristics and environmental pressures.
Dopita, Michael A; Kewley, Lisa J; Rich, Jeff A; Sanders, Dave; Appleton, Phillip N; Chan, Ben H P; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Evans, Aaron S; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph A; Petric, Andreea; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason
2010-01-01
This paper describes a pilot study into the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting and the derivation of physical parameters for 19 galaxies observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) survey as observed with the \\emph{Spitzer Space Telescope}. For this we have used the pan-spectral fitting tools developed in a series of papers by Dopita and his co-workers. We show that the standard Lee and Draine `astronomical silicate' model cannot provide a good fit to the silicate absorption features as observed in the heavily dust-extinguished ($A_{\\rm V} \\sim 50$mag.) starbursts. We have derived an empirical fit to the `starburst silicate' absorption in these objects. This absorption curve is consistent with the silicate grains being systematically larger in starburst environments than in the local Galactic interstellar medium. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the SED fitting to each of the fitted parameters, and derive these parameters for those galaxies which do not have an embedded AG...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SRINIVASAN; Vajapeyam; Srirangachar; PAIVA; Fernanda; Maria; de; Lima
2009-01-01
The present paper examines the validity of the application of a distributed rainfall-runoff-erosion model on a regional basis in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The model tested is known as WESP (Water Erosion Simulation Program) developed by Lopes (1987). The model simulates the hydrograph and the sediment graph for individual events and thus, the model when properly calibrated can serve as a predictive tool for runoff and soil erosion on an individual or a continuous basis. The possibility of the existence of regionally applicable values for the parameters of the model WESP would be very interesting from the point of view of predictability of runoff and soil erosion from ungauged basins in the region. For this purpose, data collected in several experimental units in the experimental basin of Sumé as well as in the experimental basin of So Joo de Cariri have been used. The model was calibrated and validated in each of the experimental units (consisting of erosion plots and micro-basins) and the average value from all of the units for each of the parameters was considered to be the regional value. With these average values, all the events in all the experimental units were simulated. The results show that the runoff and erosion values simulated with this single parameter set were very good in all the units, being well within the acceptable deviations.
Hua, Yongzhao; Dong, Xiwang; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang
2017-05-18
This paper investigates the time-varying formation robust tracking problems for high-order linear multiagent systems with a leader of unknown control input in the presence of heterogeneous parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The followers need to accomplish an expected time-varying formation in the state space and track the state trajectory produced by the leader simultaneously. First, a time-varying formation robust tracking protocol with a totally distributed form is proposed utilizing the neighborhood state information. With the adaptive updating mechanism, neither any global knowledge about the communication topology nor the upper bounds of the parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and leader's unknown input are required in the proposed protocol. Then, in order to determine the control parameters, an algorithm with four steps is presented, where feasible conditions for the followers to accomplish the expected time-varying formation tracking are provided. Furthermore, based on the Lyapunov-like analysis theory, it is proved that the formation tracking error can converge to zero asymptotically. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is verified by simulation examples.
Scholle, H C; Schumann, N P; Anders, C; Mey, E
1992-09-01
A new method for quantitative characterization of myoelectrical masseter activity distribution by mapping of spectral EMG-parameters is described. The surface electromyograms of M. masseter were monopolarly recorded (16 channels). On the basis of registered EMG intervals (512 ms) the spectral EMG power of several frequency bands was calculated (Fast Fourier Transformation). The spectral EMG parameters between the 16 electrode positions were estimated by linear interpolation (4-nearest neighbours algorithm). Afterwards the spectral EMG parameters were fitted in a grey-tone or colour scale with 10 intervals. The so obtained EMG activity maps ("EMG-Maps") permit a quantitative-topographic characterization of myoelectrical masseter activity during different functional load procedures. The frequency range which is to consider in masseter surface-EMG investigations encloses frequencies between 15 and 500 Hz. The topography of EMG activation pattern of M. masseter is only described in a comprehensive manner when the electrode array consists of 16 electrodes and more. During defined motor tasks like clenching with controlled forces the reproducibility of EMG-Maps which respect to the topography of EMG activity pattern is very high. The absolute values of spectral EMG power as well as power changes of selected band ranges during clenching correlate to the extent of chewing forces.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SRINIVASAN Vajapeyam Srirangachar; PAIVA Fernanda Maria de Lima
2009-01-01
The present paper examines the validity of the application of a distributed rainfall-runoff-erosion model on a regional basis in a semi-arid region of Brazil.The model tested is known as WESP (Water Erosion Simulation Program) developed by Lopes (1987).The model simulates the hydrograph and the sedi-ment graph for individual events and thus, the model when properly calibrated can serve as a predic-tive tool for runoff and soil erosion on an individual or a continuous basis.The possibility of the exis-tence of regionally applicable values for the parameters of the model WESP would be very interesting from the point of view of predictability of runoff and soil erosion from ungauged basins in the region.For this purpose, data collected in several experimental units in the experimental basin of Sume as well as in the experimental basin of Sao Joao de Cariri have been used.The model was calibrated and validated in each of the experimental units (consisting of erosion plots and micro-basins) and the av-erage value from all of the units for each of the parameters was considered to be the regional value.With these average values, all the events in all the experimental units were simulated.The results show that the runoff and erosion values simulated with this single parameter set were very good in all the units, being well within the acceptable deviations.
Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Behrman, K. D.; Keitt, T. H.
2010-12-01
Vegetation 3D structure measurements from active remote sensing (i.e. lidar and radar) are usually averaged and reported at the regional level. However, environmental gradients and disturbance can structure vegetation patterns at multiple scales. Thus, a critical challenge in designing global observation strategies is to obtain confidence intervals on vegetation parameters as a function of biome, sensor, and resolution of observation. We present strategies to gain knowledge on forest spatial heterogeneity that can be translated into confidence intervals for above ground biomass and canopy height measurements. We use data from two airborne systems: the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) and the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) acquired over sites in the US (NH and ME), Canada (Quebec) and Costa Rica. We first describe two parameters (alpha and beta) that summarize tree size distribution for individual patches, thereby capturing forest successional stage. In this scenario, the uncertainty in predicting above ground biomass stems from: (1) the ability to estimate alpha and beta with the lidar/radar signals, and (2) the error in deriving above ground biomass from tree size distribution statistics. The processes of competition and self-thinning create skewed tree size distributions where smaller individuals are common and large individuals are rare. Using a global dataset of spaceborne lidar points from the sensor ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), we show the importance of sampling extreme values when using spatially sparse data. This raises the need to obtain expectations for the second-order properties of forest stands. To this end, we employed wavelet transforms to quantify variation in lidar-derived canopy height metrics across >20 Km transects and asked whether environmental gradients such as elevation can constrain the spatial autocorrelation among large trees.
Odor active compounds content in spices and their microencapsulated powders measured by SPME.
Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Adamiec, Janusz; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Remiszewski, Marian
2010-10-01
Within this study, main odorants of marjoram and thyme (linalool and thymol) were determined in spices and microencapsulated powders using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Analyses were conducted on selected batches of spices before and after decontamination and on microencapsulated powders prepared for technological purposes (improvement of aroma in decontaminated spices). Conditions of SPME analyses were determined for individual compounds and matrices. Determination of total and surface contents of compounds and the percentage dependencies between encapsulated and surface aroma made it possible to identify the best powders in terms of their quality.
Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1991-01-01
The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.
SPICE Modeling and Simulation of a MPPT Algorithm
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Miona Andrejević Stošović
2014-06-01
Full Text Available One among several equally important subsystems of a standalone photovoltaic (PV system is the circuit for maximum power point tracking (MPPT. There are several algorithms that may be used for it. In this paper we choose such an algorithm based on the maximum simplicity criteria. Then we make some small modifications to it in order to make it more robust. We synthesize a circuit built out of elements from the list of elements recognized by SPICE. The inputs are the voltage and the current at the PV panel to DC-DC converter interface. Its task is to generate a pulse width modulated pulse train whose duty ratio is defined to keep the input impedance of the DC-DC converter at the optimal value.
Experimental active control results from the SPICES smart structure demonstrations
Flamm, David S.; Toth, G. K.; Chou, Kenneth C.; Heck, Larry P.; Nowlin, William C.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.
1996-05-01
The final demonstrations of the ARPA SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) program test the control of two active vibration mounts manufactured from composites with embedded actuators and sensors. Both mount demonstrations address wide band control problems for real disturbances, one at low frequency and the other at high frequency. The control systems for both are two-level hierarchies, with an inner active damping augmentation loop and an outer vibration control loop. We first review the control design requirements for the demonstration and summarize our control design approach. Then we focus on presenting the experimental results of the final demonstrations. For the low frequency demonstration, two alternative control approaches were demonstrated, one involving finite impulse response modeling and the other state space modeling. For the high frequency demonstration only the finite impulse response modeling approach was used because of computational limitations due to the complex system dynamics.
New Antiglycative Compounds from Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) Spice.
Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Liu, Weixi; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P
2015-11-25
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), a widely consumed food spice, has been reported to have antiglycative effects in vitro and in vivo, but there is a paucity of data on its bioactive compounds. Herein, we report the isolation and structure elucidation (by NMR, HRESIMS, and CD) of 21 (1-21) compounds from a methanol extract of cumin seeds. The isolates included five new compounds: two sesquiterpenoids, two pairs of monoterpeneoid epimers, and a chalcone, named cuminoids A-E, respectively. The isolates were evaluated for antiglycative effects using the bovine serum albumin-fructose intrinsic fluorescence assay. At equivalent concentrations, several of the isolates, including cuminoids C-E, were more potent inhibitors than the positive control, aminoguanidine, a synthetic antiglycative agent (>50 vs 35%, respectively).
Spices form the basis of food pairing in Indian cuisine
Jain, Anupam; Bagler, Ganesh
2015-01-01
Culinary practices are influenced by climate, culture, history and geography. Molecular composition of recipes in a cuisine reveals patterns in food preferences. Indian cuisine encompasses a number of diverse sub-cuisines separated by geographies, climates and cultures. Its culinary system has a long history of health-centric dietary practices focused on disease prevention and promotion of health. We study food pairing in recipes of Indian cuisine to show that, in contrast to positive food pairing reported in some Western cuisines, Indian cuisine has a strong signature of negative food pairing; more the extent of flavor sharing between any two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence. This feature is independent of recipe size and is not explained by ingredient category-based recipe constitution alone. Ingredient frequency emerged as the dominant factor specifying the characteristic flavor sharing pattern of the cuisine. Spices, individually and as a category, form the basis of ingredient composition in Indian...
[Influence of spiced feed additives on taste of hen's eggs].
Richter, Th; Braun, P; Fehlhaber, K
2002-01-01
The effect of the spices garlic (Allium sativum), extract from garlic, sage (Salvia officinalis), caraway (Carum carvi), peppermint (Mentha piperita), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), paprika (Capsicum annuum), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and sausage-mix fed to white hybrides on the quality of eggs (n = 705) was tested by 10 qualified persons. Changes in smell or taste were partly significant; a direct improvement is hard to induce. A well seasoned taste was obtained by feeding of garlic, fennel, peppermint and marjoram. They produce an aromatic flavor. A practical application is possible but limited by higher production prices. Further, it is uncertain if there is a need for "taste-manipulated" eggs.
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Chee Kong YAP
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The intertidal gastropod, Cerithidea obtusa were obtained from Bako and Sematan (Sarawak and Deralik (Perak. Besides the shell, the snails were dissected into five different soft tissues. The soft tissues and the shell were then analysed for heavy metals. It was found that the highest concentrations of Cu (112 - 178 μg/g dw and Zn (117 - 161 μg/g dw were found in the tentacle; the highest concentrations of Cd (4.41 - 5.37 μg/g dw, Pb (53.2 - 63.8 μg/g dw and Ni (26.1 - 27.9 μg/g dw were found in the shell. On the other hand, the highest Fe concentrations (910 - 2921 μg/g dw were found in the operculum. The Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple stepwise linear regression also revealed that the allometric parameters can influence the distribution of heavy metals in some of the different parts. From the present findings indicated that the heavy metals accumulated by the C. obtusa from the environment might affect its physical growth, which was shown by the negative correlations found between the metals in the different parts with the allometric parameters.
Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts.
Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Youns, Mahmoud; Voukeng, Igor; Fankam, Aimé G; Tankeo, Simplice; Lacmata, Stephen; Efferth, Thomas
2011-04-12
Several medicinal plants and spices are used traditionally to treat cancers in Cameroon. Methanol extracts from thirty-four spices and plants, with related ethnobotanical use were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and their multidrug resistant (MDR) subline CEM/ADR5000, and the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition the anti-angiogenic properties of the most active extracts were investigated. The MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay was used for cytotoxic studies and the CAM-assay (chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay) for anti-angiogenesis test. The results of the cytotoxicity tests indicated that, when tested at 20 μg/ml, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Dorstenia psilirus and Piper capense were able to inhibit more that 50% the proliferation of the three tested cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2, CEM/ADR5000 CCRF-CEM). The lowest IC(50) values of 6.86 μg/ml on MiaPaCa-2 and 3.91 μg/ml on CCRF-CEM cells were obtained with X. aethiopica, while the corresponding value of 6.56 μg/ml was obtained with P. capense on CEM/ADR5000 cells. Against leukemia cells, no cross-resistance was observed with I. cylindrica, P. capense and Zinziber officinalis. Extracts from D. psilirus and E. giganteus were able to inhibit angiogenesis by more than 50% in quail embryo. The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some Cameroonian plants for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silvestro, F.; Gabellani, S.; Rudari, R.; Delogu, F.; Laiolo, P.; Boni, G.
2015-04-01
During the last decade the opportunity and usefulness of using remote-sensing data in hydrology, hydrometeorology and geomorphology has become even more evident and clear. Satellite-based products often allow for the advantage of observing hydrologic variables in a distributed way, offering a different view with respect to traditional observations that can help with understanding and modeling the hydrological cycle. Moreover, remote-sensing data are fundamental in scarce data environments. The use of satellite-derived digital elevation models (DEMs), which are now globally available at 30 m resolution (e.g., from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, SRTM), have become standard practice in hydrologic model implementation, but other types of satellite-derived data are still underutilized. As a consequence there is the need for developing and testing techniques that allow the opportunities given by remote-sensing data to be exploited, parameterizing hydrological models and improving their calibration. In this work, Meteosat Second Generation land-surface temperature (LST) estimates and surface soil moisture (SSM), available from European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) H-SAF, are used together with streamflow observations (S. N.) to calibrate the Continuum hydrological model that computes such state variables in a prognostic mode. The first part of the work aims at proving that satellite observations can be exploited to reduce uncertainties in parameter calibration by reducing the parameter equifinality that can become an issue in forecast mode. In the second part, four parameter estimation strategies are implemented and tested in a comparative mode: (i) a multi-objective approach that includes both satellite and ground observations which is an attempt to use different sources of data to add constraints to the parameters; (ii and iii) two approaches solely based on remotely sensed data that reproduce the case of a scarce data
Lautenschläger, T.; Feder, R.; Neumann, H.; Rice, C.; Schubert, M.; Bundesmann, C.
2016-10-01
In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E-n, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson's theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to simulations done with the Monte Carlo code SDTrimSP. Both confirm in principle the experimental findings.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. Kutlu; M. Civi
2006-01-01
@@ We study the order parameter probability distribution at the critical point for the three-dimensional spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising models on the simple cubic lattice under periodic boundary conditions.
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D. Kidmo Kaoga
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM, the energy pattern factor method (EPF, the graphical method (GM, and the empirical method (EM were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.
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Cheng-Dong Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of robust H∞ control design via the proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD control approach for a class of nonlinear distributed parameter systems modeled by semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. By using the Lyapunov direct method and the technique of integration by parts, a simple linear matrix inequality (LMI based design method of the robust H∞ P-sD controller is developed such that the closed-loop PDE system is exponentially stable with a given decay rate and a prescribed H∞ performance of disturbance attenuation. Moreover, a suboptimal H∞ controller is proposed to minimize the attenuation level for a given decay rate. The proposed method is successfully employed to address the control problem of the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN equation, and the achieved simulation results show its effectiveness.
Manning, R.; Fainberg, J.
1980-01-01
An experimental system is analyzed which is designed to determine the angular and polarization properties of low frequency radio sources from measurements made on a spinning spacecraft. The system has been optimized to provide high accuracies for sources at high as well as low elevation angles. Theoretical expressions are derived for the response of this system to a partially polarized point source. Integrations are then carried out to get the system response to a uniform circular distributed source. Data processing techniques are derived so that computer simulations can be carried out to investigate the accuracy of this technique. It is shown that using 24 measurements of a partially polarized source (with Q = U = V = 0.5), taken in one spacecraft rotation, the resulting rms errors in angular position are less than one degree and the errors in determining the Stokes parameters are generally 1-10% for a wide range of source elevations.
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Sibanarayan Rath
2014-09-01
Conclusion: The most effective and unique 16 spice plants recorded for the in vitro control of MDR uropathogens could further be pursued for the development of complementary and supplementary medicine against MDR bacteria.
Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)
2014-09-03
Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.
Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)
Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan
2014-09-01
Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.
Keymeulen, D.; Klimeck, G.; Zebulum, R.; Stoica, A.; Jin, Y.; Lazaro, C.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the EHW development system, a tool that performs the evolutionary synthesis of electronic circuits, using the SPICE simulator and the Field Programmable Transistor Array hardware (FPTA) developed at JPL.
Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.
Srinivasan, K
2005-09-01
Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.
Marketing Of Local Spices In Owerri Municipal Of Imo State, Nigeria ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2007) > ... Data for the study were collected from three markets in Owerri municipal (Ekeonunwa, Relief and New market). ... spices traders, purchase and sales transactions, marketing cost and marketing margins, ...
Crosby, N.; Vilmer, N.; Lund, N.; Sunyaev, R.
1998-06-01
Solar flare observations in the deka-keV range are performed by the WATCH experiment on board the GRANAT satellite. The WATCH experiment is presented, including the energy calibration as applied in the present work. The creation of the solar burst catalogue covering two years of observation is described and some examples of solar observations are given. The estimated energy releases in the flares presented here are found to extend below the range of hard X-ray flares which were previously studied by ISEE-3 and HXRBS/SMM detectors. The X-ray emitting component cannot be exclusively explained by contributions from a thermal plasma around a few keV. Either a hotter component or a non-thermal population of particles must also be present to produce the observed deka-keV emission. The WATCH data furthermore shows that the relative contributions of these components may change during an event or from event to event and that the injection of energy contained in suprathermal electrons may occur throughout an event and not only during the rise phase. For the most energetic WATCH flares simultaneous observations performed by other experiments at higher energies further indicate that non-thermal emission can be observed as low as 10 keV. A statistical study is performed on the total WATCH solar database and frequency distributions are built on measured X-ray flare parameters. It is also investigated how the properties of these frequency distributions behave when subgroups of events defined by different ranges of parameters are considered. No correlation is found between the elapsed time interval between successive flares arising from the same active region and the peak intensity of the flare.
Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.
2012-12-01
The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.