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Sample records for distributed consensus averaging

  1. Event-Triggered Distributed Average Consensus Over Directed Digital Networks With Limited Communication Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Huang, Tingwen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Lan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the event-triggered distributed average-consensus of discrete-time first-order multiagent systems with limited communication data rate and general directed network topology. In the framework of digital communication network, each agent has a real-valued state but can only exchange finite-bit binary symbolic data sequence with its neighborhood agents at each time step due to the digital communication channels with energy constraints. Novel event-triggered dynamic encoder and decoder for each agent are designed, based on which a distributed control algorithm is proposed. A scheme that selects the number of channel quantization level (number of bits) at each time step is developed, under which all the quantizers in the network are never saturated. The convergence rate of consensus is explicitly characterized, which is related to the scale of network, the maximum degree of nodes, the network structure, the scaling function, the quantization interval, the initial states of agents, the control gain and the event gain. It is also found that under the designed event-triggered protocol, by selecting suitable parameters, for any directed digital network containing a spanning tree, the distributed average consensus can be always achieved with an exponential convergence rate based on merely one bit information exchange between each pair of adjacent agents at each time step. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of presented protocol and the correctness of the theoretical results.

  2. Analysis of Known Linear Distributed Average Consensus Algorithms on Cycles and Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare six known linear distributed average consensus algorithms on a sensor network in terms of convergence time (and therefore, in terms of the number of transmissions required. The selected network topologies for the analysis (comparison are the cycle and the path. Specifically, in the present paper, we compute closed-form expressions for the convergence time of four known deterministic algorithms and closed-form bounds for the convergence time of two known randomized algorithms on cycles and paths. Moreover, we also compute a closed-form expression for the convergence time of the fastest deterministic algorithm considered on grids.

  3. Accelerating distributed average consensus by exploring the information of second-order neighbors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Deming [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Xu Shengyuan, E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.c [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Zhao Huanyu [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China); Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)

    2010-05-17

    The problem of accelerating distributed average consensus by using the information of second-order neighbors in both the discrete- and continuous-time cases is addressed in this Letter. In both two cases, when the information of second-order neighbors is used in each iteration, the network will converge with a speed faster than the algorithm only using the information of first-order neighbors. Moreover, the problem of using partial information of second-order neighbors is considered, and the edges are not chosen randomly from second-order neighbors. In the continuous-time case, the edges are chosen by solving a convex optimization problem which is formed by using the convex relaxation method. In the discrete-time case, for small network the edges are chosen optimally via the brute force method. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

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    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  5. Quantized Average Consensus on Gossip Digraphs with Reduced Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Ishii, Hideaki

    The authors have recently proposed a class of randomized gossip algorithms which solve the distributed averaging problem on directed graphs, with the constraint that each node has an integer-valued state. The essence of this algorithm is to maintain local records, called “surplus”, of individual state updates, thereby achieving quantized average consensus even though the state sum of all nodes is not preserved. In this paper we study a modified version of this algorithm, whose feature is primarily in reducing both computation and communication effort. Concretely, each node needs to update fewer local variables, and can transmit surplus by requiring only one bit. Under this modified algorithm we prove that reaching the average is ensured for arbitrary strongly connected graphs. The condition of arbitrary strong connection is less restrictive than those known in the literature for either real-valued or quantized states; in particular, it does not require the special structure on the network called balanced. Finally, we provide numerical examples to illustrate the convergence result, with emphasis on convergence time analysis.

  6. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

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    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  7. Average consensus and gossip algorithms in networks with stochastic asymmetric communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Silvestre, D.; Silvestre, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We consider that a set of distributed agents desire to reach consensus on the average of their initial state values, while communicating with neighboring agents through a shared medium. This communication medium allows only one agent to transmit unidirectionally at a given time, which is true, e.g.,

  8. A Decentralized Eigenvalue Computation Method for Spectrum Sensing Based on Average Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jafar; Limmer, Steffen; Stańczak, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers eigenvalue estimation for the decentralized inference problem for spectrum sensing. We propose a decentralized eigenvalue computation algorithm based on the power method, which is referred to as generalized power method GPM; it is capable of estimating the eigenvalues of a given covariance matrix under certain conditions. Furthermore, we have developed a decentralized implementation of GPM by splitting the iterative operations into local and global computation tasks. The global tasks require data exchange to be performed among the nodes. For this task, we apply an average consensus algorithm to efficiently perform the global computations. As a special case, we consider a structured graph that is a tree with clusters of nodes at its leaves. For an accelerated distributed implementation, we propose to use computation over multiple access channel (CoMAC) as a building block of the algorithm. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the performance of the two algorithms.

  9. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  10. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  11. Distributed consensus and fault tolerance - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a world where clusters with thousands of nodes are becoming commonplace, we are often faced with the task of having them coordinate and share state. As the number of machines goes up, so does the probability that something goes wrong: a node could temporarily lose connectivity, crash because of some race condition, or have its hard drive fail. What are the challenges when designing fault-tolerant distributed systems, where a cluster is able to survive the loss of individual nodes? In this lecture, we will discuss some basics on this topic (consistency models, CAP theorem, failure modes, byzantine faults), detail the raft consensus algorithm, and showcase an interesting example of a highly resilient distributed system, bitcoin.

  12. Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t,  t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

  13. Consensus in averager-copier-voter networks of moving dynamical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with a hybrid opinion dynamics comprising averager, copier, and voter agents, which ramble as random walkers on a spatial network. Agents exchange information following some deterministic and stochastic protocols if they reside at the same site in the same time. Based on stochastic stability of Markov chains, sufficient conditions guaranteeing consensus in the sense of almost sure convergence have been obtained. The ultimate consensus state is identified in the form of an ergodicity result. Simulation studies are performed to validate the effectiveness and availability of our theoretical results. The existence/non-existence of voters and the proportion of them are unveiled to play key roles during the consensus-reaching process.

  14. A simple consensus algorithm for distributed averaging in random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Random geographical networks are realistic models for wireless sensor ... work are cheap, unreliable, with limited computational power and limited .... signal xj from node j, j does not need to transmit its degree to i in order to let i compute.

  15. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

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    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many water quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes are considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts are taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. All calculations are carried out by using the expertise software called Group Fuzzy Decision Making (GFDM. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, are related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that is drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks are consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement from the decision making group. This study indicates that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and

  16. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi-Criteria Decision- Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes were considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts were taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, were related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that was drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks were consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement with the decision-making group. This study indicated that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and approaches. Moreover, using the FOWA model provides results accurate and closer- to-reality on the significance of

  17. Distributed Estimation using Bayesian Consensus Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    Convergence rate analysis of distributed gossip (linear parameter) estimation: Fundamental limits and tradeoffs,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process...Dimakis, S. Kar, J. Moura, M. Rabbat, and A. Scaglione, “ Gossip algorithms for distributed signal processing,” Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 11, pp

  18. Stationary average consensus protocol for a class of heterogeneous high-order multi-agent systems with application for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad Hadi; Menhaj, Mohammad Bagher

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the stationary average consensus problem for a class of heterogeneous-order multi-agent systems. The goal is to bring the positions of agents to the average of their initial positions while letting the other states converge to zero. To this end, three different consensus protocols are proposed. First, based on the auxiliary variables information among the agents under switching directed networks and state-feedback control, a protocol is proposed whereby all the agents achieve stationary average consensus. In the second and third protocols, by resorting to only measurements of relative positions of neighbouring agents under fixed balanced directed networks, two control frameworks are presented with two strategies based on state-feedback and output-feedback control. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed protocols.

  19. Analysis of Distributed Consensus Time Synchronization with Gaussian Delay over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Gang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical results on the convergence of the distributed consensus timing synchronization (DCTS algorithm for wireless sensor networks assuming general Gaussian delay between nodes. The asymptotic expectation and mean square of the global synchronization error are computed. The results lead to the definition of a time delay balanced network in which average timing consensus between nodes can be achieved despite random delays. Several structured network architectures are studied as examples, and their associated simulation results are used to validate analytical findings.

  20. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Multiagent Systems With Input Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaipin; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Songlin; Dou, Chunxia; Huaipin Zhang; Dong Yue; Wei Zhao; Songlin Hu; Chunxia Dou; Hu, Songlin; Zhang, Huaipin; Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Zhao, Wei

    2018-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distributed optimal consensus control for a continuous-time heterogeneous linear multiagent system subject to time varying input delays. First, by discretization and model transformation, the continuous-time input-delayed system is converted into a discrete-time delay-free system. Two delicate performance index functions are defined for these two systems. It is shown that the performance index functions are equivalent and the optimal consensus control problem of the input-delayed system can be cast into that of the delay-free system. Second, by virtue of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations, an optimal control policy for each agent is designed based on the delay-free system and a novel value iteration algorithm is proposed to learn the solutions to the HJB equations online. The proposed adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is implemented on the basis of a critic-action neural network (NN) structure. Third, it is proved that local consensus errors of the two systems and weight estimation errors of the critic-action NNs are uniformly ultimately bounded while the approximated control policies converge to their target values. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed method.

  1. Distributed consensus with visual perception in multi-robot systems

    CERN Document Server

    Montijano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This monograph introduces novel responses to the different problems that arise when multiple robots need to execute a task in cooperation, each robot in the team having a monocular camera as its primary input sensor. Its central proposition is that a consistent perception of the world is crucial for the good development of any multi-robot application. The text focuses on the high-level problem of cooperative perception by a multi-robot system: the idea that, depending on what each robot sees and its current situation, it will need to communicate these things to its fellows whenever possible to share what it has found and keep updated by them in its turn. However, in any realistic scenario, distributed solutions to this problem are not trivial and need to be addressed from as many angles as possible. Distributed Consensus with Visual Perception in Multi-Robot Systems covers a variety of related topics such as: ·         distributed consensus algorithms; ·         data association and robustne...

  2. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  3. Accelerated Distributed Dual Averaging Over Evolving Networks of Growing Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the problem of accelerating distributed optimization in multi-agent networks by sequentially adding edges. Specifically, we extend the distributed dual averaging (DDA) subgradient algorithm to evolving networks of growing connectivity and analyze the corresponding improvement in convergence rate. It is known that the convergence rate of DDA is influenced by the algebraic connectivity of the underlying network, where better connectivity leads to faster convergence. However, the impact of network topology design on the convergence rate of DDA has not been fully understood. In this paper, we begin by designing network topologies via edge selection and scheduling. For edge selection, we determine the best set of candidate edges that achieves the optimal tradeoff between the growth of network connectivity and the usage of network resources. The dynamics of network evolution is then incurred by edge scheduling. Further, we provide a tractable approach to analyze the improvement in the convergence rate of DDA induced by the growth of network connectivity. Our analysis reveals the connection between network topology design and the convergence rate of DDA, and provides quantitative evaluation of DDA acceleration for distributed optimization that is absent in the existing analysis. Lastly, numerical experiments show that DDA can be significantly accelerated using a sequence of well-designed networks, and our theoretical predictions are well matched to its empirical convergence behavior.

  4. Dynamic Consensus Algorithm based Distributed Voltage Harmonic Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    generators can be employed as compensators to enhance the power quality on consumer side. However, conventional centralized control is facing obstacles because of the distributed fashion of generation and consumption. Accordingly, this paper proposes a consensus algorithm based distributed hierarchical...

  5. Distributed Data-aggregation Consensus for Sensor Networks: Relaxation of Consensus Concept and Convergence Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    consensus algorithm called randomized gossip is more suitable [7, 8]. In asynchronous randomized gossip algorithms, pairs of neighboring nodes exchange...messages and perform updates in an asynchronous and unattended manner, and they also 1 The class of broadcast gossip algorithms [9, 10, 11, 12] are...dynamics [2] and asynchronous pairwise randomized gossip [7, 8], broadcast gossip algorithms do not require that nodes know the identities of their

  6. Fault-Tolerant Consensus of Multi-Agent System With Distributed Adaptive Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Lulu; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects and the uncertainty effects in the leaderless multi-agent system. Based on the local state information of neighboring agents, a distributed updating protocol gain is developed which leads to a fully distributed continuous adaptive fault-tolerant consensus protocol design for the leaderless multi-agent system. Furthermore, a distributed fault-tolerant leader-follower consensus protocol for multi-agent system is constructed by the proposed adaptive method. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  7. Dynamic Consensus Algorithm based Distributed Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Zhao, Xin; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    In islanded microgrids (MG), distributed generators (DG) can be employed as distributed compensators for improving the power quality (voltage unbalance and harmonics) in consumer side. Hierarchical control is usually applied with different control levels differentiated. In case of voltage unbalance...

  8. Average radiation weighting factors for specific distributed neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M.; Raicevic, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrum averaged radiation weighting factors for 6 specific neutron fields in the environment of 3 categories of the neutron sources (fission, spontaneous fission and (α,n)) are determined in this paper. Obtained values of these factors are greater 1.5 to 2 times than the corresponding quality factors used for the same purpose until a few years ago. This fact is very important to have in mind in the conversion of the neutron fluence into the neutron dose equivalent. (author)

  9. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  10. Distributed Position-Based Consensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Continuous/Intermittent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Liu, Fang; Wen, Guanghui; Cao, Jinde; Yang, Xinsong

    2017-04-24

    This paper considers the position-based consensus in a network of agents with double-integrator dynamics and directed topology. Two types of distributed observer algorithms are proposed to solve the consensus problem by utilizing continuous and intermittent position measurements, respectively, where each observer does not interact with any other observers. For the case of continuous communication between network agents, some convergence conditions are derived for reaching consensus in the network with a single constant delay or multiple time-varying delays on the basis of the eigenvalue analysis and the descriptor method. When the network agents can only obtain intermittent position data from local neighbors at discrete time instants, the consensus in the network without time delay or with nonuniform delays is investigated by using the Wirtinger's inequality and the delayed-input approach. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  11. Distributed Consensus-Based Robust Adaptive Formation Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Partial Known Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distributed consensus-based robust adaptive formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots with partially known dynamics. Firstly, multirobot formation control problem has been converted into a state consensus problem. Secondly, the practical control strategies, which incorporate the distributed kinematic controllers and the robust adaptive torque controllers, are designed for solving the formation control problem. Thirdly, the specified reference trajectory for the geometric centroid of the formation is assumed as the trajectory of a virtual leader, whose information is available to only a subset of the followers. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches.

  12. Performance Analysis of the Consensus-Based Distributed LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost estimation of stationary signals and reduced-complexity tracking of nonstationary processes are well motivated tasks than can be accomplished using ad hoc wireless sensor networks (WSNs. To this end, a fully distributed least mean-square (D-LMS algorithm is developed in this paper, in which sensors exchange messages with single-hop neighbors to consent on the network-wide estimates adaptively. The novel approach does not require a Hamiltonian cycle or a special bridge subset of sensors, while communications among sensors are allowed to be noisy. A mean-square error (MSE performance analysis of D-LMS is conducted in the presence of a time-varying parameter vector, which adheres to a first-order autoregressive model. For sensor observations that are related to the parameter vector of interest via a linear Gaussian model and after adopting simplifying independence assumptions, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the global and sensor-level MSE evolution as well as its steady-state (s.s. values. Mean and MSE-sense stability of D-LMS are also established. Interestingly, extensive numerical tests demonstrate that for small step-sizes the results accurately extend to the pragmatic setting whereby sensors acquire temporally correlated, not necessarily Gaussian data.

  13. Distributed Leader-Following Finite-Time Consensus Control for Linear Multiagent Systems under Switching Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaole; Chen, Shengyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the finite-time consensus problem of leader-following multiagent systems. The dynamical models for all following agents and the leader are assumed the same general form of linear system, and the interconnection topology among the agents is assumed to be switching and undirected. We mostly consider the continuous-time case. By assuming that the states of neighbouring agents are known to each agent, a sufficient condition is established for finite-time consensus via a neighbor-based state feedback protocol. While the states of neighbouring agents cannot be available and only the outputs of neighbouring agents can be accessed, the distributed observer-based consensus protocol is proposed for each following agent. A sufficient condition is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities to design the observer-based consensus protocol, which makes the multiagent systems achieve finite-time consensus under switching topologies. Then, we discuss the counterparts for discrete-time case. Finally, we provide an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of the design approach. PMID:24883367

  14. Modeling and Sensitivity Study of Consensus Algorithm-Based Distributed Hierarchical Control for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Roldan Perez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes a challen......Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes...... in the communication network, continuous-time methods can be inaccurate for this kind of dynamic study. Therefore, this paper aims at modeling a complete DC MG using a discrete-time approach in order to perform a sensitivity analysis taking into account the effects of the consensus algorithm. To this end......, a generalized modeling method is proposed and the influence of key control parameters, the communication topology and the communication speed are studied in detail. The theoretical results obtained with the proposed model are verified by comparing them with the results obtained with a detailed switching...

  15. Distributed adaptive asymptotically consensus tracking control of uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wen, Changyun; Huang, Jiangshuai; Fan, Huijin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a backstepping based distributed adaptive control scheme is proposed for multiple uncertain Euler-Lagrange systems under directed graph condition. The common desired trajectory is allowed totally unknown by part of the subsystems and the linearly parameterized trajectory model assumed in currently available results is no longer needed. To compensate the effects due to unknown trajectory information, a smooth function of consensus errors and certain positive integrable functions are introduced in designing virtual control inputs. Besides, to overcome the difficulty of completely counteracting the coupling terms of distributed consensus errors and parameter estimation errors in the presence of asymmetric Laplacian matrix, extra information transmission of local parameter estimates are introduced among linked subsystem and adaptive gain technique is adopted to generate distributed torque inputs. It is shown that with the proposed distributed adaptive control scheme, global uniform boundedness of all the closed-loop signals and asymptotically output consensus tracking can be achieved. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  17. Distributed Consensus of Stochastic Delayed Multi-agent Systems Under Asynchronous Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaotai; Tang, Yang; Cao, Jinde; Zhang, Wenbing

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the distributed exponential consensus of stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics is investigated under asynchronous switching. The asynchronous switching considered here is to account for the time of identifying the active modes of multi-agent systems. After receipt of confirmation of mode's switching, the matched controller can be applied, which means that the switching time of the matched controller in each node usually lags behind that of system switching. In order to handle the coexistence of switched signals and stochastic disturbances, a comparison principle of stochastic switched delayed systems is first proved. By means of this extended comparison principle, several easy to verified conditions for the existence of an asynchronously switched distributed controller are derived such that stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with asynchronous switching and nonlinear dynamics can achieve global exponential consensus. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Distributed control for energy-efficient and fast consensus in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Sabato; Tucci, Edmondo Di

    2017-05-01

    The paper proposes a distributed control of nodes transmission radii in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks for simultaneously coping with energy consumption and consensus responsiveness requirement. The stability of the closed-loop network under the proposed control law is proved. Simulation validations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in nominal scenario as well as in the presence of uncertain node power requirements and harvesting system supply.

  19. Distributed Consensus Tracking for Second-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems with a Specified Reference State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoguang Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly addresses the distributed consensus tracking problem for second-order nonlinear multiagent systems with a specified reference trajectory. The dynamics of each follower consists of two terms: nonlinear inherent dynamics and a simple communication protocol relying only on the position and velocity information of its neighbors. The consensus reference is taken as a virtual leader, whose output is only its position and velocity information that is available to only a subset of a group of followers. To achieve consensus tracking, a class of nonsmooth control protocols is proposed which reply on the relative information among the neighboring agents. Then some corresponding sufficient conditions are derived. It is shown that if the communication graph associated with the virtual leader and followers is connected at each time instant, the consensus can be achieved at least globally exponentially with the proposed protocol. Rigorous proofs are given by using graph theory, matrix theory, and Lyapunov theory. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  20. A Multiagent-based Consensus Algorithm for Distributed Coordinated Control of Distributed Generators in the Energy Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Han, Renke; Zhang, Huaguang

    2015-01-01

    With the bidirectional power flow provided by the Energy Internet, various methods are promoted to improve and increase the energy utilization between Energy Internet and Main-Grid. This paper proposes a novel distributed coordinated controller combined with a multi-agent-based consensus algorithm...... which is applied to distributed generators in the Energy Internet. Then, the decomposed tasks, models, and information flow of the proposed method are analyzed. The proposed coordinated controller installed between the Energy Internet and the Main-Grid keeps voltage angles and amplitudes consensus while...... providing accurate power-sharing and minimizing circulating currents. Finally, the Energy Internet can be integrated into the Main-Grid seamlessly if necessary. Hence the Energy Internet can be operated as a spinning reserve system. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed...

  1. Pull-Based Distributed Event-Triggered Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Directed Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinlei; Lu, Wenlian; Chen, Tianping

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates consensus problem with a pull-based event-triggered feedback control. For each agent, the diffusion coupling feedbacks are based on the states of its in-neighbors at its latest triggering time, and the next triggering time of this agent is determined by its in-neighbors' information. The general directed topologies, including irreducible and reducible cases, are investigated. The scenario of distributed continuous communication is considered first. It is proved that if the network topology has a spanning tree, then the event-triggered coupling algorithm can realize the consensus for the multiagent system. Then, the results are extended to discontinuous communication, i.e., self-triggered control, where each agent computes its next triggering time in advance without having to observe the system's states continuously. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is illustrated by a numerical example finally.

  2. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Mi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS.

  3. Distributed event-triggered consensus tracking of second-order multi-agent systems with a virtual leader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jie; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the consensus tracking problems of second-order multi-agent systems with a virtual leader via event-triggered control. A novel distributed event-triggered transmission scheme is proposed, which is intermittently examined at constant sampling instants. Only partial neighbor information and local measurements are required for event detection. Then the corresponding event-triggered consensus tracking protocol is presented to guarantee second-order multi-agent systems to achieve consensus tracking. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. (paper)

  4. Stochastic Growth Theory of Spatially-Averaged Distributions of Langmuir Fields in Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Christopher R.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir-like waves in the foreshock of Earth are characteristically bursty and irregular, and are the subject of a number of recent studies. Averaged over the foreshock, it is observed that the probability distribution is power-law P(bar)(log E) in the wave field E with the bar denoting this averaging over position, In this paper it is shown that stochastic growth theory (SGT) can explain a power-law spatially-averaged distributions P(bar)(log E), when the observed power-law variations of the mean and standard deviation of log E with position are combined with the log normal statistics predicted by SGT at each location.

  5. Multiagent-based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control is proposed for DC microgrid to minimize the operation cost. The power of each distributed generator (DG) is dispatched in a distributed manner in a multiagent system by means of voltage scheduling. Every DG unit is taken as an agent......, and they share the load corresponding to the operation cost of all the units in the system with only communication with direct neighbors through incremental cost consensus. The power regulation according to the power reference generated by consensus is implemented through voltage scheduling in local primary...... controllers. Simulation verification shows that total operation cost of the DC microgrid is successfully reduced though the proposed method....

  6. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multiagent System With Unknown Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the distributed optimal cooperative control for continuous-time nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with completely unknown dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology. By introducing predesigned extra compensators, the augmented neighborhood error systems are derived, which successfully circumvents the system knowledge requirement for ADP. It is revealed that the optimal consensus protocols actually work as the solutions of the MAS differential game. Policy iteration algorithm is adopted, and it is theoretically proved that the iterative value function sequence strictly converges to the solution of the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Based on this point, a novel online iterative scheme is proposed, which runs based on the data sampled from the augmented system and the gradient of the value function. Neural networks are employed to implement the algorithm and the weights are updated, in the least-square sense, to the ideal value, which yields approximated optimal consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Prediction of monthly average global solar radiation based on statistical distribution of clearness index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, T.R.; Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, probability distribution of clearness index is proposed for the prediction of global solar radiation. First, the clearness index is obtained from the past data of global solar radiation, then, the parameters of the appropriate distribution that best fit the clearness index are determined. The global solar radiation is thereafter predicted from the clearness index using inverse transformation of the cumulative distribution function. To validate the proposed method, eight years global solar radiation data (2000–2007) of Ibadan, Nigeria are used to determine the parameters of appropriate probability distribution for clearness index. The calculated parameters are then used to predict the future monthly average global solar radiation for the following year (2008). The predicted values are compared with the measured values using four statistical tests: the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), MAE (Mean Absolute Error), MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) and the coefficient of determination (R"2). The proposed method is also compared to the existing regression models. The results show that logistic distribution provides the best fit for clearness index of Ibadan and the proposed method is effective in predicting the monthly average global solar radiation with overall RMSE of 0.383 MJ/m"2/day, MAE of 0.295 MJ/m"2/day, MAPE of 2% and R"2 of 0.967. - Highlights: • Distribution of clearnes index is proposed for prediction of global solar radiation. • The clearness index is obtained from the past data of global solar radiation. • The parameters of distribution that best fit the clearness index are determined. • Solar radiation is predicted from the clearness index using inverse transformation. • The method is effective in predicting the monthly average global solar radiation.

  8. Percentiles of the run-length distribution of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) median chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. L.; Chong, Z. L.; Khoo, M. B. C.; Teoh, W. L.; Teh, S. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Quality control is crucial in a wide variety of fields, as it can help to satisfy customers’ needs and requirements by enhancing and improving the products and services to a superior quality level. The EWMA median chart was proposed as a useful alternative to the EWMA \\bar{X} chart because the median-type chart is robust against contamination, outliers or small deviation from the normality assumption compared to the traditional \\bar{X}-type chart. To provide a complete understanding of the run-length distribution, the percentiles of the run-length distribution should be investigated rather than depending solely on the average run length (ARL) performance measure. This is because interpretation depending on the ARL alone can be misleading, as the process mean shifts change according to the skewness and shape of the run-length distribution, varying from almost symmetric when the magnitude of the mean shift is large, to highly right-skewed when the process is in-control (IC) or slightly out-of-control (OOC). Before computing the percentiles of the run-length distribution, optimal parameters of the EWMA median chart will be obtained by minimizing the OOC ARL, while retaining the IC ARL at a desired value.

  9. Autoregressive moving average fitting for real standard deviation in Monte Carlo power distribution calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Taro

    2010-01-01

    The noise propagation of tallies in the Monte Carlo power method can be represented by the autoregressive moving average process of orders p and p-1 (ARMA(p,p-1)], where p is an integer larger than or equal to two. The formula of the autocorrelation of ARMA(p,q), p≥q+1, indicates that ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to lumping the eigenmodes of fluctuation propagation in three modes such as the slow, intermediate and fast attenuation modes. Therefore, ARMA(3,2) fitting was applied to the real standard deviation estimation of fuel assemblies at particular heights. The numerical results show that straightforward ARMA(3,2) fitting is promising but a stability issue must be resolved toward the incorporation in the distributed version of production Monte Carlo codes. The same numerical results reveal that the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting is equivalent to that of the batch method in MCNP with a batch size larger than one hundred and smaller than two hundred cycles for a 1100 MWe pressurized water reactor. The bias correction of low lag autocovariances in MVP/GMVP is demonstrated to have the potential of improving the average performance of ARMA(3,2) fitting. (author)

  10. Distributed MPC based consensus for single-integrator multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaomeng; Fan, Ming-Can; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses model predictive control schemes for consensus in multi-agent systems (MASs) with discrete-time single-integrator dynamics under switching directed interaction graphs. The control horizon is extended to be greater than one which endows the closed-loop system with extra degree of freedom. We derive sufficient conditions on the sampling period and the interaction graph to achieve consensus by using the property of infinite products of stochastic matrices. Consensus can be achieved asymptotically if the sampling period is selected such that the interaction graph among agents has a directed spanning tree jointly. Significantly, if the interaction graph always has a spanning tree, one can select an arbitrary large sampling period to guarantee consensus. Finally, several simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Velocity Distribution in Open Channel Flows Based on Conditional Average of Turbulent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a new analytical model similar to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to determine the distribution of streamwise velocity by considering the bursting phenomenon. It is found that, in two-dimensional (2D flows, the underlying mechanism of the wake law in 2D uniform flow is actually a result of up/down events. A special experiment was conducted to examine the newly derived analytical model, and good agreement is achieved between the experimental data in the inner region and the model’s prediction. The obtained experimental data were also used to examine the DML-Law (dip-modified-log-law, MLW-Law (modified-log-wake law, and CML-Law (Cole’s wake law, and the agreement is not very satisfactory in the outer region.

  12. Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow

  13. Dynamic stall characterization using modal analysis of phase-averaged pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Tanner; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Naughton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic stall characterization by means of surface pressure measurements can simplify the time and cost associated with experimental investigation of unsteady airfoil aerodynamics. A unique test capability has been developed at University of Wyoming over the past few years that allows for time and cost efficient measurement of dynamic stall. A variety of rotorcraft and wind turbine airfoils have been tested under a variety of pitch oscillation conditions resulting in a range of dynamic stall behavior. Formation, development and separation of different flow structures are responsible for the complex aerodynamic loading behavior experienced during dynamic stall. These structures have unique signatures on the pressure distribution over the airfoil. This work investigates the statistical behavior of phase-averaged pressure distribution for different types of dynamic stall by means of modal analysis. The use of different modes to identify specific flow structures is being investigated. The use of these modes for different types of dynamic stall can provide a new approach for understanding and categorizing these flows. This work uses airfoil data acquired under Army contract W911W60160C-0021, DOE Grant DE-SC0001261, and a gift from BP Alternative Energy North America, Inc.

  14. Distributed k-Means Algorithm and Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Sensor Networks Based on Multiagent Consensus Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Fu, Weiming; Gao, Huijun; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-03-03

    This paper is concerned with developing a distributed k-means algorithm and a distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where each node is equipped with sensors. The underlying topology of the WSN is supposed to be strongly connected. The consensus algorithm in multiagent consensus theory is utilized to exchange the measurement information of the sensors in WSN. To obtain a faster convergence speed as well as a higher possibility of having the global optimum, a distributed k-means++ algorithm is first proposed to find the initial centroids before executing the distributed k-means algorithm and the distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm. The proposed distributed k-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into measure-dependent groups which have small in-group and large out-group distances, while the proposed distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into different measure-dependent groups with degrees of membership values ranging from 0 to 1. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms can achieve almost the same results as that given by the centralized clustering algorithms.

  15. Multi-target consensus circle pursuit for multi-agent systems via a distributed multi-flocking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Huiqin; Chen, Shiming; Lai, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the multi-target consensus pursuit problem of multi-agent systems. For solving the problem, a distributed multi-flocking method is designed based on the partial information exchange, which is employed to realise the pursuit of multi-target and the uniform distribution of the number of pursuing agents with the dynamic target. Combining with the proposed circle formation control strategy, agents can adaptively choose the target to form the different circle formation groups accomplishing a multi-target pursuit. The speed state of pursuing agents in each group converges to the same value. A Lyapunov approach is utilised to analyse the stability of multi-agent systems. In addition, a sufficient condition is given for achieving the dynamic target consensus pursuit, and which is then analysed. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  16. AVERAGE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAYS BEHIND THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK—GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C. [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Kuwabara, T. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S. [National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 12227-010 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, N. J. [Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/INPE), P.O. Box 5021, 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M. [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969 Safat, 13060 (Kuwait); Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Sabbah, I. [Department of Natural Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Public Authority of Applied Education and Training, Kuwait City 72853 (Kuwait); Tokumaru, M., E-mail: 13st303f@shinshu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kmuna00@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east–west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ∼60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ∼10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic- y component of the density gradient, G {sub y}, shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G {sub z} shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G {sub z} changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  17. AVERAGE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COSMIC RAYS BEHIND THE INTERPLANETARY SHOCK—GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.; Tokumaru, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east–west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ∼60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ∼10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic- y component of the density gradient, G y , shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G z shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G z changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  18. Average spatial distributions of energetic particles in the midaltitude cusp/cleft region observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremser, G.; Lundin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The cusp/cleft region provides an entrance for magnetosheath particles into the magnetosphere and a sink for magnetospheric particles. In addition, strong acceleration and/or scattering of particles takes place. The Swedish satellite Viking crossed this region at midaltitudes. Measurements from this spacecraft were used to determine the average spatial distributions of H + and He ++ ions in the energy/charge range 2 keV/e ≤ E/Q ≤ 60 keV/e and of electrons with 7 keV ≤ E ≤ 97 keV. The data supply information on the structure of the midaltitude cusp/cleft region, the particle sources, and dynamical processes. Four different parts can be distinguished: (1) The cusp extends from about 76 degree to 82 degree invariant latitude (INL) and from 0800 to 1400 MLT. It is characterized by the presence of magnetosheath origin particles and important electron acceleration signatures. (2) A smaller region inside the cusp (77 degree-82 degree INL, 1000-1330 MLT) contains magnetosheath origin ions without electron acceleration. This is regarded as the cusp proper connected to the exterior cusp. (3) Poleward of the cusp magnetosheath origin ions are still present, but no magnetosheath electrons. This region is related to the plasma mantle. (4) Another region without magnetosheath origin ions but with strong electron acceleration extends equatorward of the cusp and probably constitutes part of the cleft, likely to be connected to the low-altitude boundary layer

  19. Developing a Distributed Consensus-Based Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System for Heterogeneous Vehicles with Predecessor Following Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziran Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected and automated vehicle (CAV has become an increasingly popular topic recently. As an application, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems are of high interest, allowing CAVs to communicate with each other and coordinating their maneuvers to form platoons, where one vehicle follows another with a constant velocity and/or time headway. In this study, we propose a novel CACC system, where distributed consensus algorithm and protocol are designed for platoon formation, merging maneuvers, and splitting maneuvers. Predecessor following information flow topology is adopted for the system, where each vehicle only communicates with its following vehicle to reach consensus of the whole platoon, making the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication fast and accurate. Moreover, different from most studies assuming the type and dynamics of all the vehicles in a platoon to be homogenous, we take into account the length, location of GPS antenna on vehicle, and braking performance of different vehicles. A simulation study has been conducted under scenarios including normal platoon formation, platoon restoration from disturbances, and merging and splitting maneuvers. We have also carried out a sensitivity analysis on the distributed consensus algorithm, investigating the effect of the damping gain on convergence rate, driving comfort, and driving safety of the system.

  20. Minimal-Approximation-Based Distributed Consensus Tracking of a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Control Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2017-03-28

    A minimal-approximation-based distributed adaptive consensus tracking approach is presented for strict-feedback multiagent systems with unknown heterogeneous nonlinearities and control directions under a directed network. Existing approximation-based consensus results for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems in lower-triangular form have used multiple function approximators in each local controller to approximate unmatched nonlinearities of each follower. Thus, as the follower's order increases, the number of the approximators used in its local controller increases. However, the proposed approach employs only one function approximator to construct the local controller of each follower regardless of the order of the follower. The recursive design methodology using a new error transformation is derived for the proposed minimal-approximation-based design. Furthermore, a bounding lemma on parameters of Nussbaum functions is presented to handle the unknown control direction problem in the minimal-approximation-based distributed consensus tracking framework and the stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously analyzed in the Lyapunov sense.

  1. Health expenditure growth: looking beyond the average through decomposition of the full distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meijer, Claudine; O'Donnell, Owen; Koopmanschap, Marc; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Explanations of growth in health expenditures have restricted attention to the mean. We explain change throughout the distribution of expenditures, providing insight into how expenditure growth and its explanation differ along the distribution. We analyse Dutch data on actual health expenditures linked to hospital discharge and mortality registers. Full distribution decomposition delivers findings that would be overlooked by examination of changes in the mean alone. The growth rate of hospital expenditures is greatest at the middle of the distribution and is driven mainly by changes in the distributions of determinants. Pharmaceutical expenditures increase most rapidly at the top of the distribution and are mainly attributable to structural changes, including technological progress, making treatment of the highest cost cases even more expensive. Changes in hospital practice styles make the largest contribution of all determinants to increased spending not only on hospital care but also on pharmaceuticals, suggesting important spill over effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Expenditure Growth: Looking beyond the Average through Decomposition of the Full Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. de Meijer (Claudine); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExplanations of growth in health expenditures have restricted attention to the mean. We explain change throughout the distribution of expenditures, providing insight into how growth and its explanation differ along the distribution. We analyse Dutch data on actual health expenditures

  3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE AVERAGE RUNOFF IN THE IZA AND VIȘEU WATERSHEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORVÁTH CS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The average runoff represents the main parameter with which one can best evaluate an area’s water resources and it is also an important characteristic in al river runoff research. In this paper we choose a GIS methodology for assessing the spatial evolution of the average runoff, using validity curves we identifies three validity areas in which the runoff changes differently with altitude. The tree curves were charted using the average runoff values of 16 hydrometric stations from the area, eight in the Vișeu and eight in the Iza river catchment. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on altitudinal intervals. By integrating the curves functions in to GIS we created an average runoff map for the area; from which one can easily extract runoff data using GIS spatial analyst functions. The study shows that from the three areas the highest runoff corresponds with the third zone but because it’s small area the water volume is also minor. It is also shown that with the use of the created runoff map we can compute relatively quickly correct runoff values for areas without hydrologic control.

  4. Distribution of average, marginal, and participation tax rates among Czech taxpayers: results from a TAXBEN model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kalíšková, Klára; Münich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2013), s. 474-504 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010033 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : TAXBEN models * average tax rates * marginal tax rates Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1287_dusek.pdf

  5. Containment and Consensus-based Distributed Coordination Control for Voltage Bound and Reactive Power Sharing in AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a highly flexible and reliable control strategy to achieve voltage bounded regulation and accurate reactive power sharing coordinately in AC Micro-Grids. A containment and consensus-based distributed coordination controller is proposed, by which each output voltage magnitude can...... be bounded within a reasonable range and the accurate reactive power sharing among distributed generators can be also achieved. Combined with the two proposed controllers and electrical part of the AC Micro-Grid, a small signal model is fully developed to analyze the sensitivity of different control...... parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed controller in case of load variation, communication failure, plug-and-play capability are verified by the experimental setup as an islanded Micro-Grid....

  6. Multiagent based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled AC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    sharing based on the power rating. With various types of distributed generator (DG) units in the system, factors that closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost and efficiencies of the generator should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system....... In this paper, a multiagent based distributed method is proposed to minimize operation cost of the AC microgrid. Each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using proposed frequency scheduling method. Optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm...... with only light communication between neighboring agents. Case studies verified that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the operation cost....

  7. Distribution of average, marginal, and participation tax rates among Czech taxpayers: results from a TAXBEN model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kalíšková, Klára; Münich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2013), s. 474-504 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 267801/2013 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : TAXBEN models * average tax rates * marginal tax rates Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2013 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1287_dusek.pdf

  8. Secondary Frequency and Voltage Control of Islanded Microgrids via Distributed Averaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Simpson-Porco, John; Shafiee, Qobad; Dorfler, Florian

    2015-01-01

    actions. The frequency controller rapidly regulates the microgrid frequency to its nominal value while maintaining active power sharing among the distributed generators. Tuning of the voltage controller provides a simple and intuitive trade-off between the conflicting goals of voltage regulation...

  9. The Influence of Atoms-in Molecules Methods on Shared Electron Distribution Indices and Domain Averaged Fermi Holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bultinck, P.; Cooper, D.L.; Ponec, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 33 (2010), s. 8754-8763 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : shared electron distribution index * domain averaged fermi holes * atoms in molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2010

  10. Distributed Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids by Using Dynamic-Consensus-Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Fen

    2016-01-01

    In islanded microgrids (MGs), distributed generators (DGs) can be employed as distributed compensators for improving the power quality in the consumer side. Two-level hierarchical control can be used for voltage unbalance compensation. Primary level, consisting of droop control and virtual...

  11. Dynamic Consensus Algorithm Based Distributed Global Efficiency Optimization of a Droop Controlled DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In a DC microgrid, several paralleled conversion systems are installed in distributed substations for transferring power from external grid to a DC microgrid. Droop control is used for the distributed load sharing among all the DC/DC converters. Considering the typical efficiency feature of power...

  12. Non-invasive assessment of distribution volume ratios and binding potential: tissue heterogeneity and interindividually averaged time-activity curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Mueller-Schauenburg, W.; Dohmen, B.M.; Bares, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, G.A. [Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Reischl, G. [Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Due to the stochastic nature of radioactive decay, any measurement of radioactivity concentration requires spatial averaging. In pharmacokinetic analysis of time-activity curves (TAC), such averaging over heterogeneous tissues may introduce a systematic error (heterogeneity error) but may also improve the accuracy and precision of parameter estimation. In addition to spatial averaging (inevitable due to limited scanner resolution and intended in ROI analysis), interindividual averaging may theoretically be beneficial, too. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of such averaging on the binding potential (BP) calculated with Logan's non-invasive graphical analysis and the ''simplified reference tissue method'' (SRTM) proposed by Lammertsma and Hume, on the basis of simulated and measured positron emission tomography data [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate (dMP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (RAC) PET. dMP was not quantified with SRTM since the low k {sub 2} (washout rate constant from the first tissue compartment) introduced a high noise sensitivity. Even for considerably different shapes of TAC (dMP PET in parkinsonian patients and healthy controls, [{sup 11}C]raclopride in patients with and without haloperidol medication) and a high variance in the rate constants (e.g. simulated standard deviation of K {sub 1}=25%), the BP obtained from average TAC was close to the mean BP (<5%). However, unfavourably distributed parameters, especially a correlated large variance in two or more parameters, may lead to larger errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, interindividual averaging before quantification reduced the variance from the SRTM (beyond a critical signal to noise ratio) and the bias in Logan's method. Interindividual averaging may further increase accuracy when there is an error term in the reference tissue assumption E=DV {sub 2}-DV ' (DV {sub 2} = distribution volume of the first tissue compartment, DV &apos

  13. The average angular distribution of emitted particles in multi-step compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1983-05-01

    A simple model for the differential cross-section that describes the angular distribution of emitted particles in heavy-ion induced multi-step compound reactions, is constructed. It is suggested that through a careful analysis of the deviations of the experimental data from the pure Hauser-Feshbach behaviour may shed light on the physical nature of the pre-compound, heavy-ion configuration. (Author) [pt

  14. Average Behavior of Battery - Electric Vehicles for Distributed Energy System Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    The increase of focus on electric vehicles (EVs) as distributed energy resources calls for new concepts of aggregated models of batteries. Despite the developed battery models for EVs applications, when looking at energy storage scenarios using EVs, both geographical-temporal aspects and battery...... conditions. The obtained results show that EV fleets are non-linear time-variant systems which however can be described with good approximation taking into account a number of variables such as number of cycles, temperature, depth-of-discharge and current rates....

  15. Mixed-mode distribution systems for high average power electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Kimrey, H.D.; Bigelow, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    The ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) experiment consists of 24 simple magnetic mirrors joined end-to-end to form a torus of closed magnetic field lines. In this paper, we first describe an 80% efficient mixed-mode unpolarized heating system which couples 28-GHz microwave power to the midplane of the 24 EBT-S cavities. The system consists of two radiused bends feeding a quasi-optical mixed-mode toroidal distribution manifold. Balancing power to the 24 cavities is determined by detailed computer ray tracing. A second 28-GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system using a polarized grid high field launcher is described. The launcher penetrates the fundamental ECH resonant surface without a vacuum window with no observable breakdown up to 1 kW/cm 2 (source limited) with 24 kW delivered to the plasma. This system uses the same mixed-mode output as the first system but polarizes the launched power by using a grid of WR42 apertures. The efficiency of this system is 32%, but can be improved by feeding multiple launchers from a separate distribution manifold

  16. Reconstruction of the time-averaged sheath potential profile in an argon RF plasma using the ion energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C.

    1994-10-01

    Charge-exchange collisions and radio-frequency excitation combine to give peaks in the ion energy distribution measured at the ground electrode of an argon plasma in a capacitive reactor. These peaks are used as a diagnostic to reconstruct the profile of the time-averaged potential in the sheath. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that the method is accurate. The method is applied to investigate the sheath thickness as a function of excitation frequency at constant plasma power. The time-averaged potential is found to be parabolic in both experimental measurements and numerical simulation. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  17. Primal Recovery from Consensus-Based Dual Decomposition for Distributed Convex Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonetto, A.; Jamali-Rad, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dual decomposition has been successfully employed in a variety of distributed convex optimization problems solved by a network of computing and communicating nodes. Often, when the cost function is separable but the constraints are coupled, the dual decomposition scheme involves local parallel

  18. Distributed Hybrid Information and Plan Consensus HIPC for Semi-autonomous UAV Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    furniture may move around a bit on a daily basis, 2) workers in different parts of the building may stay later on some nights forcing a delay in entering...systems. International Journal of Robotics Research, 23(9):939–954, 2004. [17] M. B. Dias, R. Zlot, N. Kalra, and A. Stentz. Market -based multirobot...free market auctions to distribute control of UAVs. In AIAA 3rd Unmanned Unlimited Technical Conference, Workshop and Exhibit, 2004. [34] T. Lemaire

  19. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...... and unbalanced directed graphs. Average consensus is guaranteed in unbalanced digraphs by updating the weight matrix with both its row sums and column sums being 1. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method....

  20. Consensus-based Distributed Control for Accurate Reactive, Harmonic and Imbalance Power Sharing in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Kim, Sunghyok; Zhang, Huaguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of accurate reactive, harmonic and imbalance power sharing in a microgrid. Harmonic and imbalance droop controllers are developed to proportionally share the harmonic power and the imbalance power among distributed generation (DG) units and improve the voltage...... voltage. With the proposed methods, the microgrid system reliability and flexibility can be enhanced and the knowledge of the line impedance is not required. And the reactive, harmonic and imbalance power can be proportionally shared among the DG units. Moreover, the quality of the voltage at PCC can...

  1. Consensus-based distributed cooperative learning from closed-loop neural control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Hua, Shaoyong; Zhang, Huaguang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the neural tracking problem is addressed for a group of uncertain nonlinear systems where the system structures are identical but the reference signals are different. This paper focuses on studying the learning capability of neural networks (NNs) during the control process. First, we propose a novel control scheme called distributed cooperative learning (DCL) control scheme, by establishing the communication topology among adaptive laws of NN weights to share their learned knowledge online. It is further proved that if the communication topology is undirected and connected, all estimated weights of NNs can converge to small neighborhoods around their optimal values over a domain consisting of the union of all state orbits. Second, as a corollary it is shown that the conclusion on the deterministic learning still holds in the decentralized adaptive neural control scheme where, however, the estimated weights of NNs just converge to small neighborhoods of the optimal values along their own state orbits. Thus, the learned controllers obtained by DCL scheme have the better generalization capability than ones obtained by decentralized learning method. A simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the control schemes proposed in this paper.

  2. Influence of the turbulence typing scheme upon the cumulative frequency distribution of the calculated relative concentrations for different averaging times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, J.G.; Mertens, I.

    1984-01-01

    Over the period 1977-1979, hourly meteorological measurements at the Nuclear Energy Research Centre, Mol, Belgium and simultaneous synoptic observations at the nearby military airport of Kleine Brogel, have been compiled as input data for a bi-Gaussian dispersion model. The available information has first of all been used to determine hourly stability classes in ten widely used turbulent diffusion typing schemes. Systematic correlations between different systems were rare. Twelve different combinations of diffusion typing scheme-dispersion parameters were then used for calculating cumulative frequency distributions of 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 26 d average ground-level concentrations at receptors respectively at 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 4 km and 8 km from continuous ground-level release and an elevated release at 100 m height. Major differences were noted as well in the extreme values, the higher percentiles, as in the annual mean concentrations. These differences are almost entirely due to the differences in the numercial values (as a function of distance) of the various sets of dispersion parameters actually in use for impact assessment studies. Dispersion parameter sets giving the lowest normalized ground-level concentration values for ground level releases give the highest results for elevated releases and vice versa. While it was illustrated once again that the applicability of a given set of dispersion parameters is restricted due to the specific conditions under which the given set derived, it was also concluded that systematic experimental work to validate certain assumptions is urgently needed.

  3. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  4. Crafting consensus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1–2 (2017), s. 169-200 ISSN 0048-5829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-27902P Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : consensus building * agenda setting * vote buying Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2016

  5. Neutron resonance averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

  6. Why Consensus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Polletta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activists have long justified their egalitarian organizational forms in prefigurative terms. Making decisions by consensus, decentralizing organization, and rotating leadership serves to model the radically democratic society that activists hope to bring into being. Our comparison of consensus-based decision-making in three historical periods, however, shows that activists have understood the purposes of prefiguration in very different ways. Whereas radical pacifists in the 1940s saw their cooperative organizations as sustaining movement stalwarts in a period of political repression, new left activists in the 1960s imagined that their radically democratic practices would be adopted by ever-widening circles. Along with the political conditions in which they have operated, activists’ distinctive understandings of equality have also shaped the way they have made decisions. Our interviews with 30 leftist activists today reveal a view of decision-making as a place to work through inequalities that are informal, unacknowledged, and pervasive.

  7. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n -distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Évora, R. Romão Ramalho 59, 7000 Évora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter, E-mail: mavillez@galaxy.lca.uevora.pt [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n  = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  8. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n -distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n  = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  9. Potential breeding distributions of U.S. birds predicted with both short-term variability and long-term average climate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; Flather, Curtis H; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Akçakaya, H Resit; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Albright, Thomas P; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    Climate conditions, such as temperature or precipitation, averaged over several decades strongly affect species distributions, as evidenced by experimental results and a plethora of models demonstrating statistical relations between species occurrences and long-term climate averages. However, long-term averages can conceal climate changes that have occurred in recent decades and may not capture actual species occurrence well because the distributions of species, especially at the edges of their range, are typically dynamic and may respond strongly to short-term climate variability. Our goal here was to test whether bird occurrence models can be predicted by either covariates based on short-term climate variability or on long-term climate averages. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) based on either short-term variability or long-term average climate covariates for 320 bird species in the conterminous USA and tested whether any life-history trait-based guilds were particularly sensitive to short-term conditions. Models including short-term climate variability performed well based on their cross-validated area-under-the-curve AUC score (0.85), as did models based on long-term climate averages (0.84). Similarly, both models performed well compared to independent presence/absence data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (independent AUC of 0.89 and 0.90, respectively). However, models based on short-term variability covariates more accurately classified true absences for most species (73% of true absences classified within the lowest quarter of environmental suitability vs. 68%). In addition, they have the advantage that they can reveal the dynamic relationship between species and their environment because they capture the spatial fluctuations of species potential breeding distributions. With this information, we can identify which species and guilds are sensitive to climate variability, identify sites of high conservation value where climate

  10. Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhijie; Cong, Kelong; Pouwelse, Johan; Erkin, Zekeriya

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the blockchain technique was put in the spotlight as it introduced a systematic approach for multiple parties to reach consensus without needing trust. However, the application of this technique in practice is severely restricted due to its limitations in throughput. In this paper, we propose a novel consensus model, namely the implicit consensus, with a distinctive blockchain-based distributed ledger in which each node holds its individual blockchain. In our system, the consensus i...

  11. A Consensus-Based Cooperative Control of PEV Battery and PV Active Power Curtailment for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays installed in residential houses leads to serious voltage quality problems in low voltage distribution networks (LVDNs). In this paper, a combined method using the battery energy management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the active power....... The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is investigated on a typical three-phase four-wire LVDN in presence of PV resources and PEVs....

  12. Image-processing of time-averaged interface distributions representing CCFL characteristics in a large scale model of a PWR hot-leg pipe geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Issa, Suleiman; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CCFL characteristics are investigated in PWR large-scale hot-leg pipe geometry. • Image processing of air-water interface produced time-averaged interface distributions. • Time-averages provide a comparative method of CCFL characteristics among different studies. • CCFL correlations depend upon the range of investigated water delivery for Dh ≫ 50 mm. • 1D codes are incapable of investigating CCFL because of lack of interface distribution. - Abstract: Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) was experimentally investigated in a 1/3.9 downscaled COLLIDER facility with a 190 mm pipe’s diameter using air/water at 1 atmospheric pressure. Previous investigations provided knowledge over the onset of CCFL mechanisms. In current article, CCFL characteristics at the COLLIDER facility are measured and discussed along with time-averaged distributions of the air/water interface for a selected matrix of liquid/gas velocities. The article demonstrates the time-averaged interface as a useful method to identify CCFL characteristics at quasi-stationary flow conditions eliminating variations that appears in single images, and showing essential comparative flow features such as: the degree of restriction at the bend, the extension and the intensity of the two-phase mixing zones, and the average water level within the horizontal part and the steam generator. Consequently, making it possible to compare interface distributions obtained at different investigations. The distributions are also beneficial for CFD validations of CCFL as the instant chaotic gas/liquid interface is impossible to reproduce in CFD simulations. The current study shows that final CCFL characteristics curve (and the corresponding CCFL correlation) depends upon the covered measuring range of water delivery. It also shows that a hydraulic diameter should be sufficiently larger than 50 mm in order to obtain CCFL characteristics comparable to the 1:1 scale data (namely the UPTF data). Finally

  13. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

    2010-06-15

    Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups 80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (PAfrican ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (PAfrican ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Candidates Profile in FUVEST Exams from 2004 to 2013: Private and Public School Distribution, FUVEST Average Performance and Chemical Equilibrium Tasks Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.A.P. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Chemical equilibrium is recognized as a topic of several misconceptions. Its origins must be tracked from previous scholarship. Its impact on biochemistry learning is not fully described. A possible bulk of data is the FUVEST exam. OBJECTIVES: Identify students’ errors profile on chemical equilibrium tasks using public data from FUVEST exam. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data analysis from FUVEST were: i Private and Public school distribution in Elementary and Middle School, and High School candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry course and total USP careers until the last call for enrollment (2004-2013; ii Average performance in 1st and 2nd parts of FUVEST exam of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total enrolled candidates until 1st call for enrollment (2008- 2013; iii Performance of candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total USP careers in chemical equilibrium issues from 1st part of FUVEST (2011-2013. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: i 66.2% of candidates came from private Elementary-Middle School courses and 71.8%, came from High School courses; ii Average grade over the period for 1st and 2nd FUVEST parts are respectively (in 100 points: Pharmacy-Biochemistry 66.7 and 61.2, Chemistry 65.9 and 58.9, Engineering 75.9 and 71.9, Biological Sciences 65.6 and 54.6, Languages 49.9 and 43.3, Medicine 83.5 and 79.5, total enrolled candidates 51,5 and 48.9; iii Four chemical equilibrium issues were found during 2011-2013 and the analysis of multiplechoice percentage distribution over the courses showed that there was a similar performance of students among them, except for Engineering and Medicine with higher grades, but the same proportional distribution among choices. CONCLUSION: Approved students came majorly from private schools. There was a different average performance among courses and similar on

  15. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E.K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, P.; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E^weak_B. The average value of x^weak_B = E^weak_B/E_beam is measured to be 0.699 +/- 0.011. The resulting x^weak_B distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA~6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84^{+0.23}_{-0.21} and b=0.642^{+0.073}_{-0.063} GeV^-2, with a correlation factor rho = 92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL a...

  16. A high-density consensus map of barley to compare the distribution of QTLs for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei and of defence gene homologues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcel, T.C.; Varshney, R.K.; Barbieri, M.; Jafary, H.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Graner, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    A consensus map of barley was constructed based on three reference doubled haploid (DH) populations and three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Several sets of microsatellites were used as bridge markers in the integration of those populations previously genotyped with RFLP or with AFLP

  17. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  18. Fast Decentralized Averaging via Multi-scale Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianos, Konstantinos I.; Rabbat, Michael G.

    We are interested in the problem of computing the average consensus in a distributed fashion on random geometric graphs. We describe a new algorithm called Multi-scale Gossip which employs a hierarchical decomposition of the graph to partition the computation into tractable sub-problems. Using only pairwise messages of fixed size that travel at most O(n^{1/3}) hops, our algorithm is robust and has communication cost of O(n loglogn logɛ - 1) transmissions, which is order-optimal up to the logarithmic factor in n. Simulated experiments verify the good expected performance on graphs of many thousands of nodes.

  19. Classic maximum entropy recovery of the average joint distribution of apparent FRET efficiency and fluorescence photons for single-molecule burst measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Matthew S; Gull, Stephen F; Johnson, Carey K

    2012-04-05

    We describe a method for analysis of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) burst measurements using classic maximum entropy. Classic maximum entropy determines the Bayesian inference for the joint probability describing the total fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency. The method was tested with simulated data and then with DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes. The most probable joint distribution can be marginalized to obtain both the overall distribution of fluorescence photons and the apparent FRET efficiency distribution. This method proves to be ideal for determining the distance distribution of FRET-labeled biomolecules, and it successfully predicts the shape of the recovered distributions.

  20. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Ma, Maode

    2014-01-01

    Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock. PMID:25120163

  1. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock.

  2. The Limits of Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, John B.

    Dynamics in the education policy arena suggest that, despite two generations of researchers extolling democratic leadership styles and consensus building over autocratic techniques, wide participation in policymaking and the broadest possible consensus are not always productive: American society has not yet agreed on what schools should…

  3. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Martini, C.; Boumans, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce "rational consensus", that is, "mathematical aggregation", by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  4. Average nuclear surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groote, H. von.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

  5. Average is Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2018-02-01

    The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

  6. Analysis of the distributions of hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to annual average NO2 concentrations across the European monitoring network between 2000 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Malley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is associated with negative human health effects, both for short-term peak concentrations and from long-term exposure to a wider range of NO2 concentrations. For the latter, the European Union has established an air quality limit value of 40 µg m−3 as an annual average. However, factors such as proximity and strength of local emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and meteorological conditions mean that there is substantial variation in the hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to an annual average concentration. The aim of this analysis was to quantify the nature of this variation at thousands of monitoring sites across Europe through the calculation of a standard set of chemical climatology statistics. Specifically, at each monitoring site that satisfied data capture criteria for inclusion in this analysis, annual NO2 concentrations, as well as the percentage contribution from each month, hour of the day, and hourly NO2 concentrations divided into 5 µg m−3 bins were calculated. Across Europe, 2010–2014 average annual NO2 concentrations (NO2AA exceeded the annual NO2 limit value at 8 % of > 2500 monitoring sites. The application of this chemical climatology approach showed that sites with distinct monthly, hour of day, and hourly NO2 concentration bin contributions to NO2AA were not grouped into specific regions of Europe, furthermore, within relatively small geographic regions there were sites with similar NO2AA, but with differences in these contributions. Specifically, at sites with highest NO2AA, there were generally similar contributions from across the year, but there were also differences in the contribution of peak vs. moderate hourly NO2 concentrations to NO2AA, and from different hours across the day. Trends between 2000 and 2014 for 259 sites indicate that, in general, the contribution to NO2AA from winter months has increased, as has the contribution from the rush-hour periods of

  7. Analysis of the distributions of hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to annual average NO2 concentrations across the European monitoring network between 2000 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Christopher S.; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Moller, Sarah; Braban, Christine F.; Hicks, W. Kevin; Heal, Mathew R.

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with negative human health effects, both for short-term peak concentrations and from long-term exposure to a wider range of NO2 concentrations. For the latter, the European Union has established an air quality limit value of 40 µg m-3 as an annual average. However, factors such as proximity and strength of local emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and meteorological conditions mean that there is substantial variation in the hourly NO2 concentrations contributing to an annual average concentration. The aim of this analysis was to quantify the nature of this variation at thousands of monitoring sites across Europe through the calculation of a standard set of chemical climatology statistics. Specifically, at each monitoring site that satisfied data capture criteria for inclusion in this analysis, annual NO2 concentrations, as well as the percentage contribution from each month, hour of the day, and hourly NO2 concentrations divided into 5 µg m-3 bins were calculated. Across Europe, 2010-2014 average annual NO2 concentrations (NO2AA) exceeded the annual NO2 limit value at 8 % of > 2500 monitoring sites. The application of this chemical climatology approach showed that sites with distinct monthly, hour of day, and hourly NO2 concentration bin contributions to NO2AA were not grouped into specific regions of Europe, furthermore, within relatively small geographic regions there were sites with similar NO2AA, but with differences in these contributions. Specifically, at sites with highest NO2AA, there were generally similar contributions from across the year, but there were also differences in the contribution of peak vs. moderate hourly NO2 concentrations to NO2AA, and from different hours across the day. Trends between 2000 and 2014 for 259 sites indicate that, in general, the contribution to NO2AA from winter months has increased, as has the contribution from the rush-hour periods of the day, while the contribution from

  8. Distribution and evolution of Zn, Cd, and Pb in Apollo 16 regolith samples and the average U-Pb ages of the parent rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirlin, E. H.; Housley, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of surface (low temperature site) and interior (high temperature site) Cd, Zn, and Pb in 13 Apollo 16 highland fines samples, pristine rock 65325, and mare fines sample 75081 were analyzed directly from the thermal release profiles obtained by flameless atomic absorption technique (FLAA). Cd and Zn in pristine ferroan anothosite 65325, anorthositic grains of the most mature fines 65701, and basaltic rock fragments of mare fines 75081 were almost all surface Cd and Zn indicating that most volatiles were deposited on the surfaces of vugs, vesicles and microcracks during the initial cooling process. A considerable amount of interior Cd and Zn was observed in agglutinates. This result suggests that high temperature site interior volatiles originate from entrapment during the lunar maturation processes. Interior Cd found in the most mature fines sample 65701 was only about 15% of the total Cd in the sample. Interior Pb present in Apollo 16 fines samples went up to 60%. From our Cd studies we can assume that this interior Pb in highland fines samples is largely due to the radiogenic decay which occurred after the redistribution of the volatiles took place. We obtained an average age of 4.0 b.y. for the parent rocks of Apollo 16 highland regolith from our interior Pb analyses.

  9. Informed consent -- Building consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovenheim, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author shares his observations and offers an approach to 'building consensus' for what he believes is the only environmentally sound option, i.e., safe, permanent disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Consensus does not mean unanimity, acceptance, or harmony. The low-level radioactive waste disposal issue is fraught with fear and hysteria. The paper discusses major emotions that fracture public opinion regarding this issue. The author defines consensus as the informed consent of LLRW disposal strategies by a majority of citizens whose cooperation is required to achieve the goals of environmentally sound solution. The political aspects are reviewed. The need for US Department of Energy to fulfill its importance technical assistance role is discussed

  10. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    maternal leave. These changes can be explained as adjustments to post-industrial conditions within a political culture relying on class compromises and a broad consensus informed by expert advice coming from civil servants and ad hoc policy commissions. The paper concludes that changes in Danish family...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  11. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce “rational consensus”, that is, “mathematical aggregation”, by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  12. Consensus and Synchronization in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization in complex networks is one of the most captivating cooperative phenomena in nature and has been shown to be of fundamental importance in such varied circumstances as the continued existence of species, the functioning of heart pacemaker cells, epileptic seizures, neuronal firing in the feline visual cortex and cognitive tasks in humans. E.g. coupled visual and acoustic interactions make fireflies flash, crickets chirp, and an audience clap in unison. On the other hand, in distributed systems and networks, it is often necessary for some or all of the nodes to calculate some function of certain parameters, e.g. sink nodes in sensor networks being tasked with calculating the average measurement value of all the sensors or multi-agent systems in which all agents are required to coordinate their speed and direction. When all nodes calculate the same function of the initial values in the system, they are said to reach consensus. Such concepts - sometimes also called state agreement, rendezvous, and ...

  13. Evaluations of average level spacings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

  14. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  15. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  16. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  17. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A.; Jones, R.M.; Walker, J.A.; Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). They define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of their planned applied research, the authors first discuss nominal group technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities

  18. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  19. on the performance of Autoregressive Moving Average Polynomial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Distributed Lag (PDL) model, Autoregressive Polynomial Distributed Lag ... Moving Average Polynomial Distributed Lag (ARMAPDL) model. ..... Global Journal of Mathematics and Statistics. Vol. 1. ... Business and Economic Research Center.

  20. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild (Keynote Talk)

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  1. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  2. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

    2007-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

  3. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  4. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  5. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  6. Averaged RMHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    A new reduced set of resistive MHD equations is derived by averaging the full MHD equations on specified flux coordinates, which is consistent with 3D equilibria. It is confirmed that the total energy is conserved and the linearized equations for ideal modes are self-adjoint. (author)

  7. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  8. Average Revisited in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the responses of 247 middle school students to items requiring the concept of average in three different contexts: a city's weather reported in maximum daily temperature, the number of children in a family, and the price of houses. The mixed but overall disappointing performance on the six items in the three contexts indicates…

  9. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  10. Average-energy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bouyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.

  11. Consensus in the Age of Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shehar; Sonnino, Alberto; Al-Bassam, Mustafa; Azouvi, Sarah; McCorry, Patrick; Meiklejohn, Sarah; Danezis, George

    2017-01-01

    The blockchain initially gained traction in 2008 as the technology underlying bitcoin, but now has been employed in a diverse range of applications and created a global market worth over $150B as of 2017. What distinguishes blockchains from traditional distributed databases is the ability to operate in a decentralized setting without relying on a trusted third party. As such their core technical component is consensus: how to reach agreement among a group of nodes. This has been extensively s...

  12. Expert consensus document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehm, Ulrich; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder caused by the deficient production, secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is the master hormone regulating the reproductive axis. CHH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with >25 different...... migration of GnRH-synthesizing neurons. CHH can be challenging to diagnose, particularly when attempting to differentiate it from constitutional delay of puberty. A timely diagnosis and treatment to induce puberty can be beneficial for sexual, bone and metabolic health, and might help minimize some...... of the psychological effects of CHH. In most cases, fertility can be induced using specialized treatment regimens and several predictors of outcome have been identified. Patients typically require lifelong treatment, yet ∼10-20% of patients exhibit a spontaneous recovery of reproductive function. This Consensus...

  13. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  14. UBICACIÓN ÓPTIMA DE RECONECTADORES EN SISTEMAS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN PARA MINIMIZAR LA FRECUENCIA MEDIA DE INTERRUPCIÓN OPTIMAL LOCATION OF RECLOSERS IN DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE AVERAGE INTERRUPTION FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerson Reyes S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una metodología para minimizar la frecuencia de fallas en Sistemas de Distribución radiales considerando una carga uniformemente distribuida. Se utiliza una aproximación lineal para la ubicación de reconectadores. Este trabajo basa su estudio en la minimización del índice de Frecuencia Media de Interrupción por Potencia instalada, el cual es utilizado como parámetro de regulación y clasificación de las compañías distribuidoras chilenas, según la reglamentación eléctrica vigente. Se introduce además el concepto de Factor de Distancia entre línea Troncal y arranque, el cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta de discriminación para acotar el número de reconectadores a instalar en la línea troncal. Además permite discriminar en base a la data histórica de la línea, si un arranque cualquiera, debe ser evaluado económicamente, como un nuevo alimentador, de forma tal que el índice Frecuencia Media de Interrupción por Potencia instalada sea minimizado.This paper presents a framework for minimizing the average interruption frequency in radial Distribution Systems with uniformly distributed loads. Here, the position of the reclosers has been modeled using a linear approximation. The objective of this paper is to minimize the average interruption frequency per installed power. According to the current electric regulation in Chile, this index is the metric used to regulate and classify the performance of utilities. In the analysis a novel concept of Distance Factor between the main feeder and a branch feeder was introduced. This concept can be utilized as a theoretical limit for the number of switches to install on the main feeder. In addition, based upon the service history of the line, the distance factor determines if a certain line must be economically assessed like a new feeder so that the aforementioned performance index of average interruption frequency per installed power is minimized.

  15. Multiagent Based Distributed Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Garcia Plaza, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed multiagent based algorithm is proposed to achieve SoC balance for DES in the DC microgrid by means of voltage scheduling. Reference voltage given is adjusted instead of droop gain. Dynamic average consensus algorithm is explored in each agent to get the required...

  16. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    quality consensus conference was underwrit- ten in part by unrestricted educational grants from Molnlycke Health Care and Baxter Health Care. Address... nutrition , psychological outcomes, resuscitation, and wound repair. After reviewing the literature, debating the issues at the consensus conference and...need for intubation, concomitant trauma. 3. Resuscitation characteristics: Lab values (base defi- cit, lactate, hemoglobin /hematocrit, blood urea

  17. Attitude extremity, consensus and diagnosticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Ester, P.; van der Linden, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studied the effects of attitude extremity on perceived consensus and willingness to ascribe trait terms to others with either pro- or antinuclear attitudes. 611 Ss rated their attitudes toward nuclear energy on a 5-point scale. Results show that attitude extremity affected consensus estimates. Trait

  18. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out...

  19. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-12-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  20. Between consensus and contestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Albert

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - Noting that discussions of public participation and priority setting typically presuppose certain political theories of democracy, the purpose of this paper is to discuss two theories: the consensual and the agonistic. The distinction is illuminating when considering the difference between institutionalized public participation and contestatory participation. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is a theoretical reconstruction of two ways of thinking about public participation in relation to priority setting in health care, drawing on the work of Habermas, a deliberative theorist, and Mouffe, a theorist of agonism. Findings - The different theoretical approaches can be associated with different ways of understanding priority setting. In particular, agonistic democratic theory would understand priority setting as system of inclusions and exclusions rather than the determination of a consensus of social values, which is the typical deliberative way of thinking about the issues. Originality/value - The paper shows the value of drawing out explicitly the tacit assumptions of practices of political participation in order to reveal their scope and limitations. It suggests that making such theoretical presuppositions explicit has value for health services management in recognizing these implicit choices.

  1. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup

    2017-04-11

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  2. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  3. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) is a promising direction for unsupervised learning in computer vision. In contrast to recent supervised methods, CSC allows for convolutional image representations to be learned that are equally useful for high-level vision tasks and low-level image reconstruction and can be applied to a wide range of tasks without problem-specific retraining. Due to their extreme memory requirements, however, existing CSC solvers have so far been limited to low-dimensional problems and datasets using a handful of low-resolution example images at a time. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high-dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaicing and 4D light field view synthesis.

  4. Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W.; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken

    2016-04-01

    The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts such as economic geologists and a self-selected group of those who reject the consensus. We demonstrate that this outcome is not unexpected because the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science. At one point, Tol also reduces the apparent consensus by assuming that abstracts that do not explicitly state the cause of global warming (‘no position’) represent non-endorsement, an approach that if applied elsewhere would reject consensus on well-established theories such as plate tectonics. We examine the available studies and conclude that the finding of 97% consensus in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies.

  5. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  6. Mexican consensus on dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the 2007 dyspepsia guidelines of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología, there have been significant advances in the knowledge of this disease. A systematic search of the literature in PubMed (01/2007 to 06/2016 was carried out to review and update the 2007 guidelines and to provide new evidence-based recommendations. All high-quality articles in Spanish and English were included. Statements were formulated and voted upon using the Delphi method. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation of each statement were established according to the GRADE system. Thirty-one statements were formulated, voted upon, and graded. New definition, classification, epidemiology, and pathophysiology data were provided and include the following information: Endoscopy should be carried out in cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia when there are alarm symptoms or no response to treatment. Gastric and duodenal biopsies can confirm Helicobacter pylori infection and rule out celiac disease, respectively. Establishing a strong doctor-patient relationship, as well as dietary and lifestyle changes, are useful initial measures. H2-blockers, proton-pump inhibitors, prokinetics, and antidepressants are effective pharmacologic therapies. H. pylori eradication may be effective in a subgroup of patients. There is no evidence that complementary and alternative therapies are beneficial, with the exception of Iberogast and rikkunshito, nor is there evidence on the usefulness of prebiotics, probiotics, or psychologic therapies. The new consensus statements on dyspepsia provide guidelines based on up-to-date evidence. A discussion, level of evidence, and strength of recommendation are presented for each statement. Resumen: Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la

  7. NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-04

    To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the use and effectiveness of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, biophysics, and the representatives of the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1200. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that were part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Alternative Medicine and the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. The literature, produced from January 1970 to October 1997, was searched through MEDLINE, Allied and Alternative Medicine, EMBASE, and MANTIS, as well as through a hand search of 9 journals that were not indexed by the National Library of Medicine. An extensive bibliography of 2302 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Expert speakers prepared abstracts of their own conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in the open forum and scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience

  8. Is There a Consensus on Consensus Methodology? Descriptions and Recommendations for Future Consensus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jane; Carline, Jan D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the methodology of three common consensus methods: nominal group process, consensus development panels, and the Delphi technique. The authors set out to determine how a majority of researchers are conducting these studies, how they are analyzing results, and subsequently the manner in which they are reporting their findings. The authors conclude with a set of guidelines and suggestions designed to aid researchers who choose to use the consensus methodology in their work.Overall, researchers need to describe their inclusion criteria. In addition to this, on the basis of the current literature the authors found that a panel size of 5 to 11 members was most beneficial across all consensus methods described. Lastly, the authors agreed that the statistical analyses done in consensus method studies should be as rigorous as possible and that the predetermined definition of consensus must be included in the ultimate manuscript. More specific recommendations are given for each of the three consensus methods described in the article.

  9. Consensus algorithm in smart grid and communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfagee, Husain Abdulaziz

    On a daily basis, consensus theory attracts more and more researches from different areas of interest, to apply its techniques to solve technical problems in a way that is faster, more reliable, and even more precise than ever before. A power system network is one of those fields that consensus theory employs extensively. The use of the consensus algorithm to solve the Economic Dispatch and Load Restoration Problems is a good example. Instead of a conventional central controller, some researchers have explored an algorithm to solve the above mentioned problems, in a distribution manner, using the consensus algorithm, which is based on calculation methods, i.e., non estimation methods, for updating the information consensus matrix. Starting from this point of solving these types of problems mentioned, specifically, in a distribution fashion, using the consensus algorithm, we have implemented a new advanced consensus algorithm. It is based on the adaptive estimation techniques, such as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm, to solve the same problems. This advanced work was tested on different case studies that had formerly been explored, as seen in references 5, 7, and 18. Three and five generators, or agents, with different topologies, correspond to the Economic Dispatch Problem and the IEEE 16-Bus power system corresponds to the Load Restoration Problem. In all the cases we have studied, the results met our expectations with extreme accuracy, and completely matched the results of the previous researchers. There is little question that this research proves the capability and dependability of using the consensus algorithm, based on the estimation methods as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm to solve such power problems.

  10. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  11. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  12. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  13. Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Swift, Stephen; Liu, Xiaohui

    Ensemble Clustering has been developed to provide an alternative way of obtaining more stable and accurate clustering results. It aims to avoid the biases of individual clustering algorithms. However, it is still a challenge to develop an efficient and robust method for Ensemble Clustering. Based on an existing ensemble clustering method, Consensus Clustering (CC), this paper introduces an advanced Consensus Clustering algorithm called Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering (MOCC), which utilises an optimised Agreement Separation criterion and a Multi-Optimisation framework to improve the performance of CC. Fifteen different data sets are used for evaluating the performance of MOCC. The results reveal that MOCC can generate more accurate clustering results than the original CC algorithm.

  14. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan

    2016-01-01

    that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord......From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term...... on the effects of physical activity on children’s and youth’s fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process...

  15. Distributed processing in receivers based on tensor for cooperative communications systems

    OpenAIRE

    Igor FlÃvio SimÃes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a distributed data estimation and detection approach for the uplink of a network that uses CDMA at transmitters (users). The analyzed network can be represented by an undirected and connected graph, where the nodes use a distributed estimation algorithm based on consensus averaging to perform joint channel and symbol estimation using a receiver based on tensor signal processing. The centralized receiver, developed for a central base station, and the distribute...

  16. Averaging in SU(2) open quantum random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampadu Clement

    2014-01-01

    We study the average position and the symmetry of the distribution in the SU(2) open quantum random walk (OQRW). We show that the average position in the central limit theorem (CLT) is non-uniform compared with the average position in the non-CLT. The symmetry of distribution is shown to be even in the CLT

  17. Averaging in SU(2) open quantum random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Ampadu

    2014-03-01

    We study the average position and the symmetry of the distribution in the SU(2) open quantum random walk (OQRW). We show that the average position in the central limit theorem (CLT) is non-uniform compared with the average position in the non-CLT. The symmetry of distribution is shown to be even in the CLT.

  18. Building consensus in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1994-01-01

    The importance for the development of UK renewable energy projects of building consensus in the community is discussed. After outlining the benefits of such an approach, some of the likely concerns and questions from a developer's viewpoint are explored. The key principles of good practice are considered and an example from a wind project examined. (UK)

  19. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  20. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, T.T.J.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Ciftcioglu, Oe. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a {chi}{sup 2} distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.).

  1. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, T.T.J.M.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1994-11-01

    The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a χ 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.)

  2. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  3. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized control,  control with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  4. Follow-up after focal therapy in renal masses: an international multidisciplinary Delphi consensus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, P. J.; Wagstaff, P. G. K.; Desai, M. M.; de Bruin, D. M.; Fraga, A. F.; Hadaschik, B. A.; Köllermann, J.; Liehr, U. B.; Pahernik, S. A.; Schlemmer, H. P.; Wendler, J. J.; Algaba, F.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.; Laguna Pes, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    To establish consensus on follow-up (FU) after focal therapy (FT) in renal masses. To formulate recommendations to aid in clinical practice and research. Key topics and questions for consensus were identified from a systematic literature research. A Web-based questionnaire was distributed among

  5. The difference between alternative averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaupel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

  6. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

  7. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation is l...

  8. Possibilities of consensus: toward democratic moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B

    1991-08-01

    The concept of consensus is often appealed to in discussions of biomedical ethics and applied ethics, and it plays an important role in many influential ethical theories. Consensus is an especially influential notion among theorists who reject ethical realism and who frame ethics as a practice of discourse rather than a body of objective knowledge. It is also a practically important notion when moral decision making is subject to bureaucratic organization and oversight, as is increasingly becoming the case in medicine. Two models of consensus are examined and criticized: pluralistic consensus and overlapping consensus. As an alternative to these models, the paper argues that consensus refers to the dialogic aspects of a broader normative conception of democratic moral agency. When the preconditions for that dialogic democratic practice are met, consensus has a justificatory role in ethics; when they are not, consensus, as distinct from mere agreement, does not emerge and can have no moral authority.

  9. Stem cell research ethics: consensus statement on emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Nelson, Erin; Einsiedel, Edna; Knoppers, Bartha; McDonald, Michael; Brunger, Fern; Downey, Robin; Fernando, Kanchana; Galipeau, Jacques; Geransar, Rose; Griener, Glenn; Grenier, Glenn; Hyun, Insoo; Isasi, Rosario; Kardel, Melanie; Knowles, Lori; Kucic, Terrence; Lotjonen, Salla; Lyall, Drew; Magnus, David; Mathews, Debra J H; Nisbet, Matthew; Nisker, Jeffrey; Pare, Guillaume; Pattinson, Shaun; Pullman, Daryl; Rudnicki, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Zimmerman, Susan

    2007-10-01

    This article is a consensus statement by an international interdisciplinary group of academic experts and Canadian policy-makers on emerging ethical, legal and social issues in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) research in Canada. The process of researching consensus included consultations with key stakeholders in hESC research (regulations, stem cell researchers, and research ethics experts), preparation and distribution of background papers, and an international workshop held in Montreal in February 2007 to discuss the papers and debate recommendations. The recommendations provided in the consensus statement focus on issues of immediate relevance to Canadian policy-makers, including informed consent to hESC research, the use of fresh embryos in research, management of conflicts of interest, and the relevance of public opinion research to policy-making.

  10. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  11. Endodontic retreatment decisions: no consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; D'Hoore, W

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the consensus, if any, amongst dental schools, students and their instructors managing the same clinical cases, all of which involved endodontically treated teeth; and (ii) determine the predominant proposed treatment option. Final year students, endodontic staff members and instructors of 10 European dental schools were surveyed as decision makers. Fourteen different radiographic cases of root canal treated teeth accompanied by a short clinical history were presented to them in a uniform format. For each case the decision makers were requested to: (i) choose only one out of nine treatment alternatives proposed, from 'no treatment' to 'extraction' via 'retreatment' and 'surgery' (ii) assess on two 5-point scales: the difficulty of making a decision, and the technical complexity of the retreatment procedure. The results indicate wide inter- and also intra-school disagreements in the clinical management of root canal treated teeth. Analysis of variance showed that the main source of variation was the 'school effect', explaining 1.8% (NS) to 18.6% (P < 0.0001) of the treatment variations. No other factor explained as much variance. Decision difficulty was moderately correlated to technical complexity (Pearsons' r ranging from 0.19 to 0.35, P < 0.0001). No clear consensus occurred amongst and within dental schools concerning the clinical management of the 14 cases. The lack of consensus amongst schools seems to be due mainly to chance or uncertainty, but can be partly explained by the 'school effect'.

  12. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis: consensus conference guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretto, N; Carrara, A; Corradi, A; De Vivo, G; Lazzaro, L; Ricciardelli, L; Agresta, F; Amodio, C; Bergamini, C; Borzellino, G; Catani, M; Cavaliere, D; Cirocchi, R; Gemini, S; Mirabella, A; Palasciano, N; Piazza, D; Piccoli, M; Rigamonti, M; Scatizzi, M; Tamborrino, E; Zago, M

    2012-05-01

    Laparoscopic adhesiolysis has been demonstrated to be technically feasible in small bowel obstruction and carries advantages in terms of post-surgical course. The increasing dissemination of laparoscopic surgery in the emergency setting and the lack of concrete evidence in the literature have called for a consensus conference to draw recommendations for clinical practice. A literature search was used to outline the evidence, and a consensus conference was held between experts in the field. A survey of international experts added expertise to the debate. A public jury of surgeons discussed and validated the statements, and the entire process was reviewed by three external experts. Recommendations concern the diagnostic evaluation, the timing of the operation, the selection of patients, the induction of the pneumoperitoneum, the removal of the cause of obstructions, the criteria for conversion, the use of adhesion-preventing agents, the need for high-technology dissection instruments and behaviour in the case of misdiagnosed hernia or the need for bowel resection. Evidence of this kind of surgery is scanty because of the absence of randomized controlled trials. Nevertheless laparoscopic skills in emergency are widespread. The recommendations given with the consensus process might be a useful tool in the hands of surgeons. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. International consensus on safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, E.

    1993-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been regularly requested by its Member States to provide evidence that radioactive waste can be managed safely and to help demonstrate a harmonization of approach at the international level by providing safety documents. In response, IAEA established a special series of safety documents devoted to radioactive waste management. These documents will be elaborated within the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme [1,2] which covers all aspects of radioactive waste management. The RADWASS programme develops a series of international consensus documents on all parts of the safe management of radioactive waste, including disposal. The purpose of the RADWASS programme is to (i) document existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe radioactive waste management, (ii) create a mechanism to establish consensus where it does not exist and (iii) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to complement national standards and criteria. This paper describes the RADWASS programme, and covers the structure, implementation plans and status of documents under preparation

  14. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  15. Using Network Dynamical Influence to Drive Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, Giuliano; Young, George F.; MacDonald, Malcolm; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2016-05-01

    Consensus and decision-making are often analysed in the context of networks, with many studies focusing attention on ranking the nodes of a network depending on their relative importance to information routing. Dynamical influence ranks the nodes with respect to their ability to influence the evolution of the associated network dynamical system. In this study it is shown that dynamical influence not only ranks the nodes, but also provides a naturally optimised distribution of effort to steer a network from one state to another. An example is provided where the “steering” refers to the physical change in velocity of self-propelled agents interacting through a network. Distinct from other works on this subject, this study looks at directed and hence more general graphs. The findings are presented with a theoretical angle, without targeting particular applications or networked systems; however, the framework and results offer parallels with biological flocks and swarms and opportunities for design of technological networks.

  16. How to average logarithmic retrievals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of mean trace gas contributions from profiles obtained by retrievals of the logarithm of the abundance rather than retrievals of the abundance itself are prone to biases. By means of a system simulator, biases of linear versus logarithmic averaging were evaluated for both maximum likelihood and maximum a priori retrievals, for various signal to noise ratios and atmospheric variabilities. These biases can easily reach ten percent or more. As a rule of thumb we found for maximum likelihood retrievals that linear averaging better represents the true mean value in cases of large local natural variability and high signal to noise ratios, while for small local natural variability logarithmic averaging often is superior. In the case of maximum a posteriori retrievals, the mean is dominated by the a priori information used in the retrievals and the method of averaging is of minor concern. For larger natural variabilities, the appropriateness of the one or the other method of averaging depends on the particular case because the various biasing mechanisms partly compensate in an unpredictable manner. This complication arises mainly because of the fact that in logarithmic retrievals the weight of the prior information depends on abundance of the gas itself. No simple rule was found on which kind of averaging is superior, and instead of suggesting simple recipes we cannot do much more than to create awareness of the traps related with averaging of mixing ratios obtained from logarithmic retrievals.

  17. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  18. Averaging models: parameters estimation with the R-Average procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noventa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982, can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto & Vicentini, 2007 can be used to estimate the parameters of these models. By the use of multiple information criteria in the model selection procedure, R-Average allows for the identification of the best subset of parameters that account for the data. After a review of the general method, we present an implementation of the procedure in the framework of R-project, followed by some experiments using a Monte Carlo method.

  19. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

  20. Consensus Based Nuclear Public-Hearing System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Wook Lee; Suk Hoon Kim; Young Ho Cho; Hyun Seok Ko; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Sun Kang; Joo Hyun Moon

    2006-01-01

    Although the government admit the benefit of construction of a nuclear facility for national electric source, related policy could be developed and carried out only if the public, especially who have some stake on it, recognize the benefit and accept the policy. For public participation, Korea has a system of public-hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean public-hearing system is only a conceptual model. Therefore, some specific system for Korean Public-Hearing should be developed and applied. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, decision making components and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. The criteria weight for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making components, which should be based on the social consensus. On these foundations, a system for aggregation and reflection of the public opinion was proposed. The system named 'CPDM' (Consensus based Participatory Decision Making) has three authority groups for decision making. At first, 'advisory experts group' play a role for the technical assessment and the serve utility value on the criteria for each alternatives. Next, 'participatory deliberation group' play a role for consensus building on the relative-importance (weight) between the criteria by feedback to promote degree of consensus. Lastly including gentlemen of the long robe, 'expert group for decision making' play a role to reflect the utility and weight and make a decision with agreement for performance of it. Also, in this study, a mathematical model for the quantification of the degree of consensus was conceptualized using Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator and fuzzy similarity theory, which is a comparison concept. Since this model enables influence of each

  1. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  2. Improving consensus contact prediction via server correlation reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Bu, Dongbo; Xu, Jinbo; Li, Ming

    2009-05-06

    Protein inter-residue contacts play a crucial role in the determination and prediction of protein structures. Previous studies on contact prediction indicate that although template-based consensus methods outperform sequence-based methods on targets with typical templates, such consensus methods perform poorly on new fold targets. However, we find out that even for new fold targets, the models generated by threading programs can contain many true contacts. The challenge is how to identify them. In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model for consensus contact prediction. In contrast to the simple majority voting method assuming that all the individual servers are equally important and independent, the newly developed method evaluates their correlation by using maximum likelihood estimation and extracts independent latent servers from them by using principal component analysis. An integer linear programming method is then applied to assign a weight to each latent server to maximize the difference between true contacts and false ones. The proposed method is tested on the CASP7 data set. If the top L/5 predicted contacts are evaluated where L is the protein size, the average accuracy is 73%, which is much higher than that of any previously reported study. Moreover, if only the 15 new fold CASP7 targets are considered, our method achieves an average accuracy of 37%, which is much better than that of the majority voting method, SVM-LOMETS, SVM-SEQ, and SAM-T06. These methods demonstrate an average accuracy of 13.0%, 10.8%, 25.8% and 21.2%, respectively. Reducing server correlation and optimally combining independent latent servers show a significant improvement over the traditional consensus methods. This approach can hopefully provide a powerful tool for protein structure refinement and prediction use.

  3. Improving consensus contact prediction via server correlation reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jinbo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein inter-residue contacts play a crucial role in the determination and prediction of protein structures. Previous studies on contact prediction indicate that although template-based consensus methods outperform sequence-based methods on targets with typical templates, such consensus methods perform poorly on new fold targets. However, we find out that even for new fold targets, the models generated by threading programs can contain many true contacts. The challenge is how to identify them. Results In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model for consensus contact prediction. In contrast to the simple majority voting method assuming that all the individual servers are equally important and independent, the newly developed method evaluates their correlation by using maximum likelihood estimation and extracts independent latent servers from them by using principal component analysis. An integer linear programming method is then applied to assign a weight to each latent server to maximize the difference between true contacts and false ones. The proposed method is tested on the CASP7 data set. If the top L/5 predicted contacts are evaluated where L is the protein size, the average accuracy is 73%, which is much higher than that of any previously reported study. Moreover, if only the 15 new fold CASP7 targets are considered, our method achieves an average accuracy of 37%, which is much better than that of the majority voting method, SVM-LOMETS, SVM-SEQ, and SAM-T06. These methods demonstrate an average accuracy of 13.0%, 10.8%, 25.8% and 21.2%, respectively. Conclusion Reducing server correlation and optimally combining independent latent servers show a significant improvement over the traditional consensus methods. This approach can hopefully provide a powerful tool for protein structure refinement and prediction use.

  4. Robust point matching via vector field consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayi Ma; Ji Zhao; Jinwen Tian; Yuille, Alan L; Zhuowen Tu

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm, called vector field consensus, for establishing robust point correspondences between two sets of points. Our algorithm starts by creating a set of putative correspondences which can contain a very large number of false correspondences, or outliers, in addition to a limited number of true correspondences (inliers). Next, we solve for correspondence by interpolating a vector field between the two point sets, which involves estimating a consensus of inlier points whose matching follows a nonparametric geometrical constraint. We formulate this a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of a Bayesian model with hidden/latent variables indicating whether matches in the putative set are outliers or inliers. We impose nonparametric geometrical constraints on the correspondence, as a prior distribution, using Tikhonov regularizers in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. MAP estimation is performed by the EM algorithm which by also estimating the variance of the prior model (initialized to a large value) is able to obtain good estimates very quickly (e.g., avoiding many of the local minima inherent in this formulation). We illustrate this method on data sets in 2D and 3D and demonstrate that it is robust to a very large number of outliers (even up to 90%). We also show that in the special case where there is an underlying parametric geometrical model (e.g., the epipolar line constraint) that we obtain better results than standard alternatives like RANSAC if a large number of outliers are present. This suggests a two-stage strategy, where we use our nonparametric model to reduce the size of the putative set and then apply a parametric variant of our approach to estimate the geometric parameters. Our algorithm is computationally efficient and we provide code for others to use it. In addition, our approach is general and can be applied to other problems, such as learning with a badly corrupted training data set.

  5. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain....

  6. Convergence speed of consensus problems over undirected scale-free networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Dou Li-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Scale-free networks and consensus behaviour among multiple agents have both attracted much attention. To investigate the consensus speed over scale-free networks is the major topic of the present work. A novel method is developed to construct scale-free networks due to their remarkable power-law degree distributions, while preserving the diversity of network topologies. The time cost or iterations for networks to reach a certain level of consensus is discussed, considering the influence from power-law parameters. They are both demonstrated to be reversed power-law functions of the algebraic connectivity, which is viewed as a measurement on convergence speed of the consensus behaviour. The attempts of tuning power-law parameters may speed up the consensus procedure, but it could also make the network less robust over time delay at the same time. Large scale of simulations are supportive to the conclusions. (general)

  7. Validation of consensus panel diagnosis in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Matthew J; Foster, Norman L; Heidebrink, Judith L; Higdon, Roger; Aizenstein, Howard J; Arnold, Steven E; Barbas, Nancy R; Boeve, Bradley F; Burke, James R; Clark, Christopher M; Dekosky, Steven T; Farlow, Martin R; Jagust, William J; Kawas, Claudia H; Koeppe, Robert A; Leverenz, James B; Lipton, Anne M; Peskind, Elaine R; Turner, R Scott; Womack, Kyle B; Zamrini, Edward Y

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of dementing diseases largely depends on the subjective interpretation of patient symptoms. Consensus panels are frequently used in research to determine diagnoses when definitive pathologic findings are unavailable. Nevertheless, research on group decision making indicates that many factors can adversely affect panel performance. To determine conditions that improve consensus panel diagnosis. Comparison of neuropathologic diagnoses with individual and consensus panel diagnoses based on clinical scenarios only, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography images only, and scenarios plus images. Expert and trainee individual and consensus panel deliberations using a modified Delphi method in a pilot research study of the diagnostic utility of fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography. Forty-five patients with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease or frontotemporal dementia. Statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy, agreement, and confidence for individual raters and panelists before and after consensus deliberations. The consensus protocol using trainees and experts surpassed the accuracy of individual expert diagnoses when clinical information elicited diverse judgments. In these situations, consensus was 3.5 times more likely to produce positive rather than negative changes in the accuracy and diagnostic certainty of individual panelists. A rule that forced group consensus was at least as accurate as majority and unanimity rules. Using a modified Delphi protocol to arrive at a consensus diagnosis is a reasonable substitute for pathologic information. This protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and certainty when panelist judgments differ and is easily adapted to other research and clinical settings while avoiding the potential pitfalls of group decision making.

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  9. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  10. Learning gene regulatory networks from gene expression data using weighted consensus

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Chisato; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Yu, Ge; Guo, Lili; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    An accurate determination of the network structure of gene regulatory systems from high-throughput gene expression data is an essential yet challenging step in studying how the expression of endogenous genes is controlled through a complex interaction of gene products and DNA. While numerous methods have been proposed to infer the structure of gene regulatory networks, none of them seem to work consistently over different data sets with high accuracy. A recent study to compare gene network inference methods showed that an average-ranking-based consensus method consistently performs well under various settings. Here, we propose a linear programming-based consensus method for the inference of gene regulatory networks. Unlike the average-ranking-based one, which treats the contribution of each individual method equally, our new consensus method assigns a weight to each method based on its credibility. As a case study, we applied the proposed consensus method on synthetic and real microarray data sets, and compared its performance to that of the average-ranking-based consensus and individual inference methods. Our results show that our weighted consensus method achieves superior performance over the unweighted one, suggesting that assigning weights to different individual methods rather than giving them equal weights improves the accuracy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Learning gene regulatory networks from gene expression data using weighted consensus

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Chisato

    2016-08-25

    An accurate determination of the network structure of gene regulatory systems from high-throughput gene expression data is an essential yet challenging step in studying how the expression of endogenous genes is controlled through a complex interaction of gene products and DNA. While numerous methods have been proposed to infer the structure of gene regulatory networks, none of them seem to work consistently over different data sets with high accuracy. A recent study to compare gene network inference methods showed that an average-ranking-based consensus method consistently performs well under various settings. Here, we propose a linear programming-based consensus method for the inference of gene regulatory networks. Unlike the average-ranking-based one, which treats the contribution of each individual method equally, our new consensus method assigns a weight to each method based on its credibility. As a case study, we applied the proposed consensus method on synthetic and real microarray data sets, and compared its performance to that of the average-ranking-based consensus and individual inference methods. Our results show that our weighted consensus method achieves superior performance over the unweighted one, suggesting that assigning weights to different individual methods rather than giving them equal weights improves the accuracy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: expert consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, John C; Aloia, Thomas A; Crane, Christopher H; Heimbach, Julie K; Nagino, Masato; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists met on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines and to agree consensus statements. It was established that the treatment of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach to optimize the chances for both durable survival and effective palliation. An adequate diagnostic and staging work-up includes high-quality cross-sectional imaging; however, pathologic confirmation is not required prior to resection or initiation of a liver transplant trimodal treatment protocol. The ideal treatment for suitable patients with resectable hilar malignancy is resection of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, as well as resection of the involved ipsilateral liver. Preoperative biliary drainage is best achieved with percutaneous transhepatic approaches and may be indicated for patients with cholangitis, malnutrition or hepatic insufficiency. Portal vein embolization is a safe and effective strategy for increasing the future liver remnant (FLR) and is particularly useful for patients with an FLR of hilar cholangiocarcinoma should be evaluated for a standard trimodal protocol incorporating external beam and endoluminal radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and liver transplantation. Post-resection chemoradiation should be offered to patients who show high-risk features on surgical pathology. Chemoradiation is also recommended for patients with locally advanced, unresectable hilar cancers. For patients with locally recurrent or metastatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma, first-line chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is recommended based on multiple Phase II trials and a large randomized controlled trial including a heterogeneous population of patients with biliary cancers. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  13. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  14. An updated Asia Pacific Consensus Recommendations on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C; Chan, F K L; Chiu, H M; Kim, H S; Matsuda, T; Ng, S S M; Lau, J Y W; Zheng, S; Adler, S; Reddy, N; Yeoh, K G; Tsoi, K K F; Ching, J Y L; Kuipers, E J; Rabeneck, L; Young, G P; Steele, R J; Lieberman, D; Goh, K L

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations. Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements. Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening. Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Highly preserved consensus gene modules in human papilloma virus 16 positive cervical cancer and head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianglan; Cha, In-Ho; Kim, Ki-Yeol

    2017-12-26

    In this study, we investigated the consensus gene modules in head and neck cancer (HNC) and cervical cancer (CC). We used a publicly available gene expression dataset, GSE6791, which included 42 HNC, 14 normal head and neck, 20 CC and 8 normal cervical tissue samples. To exclude bias because of different human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we analyzed HPV16-positive samples only. We identified 3824 genes common to HNC and CC samples. Among these, 977 genes showed high connectivity and were used to construct consensus modules. We demonstrated eight consensus gene modules for HNC and CC using the dissimilarity measure and average linkage hierarchical clustering methods. These consensus modules included genes with significant biological functions, including ATP binding and extracellular exosome. Eigengen network analysis revealed the consensus modules were highly preserved with high connectivity. These findings demonstrate that HPV16-positive head and neck and cervical cancers share highly preserved consensus gene modules with common potentially therapeutic targets.

  16. When good = better than average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A. Moore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These tests distinguish conflation from other explanations, such as differential weighting and selecting the wrong referent. The results suggest that conflation occurs at the response stage during which people attempt to disambiguate subjective response scales in order to choose an answer. This is because conflation has little effect on objective measures, which would be equally affected if the conflation occurred at encoding.

  17. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ω eff 0 ≈ 4 × 10 −6 , with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10 −8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w eff < −1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models

  18. Delay-Induced Consensus and Quasi-Consensus in Multi-Agent Dynamical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming; Ren, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies consensus and quasi-consensus in multi-agent dynamical systems. A linear consensus protocol in the second-order dynamics is designed where both the current and delayed position information is utilized. Time delay, in a common perspective, can induce periodic oscillations or even

  19. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  20. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  1. Limited consensus around ARM information protection practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An existing enterprise IP SoP was adapted to ARM through literature analysis and produced a draft ARM SoP. The draft ARM SoP was applied in a rote fashion to a small sample of government-operated archives to identify likely areas of consensus and lack of consensus surrounding the various elements of the SoP.

  2. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  4. Consensus problem in directed networks of multi-agents via nonlinear protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiwei; Chen Tianping; Lu Wenlian

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the consensus problem via distributed nonlinear protocols for directed networks is investigated. Its dynamical behaviors are described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Based on graph theory, matrix theory and the Lyapunov direct method, some sufficient conditions of nonlinear protocols guaranteeing asymptotical or exponential consensus are presented and rigorously proved. The main contribution of this work is that for nonlinearly coupled networks, we generalize the results for undirected networks to directed networks. Consensus under pinning control technique is also developed here. Simulations are also given to show the validity of the theories.

  5. Automated consensus contour building for prostate MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Inter-observer variability is the lack of agreement among clinicians in contouring a given organ or tumour in a medical image. The variability in medical image contouring is a source of uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Consensus contour of a given case, which was proposed to reduce the variability, is generated by combining the manually generated contours of several clinicians. However, having access to several clinicians (e.g., radiation oncologists) to generate a consensus contour for one patient is costly. This paper presents an algorithm that automatically generates a consensus contour for a given case using the atlases of different clinicians. The algorithm was applied to prostate MR images of 15 patients manually contoured by 5 clinicians. The automatic consensus contours were compared to manual consensus contours where a median Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 88% was achieved.

  6. Consensus statement on genetic research in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikkert, M.G. Olde; der, V van; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the European Dementia Consensus Network developed a consensus on research ethics in dementia, taking into account the questions posed by the era of genetic research and its new research methods. The consensus process started with a Delphi procedure...... to analyze relevant stakeholders' positions by describing their statements on the possibilities and limitations of research into genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease and to describe and analyze the moral desirability of genetic research on Alzheimer disease. The conclusions drawn from the Delphi...... procedure fuelled the development of the consensus statement, which is presented in this paper. The consensus statement aims to stimulate ethically acceptable research in the field of dementia and the protection of vulnerable elderly patients with dementia from application of inadequate research methods...

  7. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

  8. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution

  9. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

  10. [Spanish consensus on infantile haemangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselga Torres, Eulalia; Bernabéu Wittel, José; van Esso Arbolave, Diego L; Febrer Bosch, María Isabel; Carrasco Sanz, Ángel; de Lucas Laguna, Raúl; Del Pozo Losada, Jesús; Hernández Martín, Ángela; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo; López Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos; Martín-Santiago, Ana; Redondo Bellón, Pedro; Ruíz-Canela Cáceres, Juan; Torrelo Fernández, Antonio; Vera Casaño, Ángel; Vicente Villa, María Asunción

    2016-11-01

    Infantile haemangiomas are benign tumours produced by the proliferation of endothelial cells of blood vessels, with a high incidence in children under the age of one year (4-10%). It is estimated that 12% of them require treatment. This treatment must be administered according to clinical practice guidelines, expert experience, patient characteristics and parent preferences. The consensus process was performed by using scientific evidence on the diagnosis and treatment of infantile haemangiomas, culled from a systematic review of the literature, together with specialist expert opinions. The recommendations issued were validated by the specialists, who also provided their level of agreement. This document contains recommendations on the classification, associations, complications, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with infantile haemangioma. It also includes action algorithms, and addresses multidisciplinary management and referral criteria between the different specialities involved in the clinical management of this type of patient. The recommendations and the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms of infantile haemangiomas contained in this document are a useful tool for the proper management of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Consensus Paper: Cerebellum and Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Ferrucci, R; Habas, C; Keulen, S; Kirkby, K C; Leggio, M; Mariën, P; Molinari, M; Moulton, E; Orsi, L; Van Overwalle, F; Papadelis, C; Priori, A; Sacchetti, B; Schutter, D J; Styliadis, C; Verhoeven, J

    2017-04-01

    Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.

  12. Leader-Following Consensus Stability of Discrete-Time Linear Multiagent Systems with Observer-Based Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the leader-following consensus problem of discrete-time multiagent systems on a directed communication topology. Two types of distributed observer-based consensus protocols are considered to solve such a problem. The observers involved in the proposed protocols include full-order observer and reduced-order observer, which are used to reconstruct the state variables. Two algorithms are provided to construct the consensus protocols, which are based on the modified discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation and Sylvester equation. In light of graph and matrix theory, some consensus conditions are established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the obtained result.

  13. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states

  14. Non-fragile consensus algorithms for a network of diffusion PDEs with boundary local interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun; Li, Junmin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, non-fragile consensus algorithm is proposed to solve the average consensus problem of a network of diffusion PDEs, modelled by boundary controlled heat equations. The problem deals with the case where the Neumann-type boundary controllers are corrupted by additive persistent disturbances. To achieve consensus between agents, a linear local interaction rule addressing this requirement is given. The proposed local interaction rules are analysed by applying a Lyapunov-based approach. The multiplicative and additive non-fragile feedback control algorithms are designed and sufficient conditions for the consensus of the multi-agent systems are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities, respectively. Simulation results are presented to support the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  15. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  16. Average and local structure of α-CuI by configurational averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Chris E; Stoelen, Svein

    2007-01-01

    Configurational Boltzmann averaging together with density functional theory are used to study in detail the average and local structure of the superionic α-CuI. We find that the coppers are spread out with peaks in the atom-density at the tetrahedral sites of the fcc sublattice of iodines. We calculate Cu-Cu, Cu-I and I-I pair radial distribution functions, the distribution of coordination numbers and the distribution of Cu-I-Cu, I-Cu-I and Cu-Cu-Cu bond-angles. The partial pair distribution functions are in good agreement with experimental neutron diffraction-reverse Monte Carlo, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and ab initio molecular dynamics results. In particular, our results confirm the presence of a prominent peak at around 2.7 A in the Cu-Cu pair distribution function as well as a broader, less intense peak at roughly 4.3 A. We find highly flexible bonds and a range of coordination numbers for both iodines and coppers. This structural flexibility is of key importance in order to understand the exceptional conductivity of coppers in α-CuI; the iodines can easily respond to changes in the local environment as the coppers diffuse, and a myriad of different diffusion-pathways is expected due to the large variation in the local motifs

  17. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

  18. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  19. The average Indian female nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

  20. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  1. OGC Consensus: How Successful Standards Are Made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Reed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the history, background, and current status of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards development consensus process. The roots of the formation of the OGC lie in the early 1990s when a very strong market requirement for exchanging GIS data content was clearly stated. At that time, each GIS vendor had their own formats for publishing and/or exchanging their GIS data. There was no mechanism or organization that provided a forum for the GIS vendors and GIS data users to collaborate and agree on how to share GIS data. That requirement, along with the vision of a few individuals, led to the formation of the OGC. This paper describes the early development of the consensus process in the OGC, how this process has evolved over time, why consensus is so important for defining open standards that are implemented in the marketplace, and the future of the OGC consensus process.

  2. Overlapping community detection using weighted consensus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Complex networks; overlapping community; consensus clustering. PACS Nos 89.75 ... networks, a person may be in several social groups like family, friends ..... the social interactions between individuals in a karate club in an.

  3. The emergence of consensus: a primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples. It focuses on those situations in which consensus emerges `spontaneously' in the absence of centralized institutions and covers topics that include the macroscopic consequences of the different microscopic rules of behavioural contagion, the role of social networks and the mechanisms that prevent the formation of a consensus or alter it after it has emerged. Special attention is devoted to the recent wave of experiments on the emergence of consensus in social systems.

  4. Statistical Inference for Cultural Consensus Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Social Network Conference XXXII , Redondo Beach, California, March 2012. Agrawal, K. (Presenter), and Batchelder, W. H. Cultural Consensus Theory...Aggregating Complete Signed Graphs Under a Balance Constraint -- Part 2. International Sunbelt Social Network Conference XXXII , Redondo Beach

  5. The concept of average LET values determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarewicz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of average LET (linear energy transfer) values determination, i.e. ordinary moments of LET in absorbed dose distribution vs. LET of ionizing radiation of any kind and any spectrum (even the unknown ones) has been presented. The method is based on measurement of ionization current with several values of voltage supplying an ionization chamber operating in conditions of columnar recombination of ions or ion recombination in clusters while the chamber is placed in the radiation field at the point of interest. By fitting a suitable algebraic expression to the measured current values one can obtain coefficients of the expression which can be interpreted as values of LET moments. One of the advantages of the method is its experimental and computational simplicity. It has been shown that for numerical estimation of certain effects dependent on LET of radiation it is not necessary to know the dose distribution but only a number of parameters of the distribution, i.e. the LET moments. (author)

  6. Judicial Deference Allows European Consensus to Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dothan, Shai

    2018-01-01

    jurisdiction. But the ECHR sometimes defers to countries, even if their policies fall short of the standard accepted by most of the countries in Europe. This deference is accomplished by using the so-called "margin of appreciation" doctrine. Naturally, emerging consensus and margin of appreciation are often......, the paper demonstrates that a correct application of the margin of appreciation doctrine actually helps emerging consensus reach optimal results, by giving countries an incentive to make their policies independently....

  7. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P

    2016-05-01

    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pragmatism and Political Pluralism - Consensus and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Marsonet

    2015-07-01

    In our day the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has in a way revived these Peircean insights, putting forward an influential theory to the effect that consensus indeed plays a key role in human praxis, so that the primary task of philosophy is to foster it by eliminating the disagreement which we constantly have to face in the course of our daily life. In his “communicative theory of consensus,” furthermore, he claims that human communication rests on an implicit commitment to a sort of “ideal speech situation” which is the normative foundation of agreement in linguistic matters. Consequently, the quest for consensus is a constitutive feature of our nature of (rational human beings: rationality and consensus are tied together. A very strong consequence derives from Habermas’ premises: were we to abandon the search for consensus we would lose rationality, too, and this makes us understand that he views the pursuit of consensus as a regulative principle (rather than as a merely practical objective. Rescher opposes both Peirce’s eschatological view and Habermas’ regulative and idealized one.

  9. Average L-shell fluorescence, Auger, and electron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the average L-shell fluorescence and Auger yields on the initial vacancy distribution is shown to be small. By contrast, the average electron yield pertaining to both Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions is shown to display a strong dependence. Numerical examples are given on the basis of Krause's evaluation of subshell radiative and radiationless yields. Average yields are calculated for widely differing vacancy distributions and are intercompared graphically for 40 3 subshell yields in most cases of inner-shell ionization

  10. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Scalar Field Mapping Using Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Hung Manh; Sheng, Weihua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, autonomous mobile sensor networks are deployed to measure a scalar field and build its map. We develop a novel method for multiple mobile sensor nodes to build this map using noisy sensor measurements. Our method consists of two parts. First, we develop a distributed sensor fusion algorithm by integrating two different distributed consensus filters to achieve cooperative sensing among sensor nodes. This fusion algorithm has two phases. In the first phase, the weighted average consensus filter is developed, which allows each sensor node to find an estimate of the value of the scalar field at each time step. In the second phase, the average consensus filter is used to allow each sensor node to find a confidence of the estimate at each time step. The final estimate of the value of the scalar field is iteratively updated during the movement of the mobile sensors via weighted average. Second, we develop the distributed flocking-control algorithm to drive the mobile sensors to form a network and track the virtual leader moving along the field when only a small subset of the mobile sensors know the information of the leader. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate our proposed algorithms.

  12. An Interactive Multi-Model for Consensus on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocarev, Ljupco [University of California, San Diego

    2014-07-02

    This project purports to develop a new scheme for forming consensus among alternative climate models, that give widely divergent projections as to the details of climate change, that is more intelligent than simply averaging the model outputs, or averaging with ex post facto weighting factors. The method under development effectively allows models to assimilate data from one another in run time with weights that are chosen in an adaptive training phase using 20th century data, so that the models synchronize with one another as well as with reality. An alternate approach that is being explored in parallel is the automated combination of equations from different models in an expert-system-like framework.

  13. Consensus based scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a distributed, decentralized method for coordinated scheduling of charge/discharge intervals of storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid. The decentralized algorithm is based on a consensus scheme and solves an optimisation problem with the objective of minimising......, by use of storage capacities, the power flow over a transformer substation from/to the utility grid integrated microgrid. It is shown that when using this coordinated scheduling algorithm, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility grid is achieved. Additionally, mutual charge...

  14. Anomalous behavior of q-averages in nonextensive statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    A generalized definition of average, termed the q-average, is widely employed in the field of nonextensive statistical mechanics. Recently, it has however been pointed out that such an average value may behave unphysically under specific deformations of probability distributions. Here, the following three issues are discussed and clarified. Firstly, the deformations considered are physical and may be realized experimentally. Secondly, in view of the thermostatistics, the q-average is unstable in both finite and infinite discrete systems. Thirdly, a naive generalization of the discussion to continuous systems misses a point, and a norm better than the L 1 -norm should be employed for measuring the distance between two probability distributions. Consequently, stability of the q-average is shown not to be established in all of the cases

  15. Sampled-Data Consensus of Linear Multi-agent Systems With Packet Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang; Huang, Tingwen; Kurths, Jurgen

    In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function approach and the decomposition method, the design problem of a distributed controller is solved in terms of convex optimization. The interplay among the allowable bound of the sampling interval, the probability of random packet losses, and the rate of deterministic packet losses are explicitly derived to characterize consensus conditions. The obtained criteria are closely related to the maximum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix versus the second minimum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix, which reveals the intrinsic effect of communication topologies on consensus performance. Finally, simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function

  16. Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    1987-01-01

    In the past five years, distributed operating systems research has gone through a consolidation phase. On a large number of design issues there is now considerable consensus between different research groups. In this paper, an overview of recent research in distributed systems is given. In turn, the

  17. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  18. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  19. How Many Conformations Need To Be Sampled To Obtain Converged QM/MM Energies? The Curse of Exponential Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryde, Ulf

    2017-11-14

    Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations is a popular approach to study enzymatic reactions. They are often based on a set of minimized structures obtained on snapshots from a molecular dynamics simulation to include some dynamics of the enzyme. It has been much discussed how the individual energies should be combined to obtain a final estimate of the energy, but the current consensus seems to be to use an exponential average. Then, the question is how many snapshots are needed to reach a reliable estimate of the energy. In this paper, I show that the question can be easily be answered if it is assumed that the energies follow a Gaussian distribution. Then, the outcome can be simulated based on a single parameter, σ, the standard deviation of the QM/MM energies from the various snapshots, and the number of required snapshots can be estimated once the desired accuracy and confidence of the result has been specified. Results for various parameters are presented, and it is shown that many more snapshots are required than is normally assumed. The number can be reduced by employing a cumulant approximation to second order. It is shown that most convergence criteria work poorly, owing to the very bad conditioning of the exponential average when σ is large (more than ∼7 kJ/mol), because the energies that contribute most to the exponential average have a very low probability. On the other hand, σ serves as an excellent convergence criterion.

  20. 43 CFR 46.110 - Incorporating consensus-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporating consensus-based management... § 46.110 Incorporating consensus-based management. (a) Consensus-based management incorporates direct... carry out those plans and activities. For the purposes of this Part, consensus-based management involves...

  1. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J.

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$ radio transmissions, which yields a $\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

  2. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  3. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  5. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  6. Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharnitsky, Vadim; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons

  7. Application of Bayesian approach to estimate average level spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongfu; Zhao Zhixiang

    1991-01-01

    A method to estimate average level spacing from a set of resolved resonance parameters by using Bayesian approach is given. Using the information given in the distributions of both levels spacing and neutron width, the level missing in measured sample can be corrected more precisely so that better estimate for average level spacing can be obtained by this method. The calculation of s-wave resonance has been done and comparison with other work was carried out

  8. A precise measurement of the average b hadron lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    An improved measurement of the average b hadron lifetime is performed using a sample of 1.5 million hadronic Z decays, collected during the 1991-1993 runs of ALEPH, with the silicon vertex detector fully operational. This uses the three-dimensional impact parameter distribution of lepton tracks coming from semileptonic b decays and yields an average b hadron lifetime of 1.533 \\pm 0.013 \\pm 0.022 ps.

  9. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  10. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  11. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  12. Consensus and Cognitivism in Habermas's Discourse | Moellendorf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habermas asserts that his discourse ethics rests on two main commitments: 1) Moral judgements have cognitive content analogous to truth value; and 2) moral justification requires real- life discourse. Habermas elaborates on the second claim by making actual consensus a necessary condition of normative validity. I argue ...

  13. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... the purpose of this consensus map (containing QTL) is to provide a tool for scientists to accurately locate molecular markers to ... community with powerful tools for comparative genomics. (Gai et al., 2000; Mekhdov et al., ...... and controlled by almost the same loci (Marquez et al.,. 2000). In the present study ...

  14. Consensus over peri-implantaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, A J

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, in a workshop of the European Federation on Periodontology, a consensus was reached concerning oral peri-implant infections on the basis of the state of the art in the relevant sciences. Important conclusions were that peri-implant mucositis occurs in 80% of subjects with oral implants, and

  15. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  16. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roila, Fausto; Warr, David; Hesketh, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: An update of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute and delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy published after the last MASCC/ESMO antiemetic consensus conference in 2009 has been carried out. METHODS: A systematic literature search using PubMed from Janua...

  17. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  18. Prostate cancer: ESMO Consensus Conference Guidelines 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horwich, A.; Hugosson, J.; de Reijke, T.; Wiegel, T.; Fizazi, K.; Kataja, V.; Parker, Chris; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Berthold, Dominik; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Carlsson, Sigrid; Daugaard, Gedske; de Meerleer, Gert; Dearnaley, David; Fizazi, Karim; Fonteyne, Valérie; Gillessen, Silke; Heinrich, Daniel; Horwich, Alan; Hugosson, Jonas; Kataja, Vesa; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Nilsson, Sten; Padhani, Anwar; Papandreou, Christos; Roobol, Monique; Sella, Avishay; Valdagni, Riccardo; van der Kwast, Theo; Verhagen, Paul; Wiegel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The first ESMO Consensus Conference on prostate cancer was held in Zurich, Switzerland, on 17-19 November 2011, with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals including experts in methodological aspects. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically

  19. A consensus view on liquidity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, V.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    Liquidity risk - which was at the heart of the September 2008 financial meltdown and explains regulatory concerns about a Greek default today - remains an open issue in financial regulatory reform. This column presents a consensus view of several leading academics on what more needs to be done to

  20. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  1. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  2. On spectral averages in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy one tries to obtain a description of systems of bound nucleons. By means of theoretical models one attemps to reproduce the eigenenergies and the corresponding wave functions which then enable the computation of, for example, the electromagnetic moments and the transition amplitudes. Statistical spectroscopy can be used for studying nuclear systems in large model spaces. In this thesis, methods are developed and applied which enable the determination of quantities in a finite part of the Hilbert space, which is defined by specific quantum values. In the case of averages in a space defined by a partition of the nucleons over the single-particle orbits, the propagation coefficients reduce to Legendre interpolation polynomials. In chapter 1 these polynomials are derived with the help of a generating function and a generalization of Wick's theorem. One can then deduce the centroid and the variance of the eigenvalue distribution in a straightforward way. The results are used to calculate the systematic energy difference between states of even and odd parity for nuclei in the mass region A=10-40. In chapter 2 an efficient method for transforming fixed angular momentum projection traces into fixed angular momentum for the configuration space traces is developed. In chapter 3 it is shown that the secular behaviour can be represented by a Gaussian function of the energies. (Auth.)

  3. Building consensus in developing radioactive waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, R.; Philpott, R.; Smith, S.L.; Gibson, J.

    1991-01-01

    To successfully develop radioactive waste management systems, national authorities must work to establish consensus on numerous complex issues among many affected and interested parties. This paper explores the meaning of consensus in waste management, with special attention to the different arenas in which consensus is established and how DOE can respond if consensus is withheld. Highlights of other national waste management programs are introduced to provide a broader perspective on consensus. It is suggested that the US waste management program has reached a point where Congress needs to act to reaffirm consensus on the direction of the US program

  4. The Consensus of Strategic Consensus: A Study of the State of the Art about the Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the strategic consensus, emphasizing the approaches and the nature of the research methods used, the results obtained and the future agenda for this theme studies. Analyzing beyond the last four decades of publications, it was understood that relating the strategic consensus only with the performance and strategic levels can be seen as something limited, suggesting the need to bring to the researching field new aspects and backgrounds as innovation, the methods for generating new ideas, the occurrence beyond the Top Management Team level (TMT, among others. Moreover, concludes that the predominant approach the strategic consensus is a process and the methodology used is based on quantitative techniques. As a suggestion for future studies, this study indicates the investigation of situations in which the strategic consensus is not positive.

  5. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

  6. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J; Marshall, Randall D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Shalev, Arieh Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To provide an update to the "Consensus Statement on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety" that was published in a supplement to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2000) by presenting important developments in the field, the latest recommendations for patient care, and suggestions for future research. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty who were invited by the chair were Randall D. Marshall, Charles B. Nemeroff, Arieh Y. Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review articles in this supplement and the related scientific literature. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed topics to be represented by the 7 review articles in this supplement, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all faculty. There have been advancements in the science and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Attention to this disorder has increased with recent world events; however, continued efforts are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  7. Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Bobes, J; Beidel, D C; Ono, Y; Westenberg, H G

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this consensus statement is to provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Julio Bobes, Deborah C. Beidel, Yukata Ono, and Herman G. M. Westenberg. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review papers published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these papers. The group met over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement underlines the importance of recognizing social anxiety disorder and provides recommendations on how it may be distinguished from other anxiety disorders. It proposes definitions for response and remission and considers appropriate management strategies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy, and effective treatment should be continued for at least 12 months. Long-term treatment is indicated if symptoms are unresolved, the patient has a comorbid condition or a history of relapse, or there was an early onset of the disorder.

  8. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B; Delong, Mahlon R; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S C; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, Hyder A; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E; Mink, Jonathan W; Teller, Jan K

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along 2 axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features); and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Fitness voter model: Damped oscillations and anomalous consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, Anthony; Connaughton, Colm; Merali, Yasmin; Vazquez, Federico

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamics of opinion formation in a heterogeneous voter model on a complete graph, in which each agent is endowed with an integer fitness parameter k≥0, in addition to its + or - opinion state. The evolution of the distribution of k-values and the opinion dynamics are coupled together, so as to allow the system to dynamically develop heterogeneity and memory in a simple way. When two agents with different opinions interact, their k-values are compared, and with probability p the agent with the lower value adopts the opinion of the one with the higher value, while with probability 1-p the opposite happens. The agent that keeps its opinion (winning agent) increments its k-value by one. We study the dynamics of the system in the entire 0≤p≤1 range and compare with the case p=1/2, in which opinions are decoupled from the k-values and the dynamics is equivalent to that of the standard voter model. When 0≤psystem approaches exponentially fast to the consensus state of the initial majority opinion. The mean consensus time τ appears to grow logarithmically with the number of agents N, and it is greatly decreased relative to the linear behavior τ∼N found in the standard voter model. When 1/2system initially relaxes to a state with an even coexistence of opinions, but eventually reaches consensus by finite-size fluctuations. The approach to the coexistence state is monotonic for 1/2oscillations around the coexistence value. The final approach to coexistence is approximately a power law t^{-b(p)} in both regimes, where the exponent b increases with p. Also, τ increases respect to the standard voter model, although it still scales linearly with N. The p=1 case is special, with a relaxation to coexistence that scales as t^{-2.73} and a consensus time that scales as τ∼N^{β}, with β≃1.45.

  10. Learning Gene Regulatory Networks Computationally from Gene Expression Data Using Weighted Consensus

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Chisato

    2015-04-16

    Gene regulatory networks analyze the relationships between genes allowing us to un- derstand the gene regulatory interactions in systems biology. Gene expression data from the microarray experiments is used to obtain the gene regulatory networks. How- ever, the microarray data is discrete, noisy and non-linear which makes learning the networks a challenging problem and existing gene network inference methods do not give consistent results. Current state-of-the-art study uses the average-ranking-based consensus method to combine and average the ranked predictions from individual methods. However each individual method has an equal contribution to the consen- sus prediction. We have developed a linear programming-based consensus approach which uses learned weights from linear programming among individual methods such that the methods have di↵erent weights depending on their performance. Our result reveals that assigning di↵erent weights to individual methods rather than giving them equal weights improves the performance of the consensus. The linear programming- based consensus method is evaluated and it had the best performance on in silico and Saccharomyces cerevisiae networks, and the second best on the Escherichia coli network outperformed by Inferelator Pipeline method which gives inconsistent results across a wide range of microarray data sets.

  11. Pareto Principle in Datamining: an Above-Average Fencing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Macek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a new datamining problem: which subset of input space has the relatively highest output where the minimal size of this subset is given. This can be useful where usual datamining methods fail because of error distribution asymmetry. The paper provides a novel algorithm for this datamining problem, and compares it with clustering of above-average individuals.

  12. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwendicke, F.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.F.; Innes, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental

  13. Consensus Through Conversation How to Achieve High-Commitment Decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dressler, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Facilitation expert Larry Dressler's Consensus Through Conversation is a guide for the effective facilitation and practice of one of business's most popular - but most widely misunderstood - decision-making models: consensus.

  14. 76 FR 45647 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... previously accepted consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport... Light Sport Aircraft developed the revised standards with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  15. [First SIBEN clinical consensus: diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, S G; Sola, A; Baquero, H; Borbonet, D; Cabañas, F; Fajardo, C; Goldsmit, G; Lemus, L; Miura, E; Pellicer, A; Pérez, J M; Rogido, M; Zambosco, G; van Overmeire, B

    2008-11-01

    To report the process and results of the first neonatal clinical consensus of the Ibero-American region. Two recognized experts in the field (Clyman and Van Overmeire) and 45 neonatologists from 23 countries were invited for active participation and collaboration. We developed 46 questions of clinical-physiological relevance in all aspects of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Guidelines for consensus process, literature search and future preparation of educational material and authorship were developed, reviewed and agreed by all. Participants from different countries were distributed in groups, and assigned to interact and work together to answer 3-5 questions, reviewing all global literature and local factors. Answers and summaries were received, collated and reviewed by 2 coordinators and the 2 experts. Participants and experts met in Granada, Spain for 4.5 h (lectures by experts, presentations by groups, discussion, all literature available). 31 neonatologists from 16 countries agreed to participate. Presentations by each group and general discussion were used to develop a consensus regarding: general management, availability of drugs (indomethacin vs. ibuprofen), costs, indications for echo/surgery, etc. Many steps were learnt by all present in a collaborative forum. This first consensus group of Ibero-American neonatologists SIBEN led to active and collaborative participation of neonatologists of 16 countries, improved education of all participants and ended with consensus development on clinical approaches to PDA. Furthermore, it provides recommendations for clinical care reached by consensus. Additionally, it will serve as a useful foundation for future SIBEN Consensus on other topics and it could become valuable as a model to decrease disparity in care and improve outcomes in this and other regions.

  16. [Experts consensus of dental esthetic photography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    Clinical photography in esthetic dentistry is an essential skill in clinical practice. It is widely applied clinically in multiple fields related to esthetic dentistry. Society of Esthetic Dentistry of Chinese Stomatological Association established a consensus for clinical photography and standards for images in esthetic dentistry in order to standardize domestic dental practitioners' procedure, and meet the demands of diagnosis and design in modern esthetic dentistry. It was also developed to facilitate domestic and international academic communication. Sixteen commonly used images in practice, which are of apparent importance in guiding esthetic analysis, design and implementation, are proposed in the standards. This consensus states the clinical significance of these images and the standard protocol of acquiring them.

  17. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. ESMO consensus conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladetto, M; Buske, C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommen......The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B-cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop...... to their potentially high prognostic value, at least in some lymphoma entities, implementation of interim PET, COO and MRD was highly recommended in the context of clinical trials. All expert panel members approved this final article....

  19. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the reporting of exercise programs in all evaluative study designs and contains 7 categories: materials, provider, delivery, location, dosage, tailoring, and compliance. The CERT will encourage transparency, improve trial interpretation and replication, and facilitate implementation of effective exercise......BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical...... trials: the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT). DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the EQUATOR Network's methodological framework, 137 exercise experts were invited to participate in a Delphi consensus study. A list of 41 items was identified from a meta-epidemiologic study of 73 systematic reviews...

  20. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  1. Second-Order Multiagent Systems with Event-Driven Consensus Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-driven control scheduling strategies for multiagent systems play a key role in future use of embedded microprocessors of limited resources that gather information and actuate the agent control updates. In this paper, a distributed event-driven consensus problem is considered for a multi-agent system with second-order dynamics. Firstly, two kinds of event-driven control laws are, respectively, designed for both leaderless and leader-follower systems. Then, the input-to-state stability of the closed-loop multi-agent system with the proposed event-driven consensus control is analyzed and the bound of the inter-event times is ensured. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed event-driven consensus control.

  2. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  3. IAEA Director General welcomes NPT consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that the Director General of the IAEA welcomed the adoption with consensus by the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of the final document on the review and operation of the Treaty, and that he was pleased by the vote of confidence shown in the IAEA and its role in the implementation of the Treaty

  4. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  6. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert...... lesions in gout, demonstrated good reliability overall. It constitutes an essential step in developing a core outcome measurement that permits a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability between multicentre studies....

  7. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Valdovinos; E. Montijo; A.T. Abreu; S. Heller; A. González-Garay; D. Bacarreza; M. Bielsa-Fernández; M.C. Bojórquez-Ramos; F. Bosques-Padilla; A.I. Burguete-García; R. Carmona-Sánchez; A. Consuelo-Sánchez; E. Coss-Adame; J.A. Chávez-Barrera; M. de Ariño

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. Aim: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendati...

  8. Applying consensus standards to cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatham, J.; Abbott, D.G.; Warrant, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is procuring cask systems for transporting commercial spent nuclear fuel and is encouraging development of innovative cask designs and materials to improve system efficiency. New designs and innovative materials require that consensus standards be established so that cask designers and regulators have criteria for determining acceptability. Recent DOE experience in certifying three spent fuel shipping casks, NUPAC-125B, TN-BRP, and TN-REG, is discussed. Certification of the NUPAC-125B was expedited because it was made of conventional American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) materials and complied with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides. The TN-BRP and TN-REG cask designs are still being reviewed because baskets included in the casks are made of borated stainless steel, which has no ASTM Specification or ASME Code approval. The process of developing and approving consensus standards is discussed, including the role of ANSI and ANSI N14. Specific procedures for ASTM and ASME are described. A draft specification or standard must be prepared and then approved by the appropriate body. For new material applications to the ASME Code, an existing ASTM Specification is needed. These processes may require several years. The status of activities currently in progress to develop consensus standards for spent fuel casks is discussed, including (1) ASME NUPAC, and (2) ASTM Specifications for ductile cast iron and borated stainless steel

  9. ESMO Consensus Conference on malignant lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buske, C; Hutchings, M; Ladetto, M

    2018-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop recommen......The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus conference on mature B cell lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was held on 20 June 2015 in Lugano, Switzerland, and included a multidisciplinary panel of 25 leading experts. The aim of the conference was to develop...... of the three key areas identified. This manuscript presents the consensus recommendations regarding the clinical management of elderly patients diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Four clinically-relevant topics identified by the panel were: 1) how to define patient fitness, 2) assessing quality of life, 3......) diagnostic work-up and 4) clinical management of elderly patients with lymphoma. Each of these key topics is addressed in the context of five different lymphoma entities, namely: CLL, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Results, including...

  10. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  11. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2015-04-01

    Achalasia is an important but relatively uncommon disorder. While highly effective therapeutic options exist, esophageal cancer remains a long-term potential complication. The risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia remains unclear, with current guidelines recommending against routine endoscopic screening. However, given limited data and conflicting opinion, it is unknown whether consensus regarding screening practices in achalasia among experts exists. A 10-question survey to assess screening practices in achalasia was created and distributed to 28 experts in the area of achalasia. Experts were identified based on publications and meeting presentations in the field. Survey responses were received from 17 of 28 (61%) experts. Wide geographic distribution was seen among respondents, with eight (47%) from Europe or Australia, seven (41%) from the United States, and two (12%) from Asia. Screening for esophageal cancer was inconsistent, with nine (53%) experts endorsing the practice and eight (47%) not. Screening practices did not differ among geographic regions. No consensus regarding the risk for esophageal cancer in achalasia was seen, with three experts reporting no increased risk compared with the general population, eight experts a lifetime risk of 0.1-0.5%, three experts a 0.5-1% risk, two experts a 1-2% risk, and one expert a 3-5% risk. However, these differences in perception of risk did not influence screening practices. Upper endoscopy was utilized among all experts who endorsed screening. However, practices still varied with screening commencing at or within 1 year of diagnosis in two practices compared with 5 and 10 years in three respective practices each. Surveillance intervals also varied, performed every 2 years in four practices, every 3 years in four practices, and every 5 years in one practice. Practice variation in the management of achalasia itself was also seen, with initial treatment with Heller myotomy endorsed by eight experts, pneumatic

  12. Averaging for solitons with nonlinearity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelinovsky, D.E.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an averaging method for solitons of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a periodically varying nonlinearity coefficient, which is used to effectively describe solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, in the context of the recently proposed technique of Feshbach resonance management. Using the derived local averaged equation, we study matter-wave bright and dark solitons and demonstrate a very good agreement between solutions of the averaged and full equations

  13. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Minute Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-minute average of Level 1 data

  14. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Second Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-second average of Level 1 data

  15. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  16. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  17. Bounds on Average Time Complexity of Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, bounds on the average depth and the average weighted depth of decision trees are considered. Similar problems are studied in search theory [1], coding theory [77], design and analysis of algorithms (e.g., sorting) [38]. For any diagnostic problem, the minimum average depth of decision tree is bounded from below by the entropy of probability distribution (with a multiplier 1/log2 k for a problem over a k-valued information system). Among diagnostic problems, the problems with a complete set of attributes have the lowest minimum average depth of decision trees (e.g, the problem of building optimal prefix code [1] and a blood test study in assumption that exactly one patient is ill [23]). For such problems, the minimum average depth of decision tree exceeds the lower bound by at most one. The minimum average depth reaches the maximum on the problems in which each attribute is "indispensable" [44] (e.g., a diagnostic problem with n attributes and kn pairwise different rows in the decision table and the problem of implementing the modulo 2 summation function). These problems have the minimum average depth of decision tree equal to the number of attributes in the problem description. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  18. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Baldwin, D S; den Boer, J A; Kasper, S; Shear, M K

    1998-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four faculty invited by the chairman also participated: David S. Baldwin, Johan A. den Boer, Siegfried Kasper, and M. Katherine Shear. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review papers that are published in this supplement and on the scientific literature relevant to these issues. There were group meetings held during a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed each review paper and the chairman and discussant (Dr. Kasper) identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these key issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chairman and approved by all attendees. The consensus statement provides standard definitions for response and remission and identifies appropriate strategy for the management of panic disorder in a primary care setting. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors are recommended as drugs of first choice with a treatment period of 12 to 24 months. Pharmacotherapy should be discontinued slowly over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  19. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General...

  20. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  1. Constructive conflict and staff consensus in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Wexler, Harry K; Chaple, Michael; Cleland, Charles M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the relationship between consensus among both staff and clients with client engagement in treatment and between client consensus and 1-year treatment outcomes. The present article explores the correlates of staff consensus, defined as the level of agreement among staff as to the importance of treatment activities in their program, using a national sample of 80 residential substance abuse treatment programs. Constructive conflict resolution had the largest effect on consensus. Low client-to-staff ratios, staff education, and staff experience in substance abuse treatment were also significantly related to consensus. Frequency of training, an expected correlate of consensus, was negatively associated with consensus, whereas frequency of supervision was not a significant correlate. The implications of the findings for future research and program improvement are discussed.

  2. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  3. Renewable Energy Power Generation Estimation Using Consensus Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jehanzeb; Najm-ul-Islam, M.; Ahmed, Salman

    2017-08-01

    At the small consumer level, Photo Voltaic (PV) panel based grid tied systems are the most common form of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Unlike wind which is suitable for only selected locations, PV panels can generate electricity almost anywhere. Pakistan is currently one of the most energy deficient countries in the world. In order to mitigate this shortage the Government has recently announced a policy of net-metering for residential consumers. After wide spread adoption of DERs, one of the issues that will be faced by load management centers would be accurate estimate of the amount of electricity being injected in the grid at any given time through these DERs. This becomes a critical issue once the penetration of DER increases beyond a certain limit. Grid stability and management of harmonics becomes an important consideration where electricity is being injected at the distribution level and through solid state controllers instead of rotating machinery. This paper presents a solution using graph theoretic methods for the estimation of total electricity being injected in the grid in a wide spread geographical area. An agent based consensus approach for distributed computation is being used to provide an estimate under varying generation conditions.

  4. New ICRP recommendations 2005: without full consensus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Ionising radiation is viewed as one of the most studied of all known carcinogens. Over the last 50 years Recommendations of International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been changed regularly every 10 years. At the beginning these changes were significant, sometimes even radical, according to quick acquiring of new scientific evidence on physical, biological and health effects of radiation. In order to handle each new situation evolution of the radiation protection system has been extended and new portions have been added (the ubiquitous exposure of public to radon gas and its progeny, and the need to develop an appropriate response to emergency situations, increasing social desire to participate in decision making processes, concern for the protection of non-human species and environment), that resulted in a system that is increasingly complicated. Over the last few years very broad discussions of major radiation protection concepts have been encouraged by the ICRP in order to achieve consensus on a more operational and coherent system of radiation protection elaborated in a transparent fashion, and presented in readily understandable terms. This process for the first time involves a broad spectrum of stake holders in these discussions. It is further assumed that these debates will eventually result in consensus on the basis for the next round of ICRP general recommendations, probably in the 2005. While now it is certain that the consensus is not yet reached within the international community and the discussion of these issues will continue for some time the new recommendations should be seen as a consolidation of recommendations from 1990 to give a single unified set that can be simply and coherently expressed. The paper presents essential issues of the outcome of the Commission discussions and improvement of the current system of radiation protection.(author)

  5. II Brazilian consensus statement on endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf-Filho, Fauze; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Carbonari, Augusto; Maciente, Bruno Antônio; Salomão, Bruno Chaves; Medrado, Bruno Frederico; Dotti, Carlos Marcelo; Lopes, César Vivian; Braga, Cláudia Utsch; M Dutra, Daniel Alencar; Retes, Felipe; Nakao, Frank; de Sousa, Giovana Biasia; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Ardengh, Jose Celso; Dos Santos, Juliana Bonfim; Sampaio, Luciana Moura; Okawa, Luciano; Rossini, Lucio; de Brito Cardoso, Manoel Carlos; Ribeiro Camunha, Marco Antonio; Clarêncio, Marcos; Lera Dos Santos, Marcos Eduardo; Franco, Matheus; Schneider, Nutianne Camargo; Mascarenhas, Ramiro; Roda, Rodrigo; Matuguma, Sérgio; Guaraldi, Simone; Figueiredo, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    At the time of its introduction in the early 80s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was indicated for diagnostic purposes. Recently, EUS has been employed to assist or to be the main platform of complex therapeutic interventions. From a series of relevant new topics in the literature and based on the need to complement the I Brazilian consensus on EUS, twenty experienced endosonographers identified and reviewed the pertinent literature in databases. The quality of evidence, strength of recommendations, and level of consensus were graded and voted on. Consensus was reached for eight relevant topics: treatment of gastric varices, staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer, biliary drainage, tissue sampling of subepithelial lesions (SELs), treatment of pancreatic fluid collections, tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions, celiac neurolysis, and evaluation of the incidental pancreatic cysts. There is a high level of evidence for staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer; biopsy of SELs as the safest method; unilateral and bilateral injection techniques are equivalent for EUS-guided celiac neurolysis, and in patients with visible ganglia, celiac ganglia neurolysis appears to lead to better results. There is a moderate level of evidence for: yield of tissue sampling of pancreatic solid lesions is not influenced by the needle shape, gauge, or employed aspiration technique; EUS-guided and percutaneous biliary drainage present similar clinical success and adverse event rates; plastic and metallic stents are equivalent in the EUS-guided treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst. There is a low level of evidence in the routine use of EUS-guided treatment of gastric varices.

  6. Energy consensus talks collapse over nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Germany's energy consensus talks, ongoing since March 1993, were brought to unsuccessful end on October 26. Representatives from the Social Democratic Party (SDP), led by Lower Saxony's prime minister, Gerhard Schroeder, failed to get approval from party leaders on continued development of advanced reactors with enhanced safety - notably the Siemens/Framatome-designed 1500-MWe European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plan, for which the prospective schedule envisages a construction start in 1998. Nor would the SDP leadership accept the continued operation of existing nuclear plans to the end of their design life (some 20 to 25 years)

  7. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Valdovinos

    2017-04-01

    Results and conclusions: Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. International consensus and States non-Parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.

    1996-01-01

    It is significant to recognize the contribution that international law can make to the promotion of consensus for arms control. Issues surface with a constancy that demand consistent, codified responses. International law should be more powerful, especially in addressing non-members and non-complying states. Successful negotiation of a multilateral treaty is not an end but a means to establish a law enforcement system capable of promoting important global interests. Accordingly arms control should generate the development of authoritative legal doctrines and institutions that can meet the challenge

  9. Computation of the bounce-average code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, T.A.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rensink, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The bounce-average computer code simulates the two-dimensional velocity transport of ions in a mirror machine. The code evaluates and bounce-averages the collision operator and sources along the field line. A self-consistent equilibrium magnetic field is also computed using the long-thin approximation. Optionally included are terms that maintain μ, J invariance as the magnetic field changes in time. The assumptions and analysis that form the foundation of the bounce-average code are described. When references can be cited, the required results are merely stated and explained briefly. A listing of the code is appended

  10. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  11. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  12. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic

  13. Should the average tax rate be marginalized?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feldman, N. E.; Katuščák, Peter

    -, č. 304 (2006), s. 1-65 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : tax * labor supply * average tax Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp304.pdf

  14. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  15. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  16. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  17. Effect of random edge failure on the average path length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Dongchao; Liang Mangui; Li Dandan; Jiang Zhongyuan, E-mail: mgliang58@gmail.com, E-mail: 08112070@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-14

    We study the effect of random removal of edges on the average path length (APL) in a large class of uncorrelated random networks in which vertices are characterized by hidden variables controlling the attachment of edges between pairs of vertices. A formula for approximating the APL of networks suffering random edge removal is derived first. Then, the formula is confirmed by simulations for classical ER (Erdoes and Renyi) random graphs, BA (Barabasi and Albert) networks, networks with exponential degree distributions as well as random networks with asymptotic power-law degree distributions with exponent {alpha} > 2. (paper)

  18. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  19. Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.

    1984-01-01

    An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles

  20. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...... for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy....

  1. Methodological Quality of Consensus Guidelines in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Apaza, Karol; Ariza-Fritas, Tania; Málaga, Lilian; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Consensus guidelines are useful to improve clinical decision making. Therefore, the methodological evaluation of these guidelines is of paramount importance. Low quality information may guide to inadequate or harmful clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological quality of consensus guidelines published in implant dentistry using a validated methodological instrument. The six implant dentistry journals with impact factors were scrutinised for consensus guidelines related to implant dentistry. Two assessors independently selected consensus guidelines, and four assessors independently evaluated their methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Disagreements in the selection and evaluation of guidelines were resolved by consensus. First, the consensus guidelines were analysed alone. Then, systematic reviews conducted to support the guidelines were included in the analysis. Non-parametric statistics for dependent variables (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare both groups. Of 258 initially retrieved articles, 27 consensus guidelines were selected. Median scores in four domains (applicability, rigour of development, stakeholder involvement, and editorial independence), expressed as percentages of maximum possible domain scores, were below 50% (median, 26%, 30.70%, 41.70%, and 41.70%, respectively). The consensus guidelines and consensus guidelines + systematic reviews data sets could be compared for 19 guidelines, and the results showed significant improvements in all domain scores (p dentistry journals is needed. The findings of the present study may help researchers to better develop consensus guidelines in implant dentistry, which will improve the quality and trust of information needed to make proper clinical decisions.

  2. Stabilizing IkappaBalpha by "consensus" design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Diego U; Cervantes, Carla F; Truhlar, Stephanie M E; Cho, Samuel S; Wolynes, Peter G; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-26

    IkappaBalpha is the major regulator of transcription factor NF-kappaB function. The ankyrin repeat region of IkappaBalpha mediates specific interactions with NF-kappaB dimers, but ankyrin repeats 1, 5 and 6 display a highly dynamic character when not in complex with NF-kappaB. Using chemical denaturation, we show here that IkappaBalpha displays two folding transitions: a non-cooperative conversion under weak perturbation, and a major cooperative folding phase upon stronger insult. Taking advantage of a native Trp residue in ankyrin repeat (AR) 6 and engineered Trp residues in AR2, AR4 and AR5, we show that the cooperative transition involves AR2 and AR3, while the non-cooperative transition involves AR5 and AR6. The major structural transition can be affected by single amino acid substitutions converging to the "consensus" ankyrin repeat sequence, increasing the native state stability significantly. We further characterized the structural and dynamic properties of the native state ensemble of IkappaBalpha and the stabilized mutants by H/(2)H exchange mass spectrometry and NMR. The solution experiments were complemented with molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the microscopic origins of the stabilizing effect of the consensus substitutions, which can be traced to the fast conformational dynamics of the folded ensemble.

  3. Dialogic Consensus In Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Paul; Lovat, Terry

    2016-12-01

    This paper is predicated on the understanding that clinical encounters between clinicians and patients should be seen primarily as inter-relations among persons and, as such, are necessarily moral encounters. It aims to relocate the discussion to be had in challenging medical decision-making situations, including, for example, as the end of life comes into view, onto a more robust moral philosophical footing than is currently commonplace. In our contemporary era, those making moral decisions must be cognizant of the existence of perspectives other than their own, and be attuned to the demands of inter-subjectivity. Applicable to clinical practice, we propose and justify a Habermasian approach as one useful means of achieving what can be described as dialogic consensus. The Habermasian approach builds around, first, his discourse theory of morality as universalizable to all and, second, communicative action as a cooperative search for truth. It is a concrete way to ground the discourse which must be held in complex medical decision-making situations, in its actual reality. Considerations about the theoretical underpinnings of the application of dialogic consensus to clinical practice, and potential difficulties, are explored.

  4. Consensus for the brain metastases treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabadan, Alejandra; Diez, Blanca; Martinez, Ana M.; Antico, Julio; Saidon, Patricia; Christiansen, Silvia; Rojas, Galeno

    2006-01-01

    The advancement in oncology therapies has made brain metastases treatment a major factor influencing the survival time and quality of life of patients with cancer. Although there are numerous publications on the issue, there is not yet to be consensus regarding the best strategy for treatment, which is probably due to population heterogeneity in terms of functional status, type of neoplasia, control of the systemic disease, and the number and localization of the lesions in the central nervous system. Our objective is to present general recommendations based on rational analysis in order to guide the practical management of brain metastases. With this purpose, a multidisciplinary team composed by neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neuro-pathologist, radio therapist and neurologists was brought together, conducting a thorough search, in english and spanish, for publications in Pub- Med from 1980 to July 2006 (the starting period was set at the beginning of use of RM in medical practice). Review and original articles with n= or >20 were selected. Also, book chapters of renowned authors in the different consulted areas were included. The assessment of the literature, in addition to the experience of the authors allowed for the development of the 'Consensus for the brain metastases treatment'. Finally, the authors expect the present work will contribute to the multidisciplinary approach for the management of brain metastases with simple and practical recommendations, and probably stimulating future developments in this field. (author)

  5. Calcium hydroxylapatite for jawline rejuvenation: consensus recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallara, Jean-Marie; Baspeyras, Martine; Bui, Patrick; Cartier, Hugues; Charavel, Marie-Hélène; Dumas, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Age-associated volume loss is now known to play an important role in the structural changes of the aging face. In the lower face, this manifests as drooping of the corners of the mouth and jowl leading to a loss of the oval jawline of youth. Jawline reshaping by replacing volume has therefore become an indispensable component of modern facial rejuvenation. Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA; Radiesse® , Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany) is an injectable filler with a cosmetic indication for tissue augmentation. The ability of calcium hydroxylapatite to provide immediate and long-lasting volume enhancement makes it an ideal agent for restoring an oval jawline. This consensus statement has been developed to assist clinicians who would like to gain more experience in the use of volumizing agents to achieve an optimal outcome with this procedure. Using the recently developed Merz Aesthetics Scale® for jawline, the consensus provides a treatment protocol for individuals at each stage of oval loss and presents a series of before and after images to illustrate the improvements that can be achieved. Specific recommendations for calcium hydroxylapatite including type of anesthesia, injection techniques, volume for injection, use in combination with other procedures, and expected duration of corrections are provided. Techniques for minimizing and managing expected problems and potential complications are also described. Calcium hydroxylapatite is appropriate for treating patients at any stage of oval loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreskin, Stephen C; Halsey, Neal A; Kelso, John M; Wood, Robert A; Hummell, Donna S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Engler, Renata J M; Gold, Michael S; Ponvert, Claude; Demoly, Pascal; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Muraro, Antonella; Li, James T; Rottem, Menachem; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists. Consensus was reached on a variety of topics, including: definition of immediate allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, approaches to distinguish association from causality, approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to a previous vaccine, and approaches to patients with a history of an allergic reaction to components of vaccines. This document provides comprehensive and internationally accepted guidelines and access to on-line documents to help practitioners around the world identify allergic reactions following immunization. It also provides a framework for the evaluation and further management of patients who present either following an allergic reaction to a vaccine or with a history of allergy to a component of vaccines.

  7. Maastricht consensus-5: analytical review of statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the statements of Maastricht consensus-5 on H. pylori infection studying. There was shown the changes in approaches to diagnostics and treatment of H. pylori infection in previous Maastricht consensuses. H. pylori associated gastritis was considered to be an infection disease. There was also analyzed the relation between this infection and gatroduodenal pathology including functional dyspepsia, NSAID-gastropathy and others. The paper deals with up-to-date approaches to diagnostics of H. pylori infection with determination of the most optimal diagnostic method in different situations. The approaches to antihelicobacter therapy were analyzed. The special attention was paid to dependence of modern therapeutic schemes of helicobacteriosis therapy on H. pylori resistance to key antibiotics. There was confirmed the importance of H. pylori eradication for prevention of precancerous changes in the stomach. The increased interest of researchers to non-helicobacter flora in the stomach was shown. There was regarded an important role of probiotics in antihelicobacter therapy.

  8. [SECOT consensus on painful knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J; Macule, F; Bello, S; Chana, F; Forriol, F

    2013-01-01

    The opinions of 21 experts in knee surgery were evaluated in this study, using a DELPHI questionnaire method in two successive rounds, on 64 controversial scenarios that covered both the diagnosis and possible treatment of painful knee replacements. The level of consensus was significantly unanimous in 42 items and of the design in 5, with no agreement in 17 of the questions presented. light of the published scientific evidence, the surgeons who took part showed to have a notable level of information on the most effective diagnostic tests, although, it should be pointed out that there was a lack of confidence in the possibility of ruling out an infection when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein were within normal values, which have been demonstrated in the literature to have a high negative predictive value As regards the treatments to employ in the different situations, the responses of the expert panel were mainly in agreement with the data in the literature. The conclusions of this consensus may help other surgeons when they are faced with a painful knee prosthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models for double bounded environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Fábio Mariano; Bayer, Débora Missio; Pumi, Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we introduce the Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models (KARMA), which is a dynamic class of models for time series taking values in the double bounded interval (a,b) following the Kumaraswamy distribution. The Kumaraswamy family of distribution is widely applied in many areas, especially hydrology and related fields. Classical examples are time series representing rates and proportions observed over time. In the proposed KARMA model, the median is modeled by a dynamic structure containing autoregressive and moving average terms, time-varying regressors, unknown parameters and a link function. We introduce the new class of models and discuss conditional maximum likelihood estimation, hypothesis testing inference, diagnostic analysis and forecasting. In particular, we provide closed-form expressions for the conditional score vector and conditional Fisher information matrix. An application to environmental real data is presented and discussed.

  10. Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballenger, JC; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, DJ; Baldwin, DS; den Boer, JA; Kasper, S; Shear, MK

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in panic disorder and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. Participants: The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C.

  11. Consensus statement on posttraumatic stress disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Foa, E B; Kessler, R C; McFarlane, A C; Shalev, A Y

    2000-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate management strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty invited by the chair were Edna B. Foa, Ronald C. Kessler, Alexander C. McFarlane, and Arieh Y. Shalev. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. PTSD is often a chronic and recurring condition associated with an increased risk of developing secondary comorbid disorders, such as depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are generally the most appropriate choice of first-line medication for PTSD, and effective therapy should be continued for 12 months or longer. The most appropriate psychotherapy is exposure therapy, and it should be continued for 6 months, with follow-up therapy as needed.

  12. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  13. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  14. The Mexican consensus on chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Remes-Troche

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Significant advances have been made in the knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic constipation, since the publication of the 2011 guidelines on chronic constipation diagnosis and treatment in Mexico from the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Aims: To present a consensus review of the current state of knowledge about chronic constipation, providing updated information and integrating the new scientific evidence. Methods: Three general coordinators reviewed the literature published within the time frame of January 2011 and January 2017. From that information, 62 initial statements were formulated and then sent to 12 national experts for their revision. The statements were voted upon, using the Delphi system in 3 voting rounds (2 electronic and one face-to-face. The statements were classified through the GRADE system and those that reached agreement > 75% were included in the consensus. Results and conclusions: The present consensus is made up of 42 final statements that provide updated knowledge, supplementing the information that had not been included in the previous guidelines. The strength of recommendation and quality (level of evidence were established for each statement. The current definitions of chronic constipation, functional constipation, and opioid-induced constipation are given, and diagnostic strategies based on the available diagnostic methods are described. The consensus treatment recommendations were established from evidence on the roles of diet and exercise, fiber, laxatives, new drugs (such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, biofeedback therapy, and surgery. Resumen: Introducción: Desde la publicación de las guías de diagnóstico y tratamiento del estreñimiento crónico (EC en México de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología en el 2011 se han producido avances significativos en el conocimiento de la

  15. Average contraction and synchronization of complex switched networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Wang Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an average contraction analysis for nonlinear switched systems and applies it to investigating the synchronization of complex networks of coupled systems with switching topology. For a general nonlinear system with a time-dependent switching law, a basic convergence result is presented according to average contraction analysis, and a special case where trajectories of a distributed switched system converge to a linear subspace is then investigated. Synchronization is viewed as the special case with all trajectories approaching the synchronization manifold, and is thus studied for complex networks of coupled oscillators with switching topology. It is shown that the synchronization of a complex switched network can be evaluated by the dynamics of an isolated node, the coupling strength and the time average of the smallest eigenvalue associated with the Laplacians of switching topology and the coupling fashion. Finally, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. (paper)

  16. Nuclear fuel management via fuel quality factor averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingle, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The numerical procedure of prime number averaging is applied to the fuel quality factor distribution of once and twice-burned fuel in order to evolve a fuel management scheme. The resulting fuel shuffling arrangement produces a near optimal flat power profile both under beginning-of-life and end-of-life conditions. The procedure is easily applied requiring only the solution of linear algebraic equations. (author)

  17. Seeking consensus for cyberinfrastructure governance in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. Lee; Zanzkerkia, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Governance of geosciences cyberinfrastructure is a complex and essential undertaking, critical in enabling distributed knowledge communities to collaborate and communicate across disciplines, distances, and cultures. Advancing science with respect to "grand challenges," such as global change, Earth system observation, modeling, and prediction, and core fundamental science, depends not just on technical cyber systems, but also on social systems for strategic planning, decision-making, project management, learning, teaching, and building a community of practice. Simply put, a robust, agile technical system depends on an equally robust and adaptable social system. Cyberinfrastructure development is wrapped in social, organizational and governance challenges which may significantly impede technical progress and result in inefficiencies, duplication of effort, incompatibilities, wasted resources or user frustration. These issues are also the most time consuming to resolve due to significant institutional and social inertia: hence the urgency for developing a governance blueprint. An agile development process is underway for governance of transformative investments in geosciences cyberinfrastructure through the US National Science Foundation's EarthCube Program. Agile development is iterative and incremental, and promotes adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness. A broad coalition of stakeholder groups comprises an Assembly to serve as a preliminary venue for identifying, evaluating, and testing potential governance models. To offer opportunity for ensure broader end-user input and buy-in, a crowd-source approach engages stakeholders not involved otherwise in the Assembly. Developmental evaluators from the social sciences embedded in the project will provide real-time review and adjustments. In order to ensure an open and

  18. Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

    2013-09-01

    Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

  19. Consensus based on learning game theory with a UAV rendezvous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent cooperation problems are becoming more and more attractive in both civilian and military applications. In multi-agent cooperation problems, different network topologies will decide different manners of cooperation between agents. A centralized system will directly control the operation of each agent with information flow from a single centre, while in a distributed system, agents operate separately under certain communication protocols. In this paper, a systematic distributed optimization approach will be established based on a learning game algorithm. The convergence of the algorithm will be proven under the game theory framework. Two typical consensus problems will be analyzed with the proposed algorithm. The contributions of this work are threefold. First, the designed algorithm inherits the properties in learning game theory for problem simplification and proof of convergence. Second, the behaviour of learning endows the algorithm with robustness and autonomy. Third, with the proposed algorithm, the consensus problems will be analyzed from a novel perspective.

  20. On the Control of Consensus Networks: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoba de Badyn, Mathias

    Signed networks allow the study of positive and negative interactions between agents. In this thesis, three papers are presented that address controllability of networked dynamics. First, controllability of signed consensus networks is approached from a symmetry perspective, for both linear and nonlinear consensus protocols. It is shown that the graph-theoretic property of signed networks known as structural balance renders the consensus protocol uncontrollable when coupled with a certain type of symmetry. Stabilizability and output controllability of signed linear consensus is also examined, as well as a data-driven approach to finding bipartite consensus stemming from structural balance for signed nonlinear consensus. Second, an algorithm is constructed that allows one to grow a network while preserving controllability, and some generalizations of this algorithm are presented. Submodular optimization is used to analyze a second algorithm that adds nodes to a network to maximize the network connectivity.

  1. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-01-01

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. Images PMID:2762148

  2. Consensus of Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems with Arbitrarily Bounded Communication Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem of high-order heterogeneous multiagent systems with arbitrarily bounded communication delays. Through the method of nonnegative matrices, we get a sufficient consensus condition for the systems with dynamically changing topology. The results of this paper show, even when there are arbitrarily bounded communication delays in the systems, all agents can reach a consensus no matter whether there are spanning trees for the corresponding communication graphs at any time.

  3. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

  4. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

    1994-07-01

    The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

  5. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  6. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  7. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria

    2008-01-01

    We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z∼2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion

  8. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  9. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  10. Regional averaging and scaling in relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Thomas; Carfora, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies lie at the forefront of interest, since cosmological parameters such as the rate of expansion or the mass density are to be considered as volume-averaged quantities and only these can be compared with observations. For this reason the relevant parameters are intrinsically scale-dependent and one wishes to control this dependence without restricting the cosmological model by unphysical assumptions. In the latter respect we contrast our way to approach the averaging problem in relativistic cosmology with shortcomings of averaged Newtonian models. Explicitly, we investigate the scale-dependence of Eulerian volume averages of scalar functions on Riemannian three-manifolds. We propose a complementary view of a Lagrangian smoothing of (tensorial) variables as opposed to their Eulerian averaging on spatial domains. This programme is realized with the help of a global Ricci deformation flow for the metric. We explain rigorously the origin of the Ricci flow which, on heuristic grounds, has already been suggested as a possible candidate for smoothing the initial dataset for cosmological spacetimes. The smoothing of geometry implies a renormalization of averaged spatial variables. We discuss the results in terms of effective cosmological parameters that would be assigned to the smoothed cosmological spacetime. In particular, we find that on the smoothed spatial domain B-bar evaluated cosmological parameters obey Ω-bar B-bar m + Ω-bar B-bar R + Ω-bar B-bar A + Ω-bar B-bar Q 1, where Ω-bar B-bar m , Ω-bar B-bar R and Ω-bar B-bar A correspond to the standard Friedmannian parameters, while Ω-bar B-bar Q is a remnant of cosmic variance of expansion and shear fluctuations on the averaging domain. All these parameters are 'dressed' after smoothing out the geometrical fluctuations, and we give the relations of the 'dressed' to the 'bare' parameters. While the former provide the framework of interpreting observations with a 'Friedmannian bias

  11. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  12. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

  13. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  14. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yu-Pin [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, 63201, Taiwan (China); Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan [Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jinn-Wen [Department of Applied Mathematics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ming-Chang, E-mail: mchuang@cycu.edu.tw [Center for Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli, 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-03

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states.

  15. Consensus states of local majority rule in stochastic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yu-Pin; Tang, Chia-Wei; Xu, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Jinn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient condition for a network system to reach a consensus state of the local majority rule is shown. The influence of interpersonal environment on the occurrence probability of consensus states for Watts–Strogatz and scale-free networks with random initial states is analyzed by numerical method. We also propose a stochastic local majority rule to study the mean first passage time from a random state to a consensus and the escape rate from a consensus state for systems in a noisy environment. Our numerical results show that there exists a window of fluctuation strengths for which the mean first passage time from a random to a consensus state reduces greatly, and the escape rate of consensus states obeys the Arrhenius equation in the window. - Highlights: • A sufficient condition for reaching a consensus. • The relation between the geometry of networks and the reachability of a consensus. • Stochastic local majority rule. • The mean first-passage time and the escape rate of consensus states

  16. Cultural Consensus Theory for the ordinal data case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Batchelder, William H

    2015-03-01

    A Cultural Consensus Theory approach for ordinal data is developed, leading to a new model for ordered polytomous data. The model introduces a novel way of measuring response biases and also measures consensus item values, a consensus response scale, item difficulty, and informant knowledge. The model is extended as a finite mixture model to fit both simulated and real multicultural data, in which subgroups of informants have different sets of consensus item values. The extension is thus a form of model-based clustering for ordinal data. The hierarchical Bayesian framework is utilized for inference, and two posterior predictive checks are developed to verify the central assumptions of the model.

  17. Rooted triple consensus and anomalous gene trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Heiko A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anomalous gene trees (AGTs are gene trees with a topology different from a species tree that are more probable to observe than congruent gene trees. In this paper we propose a rooted triple approach to finding the correct species tree in the presence of AGTs. Results Based on simulated data we show that our method outperforms the extended majority rule consensus strategy, while still resolving the species tree. Applying both methods to a metazoan data set of 216 genes, we tested whether AGTs substantially interfere with the reconstruction of the metazoan phylogeny. Conclusion Evidence of AGTs was not found in this data set, suggesting that erroneously reconstructed gene trees are the most significant challenge in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species with current data. The new method does however rule out the erroneous reconstruction of deep or poorly resolved splits in the presence of lineage sorting.

  18. [First Mexican Consensus of Vaccination in Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Caro-López, Elizabeth; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; García-Lara, Juan Miguel; Medina-López, Zaira; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Díaz-López, Elsa; Avila-Fematt, Flor Maria de Guadalupe; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes

    2017-03-01

    For years our efforts have been focused on vaccination during childhood. Today we know that this is not enough to ensure health in the rest of the life. Childhood is as important as any other stage and, therefore, vaccination must be permanent and differentiated, according to our age, throughout life. Introducing a life course perspective in vaccination programs, with emphasis on adult vaccination, particularly in older adults, offers us the opportunity to review the performance of health programs, actions, and services in the field of immunization, as well as strengthening health promotion actions. In this context, the first Mexican Consensus on Adult Vaccination was carried out in a joint effort of the National Institute of Geriatrics, bringing together a group of specialists who worked on three central objectives: establishing vaccination guidelines throughout the life course, with emphasis on new vaccines; defining priority groups according to their risk factors; and contributing to the effort to promote healthy aging.

  19. Consensus and new improvements of disability glare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early cataract may have normal visual acuity(VAbut complain that they have problems in driving at night, like seeing things through a veil. This phenomenon is defined as disability glare which maybe caused by growing stray light. Patients with intraocular lens following cataract surgery may complain about glare, halos and shadows in visual field, which are also resulted from dysphotopia. Disability glare is the VA loss due to disturbing luminance in visual field. In other words, it's the retinal contrast sensitivity reduction because of the straylight. This article contains the consensus and new progress of disability glare. It provides solutions according to its effect factors and offers clues for further study.

  20. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    of nodding in a particular professional-client setting, namely, hair salon interactions. My interest specifically lies in the frequent occurrence of synchronized head nods during the “service-assessment sequence,” where both service provider and customer inspect and determine whether the completed work...... is adequate. I pursue mechanisms of synchronized head nods by revealing exactly how participants collaborate in producing a nod, and how their verbal actions may at times be designed accordingly. In doing so, the study provides insight into what consensus may look like at service encounters in Japan......While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role...

  1. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Raine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1 conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2 hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada.

  2. Healthy food procurement and nutrition standards in public facilities: evidence synthesis and consensus policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim D., Raine; Kayla, Atkey; Dana Lee, Dana Lee; Alexa R., Ferdinands; Dominique, Beaulieu; Susan, Buhler; Norm, Campbell; Brian, Cook; Mary, L’Abbé; Ashley, Lederer; David, Mowat; Joshna, Maharaj; Candace, Nykiforuk; Jacob, Shelley; Jacqueline, Street

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Unhealthy foods are widely available in public settings across Canada, contributing to diet-related chronic diseases, such as obesity. This is a concern given that public facilities often provide a significant amount of food for consumption by vulnerable groups, including children and seniors. Healthy food procurement policies, which support procuring, distributing, selling, and/or serving healthier foods, have recently emerged as a promising strategy to counter this public health issue by increasing access to healthier foods. Although numerous Canadian health and scientific organizations have recommended such policies, they have not yet been broadly implemented in Canada. Methods: To inform further policy action on healthy food procurement in a Canadian context, we: (1) conducted an evidence synthesis to assess the impact of healthy food procurement policies on health outcomes and sales, intake, and availability of healthier food, and (2) hosted a consensus conference in September 2014. The consensus conference invited experts with public health/nutrition policy research expertise, as well as health services and food services practitioner experience, to review evidence, share experiences, and develop a consensus statement/recommendations on healthy food procurement in Canada. Results: Findings from the evidence synthesis and consensus recommendations for healthy food procurement in Canada are described. Specifically, we outline recommendations for governments, publicly funded institutions, decision-makers and professionals, citizens, and researchers. Conclusion: Implementation of healthy food procurement policies can increase Canadians’ access to healthier foods as part of a broader vision for food policy in Canada. PMID:29323862

  3. Treatment of Osteoporosis in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities: Update on Consensus Recommendations for Fracture Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo; Lord, Stephen R.; Mak, Jenson; Ganda, Kirtan; Close, Jacqueline J.T.; Ebeling, Peter; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Inderjeeth, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) are at a higher risk of suffering fractures than the community-dwelling older population. The first Consensus Conference on Treatment of Osteoporosis in RACFs in Australia, held in Sydney in July 2009, aimed to address some of the issues relating to the treatment of older residents with osteoporosis in RACFs. Considering that the field of osteoporosis diagnosis and management has significantly advanced in the last 5 years and that new evidence has been generated from studies performed within RACFs, a Second Consensus Conference was held in Sydney in November 2014. Methods An expert panel met in November 2014 in Penrith, NSW, Australia in an attempt to reach a consensus on diverse issues related to the treatment of osteoporosis at RACFs. Participants were selected by the scientific committee on the basis of their practice in an RACF and/or major published articles. The co-chairs distributed topics randomly to all participants, who then had to propose a statement on each topic for approval by the conference after a short, evidence-based presentation, when possible. Results This article provides an update on the most relevant evidence on osteoporosis in older people living in RACFs graded according to its level, quality, and relevance. Conclusion As with the first consensus, it is hoped that this statement will constitute an important guide to aid physicians in their decision making while practicing at RACFs. PMID:27349626

  4. Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Perturbed Communications and Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zheng Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the asymptotic consensus problem for a class of multiagent systems with time-varying additive actuator faults and perturbed communications. The L2 performance of systems is also considered in the consensus controller designs. The upper and lower bounds of faults and perturbations in actuators and communications and controller gains are assumed to be unknown but can be estimated by designing some indirect adaptive laws. Based on the information from the adaptive estimation mechanism, the distributed robust adaptive sliding mode controllers are constructed to automatically compensate for the effects of faults and perturbations and to achieve any given level of L2 gain attenuation from external disturbance to consensus errors. Through Lyapunov functions and adaptive schemes, the asymptotic consensus of resulting adaptive multiagent system can be achieved with a specified performance criterion in the presence of perturbed communications and actuators. The effectiveness of the proposed design is illustrated via a decoupled longitudinal model of F-18 aircraft.

  5. Consensus classification of posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Murray, Melissa; Snowden, Julie S; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Vandenberghe, Rik; Ahmed, Samrah; Bak, Thomas H; Boeve, Bradley F; Butler, Christopher; Cappa, Stefano F; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Dubois, Bruno; Felician, Olivier; Galasko, Douglas; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Hof, Patrick R; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Lehmann, Manja; Magnin, Eloi; Mendez, Mario F; Nestor, Peter J; Onyike, Chiadi U; Pelak, Victoria S; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Primativo, Silvia; Rossor, Martin N; Ryan, Natalie S; Scheltens, Philip; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Suárez González, Aida; Tang-Wai, David F; Yong, Keir X X; Carrillo, Maria; Fox, Nick C

    2017-08-01

    A classification framework for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is proposed to improve the uniformity of definition of the syndrome in a variety of research settings. Consensus statements about PCA were developed through a detailed literature review, the formation of an international multidisciplinary working party which convened on four occasions, and a Web-based quantitative survey regarding symptom frequency and the conceptualization of PCA. A three-level classification framework for PCA is described comprising both syndrome- and disease-level descriptions. Classification level 1 (PCA) defines the core clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging features and exclusion criteria of the clinico-radiological syndrome. Classification level 2 (PCA-pure, PCA-plus) establishes whether, in addition to the core PCA syndrome, the core features of any other neurodegenerative syndromes are present. Classification level 3 (PCA attributable to AD [PCA-AD], Lewy body disease [PCA-LBD], corticobasal degeneration [PCA-CBD], prion disease [PCA-prion]) provides a more formal determination of the underlying cause of the PCA syndrome, based on available pathophysiological biomarker evidence. The issue of additional syndrome-level descriptors is discussed in relation to the challenges of defining stages of syndrome severity and characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity within the PCA spectrum. There was strong agreement regarding the definition of the core clinico-radiological syndrome, meaning that the current consensus statement should be regarded as a refinement, development, and extension of previous single-center PCA criteria rather than any wholesale alteration or redescription of the syndrome. The framework and terminology may facilitate the interpretation of research data across studies, be applicable across a broad range of research scenarios (e.g., behavioral interventions, pharmacological trials), and provide a foundation for future collaborative work. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  6. The Mexican consensus on probiotics in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, M A; Montijo, E; Abreu, A T; Heller, S; González-Garay, A; Bacarreza, D; Bielsa-Fernández, M; Bojórquez-Ramos, M C; Bosques-Padilla, F; Burguete-García, A I; Carmona-Sánchez, R; Consuelo-Sánchez, A; Coss-Adame, E; Chávez-Barrera, J A; de Ariño, M; Flores-Calderón, J; Gómez-Escudero, O; González-Huezo, M S; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Larrosa-Haro, A; Morales-Arámbula, M; Murata, C; Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rizo-Robles, T; Peláez-Luna, M; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Torre, A; Urquidi-Rivera, M E; Vázquez, R; Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Guarner, F

    Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology. Controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to 2015 were selected, using the MESH terms: probiotics, gastrointestinal diseases, humans, adults, AND children. The Delphi method was employed. Eighteen gastroenterologists treating adult patients and 14 pediatric gastroenterologists formulated statements that were voted on until agreement>70% was reached. The level of evidence based on the GRADE system was evaluated for each statement. Eleven statements on the general concepts of probiotics and 27 statements on the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal diseases in both adults and children were formulated. The consensus group recommends the use of probiotics under the following clinical conditions: the prevention of diarrhea associated with antibiotics, the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea, the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection and necrotizing enterocolitis, the reduction of adverse events from Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, relief from irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, the treatment of functional constipation in the adult, and the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis, and the treatment of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Consensus for the management of IPMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    International Consensus Guidelines for management of intraductal papillary mucious neoplasms (IPMIN) and mucious cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the pancreas defined their difference in 2006 Sendai Conference, and this paper describes about their still remaining problem in the consensus by referring related literatures. The author explains the macroscopic classification of IPMIN in types of brunch duct (BD), main duct (MD) and their mixture. Guidelines are obscure concerning which of the histology or preoperative imaging is appropriate for diagnosis of the mixed type and the author considers that the latter imaging is better as the method used has influence on indication of surgery thereafter. MD-IPMIN is easily diagnosed differentially from chronic pantreatitis, but differential diagnosis of BD-IPMIN and other cystic lesion is rather complex, particularly, for MCN tending to malignancy and macrocystic serous CN (SCN). For this, analysis of the intraductal mucious liquid obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) is useful but its safety to see the grade of malignancy for extending the indication leading to resection is not established. Diagnosis of the malignancy of BD-IPMIN can be done best based on the presence of mural nodules, and other markers are of low reliability. In fact, cysts with >3 cm, when resected, are found mostly (80%) benign, indicating the necessity of a more reliable sign and of detailed classification of sub-tissue type. The purpose of progress observation involves diagnoses of changing to malignancy, of concurrent cancer and of recurrence of resected lesion, and an author's case report of this is given with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), CT and MRI images. Observatory approach, interval and period of the disease progression are yet unestablished. (T.T.)

  8. 2003 Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines Executive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Allan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the last 15 years; however, there has been little focus on issues relating to asthma in childhood. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies, particularly in children, have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines. The objectives of this article are to review the literature on asthma published between January 2000 and June 2003 and to evaluate the influence of new evidence on the recommendations made in the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report and its 2001 update, with a major focus on pediatric issues. Methods The diagnosis of asthma in young children and prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy, inhalation devices, immunotherapy, and asthma education were selected for review by small expert resource groups. The reviews were discussed in June 2003 at a meeting under the auspices of the Canadian Network For Asthma Care and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Data published through December 2004 were subsequently reviewed by the individual expert resource groups. Results This report evaluates early-life prevention strategies and focuses on treatment of asthma in children, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and preventive therapy, the benefits of additional therapy, and the essential role of asthma education. Conclusion We generally support previous recommendations and focus on new issues, particularly those relevant to children and their families. This document is a guide for asthma management based on the best available published data and the opinion of health care professionals, including asthma experts and educators.

  9. Model averaging, optimal inference and habit formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H B FitzGerald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function – the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge – that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behaviour. Bayesian model averaging – which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence – provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent’s behaviour should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesise that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realisable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behaviour. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded Bayesian inference, focussing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behaviour.

  10. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, E.R.

    1988-12-01

    Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, Β Θ , is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate Β Θ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding Β Θ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

  11. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  12. Gibbs equilibrium averages and Bogolyubov measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankovich, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Application of the functional integration methods in equilibrium statistical mechanics of quantum Bose-systems is considered. We show that Gibbs equilibrium averages of Bose-operators can be represented as path integrals over a special Gauss measure defined in the corresponding space of continuous functions. We consider some problems related to integration with respect to this measure

  13. High average-power induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.; Turner, W.C.; Watson, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of ∼ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper the authors report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

  14. Function reconstruction from noisy local averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Huang Jianguo; Han Weimin

    2008-01-01

    A regularization method is proposed for the function reconstruction from noisy local averages in any dimension. Error bounds for the approximate solution in L 2 -norm are derived. A number of numerical examples are provided to show computational performance of the method, with the regularization parameters selected by different strategies

  15. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

  16. Multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations is considered. Particular attention is given to the periodic sine-Gordon and Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equations. The periodic sine-Gordon equation and its associated inverse spectral theory are analyzed, including a discussion of the spectral representations of exact, N-phase sine-Gordon solutions. The emphasis is on physical characteristics of the periodic waves, with a motivation from the well-known whole-line solitons. A canonical Hamiltonian approach for the modulational theory of N-phase waves is prescribed. A concrete illustration of this averaging method is provided with the periodic sine-Gordon equation; explicit averaging results are given only for the N = 1 case, laying a foundation for a more thorough treatment of the general N-phase problem. For the KdV equation, very general results are given for multiphase averaging of the N-phase waves. The single-phase results of Whitham are extended to general N phases, and more importantly, an invariant representation in terms of Abelian differentials on a Riemann surface is provided. Several consequences of this invariant representation are deduced, including strong evidence for the Hamiltonian structure of N-phase modulational equations

  17. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  18. Essays on model averaging and political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis first investigates various issues related with model averaging, and then evaluates two policies, i.e. West Development Drive in China and fiscal decentralization in U.S, using econometric tools. Chapter 2 proposes a hierarchical weighted least squares (HWALS) method to address multiple

  19. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  20. High average-power induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.

    1989-01-01

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

  1. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  2. Average beta-beating from random errors

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Franchi, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The impact of random errors on average β-beating is studied via analytical derivations and simulations. A systematic positive β-beating is expected from random errors quadratic with the sources or, equivalently, with the rms β-beating. However, random errors do not have a systematic effect on the tune.

  3. Reliability Estimates for Undergraduate Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

  4. Tendon surveillance requirements - average tendon force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed Rev. 3 to USNRC Reg. Guide 1.35 discusses the need for comparing, for individual tendons, the measured and predicted lift-off forces. Such a comparison is intended to detect any abnormal tendon force loss which might occur. Recognizing that there are uncertainties in the prediction of tendon losses, proposed Guide 1.35.1 has allowed specific tolerances on the fundamental losses. Thus, the lift-off force acceptance criteria for individual tendons appearing in Reg. Guide 1.35, Proposed Rev. 3, is stated relative to a lower bound predicted tendon force, which is obtained using the 'plus' tolerances on the fundamental losses. There is an additional acceptance criterion for the lift-off forces which is not specifically addressed in these two Reg. Guides; however, it is included in a proposed Subsection IWX to ASME Code Section XI. This criterion is based on the overriding requirement that the magnitude of prestress in the containment structure be sufficeint to meet the minimum prestress design requirements. This design requirement can be expressed as an average tendon force for each group of vertical hoop, or dome tendons. For the purpose of comparing the actual tendon forces with the required average tendon force, the lift-off forces measured for a sample of tendons within each group can be averaged to construct the average force for the entire group. However, the individual lift-off forces must be 'corrected' (normalized) prior to obtaining the sample average. This paper derives the correction factor to be used for this purpose. (orig./RW)

  5. Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J C; Davidson, J R; Lecrubier, Y; Nutt, D J; Borkovec, T D; Rickels, K; Stein, D J; Wittchen, H U

    2001-01-01

    To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate treatment strategy. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R.T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Four additional faculty members invited by the chair were Karl Rickels, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Dan J. Stein, and Thomas D. Borkovec. The consensus statement is based on the 6 review articles that are published in this supplement and the scientific literature relevant to the issues reviewed in these articles. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed the review articles and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all attendees. GAD is the most common anxiety disorder in primary care and is highly debilitating. Furthermore, it is frequently comorbid with depression and other anxiety disorders, which exacerbates functional impairment. Antidepressants (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsedating tricyclic antidepressants) are generally the most appropriate first-line pharmacotherapy for GAD, since they are also effective against comorbid psychiatric disorders and are suitable for long-term use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred form of psychotherapy for GAD, although when GAD is comorbid with depression, pharmacotherapy is increasingly indicated.

  6. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  7. Gossip Consensus Algorithm Based on Time-Varying Influence Factors and Weakly Connected Graph for Opinion Evolution in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new gossip algorithm to investigate the problem of opinion consensus with the time-varying influence factors and weakly connected graph among multiple agents. What is more, we discuss not only the effect of the time-varying factors and the randomized topological structure but also the spread of misinformation and communication constrains described by probabilistic quantized communication in the social network. Under the underlying weakly connected graph, we first denote that all opinion states converge to a stochastic consensus almost surely; that is, our algorithm indeed achieves the consensus with probability one. Furthermore, our results show that the mean of all the opinion states converges to the average of the initial states when time-varying influence factors satisfy some conditions. Finally, we give a result about the square mean error between the dynamic opinion states and the benchmark without quantized communication.

  8. The Efficacy of Consensus Tree Methods for Summarizing Phylogenetic Relationships from a Posterior Sample of Trees Estimated from Morphological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2018-03-01

    Consensus trees are required to summarize trees obtained through MCMC sampling of a posterior distribution, providing an overview of the distribution of estimated parameters such as topology, branch lengths, and divergence times. Numerous consensus tree construction methods are available, each presenting a different interpretation of the tree sample. The rise of morphological clock and sampled-ancestor methods of divergence time estimation, in which times and topology are coestimated, has increased the popularity of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) consensus tree method. The MCC method assumes that the sampled, fully resolved topology with the highest clade credibility is an adequate summary of the most probable clades, with parameter estimates from compatible sampled trees used to obtain the marginal distributions of parameters such as clade ages and branch lengths. Using both simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate that MCC trees, and trees constructed using the similar maximum a posteriori (MAP) method, often include poorly supported and incorrect clades when summarizing diffuse posterior samples of trees. We demonstrate that the paucity of information in morphological data sets contributes to the inability of MCC and MAP trees to accurately summarise of the posterior distribution. Conversely, majority-rule consensus (MRC) trees represent a lower proportion of incorrect nodes when summarizing the same posterior samples of trees. Thus, we advocate the use of MRC trees, in place of MCC or MAP trees, in attempts to summarize the results of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of morphological data.

  9. A virtual pebble game to ensemble average graph rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    The body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm is commonly used to calculate network rigidity properties in proteins and polymeric materials. To account for fluctuating interactions such as hydrogen bonds, an ensemble of constraint topologies are sampled, and average network properties are obtained by averaging PG characterizations. At a simpler level of sophistication, Maxwell constraint counting (MCC) provides a rigorous lower bound for the number of internal degrees of freedom (DOF) within a body-bar network, and it is commonly employed to test if a molecular structure is globally under-constrained or over-constrained. MCC is a mean field approximation (MFA) that ignores spatial fluctuations of distance constraints by replacing the actual molecular structure by an effective medium that has distance constraints globally distributed with perfect uniform density. The Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) algorithm is a MFA that retains spatial inhomogeneity in the density of constraints on all length scales. Network fluctuations due to distance constraints that may be present or absent based on binary random dynamic variables are suppressed by replacing all possible constraint topology realizations with the probabilities that distance constraints are present. The VPG algorithm is isomorphic to the PG algorithm, where integers for counting "pebbles" placed on vertices or edges in the PG map to real numbers representing the probability to find a pebble. In the VPG, edges are assigned pebble capacities, and pebble movements become a continuous flow of probability within the network. Comparisons between the VPG and average PG results over a test set of proteins and disordered lattices demonstrate the VPG quantitatively estimates the ensemble average PG results well. The VPG performs about 20% faster than one PG, and it provides a pragmatic alternative to averaging PG rigidity characteristics over an ensemble of constraint topologies. The utility of the VPG falls in between the most

  10. Low Average Sidelobe Slot Array Antennas for Radiometer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam; Zawardzki, Mark S.; Hodges, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    In radiometer applications, it is required to design antennas that meet low average sidelobe levels and low average return loss over a specified frequency bandwidth. It is a challenge to meet such specifications over a frequency range when one uses resonant elements such as waveguide feed slots. In addition to their inherent narrow frequency band performance, the problem is exacerbated due to modeling errors and manufacturing tolerances. There was a need to develop a design methodology to solve the problem. An iterative design procedure was developed by starting with an array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, waveguide dimensions, etc. The array was designed using Elliott s technique with appropriate values of the total slot conductance in each radiating waveguide, and the total resistance in each feed waveguide. Subsequently, the array performance was analyzed by the full wave method of moments solution to the pertinent integral equations. Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to account for amplitude and phase errors introduced for the aperture distribution due to modeling errors as well as manufacturing tolerances. If the design margins for the average sidelobe level and the average return loss were not adequate, array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, and waveguide dimensions were varied in subsequent iterations. Once the design margins were found to be adequate, the iteration was stopped and a good design was achieved. A symmetric array architecture was found to meet the design specification with adequate margin. The specifications were near 40 dB for angular regions beyond 30 degrees from broadside. Separable Taylor distribution with nbar=4 and 35 dB sidelobe specification was chosen for each principal plane. A non-separable distribution obtained by the genetic algorithm was found to have similar characteristics. The element spacing was obtained to provide the required beamwidth and close to a null in the E

  11. A Unified Framework for Verification and Complexity Analysis of Real-Time and Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    .... These examples arise from a diverse set of application areas, including connection management protocols, clock synchronization, fault-tolerant distributed consensus, group communication, and real...

  12. Weighted estimates for the averaging integral operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opic, Bohumír; Rákosník, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2010), s. 253-262 ISSN 0010-0757 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033; GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : averaging integral operator * weighted Lebesgue spaces * weights Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03191231

  13. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we de...

  14. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate

  15. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent cushing's syndrome: A consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M.K. Biller; A. Grossman (Ashley Barry); P.M. Stewart; S. Melmed (Shlomo); X. Bertagna; J. Bertherat (Jerome); M. Buchfelder; A. Colao (Annamaria); A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); L.J. Hofland (Leo); A. Klibanski; A. Lacroix; J.R. Lindsay; J. Newell-Price (John); L.K. Nieman; S. Petersenn; N. Sonino; G.K. Stalla (Günter); B. Swearingen; M.L. Vance; J.A.H. Wass (John); M. Boscaro

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. Participants: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists,

  16. Treatment of adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biller, B.M.; Grossman, A.B.; Stewart, P.M.; Melmed, S.; Bertagna, X.; Bertherat, J.; Buchfelder, M.; Colao, A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hofland, L.J.; Klibanski, A.; Lacroix, A.; Lindsay, J.R.; Newell-Price, J.; Nieman, L.K.; Petersenn, S.; Sonino, N.; Stalla, G.K.; Swearingen, B.; Vance, M.L.; Wass, J.A.; Boscaro, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the published literature and reach a consensus on the treatment of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, because there is no recent consensus on the management of this rare disorder. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two leading endocrinologists, clinicians,

  17. Communitarian Consensus: A New Social Philosophy for Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and discuss the communitarian consensus as a new social philosophy of development and reconstruction for Africa. The notion of consensus as first canvassed by Kwasi Wiredu, is an important element in traditional African societies. It revolves around the view that African should be able to speak with one voice on issues ...

  18. 75 FR 70074 - Consensus Standards, Light-Sport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... accepted consensus standards relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport...

  19. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in Africa which is ...

  20. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  1. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

  2. Determination of the average lifetime of b-baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, P.; Adam, W.

    1996-01-01

    The average lifetime of b-baryons has been studied using 3.10 6 hadronic Z 0 decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Three methods have been used, based on the measurement of different observables: the proper decay time distribution of 206 vertices reconstructed with a Λ, a lepton and an oppositely charged pion; the impact parameter distribution of 441 muons with high transverse momentum accompanied by a Λ in the same jet; and the proper decay time distribution of 125 Λ c -lepton decay vertices with the Λ c exclusively reconstructed through its pKπ, pK 0 and Λ3π decay modes. The combined result is: τ(b-baryon)=(1.254 +0.121 -0.109 (stat) ±0.04(syst) +0.03 -0.05 (syst)) ps where the first systematic error is due to experimental uncertainties and the second to the uncertainties in the modelling of the b-baryon production and semi-leptonic decay. Including the measurement recently published by DELPHI based on a sample of proton-muon vertices, the average b-baryon lifetime is: τ(b-baryon)=(1.255 +0.115 -0.102 (stat) ±0.05) ps. (orig.)

  3. Model of Decision Making through Consensus in Ranking Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Gim; Darnius, Open

    2018-01-01

    The basic problem to determine ranking consensus is a problem to combine some rankings those are decided by two or more Decision Maker (DM) into ranking consensus. DM is frequently asked to present their preferences over a group of objects in terms of ranks, for example to determine a new project, new product, a candidate in a election, and so on. The problem in ranking can be classified into two major categories; namely, cardinal and ordinal rankings. The objective of the study is to obtin the ranking consensus by appying some algorithms and methods. The algorithms and methods used in this study were partial algorithm, optimal ranking consensus, BAK (Borde-Kendal)Model. A method proposed as an alternative in ranking conssensus is a Weighted Distance Forward-Backward (WDFB) method, which gave a little difference i ranking consensus result compare to the result oethe example solved by Cook, et.al (2005).

  4. Systematic review and consensus guidelines for environmental sampling of Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Tier 1 Select Agent and the cause of melioidosis, is a Gram-negative bacillus present in the environment in many tropical countries. Defining the global pattern of B. pseudomallei distribution underpins efforts to prevent infection, and is dependent upon robust environmental sampling methodology. Our objective was to review the literature on the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei, update the risk map for melioidosis, and propose international consensus guidelines for soil sampling.An international working party (Detection of Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei Working Party (DEBWorP was formed during the VIth World Melioidosis Congress in 2010. PubMed (January 1912 to December 2011 was searched using the following MeSH terms: pseudomallei or melioidosis. Bibliographies were hand-searched for secondary references. The reported geographical distribution of B. pseudomallei in the environment was mapped and categorized as definite, probable, or possible. The methodology used for detecting environmental B. pseudomallei was extracted and collated. We found that global coverage was patchy, with a lack of studies in many areas where melioidosis is suspected to occur. The sampling strategies and bacterial identification methods used were highly variable, and not all were robust. We developed consensus guidelines with the goals of reducing the probability of false-negative results, and the provision of affordable and 'low-tech' methodology that is applicable in both developed and developing countries.The proposed consensus guidelines provide the basis for the development of an accurate and comprehensive global map of environmental B. pseudomallei.

  5. [Mexican National Consensus on Assisted Reproduction Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; López Ortiz, Carlos Salazar; Serviere Zaragoza, Claudio; Velázquez Cornejo, Gerardo; Pérez Peña, Efrain; Santos Haliscack, Roberto; Luna Rojas, Martha; Valerio, Emilio; Santana, Héctor; Gaviño Gaviño, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    It is estimated that 15% of couples living in industrialized countries are infertile, ie have failed to conceive, reproductive age, after 12 months ormore of regular intercourse without contraception. During the past decade has increased the demand for fertility treatments because they believe are moreeffective now. To unify the therapeutic approach and service to patients and set a precedent for a Mexican Official Standard respect and support for the legislation of these procedures. Consensus by technical experts group panel with the participation of 34 national centers accredited for use in assisted reproduction. He organized seven workshops with the following themes: 1) selection of patients for assisted reproduction treatment, 2) schemes controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction techniques of high complexity, 3) preparation and egg retrieval technique, 4) transferembryo; 5) luteal phase supplementation; 6) indications and techniques of cryopreservation and 7) informed consent. Each table had a coordinator who wrote and presented the findings to the full, it made a number of observations until they reached unanimity of criteria, which are reflected in this document. Patient selection for assisted reproduction techniques is the first step of the process. Proper selection lead to success, in the same way that a bad pick up for failure. In the case of egg donation the most important recommendation is that only one to two embryos transferred in order to reduce multiple pregnancy rates and maintaining high pregnancy rates.

  6. The Revised Academic Consensus Definition of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a contested concept. While there are many national and regional definitions, there is no universal legal definition approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations (the one proposed by the Security Council in Res. 1566 (2004 is non-binding, lacking legal authority in international law. The Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism of the 6th (legal Committee of the General Assembly has, with some interruptions, been trying to reach a legal definition since 1972 - but in vain. In the absence of a legal definition, attempts have been made since the 1980s to reach agreement on an academic consensus definition. The latest outcome is the revised definition reprinted below. It is the result of three rounds of consultations among academics and other professionals. A description how it was arrived at can be found on pp. 39 - 98 of Alex P. Schmid (Ed.. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. The same volume also contains 260 other definitions compiled by Joseph J. Easson and Alex P. Schmid on pp. 99 -200.

  7. Consensus conference on irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Danish government is obliged to define its attitude to a proposal made by the European Communities regarding common regulations for the irradiation of food (May 1989). Denmark, in comparison to some other European countries, tends to show reserve on this issue. At the consensus conference a panel discussed related questions. The participants reached the conclusion that as yet disagreement and uncertainty about the subjects of safety, public health and food quality is so significant that they were not able to recommend that sanctions for irradiation of food should be given in Denmark. It was also agreed that problems related to control and determination of radiation content were too serious to allow this method of food preservation. The panel felt that there were many areas of research, such as long-term biological effects, that had not been investigated satisfactorily. Experiments carried out in India and China did not encourage confidence, as the people tested had recommenced eating food preserved by other methods, so that long term effects could not be measured. The specialists claim that Danish standards in relation to the food industry are very high so that alternative methods of preservation to those already used do not appear to be necessary. The only applications to the National Food Agency for authorization to irradiate food had come from producers of spices and in relation to educative acitivites. (AB)

  8. The Delphi Technique: Making Sense of Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a widely used and accepted method for gathering data from respondents within their domain of expertise. The technique is designed as a group communication process which aims to achieve a convergence of opinion on a specific real-world issue. The Delphi process has been used in various fields of study such as program planning, needs assessment, policy determination, and resource utilization to develop a full range of alternatives, explore or expose underlying assumptions, as well as correlate judgments on a topic spanning a wide range of disciplines. The Delphi technique is well suited as a method for consensus-building by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data from a panel of selected subjects. Subject selection, time frames for conducting and completing a study, the possibility of low response rates, and unintentionally guiding feedback from the respondent group are areas which should be considered when designing and implementing a Delphi study.

  9. [National consensus on the ketogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeno, Marisa; Caraballo, Roberto; Vaccarezza, María; Alberti, M Julia; Ríos, Viviana; Galicchio, Santiago; de Grandis, Elizabeth S; Mestre, Graciela; Escobal, Nidia; Matarrese, Pablo; Viollaz, Rocío; Agostinho, Ariela; Díez, Cecilia; Cresta, Araceli; Cabrera, Analía; Blanco, Virginia; Ferrero, Hilario; Gambarini, Victoria; Sosa, Patricia; Bouquet, Cecilia; Caramuta, Luciana; Guisande, Silvina; Gamboni, Beatriz; Hassan, Amal; Pesce, Laura; Argumedo, Laura; Dlugoszewski, Corina; DeMartini, Martha G; Panico, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with onset in infancy affecting 0.5-1% of the population. One third of the patients is refractory to antiepileptic drugs and they pose a challenge for the health care team. The ketogenic diet is an effective, non-pharmacological, alternative treatment for the management of refractory epilepsy. There is a need to establish guidelines for the adequate and increased use of the ketogenic diet in Spanish-speaking countries. The National Committee on the Ketogenic Diet, consisting of paediatric neurologists, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians, of the Argentine Society of Child Neurology has developed this consensus statement to standardize the use of the ketogenic diet based on the literature and clinical experience. Patient selection, pre-treatment family counseling, drug interactions, micronutrient supplementation, adverse effects, and discontinuation of the diet are discussed. The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for children with refractory epilepsy. Education and collaboration of the patient and their family is essential. The patient should be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team using a protocol. The formation of a national multidisciplinary team and the publication of this document provide possibilities for new centers to integrate the ketogenic diet into their treatment options.

  10. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  11. Operator product expansion and its thermal average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1998-05-01

    QCD sum rules at finite temperature, like the ones at zero temperature, require the coefficients of local operators, which arise in the short distance expansion of the thermal average of two-point functions of currents. We extend the configuration space method, applied earlier at zero temperature, to the case at finite temperature. We find that, upto dimension four, two new operators arise, in addition to the two appearing already in the vacuum correlation functions. It is argued that the new operators would contribute substantially to the sum rules, when the temperature is not too low. (orig.) 7 refs.

  12. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

    2002-01-01

    For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

  13. Baseline-dependent averaging in radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnholds, S. J.; Willis, A. G.; Salvini, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the applicability and benefits of baseline-dependent averaging (BDA) in modern radio interferometers and in particular the Square Kilometre Array. We demonstrate that BDA does not affect the information content of the data other than a well-defined decorrelation loss for which closed form expressions are readily available. We verify these theoretical findings using simulations. We therefore conclude that BDA can be used reliably in modern radio interferometry allowing a reduction of visibility data volume (and hence processing costs for handling visibility data) by more than 80 per cent.

  14. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  15. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. Such measurement settings find applications in medical and geophysical imaging. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain

  16. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  17. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...... (1989). In many cases validity of bootstrap-based inference procedures is found to depend crucially on whether the bandwidth sequence satisfies a particular (asymptotic linearity) condition. An exception to this rule occurs for inference procedures involving a studentized estimator employing a "robust...

  18. Average Nuclear properties based on statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Jaick, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The rough properties of nuclei were investigated by statistical model, in systems with the same and different number of protons and neutrons, separately, considering the Coulomb energy in the last system. Some average nuclear properties were calculated based on the energy density of nuclear matter, from Weizsscker-Beth mass semiempiric formulae, generalized for compressible nuclei. In the study of a s surface energy coefficient, the great influence exercised by Coulomb energy and nuclear compressibility was verified. For a good adjust of beta stability lines and mass excess, the surface symmetry energy were established. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Updated precision measurement of the average lifetime of B hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Ronjin, V M; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch; Khokhlov, Yu; Papadopoulou, Th D

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of the average lifetime of B hadrons using inclusively reconstructed secondary vertices has been updated using both an improved processing of previous data and additional statistics from new data. This has reduced the statistical and systematic uncertainties and gives \\tau_{\\mathrm{B}} = 1.582 \\pm 0.011\\ \\mathrm{(stat.)} \\pm 0.027\\ \\mathrm{(syst.)}\\ \\mathrm{ps.} Combining this result with the previous result based on charged particle impact parameter distributions yields \\tau_{\\mathrm{B}} = 1.575 \\pm 0.010\\ \\mathrm{(stat.)} \\pm 0.026\\ \\mathrm{(syst.)}\\ \\mathrm{ps.}

  20. Bayesian model averaging and weighted average least squares : Equivariance, stability, and numerical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals, which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian model-averaging estimator and the weighted-average least-squares

  1. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

  2. Sampled-data consensus in switching networks of integrators based on edge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Tongwen

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the event-driven sampled-data consensus in switching networks of multiple integrators and studies both the bidirectional interaction and leader-following passive reaction topologies in a unified framework. In these topologies, each information link is modelled by an edge of the information graph and assigned a sequence of edge events, which activate the mutual data sampling and controller updates of the two linked agents. Two kinds of edge-event-detecting rules are proposed for the general asynchronous data-sampling case and the synchronous periodic event-detecting case. They are implemented in a distributed fashion, and their effectiveness in reducing communication costs and solving consensus problems under a jointly connected topology condition is shown by both theoretical analysis and simulation examples.

  3. Event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Housheng; Li, Zhenghao; Ye, Yanyan

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of event-triggered Kalman-consensus filter for two-target tracking sensor networks. According to the event-triggered protocol and the mean-square analysis, a suboptimal Kalman gain matrix is derived and a suboptimal event-triggered distributed filter is obtained. Based on the Kalman-consensus filter protocol, all sensors which only depend on its neighbors' information can track their corresponding targets. Furthermore, utilizing Lyapunov method and matrix theory, some sufficient conditions are presented for ensuring the stability of the system. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed event-triggered protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling and Flocking Consensus Analysis for Large-Scale UAV Swarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, distributed coordination control of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV swarms has been a particularly active topic in intelligent system field. In this paper, through understanding the emergent mechanism of the complex system, further research on the flocking and the dynamic characteristic of UAV swarms will be given. Firstly, this paper analyzes the current researches and existent problems of UAV swarms. Afterwards, by the theory of stochastic process and supplemented variables, a differential-integral model is established, converting the system model into Volterra integral equation. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the system are discussed. Then the flocking control law is given based on artificial potential with system consensus. At last, we analyze the stability of the proposed flocking control algorithm based on the Lyapunov approach and prove that the system in a limited time can converge to the consensus direction of the velocity. Simulation results are provided to verify the conclusion.

  5. The consensus in the two-feature two-state one-dimensional Axelrod model revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biral, Elias J. P.; Tilles, Paulo F. C.; Fontanari, José F.

    2015-04-01

    The Axelrod model for the dissemination of culture exhibits a rich spatial distribution of cultural domains, which depends on the values of the two model parameters: F, the number of cultural features and q, the common number of states each feature can assume. In the one-dimensional model with F = q = 2, which is closely related to the constrained voter model, Monte Carlo simulations indicate the existence of multicultural absorbing configurations in which at least one macroscopic domain coexist with a multitude of microscopic ones in the thermodynamic limit. However, rigorous analytical results for the infinite system starting from the configuration where all cultures are equally likely show convergence to only monocultural or consensus configurations. Here we show that this disagreement is due simply to the order that the time-asymptotic limit and the thermodynamic limit are taken in the simulations. In addition, we show how the consensus-only result can be derived using Monte Carlo simulations of finite chains.

  6. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  7. Averaged null energy condition from causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

  8. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

    1976-07-01

    A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

  9. Chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marochnik, L S [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

    1980-11-01

    The cosmological solutions are found for the equations for correlators, describing a statistically chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average in which delta-correlated fluctuations with amplitudes h >> 1 are excited. For the equation of state of matter p = n epsilon, the kind of solutions depends on the position of maximum of the spectrum of the metric disturbances. The expansion of the Universe, in which long-wave potential and vortical motions and gravitational waves (modes diverging at t ..-->.. 0) had been excited, tends asymptotically to the Friedmannian one at t ..-->.. identity and depends critically on n: at n < 0.26, the solution for the scalefactor is situated higher than the Friedmannian one, and lower at n > 0.26. The influence of finite at t ..-->.. 0 long-wave fluctuation modes leads to an averaged quasiisotropic solution. The contribution of quantum fluctuations and of short-wave parts of the spectrum of classical fluctuations to the expansion law is considered. Their influence is equivalent to the contribution from an ultrarelativistic gas with corresponding energy density and pressure. The restrictions are obtained for the degree of chaos (the spectrum characteristics) compatible with the observed helium abundance, which could have been retained by a completely chaotic Universe during its expansion up to the nucleosynthesis epoch.

  10. Averaging in the presence of sliding errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, G.P.

    1991-08-01

    In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment's measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms

  11. Average resonance parameters evaluation for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    New evaluated <{Gamma}{sub n}{sup 0}> and values for {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 241}Am nuclei in the resolved resonance region are presented. The applied method based on the idea that experimental resonance missing results in correlated changes of reduced neutron widths and level spacings distributions is discussed. (author)

  12. Rational consensus under uncertainty: Expert judgment in the EC-USNRC uncertainty study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.; Kraan, B.; Goossens, L.

    1999-01-01

    ? Simply choosing a maximally feasible pool of experts and combining their views by some method of equal representation might achieve a form of political consensus among the experts involved, but will not achieve rational consensus. If expert viewpoints are related to the institutions at which the experts are employed, then numerical representation of viewpoints in the pool may be, and/or may be perceived to be influenced by the size of the interests funding the institutes. We collect a number of conclusions regarding the use of structured expert judgment. 1 . Experts' subjective uncertainties may be used to advance rational consensus in the face of large uncertainties, in so far as the necessary conditions for rational consensus are satisfied. 2. Empirical control of experts' subjective uncertainties is possible. 3. Experts' performance as subjective probability assessors is not uniform, there are significant differences in performance. 4. Experts as a group may show poor performance. 5. A structured combination of expert judgment may show satisfactory performance, even though the experts individually perform poorly. 6. The performance based combination generally outperforms the equal weight combination. 7. The combination of experts' subjective probabilities, according to the schemes discussed here, generally has wider 90% central confidence intervals than the experts individually; particularly in the case of the equal weight combination. We note that poor performance as a subjective probability assessor does not indicate a lack of substantive expert knowledge. Rather, it indicates unfamiliarity with quantifying subjective uncertainty in terms of subjective probability distributions. Experts were provided with training in subjective probability assessment, but of course their formal training does not (yet) prepare them for such tasks

  13. Transatlantic Multispecialty Consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills: Results of a Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Macdonald, S; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills (FES) for educational purposes and development of training curricula for endovascular procedures. The term "Fundamental Endovascular Skills" is widely used; however, the current literature does not explicitly describe what skills are included in this concept. Endovascular interventions are performed by several specialties that may have opposing perspectives on these skills. A two round Delphi questionnaire approach was used. Experts from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, and vascular surgery from the United States and Europe were invited to participate. An electronic questionnaire was generated by endovascular therapists with an appropriate educational background but who would not participate in subsequent rounds. The questionnaire consisted of 50 statements describing knowledge, technical, and behavioral skills during endovascular procedures. Experts received the questionnaires by email. They were asked to rate the importance of each skill on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. A statement was considered fundamental when more than 90% of the experts rated it 4 or 5 out of 5. Twenty-three of 53 experts invited agreed to participate: six interventional radiologists (2 USA, 4 Europe), 10 vascular surgeons (4 USA, 6 Europe), and seven interventional cardiologists (4 USA, 3 Europe). There was a 100% response rate in the first round and 87% in the second round. Results showed excellent consensus among responders (Cronbach's alpha = .95 first round; .93 second round). Ninety percent of all proposed skills were considered fundamental. The most critical skills were determined. A transatlantic multispecialty consensus was achieved about the content of "FES" among interventional radiologists, interventional cardiologists, and vascular surgeons from Europe and the United States. These results can serve as directive principles for developing endovascular training curricula

  14. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  15. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  16. Expert surgical consensus for prenatal counseling using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Loren; Jackson, Jordan; Miller, Kristen; Kowalski, Rebecca; Kolm, Paul; Luks, Francois I

    2017-11-28

    Pediatric surgeons frequently offer prenatal consultation for congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH); however, there is no evidence-based consensus to guide prenatal decision making and counseling for these conditions. Eliciting feedback from experts is integral to defining best practice regarding prenatal counseling and intervention. A Delphi consensus process was undertaken using a panel of pediatric surgeons identified as experts in fetal therapy to address current limitations. Areas of discrepancy in the literature on CPAM and CDH were identified and used to generate a list of content and intervention questions. Experts were invited to participate in an online Delphi survey. Items that did not reach first-round consensus were broken down into additional questions, and consensus was achieved in the second round. Fifty-four surgeons (69%) responded to at least one of the two survey rounds. During round one, consensus was reached on 54 of 89 survey questions (61%), and 45 new questions were developed. During round two, consensus was reached on 53 of 60 survey questions (88%). We determined expert consensus to establish guidelines regarding perinatal management of CPAM and CDH. Our results can help educate pediatric surgeons participating in perinatal care of these patients. V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A collaborative platform for consensus sessions in pathology over Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Eric; Le Bozec, Christel; Degoulet, Patrice; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    The design of valid databases in pathology faces the problem of diagnostic disagreement between pathologists. Organizing consensus sessions between experts to reduce the variability is a difficult task. The TRIDEM platform addresses the issue to organize consensus sessions in pathology over the Internet. In this paper, we present the basis to achieve such collaborative platform. On the one hand, the platform integrates the functionalities of the IDEM consensus module that alleviates the consensus task by presenting to pathologists preliminary computed consensus through ergonomic interfaces (automatic step). On the other hand, a set of lightweight interaction tools such as vocal annotations are implemented to ease the communication between experts as they discuss a case (interactive step). The architecture of the TRIDEM platform is based on a Java-Server-Page web server that communicate with the ObjectStore PSE/PRO database used for the object storage. The HTML pages generated by the web server run Java applets to perform the different steps (automatic and interactive) of the consensus. The current limitations of the platform is to only handle a synchronous process. Moreover, improvements like re-writing the consensus workflow with a protocol such as BPML are already forecast.

  18. Public Awareness of the Scientific Consensus on Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Hamilton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions about climate change elicit some of the widest political divisions of any items on recent U.S. surveys. Severe polarization affects even basic questions about the reality of anthropogenic climate change (ACC, or whether most scientists agree that humans are changing the Earth’s climate. Statements about scientific consensus have been contentious among social scientists, with some arguing for consensus awareness as a “gateway cognition” that leads to greater public acceptance of ACC, but others characterizing consensus messaging (deliberate communication about the level of scientific agreement as a counterproductive tactic that exacerbates polarization. A series of statewide surveys, with nationwide benchmarks, repeated questions about the reality of ACC and scientific consensus many times over 2010 to 2016. These data permit tests for change in beliefs and polarization. ACC and consensus beliefs have similar trends and individual background predictors. Both rose gradually by about 10 points over 2010 to 2016, showing no abrupt shifts that might correspond to events such as scientific reports, leadership statements, or weather. Growing awareness of the scientific consensus, whether from deliberate messaging or the cumulative impact of many studies and publicly engaged scientists, provides the most plausible explanation for this rise in both series. In state-level data, the gap between liberal and conservative views on the reality of ACC did not widen over this period, whereas the liberal–conservative gap regarding existence of a scientific consensus narrowed.

  19. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Local communities obstruct global consensus: Naming game on multi-local-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Fan, Zhengping; Xiang, Luna

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is essential for social communications, where individuals belonging to the same community are much more actively interacting and communicating with each other than those in different communities within the human society. Naming game, on the other hand, is a social communication model that simulates the process of learning a name of an object within a community of humans, where the individuals can generally reach global consensus asymptotically through iterative pair-wise conversations. The underlying network indicates the relationships among the individuals. In this paper, three typical topologies, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed, which are embedded with the multi-local-world community structure, to study the naming game. Simulations show that (1) the convergence process to global consensus is getting slower as the community structure becomes more prominent, and eventually might fail; (2) if the inter-community connections are sufficiently dense, neither the number nor the size of the communities affects the convergence process; and (3) for different topologies with the same (or similar) average node-degree, local clustering of individuals obstruct or prohibit global consensus to take place. The results reveal the role of local communities in a global naming game in social network studies.

  1. In control? IQC consensus and statutory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    have provided a template to potentially harmonise IQC practice nationally. Given the central and critical role that IQC practice plays in ensuring the quality of patient results' importance, the authors contend that the time has come for international consensus and statutory regulation regarding the minimally acceptable criteria for its implementation, monitoring and review.

  2. Consensus statement on diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While T1DM has been traditionally seen as a minor concern in the larger picture of pediatric ailments, new data reveals that the incidence of T1DM has assumed alarming proportions. It has long been clear that while the disease may be diagnosed at an early age, its impact is not isolated to afflicted children. The direct impact of the disease on the patient is debilitating due to the nature of the disease and lack of proper access to treatment in India. But this impact is further compounded by the utter apathy and often times antipathy, which patients withT1DM have to face. Lack of awareness of the issue in all stakeholders, low access to quality healthcare, patient, physician, and system level barriers to the delivery of optimal diabetes care are some of the factors which hinder successful management of T1DM. The first international consensus meet on diabetes in children was convened with the aim of providing a common platform to all the stakeholders in the management of T1DM, to discuss the academic, administrative and healthcare system related issues. The ultimate aim was to articulate the problems faced by children with diabetes in a way that centralized their position and focused on creating modalities of management sensitive to their needs and aspirations. It was conceptualized to raise a strong voice of advocacy for improving the management of T1DM and ensuring that "No child should die of diabetes". The unique clinical presentations of T1DM coupled with ignorance on the part of the medical community and society in general results in outcomes that are far worse than that seen with T2DM. So there is a need to substantially improve training of HCPs at all levels on this neglected aspect of healthcare.

  3. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs

  4. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  5. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

  6. [Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

  7. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  8. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  9. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  10. Reynolds averaged simulation of unsteady separated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, G.; Ooi, A.; Durbin, P.A.; Behnia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in predicting complex flows with separation is examined. The unsteady flow around square cylinder and over a wall-mounted cube are simulated and compared with experimental data. For the cube case, none of the previously published numerical predictions obtained by steady-state RANS produced a good match with experimental data. However, evidence exists that coherent vortex shedding occurs in this flow. Its presence demands unsteady RANS computation because the flow is not statistically stationary. The present study demonstrates that unsteady RANS does indeed predict periodic shedding, and leads to much better concurrence with available experimental data than has been achieved with steady computation

  11. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  12. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

    2013-05-07

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure.

  13. Consensus Making in Requirements Negotiation: the communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Price

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing an Information System (IS, organizational goals of various stakeholders are commonly in direct conflict. Furthermore, individuals often rank their private objectives well over their management's directions. Recognising and reconciling all these diverse goals, and reaching agreement among the stakeholders, are prerequisite to establishing project cooperation and collaboration. This paper focuses, in particular, on the negotiation and consensus making during requirements elicitation - the earliest stages of the IS development process. As requirements elicitation involves rich communication between project stakeholders, we therefore explore negotiation and consensus making from the communication perspective. The resulting model assists our understanding of the communication factors that influence the consensus process during requirements negotiation.

  14. Prompt fission neutron spectra and average prompt neutron multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating the prompt fission neutron spectrum N(E) and average prompt neutron multiplicity anti nu/sub p/ as functions of the fissioning nucleus and its excitation energy. The method is based on standard nuclear evaporation theory and takes into account (1) the motion of the fission fragments, (2) the distribution of fission-fragment residual nuclear temperature, (3) the energy dependence of the cross section sigma/sub c/ for the inverse process of compound-nucleus formation, and (4) the possibility of multiple-chance fission. We use a triangular distribution in residual nuclear temperature based on the Fermi-gas model. This leads to closed expressions for N(E) and anti nu/sub p/ when sigma/sub c/ is assumed constant and readily computed quadratures when the energy dependence of sigma/sub c/ is determined from an optical model. Neutron spectra and average multiplicities calculated with an energy-dependent cross section agree well with experimental data for the neutron-induced fission of 235 U and the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. For the latter case, there are some significant inconsistencies between the experimental spectra that need to be resolved. 29 references

  15. General and Local: Averaged k-Dependence Bayesian Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of a general Bayesian network has been shown to be an NP-hard problem, even for approximate solutions. Although k-dependence Bayesian (KDB classifier can construct at arbitrary points (values of k along the attribute dependence spectrum, it cannot identify the changes of interdependencies when attributes take different values. Local KDB, which learns in the framework of KDB, is proposed in this study to describe the local dependencies implicated in each test instance. Based on the analysis of functional dependencies, substitution-elimination resolution, a new type of semi-naive Bayesian operation, is proposed to substitute or eliminate generalization to achieve accurate estimation of conditional probability distribution while reducing computational complexity. The final classifier, averaged k-dependence Bayesian (AKDB classifiers, will average the output of KDB and local KDB. Experimental results on the repository of machine learning databases from the University of California Irvine (UCI showed that AKDB has significant advantages in zero-one loss and bias relative to naive Bayes (NB, tree augmented naive Bayes (TAN, Averaged one-dependence estimators (AODE, and KDB. Moreover, KDB and local KDB show mutually complementary characteristics with respect to variance.

  16. Risk communication strategies : achieving a multidisciplinary consensus; La communication des risques : un consensus multidisciplinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, B.; Cloutier, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Genie Industriel; Sabourin, J.P. [Ville de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Risk management related to floods and dam failures requires input from a variety of stakeholders from both the private and the public sector. This paper provided details of a risk management communication strategy based on a consequence approach that established work sequence modes to achieve a multidisciplinary consensus of opinion. The communication of risk was considered as a bilateral exchange of information between concerned parties, who were divided into 2 spheres: (1) a public sphere which included interest groups, government agencies, individuals and the media; and (2) a technical sphere comprised of industry members, scientific experts, and government agencies. Divided between the 2 spheres, government agencies play a distinct role in both the communication and understanding of risk. In Quebec, municipal agencies are required to identify risk and develop plans that ensure public safety. Risk management plans developed by industry members are a valuable source of information for municipal authorities, who can identify vulnerabilities in their own risk communication strategies. In addition, members of the public play an important role in eliciting further risk communications to improve areas of vulnerability. Interest groups can demand further analyses from impartial sources on sensitive issues. Conflicting results offer a plurality of opinions that must be considered to obtain a consensus in risk assessment, which is the ultimate aim of all risk analyses and communications strategies. It was concluded that risk communication strategies benefit from the engagement of a variety of often conflicting views. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  17. The development of a consensus definition for healthcare improvement science (HIS) in seven European countries: A consensus methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Macrae, Rhoda; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Rooney, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    There is a limited body of research in the field of healthcare improvement science (HIS). Quality improvement and 'change making' should become an intrinsic part of everyone's job, every day in all parts of the healthcare system. The lack of theoretical grounding may partly explain the minimal transfer of health research into health policy. This article seeks to present the development of the definition for healthcare improvement science. A consensus method approach was adopted with a two-stage Delphi process, expert panel and consensus group techniques. A total of 18 participants were involved in the expert panel and consensus group, and 153 answers were analysed as a part of the Delphi survey. Participants were researchers, educators and healthcare professionals from Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, England, Poland, and Romania. A high level of consensus was achieved for the broad definition in the 2nd Delphi iteration (86%). The final definition was agreed on by the consensus group: 'Healthcare improvement science is the generation of knowledge to cultivate change and deliver person-centred care that is safe, effective, efficient, equitable and timely. It improves patient outcomes, health system performance and population health.' The process of developing a consensus definition revealed different understandings of healthcare improvement science between the participants. Having a shared consensus definition of healthcare improvement science is an important step forward, bringing about a common understanding in order to advance the professional education and practice of healthcare improvement science.

  18. Quantifying federal funding and scholarly output related to the academic emergency medicine consensus conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daniel K; Dinh, Tu; May, Larissa; Yadav, Kabir; Gaddis, Gary M; Cone, David C

    2014-01-01

    Every year since 2000, Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) has presented a one-day consensus conference to generate a research agenda for advancement of a scientific topic. One of the 12 annual issues of AEM is reserved for the proceedings of these conferences. The purpose of this study was to measure academic productivity of these conferences by evaluating subsequent federal research funding received by authors of conference manuscripts and calculating citation counts of conference papers. This was a cross-sectional study. In 2012, the NIH RePORTER system was searched to identify subsequent federal funding obtained by authors of the consensus conference issues from 2000 to 2010. Funded projects were coded as related or unrelated to conference topic. Citation counts for all conference manuscripts were quantified using Scopus and Google Scholar. Simple descriptive statistics were reported. Eight hundred fifty-two individual authors contributed to 280 papers published in the 11 consensus conference issues. One hundred thirty-seven authors (16%) obtained funding for 318 projects. A median of 22 topic-related projects per conference (range 10-97) accounted for a median of $20,488,331 per conference (range $7,779,512 to $122,918,205). The average (± SD) number of citations per paper was 15.7 ± 20.5 in Scopus and 23.7 ± 32.6 in Google Scholar. The authors of consensus conference manuscripts obtained significant federal grant support for follow-up research related to conference themes. In addition, the manuscripts generated by these conferences were frequently cited. Conferences devoted to research agenda development appear to be an academically worthwhile endeavor.

  19. Consensus statement on anaesthesia for day care surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of day-care surgery units is to allow for early recovery of the patients so that they can return to their familiar 'home' environment; the management hence should be focused towards achieving these ends. The benefits could include a possible reduction in the risk of thromboembolism and hospital-acquired infections. Furthermore, day-care surgery is believed to reduce the average unit cost of treatment by up to 70% as compared to inpatient surgery. With more than 20% of the world's disease burden, India only has 6% of the world's hospital beds. Hence, there is an immense opportunity for expansion in day-care surgery in India to ensure faster and safer, cost-effective patient turnover. For this to happen, there is a need of change in the mindset of all concerned clinicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists and even the patients. A group of nine senior consultants from various parts of India, a mix of private and government anaesthesiologists, assembled in Mumbai and deliberated and discussed on the various aspects of day-care surgery. They formulated a consensus statement, the first of its kind in the Indian scenario, which can act as a guidance and tool for day-care anaesthesia in India. The statements are derived from the available published evidence in peer-reviewed literature including guidelines of several bodies such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists, British Association of Day Surgery and International Association of Ambulatory Surgery. The authors also offer interpretive comments wherever such evidence is inadequate or contradictory.

  20. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  1. The expert consensus guideline series. Optimizing pharmacologic treatment of psychotic disorders. Introduction: methods, commentary, and summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, John M; Leucht, Stefan; Carpenter, Daniel; Docherty, John P

    2003-01-01

    A growing number of atypical antipsychotics are available for clinicians to choose from in the treatment of psychotic disorders. However, a number of important questions concerning medication selection, dosing and dose equivalence, and the management of inadequate response, compliance problems, and relapse have not been adequately addressed by clinical trials. To aid clinical decision-making, a consensus survey of expert opinion on the pharmacologic treatment of psychotic disorders was undertaken to address questions not definitively answered in the research literature. Based on a literature review, a written survey was developed with 60 questions and 994 options. Approximately half of the options were scored using a modified version of the RAND 9-point scale for rating the appropriateness of medical decisions. For the other options, the experts were asked to write in answers (e.g., average doses) or check a box to indicate their preferred answer. The survey was sent to 50 national experts on the pharmacologic treatment of psychotic disorders, 47 (94%) of whom completed it. In analyzing the responses to items rated on the 9-point scale, consensus on each option was defined as a non random distribution of scores by chi-square "goodness-of-fit"test. We assigned a categorical rank (first line/preferred choice,second line/alternate choice, third line/usually inappropriate) to each option based on the 95% confidence interval around the mean rating. Guideline tables indicating preferred treatment strategies were then developed for key clinical situations. The expert panel reached consensus on 88% of the options rated on the 9-point scale. The experts overwhelmingly endorsed the atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of psychotic disorders. Risperidone was the top choice for first-episode and multi-episode patients, with the other newer atypicals rated first line or high second line depending on the clinical situation. Clozapine and a long-acting injectable atypical

  2. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  3. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  4. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Evaluation of exposure in mammography: limitations of average glandular dose and proposal of a new quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeraert, N.; Bosmans, H.; Klausz, R.; Muller, S.; Bloch, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation risk in mammography is traditionally evaluated using the average glandular dose. This quantity for the average breast has proven to be useful for population statistics and to compare exposure techniques and systems. However it is not indicating the individual radiation risk based on the individual glandular amount and distribution. Simulations of exposures were performed for six appropriate virtual phantoms with varying glandular amount and distribution. The individualised average glandular dose (iAGD), i.e. the individual glandular absorbed energy divided by the mass of the gland, and the glandular imparted energy (GIE), i.e. the glandular absorbed energy, were computed. Both quantities were evaluated for their capability to take into account the glandular amount and distribution. As expected, the results have demonstrated that iAGD reflects only the distribution, while GIE reflects both the glandular amount and distribution. Therefore GIE is a good candidate for individual radiation risk assessment. (authors)

  6. Genomic Variability of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Mexican Children Determined by Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences and PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-De-Leon, Patricia; Santos, Jose I.; Caballero, Javier; Gomez, Demostenes; Espinosa, Luz E.; Moreno, Isabel; Piñero, Daniel; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Genomic fingerprints from 92 capsulated and noncapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with different diseases and healthy carriers were generated by PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. A cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages based on the overall similarity as estimated from the characteristics of the genomic fingerprints, was conducted to group the strains. A total of 69 fingerprint...

  7. Towards a New Democracy: Consensus Through Quantum Parliament

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Diederik

    2005-01-01

    We compare different actual forms of democracy and analyse in which way they are variations of a 'natural consensus decision process'. We analyse how 'consensus decision followed by majority voting' is open to 'false play' by the majority, and investigate how other types of false play appear in alternative types of democratic decision procedures. We introduce the combined notion of 'quantum parliament' and 'quantum decision procedure', and prove it to be the only one, when applied after conse...

  8. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  9. Consensus formation in science modeled by aggregated bibliographic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2012-01-01

    as their unit of analysis. To produce a more fine grained citation analysis one needs to study consensusformation on an even more detailed level – i.e. the scientific document or article. To do so, we have developed a new technique that measures consensus by aggregatedbibliographiccouplings (ABC) between...... documents. The advantages of the ABC-technique are demonstrated in a study of two selected disciplines in which the levels of consensus are measured using the propopsed technique....

  10. Deriving consensus rankings via multicriteria decision making methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Poh Ai Ling; Mohamad Nasir Saludin; Masao Mukaidono

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to take a cautionary stance to the impact of the marketing mix on customer satisfaction, via a case study deriving consensus rankings for benchmarking on selected retail stores in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach - The ELECTRE I model is used in deriving consensus rankings via multicriteria decision making method for benchmarking base on the marketing mix model 4P's. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze best practice among the four marketing tactics. Finding...

  11. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  12. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, David; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step

  13. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-01

    To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  14. Research priorities in pediatric rheumatology: The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellins Elizabeth D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background North American pediatric rheumatologists have created an investigator-initiated research network (the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance – CARRA to facilitate multi-centre studies. One of the first projects undertaken by this network was to define, by consensus, research priorities for the group, and if possible a first group-sponsored clinical trial in which all members could participate. Methods We determined consensus using the Delphi approach. This approach has been used extensively in health research to reach consensus in large groups. It uses several successive iterations of surveys eliciting ideas and opinions from specialists in the field. Three surveys were designed based on this method and were distributed to members of CARRA to elicit and rank-order research priorities. Results A response rate of 87.6% was achieved in the final survey. The most highly ranked research suggestion was to study infliximab treatment of uveitis unresponsive to methotrexate. Other highly ranked suggestions were to study i the treatment of systemic arthritis with anakinra and ii the treatment of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus with mycophenolate mofetil. Conclusion The Delphi approach was an effective and practical method to define research priorities in this group. Ongoing discussion and cooperation among pediatric rheumatologists in CARRA and others world-wide will help in developing further research priorities and to facilitate the execution of clinical trials in the future.

  15. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  16. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  17. Consensus clustering approach to group brain connectivity matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rasero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach rooted on the notion of consensus clustering, a strategy developed for community detection in complex networks, is proposed to cope with the heterogeneity that characterizes connectivity matrices in health and disease. The method can be summarized as follows: (a define, for each node, a distance matrix for the set of subjects by comparing the connectivity pattern of that node in all pairs of subjects; (b cluster the distance matrix for each node; (c build the consensus network from the corresponding partitions; and (d extract groups of subjects by finding the communities of the consensus network thus obtained. Different from the previous implementations of consensus clustering, we thus propose to use the consensus strategy to combine the information arising from the connectivity patterns of each node. The proposed approach may be seen either as an exploratory technique or as an unsupervised pretraining step to help the subsequent construction of a supervised classifier. Applications on a toy model and two real datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, which represents heterogeneity of a set of subjects in terms of a weighted network, the consensus matrix.

  18. Determination of the average lifetime of b-baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Belokopytov, Yu; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Gouz, Yu; Jarlskog, Ch; Khokhlov, Yu; Papadopoulou, Th D

    1996-01-01

    The average lifetime of b-baryons has been studied using 3 \\times 10^6 hadronic Z^0 decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Three methods have been used, based on the measurement of different observables: the proper decay time distribution of 206 vertices reconstructed with a \\Lambda, a lepton and an oppositely charged pion; the impact parameter distribution of 441 muons with high transverse momentum accompanied by a \\mLs in the same jet; and the proper decay time distribution of 125 \\Lambda_c-lepton decay vertices with the \\Lambda_c exclusively reconstructed through its pK\\pi, pK^0 and \\mLs3\\pi decay modes. The combined result is~:\\par \\begin{center} \\tau(b-baryon) = (1.25^{+0.13}_{-0.11}\\ pm0.04(syst)^{+0.03}_{-0. 05}(syst)) ps\\par \\end{center} where the first systematic error is due to experimental uncertainties and the second to the uncertainties in the modelling of the b-baryon production and semi-leptonic decay. Including the measurement recently published by DELPHI based on a sample of proton-m...

  19. Opinion dynamics of learning agents: does seeking consensus lead to disagreement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Renato; Martins, André C R; Caticha, Nestor

    2009-01-01

    We study opinion dynamics in a population of interacting adaptive agents voting on a set of issues represented by vectors. We consider agents who can classify issues into one of two categories and can arrive at their opinions using an adaptive algorithm. Adaptation comes from learning and the information for the learning process comes from interacting with other neighboring agents and trying to change the internal state in order to concur with their opinions. The change in the internal state is driven by the information contained in the issue and in the opinion of the other agent. We present results in a simple yet rich context where each agent uses a Boolean perceptron to state their opinion. If the update occurs with information asynchronously exchanged among pairs of agents, then the typical case, if the number of issues is kept small, is the evolution into a society torn by the emergence of factions with extreme opposite beliefs. This occurs even when seeking consensus with agents with opposite opinions. If the number of issues is large, the dynamics becomes trapped, the society does not evolve into factions and a distribution of moderate opinions is observed. The synchronous case is technically simpler and is studied by formulating the problem in terms of differential equations that describe the evolution of order parameters that measure the consensus between pairs of agents. We show that for a large number of issues and unidirectional information flow, global consensus is a fixed point; however, the approach to this consensus is glassy for large societies

  20. Opinion dynamics of learning agents: does seeking consensus lead to disagreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Martins, André C. R.; Caticha, Nestor

    2009-03-01

    We study opinion dynamics in a population of interacting adaptive agents voting on a set of issues represented by vectors. We consider agents who can classify issues into one of two categories and can arrive at their opinions using an adaptive algorithm. Adaptation comes from learning and the information for the learning process comes from interacting with other neighboring agents and trying to change the internal state in order to concur with their opinions. The change in the internal state is driven by the information contained in the issue and in the opinion of the other agent. We present results in a simple yet rich context where each agent uses a Boolean perceptron to state their opinion. If the update occurs with information asynchronously exchanged among pairs of agents, then the typical case, if the number of issues is kept small, is the evolution into a society torn by the emergence of factions with extreme opposite beliefs. This occurs even when seeking consensus with agents with opposite opinions. If the number of issues is large, the dynamics becomes trapped, the society does not evolve into factions and a distribution of moderate opinions is observed. The synchronous case is technically simpler and is studied by formulating the problem in terms of differential equations that describe the evolution of order parameters that measure the consensus between pairs of agents. We show that for a large number of issues and unidirectional information flow, global consensus is a fixed point; however, the approach to this consensus is glassy for large societies.

  1. A distributed algorithm for machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihong

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers a distributed learning problem in which a group of machines in a connected network, each learning its own local dataset, aim to reach a consensus at an optimal model, by exchanging information only with their neighbors but without transmitting data. A distributed algorithm is proposed to solve this problem under appropriate assumptions.

  2. Summary from the epistemic uncertainty workshop: consensus amid diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferson, Scott; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Helton, Jon C.; Oberkampf, William L.; Sentz, Kari

    2004-01-01

    The 'Epistemic Uncertainty Workshop' sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on 6-7 August 2002. The workshop was organized around a set of Challenge Problems involving both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty that the workshop participants were invited to solve and discuss. This concluding article in a special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety based on the workshop discusses the intent of the Challenge Problems, summarizes some discussions from the workshop, and provides a technical comparison among the papers in this special issue. The Challenge Problems were computationally simple models that were intended as vehicles for the illustration and comparison of conceptual and numerical techniques for use in analyses that involve: (i) epistemic uncertainty, (ii) aggregation of multiple characterizations of epistemic uncertainty, (iii) combination of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, and (iv) models with repeated parameters. There was considerable diversity of opinion at the workshop about both methods and fundamental issues, and yet substantial consensus about what the answers to the problems were, and even about how each of the four issues should be addressed. Among the technical approaches advanced were probability theory, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, random sets, sets of probability measures, imprecise coherent probabilities, coherent lower previsions, probability boxes, possibility theory, fuzzy sets, joint distribution tableaux, polynomial chaos expansions, and info-gap models. Although some participants maintained that a purely probabilistic approach is fully capable of accounting for all forms of uncertainty, most agreed that the treatment of epistemic uncertainty introduces important considerations and that the issues underlying the Challenge Problems are legitimate and significant. Topics identified as meriting additional research include elicitation of uncertainty representations, aggregation of

  3. Alcohol use and pregnancy consensus clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, George; Cox, Lori Vitale; Crane, Joan; Croteau, Pascal; Graves, Lisa; Kluka, Sandra; Koren, Gideon; Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; Midmer, Deana; Nulman, Irena; Poole, Nancy; Senikas, Vyta; Wood, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    to establish national standards of care for the screening and recording of alcohol use and counselling on alcohol use of women of child-bearing age and pregnant women based on the most up-to-date evidence. published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in May 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., pregnancy complications, alcohol drinking, prenatal care) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, alcohol consumption, risk reduction). Results were restricted to literature published in the last five years with the following research designs: systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment (HTA) and HTA-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, clinical practice guideline collections, and clinical trial registries. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. the quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. these consensus guidelines have been endorsed by the Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Quebec; the Canadian Association of Midwives; the Canadian Association of Perinatal, Women's Health and Neonatal Nurses (CAPWHN); the College of Family Physicians of

  4. EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Boelens, Petra G; Borras, Josep M; Coebergh, Jan-Willem; Cervantes, Andres; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; van den Broek, Colette B M; Brown, Gina; Van Cutsem, Eric; Espin, Eloy; Haustermans, Karin; Glimelius, Bengt; Iversen, Lene H; van Krieken, J Han; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Henning, Geoffrey; Gore-Booth, Jola; Meldolesi, Elisa; Mroczkowski, Pawel; Nagtegaal, Iris; Naredi, Peter; Ortiz, Hector; Påhlman, Lars; Quirke, Philip; Rödel, Claus; Roth, Arnaud; Rutten, Harm; Schmoll, Hans J; Smith, Jason J; Tanis, Pieter J; Taylor, Claire; Wibe, Arne; Wiggers, Theo; Gambacorta, Maria A; Aristei, Cynthia; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organisations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries. The expert panel had delegates of the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), European Society of Pathology (ESP), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Radiology (ESR), European Society of Coloproctology (ESCP), European CanCer Organisation (ECCO), European Oncology Nursing Society (EONS) and the European Colorectal Cancer Patient Organisation (EuropaColon), as well as delegates from national registries or audits. Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. For the Delphi process, multidisciplinary experts were invited to comment and vote three web-based online voting rounds and to lecture on the subjects during the meeting (13th-15th December 2012). The sentences in the consensus document were available during the meeting and a televoting round during the conference by all participants was performed. This manuscript covers all sentences of the consensus document with the result of the voting. The consensus document represents sections on diagnostics, pathology, surgery, medical oncology, radiotherapy, and follow-up where

  5. Plug-and-play control and consensus algorithms for current sharing in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucci, Michele; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a secondary consensus-based control layer for current sharing and voltage balancing in DC microGrids (mGs). Differently from existing approaches based on droop control, we assume decentralized Plug-and-Play (PnP) regulators at the primary level, as they provide voltage...... functions (Tucci et al., 2016a). Besides showing stability, current sharing, and voltage balancing in the asymptotic régime, we describe how to design secondary controllers in a PnP fashion when Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) are added or removed. Theoretical results are complemented by simulations...

  6. Average spectral efficiency analysis of FSO links over turbulence channel with adaptive transmissions and aperture averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarthi, G.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    In our paper, the impact of adaptive transmission schemes: (i) optimal rate adaptation (ORA) and (ii) channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) on the average spectral efficiency (ASE) are explored for free-space optical (FSO) communications with On-Off Keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems under different turbulence regimes. Further to enhance the ASE we have incorporated aperture averaging effects along with the above adaptive schemes. The results indicate that ORA adaptation scheme has the advantage of improving the ASE performance compared with CIFR under moderate and strong turbulence regime. The coherent OWC system with ORA excels the other modulation schemes and could achieve ASE performance of 49.8 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 6 dBm under strong turbulence. By adding aperture averaging effect we could achieve an ASE of 50.5 bits/s/Hz under the same conditions. This makes ORA with Coherent OWC modulation as a favorable candidate for improving the ASE of the FSO communication system.

  7. Using the modified Delphi method to establish clinical consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rotator cuff pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. Eubank

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting to the healthcare system with rotator cuff pathology do not always receive high quality care. High quality care occurs when a patient receives care that is accessible, appropriate, acceptable, effective, efficient, and safe. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to develop a clinical pathway algorithm that sets forth a stepwise process for making decisions about the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology presenting to primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings; and 2 to establish clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology to inform decision-making processes within the algorithm. Methods A three-step modified Delphi method was used to establish consensus. Fourteen experts representing athletic therapy, physiotherapy, sport medicine, and orthopaedic surgery were invited to participate as the expert panel. In round 1, 123 best practice statements were distributed to the panel. Panel members were asked to mark “agree” or “disagree” beside each statement, and provide comments. The same voting method was again used for round 2. Round 3 consisted of a final face-to-face meeting. Results In round 1, statements were grouped and reduced to 44 statements that met consensus. In round 2, five statements reached consensus. In round 3, ten statements reached consensus. Consensus was reached for 59 statements representing five domains: screening, diagnosis, physical examination, investigations, and treatment. The final face-to-face meeting was also used to develop clinical pathway algorithms (i.e., clinical care pathways for three types of rotator cuff pathology: acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic. Conclusion This consensus guideline will help to standardize care, provide guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology, and assist in clinical decision-making for all healthcare professionals.

  8. Using the modified Delphi method to establish clinical consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rotator cuff pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, Breda H; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Lafave, Mark R; Wiley, J Preston; Bois, Aaron J; Boorman, Richard S; Sheps, David M

    2016-05-20

    Patients presenting to the healthcare system with rotator cuff pathology do not always receive high quality care. High quality care occurs when a patient receives care that is accessible, appropriate, acceptable, effective, efficient, and safe. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to develop a clinical pathway algorithm that sets forth a stepwise process for making decisions about the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology presenting to primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings; and 2) to establish clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology to inform decision-making processes within the algorithm. A three-step modified Delphi method was used to establish consensus. Fourteen experts representing athletic therapy, physiotherapy, sport medicine, and orthopaedic surgery were invited to participate as the expert panel. In round 1, 123 best practice statements were distributed to the panel. Panel members were asked to mark "agree" or "disagree" beside each statement, and provide comments. The same voting method was again used for round 2. Round 3 consisted of a final face-to-face meeting. In round 1, statements were grouped and reduced to 44 statements that met consensus. In round 2, five statements reached consensus. In round 3, ten statements reached consensus. Consensus was reached for 59 statements representing five domains: screening, diagnosis, physical examination, investigations, and treatment. The final face-to-face meeting was also used to develop clinical pathway algorithms (i.e., clinical care pathways) for three types of rotator cuff pathology: acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic. This consensus guideline will help to standardize care, provide guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology, and assist in clinical decision-making for all healthcare professionals.

  9. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart......We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...

  10. A Note on Functional Averages over Gaussian Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel H. Tucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a new formula for matrix averages over the Gaussian ensemble. Let H be an n×n Gaussian random matrix with complex, independent, and identically distributed entries of zero mean and unit variance. Given an n×n positive definite matrix A and a continuous function f:ℝ+→ℝ such that ∫0∞‍e-αt|f(t|2dt0, we find a new formula for the expectation [Tr(f(HAH*]. Taking f(x=log(1+x gives another formula for the capacity of the MIMO communication channel, and taking f(x=(1+x-1 gives the MMSE achieved by a linear receiver.

  11. Average properties of cosmic ray diffusion in solar wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.; Richter, A.K.; Scholer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a superposed epoch analysis to the Mariner 5 plasma and magnetic field observations of 13 corotating high speed solar wind streams, we obtain the average azimuthal distribution of all relevant parameters of the background interplanetary medium, as well as those of superimposed Alfven waves. Using these measurements in model calculations allows us to determine the radial and azimuthal variation of the background and fluctuation parameters between 1 and 5 AU, and thus to calculate the cosmic ray diffusion coefficient kappa from the plasma and field properties. The calculation of kappa assumes that quasi-linear wave-particle interaction theory is applicable, and that the Alfven waves responsible for the scattering are propagating in the azimuthally varying solar wind according to geometrical optics. The consequences of these calculations regarding the occurrence of solar wind stream associated Forbush decreases are discussed

  12. On the average capacity and bit error probability of wireless communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of the average binary error probabilities and average capacity of wireless communications systems over generalized fading channels have been considered separately in the past. This paper introduces a novel moment generating function-based unified expression for both average binary error probabilities and average capacity of single and multiple link communication with maximal ratio combining. It is a matter to note that the generic unified expression offered in this paper can be easily calculated and that is applicable to a wide variety of fading scenarios, and the mathematical formalism is illustrated with the generalized Gamma fading distribution in order to validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Artificial Intelligence Can Predict Daily Trauma Volume and Average Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonko, David P; Dennis, Bradley M; Betzold, Richard D; Peetz, Allan B; Gunter, Oliver L; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2018-04-19

    The goal of this study was to integrate temporal and weather data in order to create an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict trauma volume, the number of emergent operative cases, and average daily acuity at a level 1 trauma center. Trauma admission data from TRACS and weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was collected for all adult trauma patients from July 2013-June 2016. The ANN was constructed using temporal (time, day of week), and weather factors (daily high, active precipitation) to predict four points of daily trauma activity: number of traumas, number of penetrating traumas, average ISS, and number of immediate OR cases per day. We trained a two-layer feed-forward network with 10 sigmoid hidden neurons via the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, and performed k-fold cross validation and accuracy calculations on 100 randomly generated partitions. 10,612 patients over 1,096 days were identified. The ANN accurately predicted the daily trauma distribution in terms of number of traumas, number of penetrating traumas, number of OR cases, and average daily ISS (combined training correlation coefficient r = 0.9018+/-0.002; validation r = 0.8899+/- 0.005; testing r = 0.8940+/-0.006). We were able to successfully predict trauma and emergent operative volume, and acuity using an ANN by integrating local weather and trauma admission data from a level 1 center. As an example, for June 30, 2016, it predicted 9.93 traumas (actual: 10), and a mean ISS score of 15.99 (actual: 13.12); see figure 3. This may prove useful for predicting trauma needs across the system and hospital administration when allocating limited resources. Level III STUDY TYPE: Prognostic/Epidemiological.

  14. On the average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1978-03-01

    Over 3000 hours of IMP-6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R sub E in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5 minute averages of B sub Z as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks than near midnight. The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the X axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle alpha = -0.9 y sub SM - 1.7, where y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and alpha is in degrees. After removing these effects the Y component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an away sector the B/sub Y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5 gamma greater than that during a toward sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail

  15. Eighth CW and High Average Power RF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the next Continuous Wave and High Average RF Power Workshop, CWRF2014, to take place at Hotel NH Trieste, Trieste, Italy from 13 to 16 May, 2014. This is the eighth in the CWRF workshop series and will be hosted by Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (www.elettra.eu). CWRF2014 will provide an opportunity for designers and users of CW and high average power RF systems to meet and interact in a convivial environment to share experiences and ideas on applications which utilize high-power klystrons, gridded tubes, combined solid-state architectures, high-voltage power supplies, high-voltage modulators, high-power combiners, circulators, cavities, power couplers and tuners. New ideas for high-power RF system upgrades and novel ways of RF power generation and distribution will also be discussed. CWRF2014 sessions will start on Tuesday morning and will conclude on Friday lunchtime. A visit to Elettra and FERMI will be organized during the workshop. ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (OC): Al...

  16. A consensus statement on how to conduct inclusive health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Garcia Iriarte, E; Buchner, T; Brooker, K; Embregts, P; Joosa, E; Crowther, F; Fudge Schormans, A; Schippers, A; Walmsley, J; O'Brien, P; Linehan, C; Northway, R; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H; Leusink, G

    2018-04-11

    The active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in research, or inclusive research, is relatively common. However, inclusive health research is less common, even though it is expected to lead to appropriate healthcare and increased quality of life. Inclusive health research can build upon lessons learned from inclusive research. A total of 17 experts on inclusive (health) research without intellectual disabilities and 40 experts with intellectual disabilities collaborated in this consensus statement. The consensus statement was developed in three consecutive rounds: (1) an initial feedback round; (2) a roundtable discussion at the 2016 International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities World Congress; and (3) a final feedback round. This consensus statement provides researchers with guidelines, agreed upon by experts in the field, regarding attributes, potential outcomes, reporting and publishing, and future research directions, for designing and conducting inclusive health research. Consensus was reached on how to design and conduct inclusive health research. However, this statement should be continuously adapted to incorporate recent knowledge. The focus of this consensus statement is largely on inclusive health research, but the principles can also be applied to other areas. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  18. Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation: international consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Lehner, Burkhard; Willy, Christian; Lavery, Larry; Wolvos, Tom; Orgill, Dennis; Ennis, William; Lantis, John; Gabriel, Allen; Schultz, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation is increasingly utilized as an adjunct therapy for a wide variety of wounds. Despite its growing popularity, there is a paucity of evidence and lack of guidance to provide effective use of this therapy. A panel of experts was convened to provide guidance regarding the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. A face-to-face meeting was held where the available evidence was discussed and individual clinical experience with this therapy was shared. Follow-up communication among the panelists continued until consensus was achieved. The final consensus recommendations were derived through more than 80 percent agreement among the panelists. Nine consensus statements were generated that address the appropriate use of negative-pressure wound therapy with instillation. The question of clinical effectiveness of this therapy was not directly addressed by the consensus panel. This document serves as preliminary guidelines until more robust evidence emerges that will support or modify these consensus recommendations.

  19. Consensus guidelines on management of childhood convulsive status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devendra; Sharma, Suvasini; Sankhyan, Naveen; Konanki, Ramesh; Kamate, Mahesh; Kanhere, Sujata; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-12-01

    Status epilepticus has a wide etiological spectrum, and significant morbidity and mortality. Management using a pre-determined uniform protocol leads to better outcomes. Multiple protocols for management of childhood status epilepticus are available, without much consensus. A 'Multi-disciplinary Consensus Development Workshop on Management of Status Epilepticus in Children in India' was organized. The invited experts included Pediatricians, Pediatric neurologists, Neurologists, Epileptologists, and Pediatric intensive care specialists from India, with experience in the relevant field. Experts had previously been divided into focus groups and had interacted on telephone and e-mail regarding their group recommendations, and developed consensus on the topic. During the meeting, each group presented their recommendations, which were deliberated upon by the house and a consensus was reached on various issues; the document was finalized after incorporating suggestions of experts on the draft document. To provide consensus guidelines on evaluation and management of convulsive status epilepticus in children in India (excluding neonatal and super-refractory status epilepticus). Each institution should use a pre-determined protocol for management of status epilepticus; pre-hospital management and early stabilization is the key to a satisfactory outcome of status epilepticus. Pharmacotherapy should not be delayed for any investigations; the initial management should consist of a parenteral benzodiazepine by any route feasible. Subsequent management has been detailed. The group also felt the need for more epidemiological research on status epilepticus from India, and identified certain research areas for the purpose.

  20. Weighted voting-based consensus clustering for chemical structure databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Salim, Naomie

    2014-06-01

    The cluster-based compound selection is used in the lead identification process of drug discovery and design. Many clustering methods have been used for chemical databases, but there is no clustering method that can obtain the best results under all circumstances. However, little attention has been focused on the use of combination methods for chemical structure clustering, which is known as consensus clustering. Recently, consensus clustering has been used in many areas including bioinformatics, machine learning and information theory. This process can improve the robustness, stability, consistency and novelty of clustering. For chemical databases, different consensus clustering methods have been used including the co-association matrix-based, graph-based, hypergraph-based and voting-based methods. In this paper, a weighted cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (W-CVAA) was developed. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) benchmark chemical dataset was used in the experiments and represented by the AlogP and ECPF_4 descriptors. The results from the clustering methods were evaluated by the ability of the clustering to separate biologically active molecules in each cluster from inactive ones using different criteria, and the effectiveness of the consensus clustering was compared to that of Ward's method, which is the current standard clustering method in chemoinformatics. This study indicated that weighted voting-based consensus clustering can overcome the limitations of the existing voting-based methods and improve the effectiveness of combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures.