WorldWideScience

Sample records for distributed binary-state experimental

  1. Reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for our understanding of many complex networked systems lies in the reconstruction of network structure from measurable data. Although binary-state dynamics occurring in a broad class of complex networked systems in nature and society and has been intensively investigated, a general framework for reconstructing complex networks from binary states, the inverse problem, is lacking. Here we offer a general solution to the reconstruction problem by developing a data-based linearization approach for binary-state dynamics with linear, nonlinear, discrete and stochastic switching functions. The linearization allows us to convert the network reconstruction problem into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved efficiently and credibly by convex optimization based on compressed sensing. The completely data-based linearization method and the sparse signal reconstruction constitutes a general framework for reconstructing complex networks without any knowledge of the binary-state dynami...

  2. Experimental velocity distributions in a granular submonolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadillo-Martínez, Alejandra T.; Sánchez, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Experimental speed distributions are obtained for driven granular submonolayers of binary mixtures of single spheres and dimers of spheres. The results are well-described by a distribution originally developed for a single-species one-dimensional system. This suggests that such a distribution may be extended to other mixtures such as systems exhibiting aggregation and dissociation.

  3. Censored Weibull Distributed Data in Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Støtvig, Jeanett Gunneklev

    2014-01-01

    Give an introduction to experimental design. Investigate how four methods handle Weibull distributed censored data, where the four methods are the quick and dirty method, the maximum likelihood method, single imputation and multiple imputation.

  4. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidy, Till von [Physik-Department, T.U. Muenchen (Germany); Bucurescu, Dorel [National Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane in order to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter {sigma} as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, {sigma}{sup 2}=0.391 . A{sup 0.675}(E-0.5 .Pa'){sup 0.312}, is proposed up to about 10 MeV which is in very good agreement with experimental {sigma} values and is applied to improve the systematics of level density parameters.

  5. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, A; Zuppardo, M; Gillett, G G; Broome, M A; Almeida, M P; Paternostro, M; White, A G; Paterek, T

    2013-12-01

    The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without direct transfer-or communication-of entanglement. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here, we experimentally entangle two communicating parties sharing three initially separable photonic qubits by exchange of a carrier photon that is unentangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement through noisy environments.

  6. Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Wei, Kejin; Sajeed, Shihan; Kaiser, Sarah; Sun, Shihai; Tang, Zhiyuan; Qian, Li; Makarov, Vadim; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-09-01

    Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard technique in current quantum cryptographic implementations. Unfortunately, existing experiments have two important drawbacks: the state preparation is assumed to be perfect without errors and the employed security proofs do not fully consider the finite-key effects for general attacks. These two drawbacks mean that existing experiments are not guaranteed to be proven to be secure in practice. Here, we perform an experiment that shows secure QKD with imperfect state preparations over long distances and achieves rigorous finite-key security bounds for decoy-state QKD against coherent attacks in the universally composable framework. We quantify the source flaws experimentally and demonstrate a QKD implementation that is tolerant to channel loss despite the source flaws. Our implementation considers more real-world problems than most previous experiments, and our theory can be applied to general discrete-variable QKD systems. These features constitute a step towards secure QKD with imperfect devices.

  7. Universal data-based method for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control complex networked systems, a prerequisite is to reconstruct the network structure from observable data. Despite recent progress in network reconstruction, binary-state dynamics that are ubiquitous in nature, technology, and society still present an outstanding challenge in this field. Here we offer a framework for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics by developing a universal data-based linearization approach that is applicable to systems with linear, nonlinear, discontinuous, or stochastic dynamics governed by monotonic functions. The linearization procedure enables us to convert the network reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved through convex optimization. We demonstrate generally high reconstruction accuracy for a number of complex networks associated with distinct binary-state dynamics from using binary data contaminated by noise and missing data. Our framework is completely data driven, efficient, and robust, and does not require any a priori knowledge about the detailed dynamical process on the network. The framework represents a general paradigm for reconstructing, understanding, and exploiting complex networked systems with binary-state dynamics.

  8. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;

    2013-01-01

    such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design...... of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....

  9. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, A.; Alopaeus, V.

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used.

  10. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects...... such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...

  11. Experimental demonstration of passive decoy state quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yang; Wang Shuang; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Chen Wei; Liang Wen-Ye; Li Hong-Wei; Guo Guang-Can; Han Zheng-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Passive decoy state quantum key distribution (PDS-QKD) has advantages in high-speed scenarios.We propose a modified model to simulate the PDS-QKD with a weak coherent light source based on Curty's theory [Opt.Lett.343238 (2009)].The modified model can provide better performance in a practical PDS-QKD system.Moreover,we report an experimental demonstration of the PDS-QKD of over 22.0-dB channel loss.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION AT CHANNEL BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.M. Tarekul ISLAM; M.R. KABIR; Ainun NISHAT

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on the distribution of sediments at channel bifurcation.The experiments have been conducted in a physical model of channel bifurcation. It consists of a straight main channel which bifurcates into two branch channels of different widths. The test rig is a mobile bed with fixed bank. Four different noses have been used to study the phenomenon. For each nose, three upstream discharges viz. 20 l/s, 30 l/s and 40 l/s have been employed. From the measured data, discharges and sediment transport ratios per unit width are calculated in the downstream branches.These data have been set to the general nodal point relation and a set of equations has been developed to describe the distribution of sediments to the downstream branches for different nose angles.

  13. Competition, Income Distribution, and the Middle Class: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Kittel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of competition on income distribution by means of a two-stage experiment. Heterogeneous endowments are earned in a contest, followed by a surplus-sharing task. The experimental test confirms our initial hypothesis that the existence of a middle class is as effective as institutional hurdles in limiting the power of the less able in order to protect the more able players from being expropriated. Furthermore, majoritarian voting with a middle class involves fewer bargaining impasses than granting veto rights to the more able players and, therefore, is more efficient.

  14. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption.

  15. Experimental passive decoy-state quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Chao; Wang, Wei-Long; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Fei; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Xianfeng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-08-01

    The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources of varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy-state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we experimentally demonstrate the passive decoy-state method over a 50 km long optical fiber and obtain a key rate of about 100 bit s-1. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

  16. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  17. Binary-state dynamics on complex networks: pair approximation and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Gleeson, James P

    2012-01-01

    A wide class of binary-state dynamics on networks---including, for example, the voter model, the Bass diffusion model, and threshold models---can be described in terms of transition rates (spin-flip probabilities) that depend on the number of nearest neighbors in each of the two possible states. High-accuracy approximations for the emergent dynamics of such models on uncorrelated, infinite networks are given by recently-developed compartmental models or approximate master equations (AME). Pair approximations (PA) and mean-field theories can be systematically derived from the AME. We show that PA and AME solutions can coincide under certain circumstances, and numerical simulations confirm that PA is highly accurate in these cases. For monotone dynamics (where transitions out of one nodal state are impossible, e.g., SI disease-spread or Bass diffusion), PA and AME give identical results for the fraction of nodes in the infected (active) state for all time, provided the rate of infection depends linearly on the ...

  18. Factors influencing Diaptomus distributions: An experimental study in subtropical Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, J.L.

    1983-05-01

    In central and southern Florida Diaptomus dorsalis is the sole diaptomid in most eutrophic lakes whereas Diaptomus floridanus and diaptomus mississippiensis co-occur in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes. The importance of food availability and water quality in determining the species distributions of Diaptomus was ascertained by culturing the three species in water from a lake of each type with its natural phytoplankton present and with the natural phytoplankton removed and Chlamydomonas added at a concentration above feeding saturation. The experimental evidence indicated that neither food availability nor water quality is important in excluding D. floridanus and D. mississippiensis from the eutrophic lakes. Addtitional data suggested that strong predation pressure may prevent these two species from occupying lakes of this type. However, low food availability seemed of major importance in excluding D. dorsalis from the oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes. Competition is likely because food levels are always limiting and a potential competitor is present in the form of D. floridanus - in the same subgenus and close to the same size. Additional evidence suggests that predation is probably of lesser importance to the zooplankton in lakes of these types.

  19. Distribution of opiate alkaloids in brain tissue of experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurendic-Brenesel, Maja; Pilija, Vladimir; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Budakov, Branislav; Cvjeticanin, Stanko

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in brain regions of experimental animals in order to select parts with the highest content of opiates. Their analysis should contribute to resolve causes of death due to heroin intake. The tests were performed at different time periods (5, 15, 45 and 120 min) after male and female Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin. Opiate alkaloids (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine) were quantitatively determined in brain regions known for their high concentration of µ-opiate receptors: cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia, by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the brain tissue of female animals was found 15 min and in male animals 45 min after treatment. The highest content of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders, indicating that this part of brain tissue presents a reliable sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates after heroin intake.

  20. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  1. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beirsdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lopez-Urrutia, J Crespo R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Utter, S. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-26

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron' s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to

  2. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.

    1970-01-01

    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  3. Experimental Tests of Charge Symmetry Violation in Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions.

  4. Experimental investigation of particle velocity distributions in windblown sand movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the PDPA(Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer) measurement technology,the probability distributions of particle impact and lift-off velocities on bed surface and the particle velocity distributions at different heights are detected in a wind tunnel. The results show that the probability distribution of impact and lift-off velocities of sand grains can be expressed by a log-normal function,and that of impact and lift-off angles complies with an exponential function. The mean impact angle is between 28° and 39°,and the mean lift-off angle ranges from 30° to 44°. The mean lift-off velocity is 0.81-0.9 times the mean impact velocity. The proportion of backward-impacting particles is 0.05-0.11,and that of backward-entrained particles ranges from 0.04 to 0.13. The probability distribution of particle horizontal velocity at 4 mm height is positive skew,the horizontal velocity of particles at 20 mm height varies widely,and the variation of the particle horizontal velocity at 80 mm height is less than that at 20 mm height. The probability distribution of particle vertical velocity at different heights can be described as a normal function.

  5. The mapping of electronic energy distributions using experimental electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirelson, Vladimir G

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the approximate kinetic energy density calculated using the second-order gradient expansion with parameters of the multipole model fitted to experimental structure factors reproduces the main features of this quantity in a molecular or crystal position space. The use of the local virial theorem provides an appropriate derivation of approximate potential energy density and electronic energy density from the experimental (model) electron density and its derivatives. Consideration of these functions is not restricted by the critical points in the electron density and provides a comprehensive characterization of bonding in molecules and crystals.

  6. 非二态故障树分析发展动态%Development trend of no-binary state fault tree analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁肖力; 李锦飞; 陈静

    2001-01-01

    Fault Tree Analysis(FTA) is widely used for its desirabl e quality which apply for qualitative and quantitative research of complex syste m.In general,this technique is used in the condition which is supposed that compone nts have dependent and definite distribution.However,in fact,no-binary state fau lt pattern often appear in variable systems.The research of mulistate fault tree analysis become an important subject at present.%故障树分析技术,因 其在复杂系统可靠性的定性、定量研究中所表现出的优势而被广泛应用。但是,一般情况下 的故障树分析都是事先假定元部件具有相互独立,确定分布的状态下使用,而在现实中,往 往会出现非二态的系统失效模式。因此,对非二态情况的故障树的研究已成为当前的重要课题。

  7. Experimental and theoretical strain distributions for stationary and growing cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberich, W. W.; Davidson, D. L.; Kaczorowski, M.

    E XPERIMENTAL strain distributions are determined very near the crack tip in Fe-3wt.%Si single crystals. Both in situ stereoimaging and electron channeling techniques give reasonably reproducible distributions. By growing fatigue cracks on a {100} cleavage plane, the singularity strengths have been determined for both growing and stationary cracks under relatively plane stress and plane strain conditions. This has allowed a comparison to existing theoretical models. It is shown that the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren, 1968) for stationary cracks is very good to within I μm of the crack tip and a hardening model for the growing crack (gao and hwang, Advances in Fracture Research, edited by D. Francois. 5th Int. Conf. on Fracture, Cannes, France, 2, 669, 1981) is surprisingly good. Other issues such as fracture criteria are discussed since strains greater than unity were measured at the crack tip in this relatively brittle material.

  8. Deep Exclusive Scattering and Generalized Parton Distributions : Experimental Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck Sabatie

    2004-10-01

    Since the Generalized Parton Distribution theoretical framework was introduced in the late 90's, a few published and numerous preliminary results from Deep Exclusive Scattering (DES) have been extracted from non-dedicated experiments at HERA and Jefferson Lab. We review most of these results, comment on the ongoing dedicated research in this topic and conclude with the expectations from the next generation of experiments in the near future.

  9. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  10. Experimental evaluation of air distribution in mechanically ventilated residential rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, R.; Krajčík, M.; Simone, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low ventilation rates (1 or 0.5 air change per hour) on thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness was experimentally studied in a simulated residential room equipped with radiant floor heating/cooling and mixing ventilation systems. The tests were performed for various positions...... removal effectiveness (CRE) and local air change index was measured in order to characterize ventilation effectiveness in the occupied zone. Acceptable thermal comfort was found in most experiments; however, air temperature differences higher than 3 °C occurred when floor cooling was combined...... with unconditioned outdoor air supply, i.e. at the supply air temperatures higher than the room air temperature. Moreover, low floor temperatures were needed to maintain the desired reference temperature in the stratified thermal environment. Mainly in cooling conditions the ventilation effectiveness depended...

  11. Experimental Support for a Categorical Compositional Distributional Model of Meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Grefenstette, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Modelling compositional meaning for sentences using empirical distributional methods has been a challenge for computational linguists. We implement the abstract categorical model of Coecke et al. (arXiv:1003.4394v1 [cs.CL]) using data from the BNC and evaluate it. The implementation is based on unsupervised learning of matrices for relational words and applying them to the vectors of their arguments. The evaluation is based on the word disambiguation task developed by Mitchell and Lapata (2008) for intransitive sentences, and on a similar new experiment designed for transitive sentences. Our model matches the results of its competitors in the first experiment, and betters them in the second. The general improvement in results with increase in syntactic complexity showcases the compositional power of our model.

  12. Experimental and numerical simulation of air distribution and microorganism pollutant dispersion in gymnasium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 霍廖然; 谢慧; 范慧芳

    2009-01-01

    By conducting experimental measurements and numerical simulations of air distribution and microorganism pollutant distribution in the auditorium and game area in a gymnasium,pollutant dispersion control and indoor air quality improvement methods were put forward. The results show that the fungi and bacteria concentration levels are less than the magnitude of 103 CFU (colony-forming units) which meets the requirements of indoor air quality standard. The numerical simulation results quantitatively agree with the experimental data while some differences between theoretical data and experimental data exist in air distributions. People number in gymnasium plays an important role in affecting indoor air quality and the environmental parameters attained the standard.

  13. Experimental Study For Pizometric Head Distribution Under Hydraulic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Najm Obaid Salim Alghazali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research the experimental method by using Hydraulic modeling used to determination the flow net in order to analyses seepage flow through single- layer soil foundation underneath hydraulic structure. as well as steady the consequence of the cut-off inclination angle on exit gradient factor of safety uplift pressure and quantity of seepage by using seepage tank were designed in the laboratory with proper dimensions with two cutoffs . The physical model seepage tank was designed in two downstream cutoff angles which are 90 and 120 and upstream cutoff angles 90 45 120. After steady state flow the flow line is constructed by dye injection in the soil from the upstream side in front view of the seepage tank and the equipotentials line can be constructed by pizometer fixed to measure the total head. From the result It is concluded that using downstream cut-off inclined towards the downstream side with amp1256 equal 120 that given value of redaction 25 is beneficial in increasing the safety factor against the piping phenomenon. using upstream cut-off inclined towards the downstream side with amp1256 equal 45 that given value of redaction 52 is beneficial in decreasing uplift pressure and quantity of seepage.

  14. Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong [Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui, Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China); Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun, E-mail: tychen@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users.

  15. Experimental study on bubble size distributions in a direct-contact evaporator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Jr. C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental bubble size distributions and bubble mean diameters were obtained by means of a photographic technique for a direct-contact evaporator operating in the quasi-steady-state regime. Four gas superficial velocities and three different spargers were analysed for the air-water system. In order to assure the statistical significance of the determined size distributions, a minimum number of 450 bubbles was analysed for each experimental condition. Some runs were also conducted with an aqueous solution of sucrose to study the solute effect on bubble size distribution. For the lowest gas superficial velocity considered, at which the homogeneous bubbling regime is observed, the size distribution was log-normal and depended on the orifice diameter in the sparger. As the gas superficial velocity was increased, the size distribution progressively acquired a bimodal shape, regardless of the sparger employed. The presence of sucrose in the continuous phase led to coalescence hindrance.

  16. A Squeezed Artificial Neural Network for the Symbolic Network Reliability Functions of Binary-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Chang

    2016-08-18

    Network reliability is an important index to the provision of useful information for decision support in the modern world. There is always a need to calculate symbolic network reliability functions (SNRFs) due to dynamic and rapid changes in network parameters. In this brief, the proposed squeezed artificial neural network (SqANN) approach uses the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the corresponding reliability of a given designed matrix from the Box-Behnken design, and then the Taguchi method is implemented to find the appropriate number of neurons and activation functions of the hidden layer and the output layer in ANN to evaluate SNRFs. According to the experimental results of the benchmark networks, the comparison appears to support the superiority of the proposed SqANN method over the traditional ANN-based approach with at least 16.6% improvement in the median absolute deviation in the cost of extra 2 s on average for all experiments.

  17. Experimental spin distribution in nuclear level schemes from F to Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidy, Till von [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Bucurescu, Dorel [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    The spin distribution of nuclear levels is an essential ingredient of formulas for nuclear level densities. However, experimental information is rather scarce. The distribution is usually assumed to follow the formula f(J)=exp(-J{sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2})-exp(-(J+1){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}) with the spin cut-off parameter {sigma} which corresponds roughly to the maximum of the spin distribution. The theory predicts that {sigma} increases with the moment of inertia, with the nuclear mass and with the nuclear temperature. But the various parameters for these dependencies are not well known. We investigated the experimental spin distribution of 310 nuclei between F and Cm below about 2 MeV in order to test various formulas for {sigma} and to determine the corresponding parameters with least squares fits. The best results will be presented and discussed.

  18. Experimental implementation of non-Gaussian attacks on a continuous-variable quantum key distribution system

    CERN Document Server

    Lodewyck, J; Garcia-Patron, R; Tualle-Brouri, R; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P; Lodewyck, Jerome; Debuisschert, Thierry; Garcia-Patron, Raul; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    An intercept-resend attack on a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution protocol is investigated experimentally. By varying the interception fraction, one can implement a family of attacks where the eavesdropper totally controls the channel parameters. In general, such attacks add excess noise in the channel, and may also result in non-Gaussian output distributions. We implement and characterize the measurements needed to detect these attacks, and evaluate experimentally the information rates available to the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The results are consistent with the optimality of Gaussian attacks resulting from the security proofs.

  19. A comparison of experimental and theoretical electron energy distribution functions in a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretagne, J. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)); Graham, W.G. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). Dept. of Physics); Hopkins, M.B. (Dublin City Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-05-14

    Experimental and theoretical electron energy distribution functions (EEDFS) measured in and calculated for the driver of a multicusp ion source operating in hydrogen are compared. The results show that atomic physics based theoretical models can accurately predict the EEDF in such discharges if some appropriate experimentally determined quantities are used as input parameters. The magnitude and shape of the EEDF is found to be particularly sensitive to the effective surface area to volume ratio for electrons. (author).

  20. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, O.; Kato, K; Sohma, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD.

  1. An Experimental Study on Distribution of Vertical Stress in a Silo with a Central Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景山; 易江林; 王金福; 汪展文; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of vertical stress for both active and passive state in the silo with a central innerdowncomer is reported in this paper. Experimental measurement of the axial distribution of vertical stress for bothactive and passive state in the silo are in good agreement with that predicted by theoretical analysis. The meanaxial stress is reduced due to the presence of the inner downcomer in the silo.

  2. Experimental study of the spatial distribution of quantum correlations in a confocal Optical Parametric Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Martinelli, M; Ducci, S; Gigan, S; Maitre, A; Fabre, C; Martinelli, Marcello; Treps, Nicolas; Ducci, Sara; Gigan, Sylvain; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude

    2003-01-01

    We study experimentally the spatial distribution of quantum noise in the twin beams produced by a type II Optical Parametric Oscillator operating in a confocal cavity above threshold. The measured intensity correlations are at the same time below the standard quantum limit and not uniformly distributed inside the beams. We show that this feature is an unambiguous evidence for the multimode and nonclassical character of the quantum state generated by the device.

  3. Experimental Validation of Energy Resources Integration in Microgrids via Distributed Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Marinelli, Mattia; Ferrarini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative control scheme for the management of energy consumption in commercial build- ings with local energy production, such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbine and an energy storage unit. The presented scheme is based on distributed model predictive controllers, which manage the storage system and the building space heating and cooling. The proposed approach is implemented and tested in SYSLAB, the experimental facility for distributed energy systems at the Techn...

  4. ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN MANIFOLDS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fang; LUO Yong-hao; YANG Shi-ming

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of flow distribution in flow manifolds is important for the design of heat exchangers. The pressure drop along the flow in the header is the most influential factor in flow distribution. Various continuous models available in literature have failed to satisfactorily predict the pressure distribution in the headers of the flow manifolds. In this article, a discrete model matching the real physical phenomena has been proposed, to predict the pressure distribution in headers. An experimental evaluation of relevant flow characteristic parameters has been carried out to support the discrete model calculations. The validity of the theoretical discrete model has been performed with experimental results, under specific conditions. Refined experimental probes, for pressure heads with ultrasonic measuring devices, have been used to obtain accurate results. The experimental results fully substantiate the soundness of the theoretical prediction. In addition, the advantage of the ability to accommodate local disturbances in the discrete model has been pointed out. The effect of some local disturbances may be substantial. As a result of the analysis presented in this article, improved designs of flow manifolds in heat exchangers can be realized, to assure operation safety under severe operating conditions.

  5. Simulation of energy barrier distributions using real particle parameters and comparison with experimental obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Büttner, M., E-mail: Markus.Buettner@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schiffler, M. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Burgweg 11, 07749 Jena (Germany); Weber, P.; Seidel, P. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Distributions of energy barriers in systems of magnetic nanoparticles have been calculated by means of the path integral method and the results have been compared with distributions previously obtained in our experiments by means of the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method. The path integral method allowed to obtain energies of the interactions of magnetic moments of nanoparticles with axes of their easy magnetisation as well as energies of mutual interactions of magnetic moments. Calculated distributions of energy barriers have been described satisfactorily by curves of the lognormal distribution. We found an agreement between the theory and the experiment at temperatures above approximately 100 K. The influence of the volume concentration of nanoparticles and agglomeration on the energy barrier distribution has been investigated. - Highlights: • The path integral method of calculation allows to satisfactorily reproduce the quantitative experimental results. • The simulations of the energy barrier distributions reflect the lognormal distribution of the MNP found in real experiments. • Higher particle volume concentration leads to a broadening of the simulated energy barrier distribution. • At low particle concentration there is only anisotropy energy. • In case of agglomeration the energy barrier distribution broadens.

  6. Effect of asymmetry in a binary state on the collective behavior of a system with spatially modulated interaction and quenched randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kosuke; Urano, Hiromitsu; Okada, Masato

    2008-11-01

    The properties of solid states, biophysical materials, neuronal circuits, and equilibrium states of a many-body system can be studied by using techniques in statistical physics. It has been common practice to represent a system composed of binary state units by using an Ising spin network where each unit has symmetric {-1,1} states. However, the asymmetry or symmetry of the binary states of the units can affect the property and ergodicity of the system, but better understanding of the quantitative difference is still needed. We compare systems of binary units with symmetric or asymmetric states. The network has spatially modulated interaction with quenched randomness. We can bridge the Ising spin network and McCulloch-Pitts neuron network and analyze the stability of the system via replica method by introducing an interpolating parameter. The effects of the asymmetry states affect the multistability of the system and the stability of replica-symmetry solutions.

  7. Zen law and features of liquidus-solidus curves in binary state diagrams based on elements VIIIA and IB of the periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Kondratyuk, A. A.; Porobova, S. A.; Klopotov, A. A.; Markova, T. N.; Kakushkin, Yu A.; Klopotov, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of binary state diagrams based on elements VIIIA and IB of the periodic table and crystal geometry parameters of solid solutions and intermetallic compositions. The analysis shows an explicit correlation between the type of the evolution of phase diagrams classified by Lebedev depending on the nature of atomic volume deviations observed in solid solutions and intermetallic compounds from Zen law.

  8. Experimental Study of Effect of Medium Boundary on Light Distribution in Tissue Phantoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tang; ZHANG Chun-Ping; TIAN Jian-Guo; SONG Feng; WANG Xin-Yu; ZHAO Cheng-Mei

    2005-01-01

    @@ An experimental method for investigating the effect of medium boundary on distributions of light in the biological tissue phantom intralipid is presented. Measurements of distributions of light in intralipid-10% suspensions at 633 nm are described, in which a narrow collimated beam is incident on the surface of the phantoms and into the different depths inside of the phantoms. The experimental results show that the effect of the boundary of the medium on the curves geometry of light distributions is trivial, but the effect on intensity of scattering light is obvious, the maximalrelative change of the energy fluence reaches 53.8 % and the position of the peak of the energy fluence curve has a shift of 1.1 mm in the reverse direction of incident light for the phantom with albedo a = 0.998, and the effect of the boundary is decreased with the increase of the absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms. The experimental results were analysed by the diffusion theory. These studies will be helpful for further understandings of the relation between the boundary of biological tissue and the distribution of light in tissue.

  9. Experimental study on pressure and temperature distributions for low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunJie; WU XinZhuang; CHONG DaoTong

    2009-01-01

    A low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water was experimentally investigated. The transition of flow pattern from stable jet to condensation oscillation was observed at relatively high water temperature. The axial total pressures, the axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the jet region. The results indicated that the pressure and temperature distributions were mainly influenced by the water temperature. The correlations corrected with water temperature were given to predict the dimen-sionless axial pressure peak distance and axial temperature distributions in the jet region, the results showed s good agreement between the predictions and experiments. Moreover, the self-similarity property of the radial temperature was obtained, which agreed well with Gauss distribution. In present work, all the dimensionless properties were mainly dependent on the water temperature but weakly on the nozzle size under a certain steam mass flux.

  10. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  11. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%. Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions.

  12. Alfvénic oscillations of the electron distribution function: Linear theory and experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. W. R., E-mail: james-schroeder@uiowa.edu; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Wave propagation can be an accurate method for determining material properties. High frequency whistler mode waves (0.7 < ω/|Ω{sub ce}| < 1) in an overdense plasma (ω{sub pe} > |Ω{sub ce}|) are damped primarily by Doppler-shifted electron cyclotron resonance. A kinetic description of whistler mode propagation parallel to the background magnetic field shows that damping is proportional to the parallel electron distribution function. This property enables an experimental determination of the parallel electron distribution function using a measurement of whistler mode wave absorption. The whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic uses this technique on UCLA’s Large Plasma Device (LaPD) to measure the distribution of high energy electrons (5 − 10v{sub te}) with 0.1% precision. The accuracy is limited by systematic effects that need to be considered carefully. Ongoing research uses this diagnostic to investigate the effect of inertial Alfvén waves on the electron distribution function. Results presented here verify experimentally the linear effects of inertial Alfvén waves on the reduced electron distribution function, a necessary step before nonlinear physics can be tested. Ongoing experiments with the whistler mode wave absorption diagnostic are making progress toward the first direct detection of electrons nonlinearly accelerated by inertial Alfvén waves, a process believed to play an important role in auroral generation.

  13. Experimental Verification of Modeled Thermal Distribution Produced by a Piston Source in Physiotherapy Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, S. A.; Leija, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To present a quantitative comparison of thermal patterns produced by the piston-in-a-baffle approach with those generated by a physiotherapy ultrasonic device and to show the dependency among thermal patterns and acoustic intensity distributions. Methods. The finite element (FE) method was used to model an ideal acoustic field and the produced thermal pattern to be compared with the experimental acoustic and temperature distributions produced by a real ultrasonic applicator. A thermal model using the measured acoustic profile as input is also presented for comparison. Temperature measurements were carried out with thermocouples inserted in muscle phantom. The insertion place of thermocouples was monitored with ultrasound imaging. Results. Modeled and measured thermal profiles were compared within the first 10 cm of depth. The ideal acoustic field did not adequately represent the measured field having different temperature profiles (errors 10% to 20%). Experimental field was concentrated near the transducer producing a region with higher temperatures, while the modeled ideal temperature was linearly distributed along the depth. The error was reduced to 7% when introducing the measured acoustic field as the input variable in the FE temperature modeling. Conclusions. Temperature distributions are strongly related to the acoustic field distributions. PMID:27999801

  14. Modeling mutant distribution in a stressed Escherichia coli bacteria population using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Armando; Fani, Renato; Freguglia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a statistical physics approach to experimental results on bacterial mutations (Escherichia coli). We get scaling laws that describe some generic traits and suggest some features of the underlying dynamical structure for the considered evolution process. Our main assumption is that the evolution dynamics could be visualized as a random walk on a fitness landscape whose topological structure is analogous to the structure of energy landscape potentials used in Physics and Chemistry. Then we relate the generic distribution of local minima attraction basins to the number of bacterial mutations and we discuss the comparison with experimental results.

  15. Experimental Study of Movement and Distribution of Dense Organic Contaminants in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Ramsey Jr., James L.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    1995-01-01

    heterogeneities influence the movement and subsequent distribution of immiscible contaminants after a spill. In addition, the experiments were designed to gather quantitative data to validate multiphase flow models. The experimental results demonstrate the importance of layering in the soil in determining......An experimental study of the migration of denser-than-water nonaqueous phase organic contaminants through heterogeneous porous media was carried out. The purpose of the study was to observe the flow and record the migration of the contaminant to gain a fundamental insight into the way aquifer...

  16. Experimental temperature distribution and heat load characteristics of rotating heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, T. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results show conclusively that the presence of a small quantity of a noncondensable gas (NCG) mixed with the working fluid has a considerable effect on the condensation process in a rotating heat pipe. The temperature distribution in the condenser shows the blanketing effect of the NCG and the ratio of the molecular weight of the working fluid to that of the NCG has a very definite effect on the shape of this distribution. Some of the effects are quite similar to the well-established data on stationary heat pipes.

  17. An Experimental Study on Voltage Compensation Method using Autonomous Decentralized Control of Distributed Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Hirokazu

    When many distributed generators (DGs) are connected to a distribution line, the upward power flow from DGs causes the difficulty in line voltage regulation. As the countermeasure, we propose several methods to control the line voltage by use of DGs' reactive power outputs. These methods using only DGs' reactive power are implemented in an autonomous decentralized way. DGs with the function to estimate the line impedance provide the power system with reactive power according to the estimated impedance value, and regulate the line voltage. We evaluate the effect of the proposed methods for voltage compensation by experimental studies using commercial grid-connected inverters for PV system.

  18. Experimental Study on Practical Quantum Key Distribution Scheme with Time-Multiplexed Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Xian; HU Hua-Peng; LIANG Rui-Sheng; LU Yi-Qun; WANG Jin-Dong; LU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We present a scheme that is capable of detecting photon numbers during the quantum key distribution (QKD) based on an improved differential phase shift (DPS) system without Trojan horse attack. A time-multiplexed detector (TMD) is set in for the photon-number resolution. Two fibre loops are used for detecting photon numbers as well as distributing keys. The long-term stabilization is guaranteed by two Faraday mirrors (FM) at Bob's site to automatically compensate for polarization defect. Our experimental study (90km QKD is completed) indicates that such a system is stable and secure which nearly reaches the performance of a single photon scheme.

  19. The mechanistic basis for storage-dependent age distributions of water discharged from an experimental hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; Kim, Minseok; Cardoso, Charlene; Lora, Marco; Meira Neto, Antonio A.; Volkmann, Till H. M.; Wang, Yadi; Troch, Peter A.; Harman, Ciaran J.

    2017-04-01

    Distributions of water transit times (TTDs), and related storage-selection (SAS) distributions, are spatially integrated metrics of hydrological transport within landscapes. Recent works confirm that the form of TTDs and SAS distributions should be considered time variant—possibly depending, in predictable ways, on the dynamic storage of water within the landscape. We report on a 28 day periodic-steady-state-tracer experiment performed on a model hillslope contained within a 1 m3 sloping lysimeter. Using experimental data, we calibrate physically based, spatially distributed flow and transport models, and use the calibrated models to generate time-variable SAS distributions, which are subsequently compared to those directly observed from the actual experiment. The objective is to use the spatially distributed estimates of storage and flux from the model to characterize how temporal variation in water storage influences temporal variation in flow path configurations, and resulting SAS distributions. The simulated SAS distributions mimicked well the shape of observed distributions, once the model domain reflected the spatial heterogeneity of the lysimeter soil. The spatially distributed flux vectors illustrate how the magnitude and directionality of water flux changes as the water table surface rises and falls, yielding greater contributions of younger water when the water table surface rises nearer to the soil surface. The illustrated mechanism is compliant with conclusions drawn from other recent studies and supports the notion of an inverse-storage effect, whereby the probability of younger water exiting the system increases with storage. This mechanism may be prevalent in hillslopes and headwater catchments where discharge dynamics are controlled by vertical fluctuations in the water table surface of an unconfined aquifer.

  20. An approach to experimental evaluation of real-time fault-tolerant distributed computing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    A testbed-based approach to the evaluation of fault-tolerant distributed computing schemes is discussed. The approach is based on experimental incorporation of system structuring and design techniques into real-time distributed-computing testbeds centered around tightly coupled microcomputer networks. The effectiveness of this approach has been experimentally confirmed. Primary advantages of this approach include the accuracy of the timing and logical-complexity data and the degree of assurance of the practical effectiveness of the scheme evaluated. Various design issues encountered in the course of establishing the network testbed facilities are discussed, along with their augmentation to support some experiments. The shortcomings of the testbeds are also discussed together with the desired extensions of the testbeds.

  1. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion Concentrations in Danqinghe Experimental Forest,Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, air ions, especially of negative air ion has received a universal attention for its health function. The density of negative air ion has become one of the important indexes that measure the air quality grade. With the air ions counter made in Japan, the spatial distribution characteristics of negative air concentrations at specific time in Danqinghe Experimental Forest were measured and studied, Harbin City, and the air quality was assessed by using ion polarity ration (q) and air ion asses...

  2. Duration and distribution of experimental muscular hyperalgesia in humans following combined infusions of serotonin and bradykinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babenko, Victor; Svensson, Peter; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2000-01-01

    -infusions interval of 3 min. Infusions of isotonic saline (NaCl, 0.9%) were given as control. Pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects drew the distribution of the pain areas on an anatomical map. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed with an electronic algometer....... In addition, PPTs were significantly decreased (Peffect of bradykinin in producing experimental muscle pain and muscle hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli. The combination of serotonin and bradykinin can produce muscle...

  3. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  4. BWR refill-reflood program: core spray distribution experimental task plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, T.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental task plan for the BWR/4 core spray task of the Refill-Reflood Test Program is presented. The test program will provide core spray distribution data for a 30 degree sector of the BWR/4 and 5-218 design. This design uses different nozzle types and different sparger elevations than the BWR/6-218 design which was tested previously. Test parameter ranges are specified; individual tests are defined; and measurement and data utilization plans are defined.

  5. Experimental verification of NOVICE transport code predictions of electron distributions from targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronenberg, S; Jordan, T; Bechtel, E; Gentner, F; Groeber, E

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments that were designed to check the validity of the NOVICE Adjoint Monte Carlo Transport code in predicting emission-electron distributions from irradiated targets. Previous work demonstrated that the code accurately calculated total electron yields from irradiated targets. In this investigation, a gold target was irradiated by X-rays with effective quantum energies of 79, 127, 174, 216, and 250 keV. Spectra of electrons from the target were measured for an incident photon angle of 45 deg., an emission-electron polar angle of 45 deg., azimuthal angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg., and in both the forward and backward directions. NOVICE was used to predict those electron-energy-distributions for the same set of experimental conditions. The agreement in shape of the theoretical and experimental distributions was good, whereas the absolute agreement in amplitude was within about a factor of 2 over most of the energy range of the spectra. Previous experimental and theoretical c...

  6. Experimental and Numerical Study on Pressure Distribution of 90° Elbow for Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is performed to investigate the pressure distribution of helium gas under high pressure and high temperature for 10 MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR-10. Experimental studies are first conducted on a self-built test system to investigate the static pressure distribution of a 90° elbow and validate the credibility of the computational approach. The 90° elbow is designed and manufactured geometrically the same as HTGR-10. Based on the experimental data, comparison of static pressure of inner wall and outer wall of 90° elbow with numerical results is carried out to verify the numerical approach. With high agreement between experimental results and numerical results of water flowing through 90° elbow, flow characteristics of helium gas under high pressure and high temperature are investigated on the confirmed numerical approach for flow measurement. And wall pressure distribution of eight cross sections of 90° elbow is given in detail to represent the entire region of the elbow.

  7. Experimental and analytical temperature distributions during oven-based convection heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Rakesh, Vineet; Datta, Ashim K

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models, combined with experimental evaluation, provide an approach to understand, design, and optimize food process operations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as an experimental technique, is used extensively in both medical and engineering applications to measure and quantify transport processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) was used in this study to assess a mathematical model based on Fourier's second law. The objective was to compare analytical solutions for the prediction of internal temperature distributions in foods during oven-based convective heating to experimental temperature measurements and determine at what point during the heating process a coupled heat and mass transport process should be considered. Cylindrical samples of a model food gel, Russet potato and rehydrated mashed potato were heated in a convection oven for specified times. Experimentally measured internal temperatures were compared to the internal temperatures predicted by the analytical model. Temperatures distributions in the axial direction compared favorably for the gel and acceptably for the Russet and mashed potato samples. The MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction for the gel resulted in a shallower gradient than predicted but followed the expected trend. For the potato samples, the MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction were not qualitatively similar to the analytical predictions due to moisture loss during heating. If temperature resolution is required in the radial direction, moisture losses merit the use of transport models that couple heat and mass transfer.

  8. Theoretical and experimental study of the intensity distribution in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Tang; Zhang Chun-Ping; Chen Gui-Ying; Tian Jian-Guo; Zhang Guang-Yin; Zhao Cheng-Mei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the diffusion approximate theory (DA ), a theoretical model about the distribution of the intensity of a narrow collimation beam illuminating on a semi-infinite biological tissue is developed. In order to verify the correctness of the model, a novel method of measuring the distributions of the intensity of light in Intralipid-10% suspension at 650 nm is presented and measurements of the distributions of the distance-dependent intensity of scattering light in different directions are made. The investigations show that the results from our diffusion model are in good agreement with the experimental results beyond and in the areas around the light source, and the distance-dependent intensity in the incident direction attenuates approximately in the exponential form. Furthermore, our theoretic results indicate the anisotropic characteristics of the intensity in different directions of scattering light inside the biological tissue.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of voids distribution in VPI for ITER correction coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juping, E-mail: ljping@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, Jiefeng; Yu, Xiaowu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A sample of correction coil was treated by vacuum pressure impregnation. • The voids in sample were observed by computed tomography. • The voids distributions were simulated in 2-D and 3-D model. • The calculated voids locations had a good agreement with experiment. • The simulation was not accurate in calculating the voids content. - Abstract: The experimental and numerical investigations were conducted to study the voids distribution in VPI (Vacuum Pressure Impregnation) process for correction coil. A sample of correction coil was manufactured by VPI. The voids in sample were observed with computed tomography and the average voids content was tested. The voids content is closely related to infiltration velocity and fluid properties. In former researches, the parameters affecting voids content were combined into a single parameter, namely capillary number. By calculating the capillary numbers in different areas of the sample, the voids distribution could be acquired. The corresponding numerical analyses based on Darcy law were conducted in 2-D and 3-D models. The 2-D case was used to simulate the voids distribution on the section as a simplified model, while the 3-D case demonstrated the spatial distribution of voids. The voids locations were similar in 2-D and 3-D cases, but the voids contents were different. The numerical results were compared with the actual voids distribution in sample. It was found the voids locations were close in numerical and experimental results, but the voids content did not match. The numerical simulations are available for predicting the voids locations in VPI, but not accurate in calculating the voids content.

  10. Ensemble-Biased Metadynamics: A Molecular Simulation Method to Sample Experimental Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Fabrizio; Faraldo-Gómez, José D

    2015-06-16

    We introduce an enhanced-sampling method for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations referred to as ensemble-biased metadynamics (EBMetaD). The method biases a conventional MD simulation to sample a molecular ensemble that is consistent with one or more probability distributions known a priori, e.g., experimental intramolecular distance distributions obtained by double electron-electron resonance or other spectroscopic techniques. To this end, EBMetaD adds an adaptive biasing potential throughout the simulation that discourages sampling of configurations inconsistent with the target probability distributions. The bias introduced is the minimum necessary to fulfill the target distributions, i.e., EBMetaD satisfies the maximum-entropy principle. Unlike other methods, EBMetaD does not require multiple simulation replicas or the introduction of Lagrange multipliers, and is therefore computationally efficient and straightforward in practice. We demonstrate the performance and accuracy of the method for a model system as well as for spin-labeled T4 lysozyme in explicit water, and show how EBMetaD reproduces three double electron-electron resonance distance distributions concurrently within a few tens of nanoseconds of simulation time. EBMetaD is integrated in the open-source PLUMED plug-in (www.plumed-code.org), and can be therefore readily used with multiple MD engines.

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  12. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  13. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  14. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  15. Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dong; Gao, Wei-Bo; Ma, Huai-Xin; Yin, Hao; Zeng, He-Ping; Yang, Tao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2007-01-05

    We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 102 km. Further, we simplify the experimental setup and use only one detector to implement the one-way decoy-state QKD over 75 km, with the advantage to overcome the security loopholes due to the efficiency mismatch of detectors. Our experimental implementation can really offer the unconditionally secure final keys. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2, and 0.6 for the light sources in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation.

  16. Quantum hacking: Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Fung, Chi-Hang F.; Qi, Bing; Chen, Christine; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2009-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems can send signals over more than 100 km standard optical fiber and are widely believed to be secure. Here, we show experimentally for the first time a technologically feasible attack, namely the time-shift attack, against a commercial QKD system. Our result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability (˜4%) to break the security of the system. Eve's success is due to the well-known detection efficiency loophole in the experimental testing of Bell inequalities. Therefore, the detection efficiency loophole plays a key role not only in fundamental physics, but also in technological applications such as QKD. Our work is published in [1]. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhao, C.-H. F. Fung, B. Qi, C. Chen, and H.-K. Lo, Phys. Rev. A, 78:042333 (2008).

  17. Daily micro particle distribution of an experimental recirculating aquaculture system – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated duringa 24-h cycle. PSD was analyzed in water sampled at several locations in a recirculation loop containing a60-m drum filter, a submerged fixed-bed biofilter and a trickling filter.In relation...... to total counts, the system was dominated by micro-particles with particles smaller than20 m comprising >94% of the distribution in all samples. However, the system presented a substantialvolumetric influence of larger particles, reflected by a PSD derivate ˇ-value of 3.40 ± 0.18. Overall ˇ......-valuesthroughout the compartments (p = 0.584) and experimental period (p = 0.217) were not significantlydifferent, although specific components seemed to marginally affect the PSD.A high internal water turnover rate (one system passage every 50 min) promoted the rapid removalof large particles from the system. Permanent volumetric...

  18. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Huang, C -K

    2015-01-01

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot-spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydro-instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. The ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT at National Ignition Facility.

  19. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical charge density distributions in two polymorphic modifications of piroxicam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Felcia; Du, Jonathan J.; Williams, Peter A.;

    2016-01-01

    piroxicam molecules, (2a) and (2b), and two water molecules. Geometry differs between (1) and (2) due to the zwitterionic nature of (2) which results in the rotation of the pyridine ring around the C(10)-N(2) bond by approximately 180°. Consequently, the pyridine and amide are no longer co-planar and (2...... is distributed across the benzothiazine carboxamide moiety. The multipole derived lattice energy for (1) is -304 kJ mol(-1) and that for (2) is -571 kJ mol(-1), which is in agreement with the experimentally determined observations of higher solubility and dissolution rates of (1) compared to (2)....

  20. Experimental Investigation of Energy Level Dynamics in Aluminium Blocks with Temperature Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-Lei; YANG Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    @@ Using temperature distribution as an external parameter to change symmetry and measuring frequency spectrum of acoustic resonances in aluminium blocks, we investigate the statistics and dynamics of energy levels in the chaotic billiards. To extract the resonances accurately and eliminate the influence of noise, a filter-diagonalization method for harmonic inversion is used to overcome low resolution of conventional fast Fourier transform method for low quantity factor resonance systems. We present an improved and feasible simulation method to study chaotic characteristic of quantum systems experimentally.

  1. Experimental study on structural defect detection by monitoring distributed dynamic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Babanajad, S. K.; Taylor, T.; Ansari, F.

    2015-11-01

    A defect detection method of civil structures is studied. In order to complete the task, the proposed detection method is based on the analysis of distributed dynamic strains using Brillouin scattering based fiber optic sensors along large span structures. The current challenges in the detection of localized damage fundamentally include monitoring the dynamic strain as well as eliminating the system noise and the distortion of the changing distributed strain. Due to the capability of Brillouin scattering based methods in distributed monitoring of large structures, Brillouin optical time-domain analysis approach is implemented for assessing damage. In order to highlight the singularity at the damage location, Fourier as well as dual tree complex wavelet transform approaches were conducted. During the processing, the dynamic distributed strain in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain for extraction of natural and forced frequencies. Then, the data was decomposed, filtered for extraction of crack features and reconstructed. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated through an experimental program involving the use of pulse-pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis for the distributed measurement of dynamic strain with 13 Hz sampling speed and detection of simulated cracks in a 15 m long steel beam. The beam mimics a bridge girder with two artificial cracks along its length subjected to free and forced vibrations. The results indicate that the method based on the discontinuities in the strain distribution is applicable in the detection of very small damage as small as 40 micro strains. A crack gauge independently monitored the crack opening displacements during the experiments, and the limit of detected crack openings based on the first appearance of strain singularities was 30 μm.

  2. Hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators; experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, B.; Kraai, G.N.; Winkelman, J.G.N.; Heeres, H.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid hold-up, residence time distributions (RTD), drop size distributions and continuous/dispersed phase for a typical centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) of the type CINC V02 were determined experimentally for various L-L systems. The hold-up ratio of the different solvents was mainly a fun

  3. Hydrodynamic features of centrifugal contactor separators : Experimental studies on liquid hold-up, residence time distribution, phase behavior and drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Kraai, Gerard N.; Winkelman, Jozef G. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid hold-up, residence time distributions (RTD), drop size distributions and continuous/dispersed phase for a typical centrifugal contactor separator (CCS) of the type CINC V02 were determined experimentally for various L-L systems. The hold-up ratio of the different solvents was mainly a fun

  4. Climatology Applied To Architecture: An Experimental Investigation about Internal Temperatures Distribution at Two Test Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tibério Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were analyzed en relative spatial distribution of the internal surface temperature (IST and internal air temperature or dry bulb (TBS, in two different test cells, for a typical experimental day under the influence of tropical mass. The main goal of this research is to provide guidelines to collect temperature data experimentally since there is not an appropriate standard to guide this methodological procedure in buildings. The data series of dry bulb temperature and internal surface temperatures were measured in a test cell with a green roof and the other with conventional ceramic roof by thermocouples installed at predetermined locations. The data of solar radiation and the main climatic variables were recorded by the automatic weather station at the Center of Science Engineering Applied to the Environment (CCEAMA, School of Engineering of São Carlos (EESC-USP. The results led to the conclusion that the distribution of the internal surface temperature is almost uniform in the two test cells, but in relation to the dry bulb temperature there is a small vertical temperature gradient in the conventional cell. This work will contribute significantly to future studies in the area of human comfort and environmental suitability of buildings

  5. Experimental investigations and CFD study of temperature distribution during oscillating combustion in a crucible furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Govardhan, G.V.S. Rao, J. Narasaiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of an investigation few experiments were conducted to study the enhanced heat transfer rate and increased furnace efficiency in a diesel fired crucible furnace with oscillating combustion. The results of experimental investigations of temperature distribution inside the crucible furnace during oscillating combustion are validated with the numerical simulation CFD code. At first pragmatic study of temperature distribution inside a furnace was carried out with conventional mode of combustion at certain conditions and later transient behavior similar to that is conducted with oscillating combustion mode with the same conditions. There found to be enhanced heat transfer rate, reduced processing time and increased furnace efficiency with visibly clean emissions during the oscillating combustion mode than the conventional combustion mode. In the present paper the temperatures inside the furnace at few designated points measured by suitable K type thermo-couples are compared with the CFD code. The geometric models were created in ANSYS and the configuration was an asymmetric one for computational reason. The experimental and numerical investigations produce similar acceptable results. The presented results show that the 3D transient model appeared to be an effective numerical tool for the simulation of the crucible furnace for melting processes.

  6. Experimental determination of two-dimensional critical current density distribution in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Shinkai, Yoshichika [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro; Kakimoto, Kazuomi; Takeda, Kaoru [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd., Kiba, Koto, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The critical current density (J{sub c}) distribution in YBCO coated conductors is attracting interest from the viewpoint of its influence on their AC loss characteristics as well as from material science and process engineering. A two-dimensional J{sub c} distribution in a YBCO coated conductor made by the IBAD (ion-beam assisted deposition) and the PLD (pulse-laser deposition) method can be determined by the magnetic-knife method with spatial resolutions of 0.2 mm lateral and 10 mm longitudinal directions, respectively. In an up-to-date 80A-class YBCO coated conductor, the J{sub c} is relatively uniform in the central part and reaches mbox{l_brace}7$x$10{sup 9} A m{sup -2}, {r_brace} while the J{sub c} fluctuates spatially in the central part of a tape fabricated earlier and with less critical current. Near the edges of the tapes, the J{sub c} is higher or lower than in the central part and the experimentally determined J{sub c} distributions are far from uniform. This suggests that a presumption of a uniform J{sub c} for AC loss estimations is not always reasonable and can lead to a large error in the estimated AC losses. (author)

  7. Distribution of anionic sites on the capillary endothelium in an experimental brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S; DePace, D; Finkelstein, S

    1988-02-01

    The distribution of anionic domains on the capillary endothelium of experimental brain tumors was determined using cationic ferritin (CF) in order to ascertain whether the pattern of these domains is different from that on normal cerebral capillaries. Tumors were induced by stereotaxic injection of cultured neoplastic glial cells, A15A5, into the caudate nucleus of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 14-21 day growth period tumors appeared as vascularized, sharply circumscribed masses which caused compression of the surrounding brain tissue. Anionic domains were distributed in a patchy and irregular pattern on the luminal plasma membrane of the endothelia of blood vessels in the tumors. Some variability in this pattern was observed infrequently in limited regions of the tumor where there was either a continuous layer of CF or an absence of CF binding. Plasmalemmal vesicles, coated vesicles, coated pits, multivesicular bodies, and some junctional complexes showed varying degrees of labeling with the probe. Capillaries in the tumor periphery and normal cerebral vessels showed a uniform distribution of anionic groups. These results indicate that there is an altered surface charge on the endothelial luminal plasma membrane of blood vessels in brain tumors. A correlation may exist between the altered surface charge and the degree to which the blood-brain barrier is impaired in these vessels.

  8. Experimental Study on Pore Distribution Characters and Convert Rate of CaO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li JIA; Yanyan ZENG; Tao ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    During the reaction between calcium sorbents and SO2, calcium sorbents are first calcined and converted into CaO. CaO can be obtained by calcining Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3. The porosity of the sorbent is increased because of calcination and is decreased because of sulfurization. In the calcination process H2O or CO2 is escaped from the particles and pores are formed in particles. The reaction or convert rate of CaO is influenced strongly by the pore structure characters. From Ca(OH)2 to CaO the escape velocity of H2O or its mass transfer is one of the key factors influencing the pore forming. During calcination process different heating velocity, different heating time and temperature were suggested. The temperature rising rate and calcining temperature play important role to the pore structure. The convert rates of CaO obtained through different calcining conditions were investigated experimentally. Some interesting results were showed that the calcium utilization of CaO particles is determined not only by the special surface area and total pore volume, but also by pore-size distribution. The main factor influencing the sulfation is the pore diameter distribution at lower sulfation temperature. For higher reaction temperature specific volume is the important reason. But pore-size distribution is strongly influenced by heat flux and temperature in the calcining process.

  9. Measurement and evaluation of Corrosion Products deposition distribution in the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Sumino, Kozo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Masui, Tomohiko; Saikawa, Takuya

    1997-12-01

    The Corrosion Product (CP) is the major radiation source in the primary cooling system of an LMFBR plant. It is important to characterize and predict the CP behavior to reduce the personnel exposure dose due to CP deposition. The CP measurement was carried out in the Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO during the 11th annual inspection period when the accumulated reactor thermal power reached about 143 GWd. The CP deposition density was measured using a pure germanium detector. The plastic scintillation fiber (PSF) was applied for the gamma-ray dose rate distribution measurement and compared with the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). The major results obtained by the CP measurements in JOYO are the follows: (1) The major CP nuclides deposited in the primary cooling system are {sup 54}Mn and {sup 60}Co. {sup 54}Mn is the dominant isotope and it tends to deposit in the cold leg region. On the other hand, {sup 60}Co deposits mainly in the hot leg region. The deposition density of {sup 54}Mn is about seven times as much as that of {sup 60}Co in the cold leg region and twice in the hot leg region. (2) The deposition densities of {sup 54}Mn and {sup 60}Co, and the gamma-dose rate were decreased from the last data in the previous annual inspection period mainly due to the short operation time and the longer cooling time. (3) The continuous gamma-ray dose rate distribution up to 10m can be measured by using the PSF in a few minutes. The PSF is suitable to measure the gamma-ray dose rate distribution in the maintenance work area where it is narrow and the mixture of gamma-ray sources from primary pipings and components. The data base of detailed gamma-ray dose rate distribution was greatly extended by the PSF. (author)

  10. Hot Water Distribution System Program Documentation and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Evelyn [GE Infrastructure Energy; Craddick, William G [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Wendt, Robert L [ORNL; Woodbury, Professor Keith A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the California Energy Commission s (CEC s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to create a computer program to analyze hot water distribution systems for single family residences, and to perform such analyses for a selection of houses. This effort and its results were documented in a report provided to CEC in March, 2004 [1]. The principal objective of effort was to compare the water and energy wasted between various possible hot water distribution systems for various different house designs. It was presumed that water being provided to a user would be considered suitably warm when it reached 105 F. Therefore, what was needed was a tool which could compute the time it takes for water reaching the draw point to reach 105 F, and the energy wasted during this wait. The computer program used to perform the analyses was a combination of a calculational core, produced by Dr. Keith A. Woodbury, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, University of Alabama, and a user interface based on LabVIEW, created by Dr. Roberto Lenarduzzi of ORNL. At that time, the computer program was in a relatively rough and undocumented form adequate to perform the contracted work but not in a condition where it could be readily used by those not involved in its generation. Subsequently, the CEC provided funding through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to improve the program s documentation and user interface to facilitate use by others, and to compare the program s results to experimental data generated by Dr. Carl Hiller. This report describes the program and provides user guidance. It also summarizes the comparisons made to experimental data, along with options built into the program specifically to allow these comparisons. These options were necessitated by the fact that some of the experimental data required options and features not originally included in the program

  11. Experimental asymmetric plug-and-play measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guang-Zhao; Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu; Chen, Huan; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to all security loopholes on detection. Previous experiments on MDI-QKD required spatially separated signal lasers and complicated stabilization systems. In this paper, we perform a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of plug-and-play MDI-QKD over an asymmetric channel setting with a single signal laser in which the whole system is automatically stabilized in spectrum, polarization, arrival time, and phase reference. Both the signal laser and the single-photon detectors are in the possession of a common server. A passive timing-calibration technique is applied to ensure the precise and stable overlap of signal pulses. The results pave the way for the realization of a quantum network in which the users only need the encoding devices.

  12. Experimental Long-Distance Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution Based On Polarization Encoding

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, C Z; Ma, H X; Pan, J W; Wang, X B; Yang, D; Yang, T; Yin, H; Zeng, H P; Zhang, J; Gao, Wei-Bo; Ma, Huai-Xin; Pan, Jian-Wei; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Yang, Dong; Yang, Tao; Yin, Hao; Zeng, He-Ping; Zhang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) with one-way quantum communication in polarization space over 75 km. So far, our experimental implementation is the only one that really offers the unconditionally secure final keys among all the implementations of long-distance QKD with weak coherent states. We use 3 different intensities of 0, 0.2 and 0.6 for the pulses of source in our experiment. In order to eliminate the influences of polarization mode dispersion in the long-distance single-mode optical fiber, an automatic polarization compensation system is utilized to implement the active compensation. Only one detector is used in our experiment. The secure distance can be raised to 120 km given 4 detectors.

  13. Model of leaf energy distribution and its experimental validation of Populus tomentosa Carr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-jie; WANG Min; SHEN Ying-bai; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    Leaf temperature of a plant is the result of heat transfer between the plant and its environment. There are many factors that can affect leaf temperature, such as the solar radiation energy, environmental temperature, wind velocity, evaporation on the leaf surface, photosynthesis, respiration and so on, which have different effects on the temperature of leaves. In first instance, we analyzed the heat transfer on leaves of Populus tomentosa Cart. theoretically and constructed a model of energy distribution. We then validated the model by analyzing seven different kinds of one-year-old P. tomentosa leaves experimentally. The result shows that solar radiation is the main energy input and the dominant ways of thermal diffusion are heat transfer between the upper and lower leaf surfaces and evaporation from the leaf surface.

  14. Experimental Passive Round-Robin Differential Phase-Shift Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian-Yu; Cao, Zhu; Liu, Yang; Shen-Tu, Guo-Liang; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-05-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD), the bit error rate is used to estimate the information leakage and hence determines the amount of privacy amplification—making the final key private by shortening the key. In general, there exists a threshold of the error rate for each scheme, above which no secure key can be generated. This threshold puts a restriction on the environment noises. For example, a widely used QKD protocol, the Bennett-Brassard protocol, cannot tolerate error rates beyond 25%. A new protocol, round-robin differential phase-shifted (RRDPS) QKD, essentially removes this restriction and can in principle tolerate more environment disturbance. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive RRDPS QKD scheme. In particular, our 500 MHz passive RRDPS QKD system is able to generate a secure key over 50 km with a bit error rate as high as 29%. This scheme should find its applications in noisy environment conditions.

  15. Experimental study on strain distribution of ionic polymer-metal composite actuator using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongguang; Xiong, Ke; Wang, Man; Bian, Kan; Zhu, Kongjun

    2017-02-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) cantilever actuators demonstrate significant bending deformation upon application of excitation voltage across the electrodes. In this paper a cantilever beam shaped IPMC actuator with platinum (Pt) electrodes is fabricated to investigate the micro-scale lateral deformation behavior under DC voltages using a digital microscope to measure the deformation. The digital image correlation (DIC) method is utilized to analyze the displacement and strain fields of the sample. The experimental results indicate that the longitudinal normal strain is linearly distributed along the thickness direction and the strain gradient is approximately exponential with excitation voltage. The amplitude of the transverse strain is bigger than the longitudinal strain, and the strains are also found to decrease along the length direction of the IPMC cantilever actuator. The longitudinal and transverse normal strains of the IPMC actuator under DC voltages are compressive strains due to water loss effect in the air.

  16. NACA 0012 benchmark model experimental flutter results with unsteady pressure distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Bennett, Robert M.; Durham, Michael H.; Silva, Walter A.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of the program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type CFD codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. This paper describes results obtained from a second wind tunnel test of the first model in the Benchmark Models Program. This first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree-of-freedom mount system. Experimental flutter boundaries and corresponding unsteady pressure distribution data acquired over two model chords located at the 60 and 95 percent span stations are presented.

  17. Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Asier; Osaba, Eneko; Onieva, Enrique; Perallos, Asier; Iovino, Giovanni; Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency) European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal) and Pisa (Italy). PMID:27455277

  18. Study of Influence of Experimental Technique on Measured Particle Velocity Distributions in Fluidized Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Balaji; Shaffer, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Fluid flows that are loaded with high concentration of solid particles are common in oil and chemical processing industries. However, the opaque nature of the flow fields and the complex nature of the flow have hampered the experimental and computational study of these processes. This has led to the development of a number of customized experimental techniques for high concentration particle flows for evaluation and improvement of CFD models. This includes techniques that track few individual particles, measures average particle velocity over a small sample volume and those over a large sample volume. In this work novel high speed PIV (HsPIV), with individual particle tracking, was utilized to measure velocities of individual particles in gas-particle flow fields at the walls circulating and bubbling fluidized bed. The HsPIV measurement technique has the ability to simultaneously recognize and track thousands of individual particles in flows of high particle concentration. To determine the effect of the size of the sample volume on particle velocity measurements, the PDF of Lagrangian particle velocity was compared with the PDF of Eulerian for different domain sizes over a range of flow conditions. The results will show that measured particle velocity distribution can vary from technique to technique and this bias has to be accounted in comparison with CFD simulations.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Local Air Age and Air Distribution of Stratum Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hao; LI Yuan-bin; LIU Xiao-dong; WANG Xin-ke

    2009-01-01

    Because of the multiple problems on high energy consumption and unbalanced thermal comfort caused by the traditional ventilation system,a new concept of ventilation-stratum ventilation has been proposed,which sends the fresh air to the breathing zone directly.In this paper,the local air distributions of the displace-ment ventilation and the stratum ventilation in a model office were measured.The air ages in the breathing zone for the displacement ventilation and stratum ventilation were compared with the tracer gas concentration decay method.The decay curves of tracer gas concentration for these two ventilation systems in the breathing zonewere obtained, and the air ages were calculated.The experimental results show that the stratum ventilation sys-tem can offer lower air age for four mechanically ventilated cases in the breathing zone,and it can also provide better thermal comfort,which renews the air of breathing zone more quickly and reduces the energy consump-tion in some degree.The experimental investigation provides a theoretical basis for the application of stratum ventilation system.

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastically distributed particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Tao, Chao; Yang, Yiqun; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique which inherits the merits of optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging. However, classical photoacoustic imaging mainly makes use of the time-domain parameters of signals. In contrast to previous studies, we theoretically investigate the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal from stochastic distributed particles. The spectral slope is extracted and used for describing the spectral characteristics of the photoacoustic signal. Both Gaussian and spherical distributions of optical absorption in particles are considered. For both situations, the spectral slope is monotonically decreased with the increase of particle size. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the spectral slope and the imaging system factors, including the laser pulse envelope, directivity of ultrasound transducer, and signal bandwidth, are theoretically analyzed. Finally, an idealized phantom experiment is performed to validate the analyses and examine the instrument independent of the spectral slope. This work provides a theoretical framework and new experimental evidence for spectrum analysis of the photoacoustic signal. This could be helpful for quantitative tissue evaluation and imaging based on the spectral parameters of the photoacoustic signal.

  1. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Erik A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Anthony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael D [UCSD

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  2. Dystrophin Distribution and Expression in Human and Experimental Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Ruben G. F.; Schipper, Sandra; Hoogland, Govert; Schijns, Olaf E. M. G.; Dings, Jim T. A.; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dystrophin is part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. In addition to its role in muscle tissue, it functions as an anchoring protein within the central nervous system such as in hippocampus and cerebellum. Its presence in the latter regions is illustrated by the cognitive problems seen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Since epilepsy is also supposed to constitute a comorbidity of DMD, it is hypothesized that dystrophin plays a role in neuronal excitability. Here, we aimed to study brain dystrophin distribution and expression in both, human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Method: Regional and cellular dystrophin distribution was evaluated in both human and rat hippocampi and in rat cerebellar tissue by immunofluorescent colocalization with neuronal (NeuN and calbindin) and glial (GFAP) markers. In addition, hippocampal dystrophin levels were estimated by Western blot analysis in biopsies from TLE patients, post-mortem controls, amygdala kindled (AK)-, and control rats. Results: Dystrophin was expressed in all hippocampal pyramidal subfields and in the molecular-, Purkinje-, and granular cell layer of the cerebellum. In these regions it colocalized with GFAP, suggesting expression in astrocytes such as Bergmann glia (BG) and velate protoplasmic astrocytes. In rat hippocampus and cerebellum there were neither differences in dystrophin positive cell types, nor in the regional dystrophin distribution between AK and control animals. Quantitatively, hippocampal full-length dystrophin (Dp427) levels were about 60% higher in human TLE patients than in post-mortem controls (p < 0.05), whereas the level of the shorter Dp71 isoform did not differ. In contrast, AK animals showed similar dystrophin levels as controls. Conclusion: Dystrophin is ubiquitously expressed by astrocytes in the human and rat hippocampus and in the rat cerebellum. Hippocampal full-length dystrophin (Dp427) levels are upregulated

  3. Experimental validation of a sub-surface model of solar power for distributed marine sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Gregory G.; Cantin, Heather P.; Shafer, Michael W.

    2016-04-01

    The capabilities of distributed sensor systems such as marine wildlife telemetry tags could be significantly enhanced through the integration of photovoltaic modules. Photovoltaic cells could be used to supplement the primary batteries for wildlife telemetry tags to allow for extended tag deployments, wherein larger amounts of data could be collected and transmitted in near real time. In this article, we present experimental results used to validate and improve key aspects of our original model for sub-surface solar power. We discuss the test methods and results, comparing analytic predictions to experimental results. In a previous work, we introduced a model for sub-surface solar power that used analytic models and empirical data to predict the solar irradiance available for harvest at any depth under the ocean's surface over the course of a year. This model presented underwater photovoltaic transduction as a viable means of supplementing energy for marine wildlife telemetry tags. The additional data provided by improvements in daily energy budgets would enhance the temporal and spatial comprehension of the host's activities and/or environments. Photovoltaic transduction is one method that has not been widely deployed in the sub-surface marine environments despite widespread use on terrestrial and avian species wildlife tag systems. Until now, the use of photovoltaic cells for underwater energy harvesting has generally been disregarded as a viable energy source in this arena. In addition to marine telemetry systems, photovoltaic energy harvesting systems could also serve as a means of energy supply for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), as well as submersible buoys for oceanographic data collection.

  4. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  5. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kümmel, M.; Kuhl, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Leyhe, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Kaiser, D.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Vasile, M. E.; Patel, B.; Kaplan, D.; Brandys, P.; Czyzewski, T.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Filo, G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kliczewski, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Malgorzata, K.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Psyzniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wrońska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Al-Turany, M.; Cahit, U.; Capozza, L.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Kunkel, J.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Lühning, J.; Maas, F.; Morales Morales, C.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Nerling, F.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.; Sánchez Lorente, A.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Valente, R.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Stancari, G.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kulakov, I.; Zyzak, M.; Arora, R.; Bel, T.; Gromliuk, A.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Patsyuk, M.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bianco, S.; Bremer, D.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Eissner, T.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Gutz, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Kröck, B.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Mülhheim, D.; Münchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schnell, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wasem, T.; Werner, M.; Zaunick, H. G.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Tiemens, M.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Kalita, K.; Mohanta, D. P.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sohlbach, H.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Georgadze, I.; Gillitzer, A.; Goerres, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Leiber, S.; Maier, R.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Schumann, J.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schröder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Deiseroth, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Hoek, M.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Leithoff, H.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Motzko, C.; Müller, U.; Noll, O.; Plueger, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Steinen, M.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzihik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, P.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Dash, S.; Jadhav, M.; Kumar, S.; Sarin, P.; Varma, R.; Chandratre, V. B.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Roy, B.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pornrad, S.; Barnyakov, A. Y.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Sokolov, A. A.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Atomssa, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Van de Wiele, J.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Yabsley, B.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makónyi, K.; Tegnér, P. E.; von Würtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhadanov, A.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S. S.; Duchat, R.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mingnore, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Gålnander, B.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Díaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Vinodkumar, P. C.; Parmar, A.; Chlopik, A.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Fröhlich, B.; Khaneft, D.; Lin, D.; Zimmermann, I.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.

    2015-08-01

    Baryon-to-meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) encoding valuable new information on hadron structure appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description for several types of hard exclusive reactions. In this paper, we address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion ( πN) TDAs from reaction with the future P¯ANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center-of-mass energy and high invariant mass squared of the lepton pair q 2, the amplitude of the signal channel admits a QCD factorized description in terms of πN TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward and backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring with the P¯ANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. were performed for the center-of-mass energy squared s = 5 GeV2 and s = 10 GeV2, in the kinematic regions 3.0 < q 2 < 4.3 GeV2 and 5 < q 2 GeV2, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone in the proton-antiproton center-of-mass frame. Results of the simulation show that the particle identification capabilities of the P¯ANDA detector will allow to achieve a background rejection factor of 5 · 107 (1 · 107) at low (high) q 2 for s = 5 GeV2, and of 1 · 108 (6 · 106) at low (high) q 2 for s = 10 GeV2, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at around 40%. At both energies, a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with the expected statistics corresponding to 2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained from the simulations are used to show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with P¯ANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard

  6. A distributed computing environment with support for constraint-based task scheduling and scientific experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.P.; Shapiro, L.G.; Tanimoto, S.L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes a computing environment which supports computer-based scientific research work. Key features include support for automatic distributed scheduling and execution and computer-based scientific experimentation. A new flexible and extensible scheduling technique that is responsive to a user`s scheduling constraints, such as the ordering of program results and the specification of task assignments and processor utilization levels, is presented. An easy-to-use constraint language for specifying scheduling constraints, based on the relational database query language SQL, is described along with a search-based algorithm for fulfilling these constraints. A set of performance studies show that the environment can schedule and execute program graphs on a network of workstations as the user requests. A method for automatically generating computer-based scientific experiments is described. Experiments provide a concise method of specifying a large collection of parameterized program executions. The environment achieved significant speedups when executing experiments; for a large collection of scientific experiments an average speedup of 3.4 on an average of 5.5 scheduled processors was obtained.

  7. Experimental demonstration of passive-decoy-state quantum key distribution with two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2016-09-01

    The decoy-state method could effectively enhance the performance of quantum key distribution (QKD) with a practical phase randomized weak coherent source. Although active modulation of the source intensity is effective and has been implemented in many experiments, passive preparation of decoy states is also an important addition to the family of decoy-state QKD protocols. In this paper, following the theory of Curty et al. [Phys. Rev. A 81, 022310 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.022310], we experimentally demonstrate the phase-encoding passive-decoy-state QKD with only linear optical setups and threshold single-photon detectors. In our experiment, two homemade independent pulsed lasers, with visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference 0.53 (±0.003 ) , have been implemented and used to passively generate the different decoy states. Finally, a secret key rate of 1.5 ×10-5 /pulse is obtained with 10-km commercial fiber between Alice and Bob.

  8. Experimental round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Yuan; Dai, Hui; Lin, Jin; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Xu, Yu; Guan, Jian-Yu; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-03-01

    In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information. Such estimation tends to overrate, leading to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate, which becomes a bottleneck of practical QKD development. This bottleneck is broken through by the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which eliminates the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The key challenge for the implementation of the RRDPS scheme lies in the realization of a variable-delay Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which requires active and random choice of many delays. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 127 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps with a total loss of 18 dB and an error rate of 8.9%.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Storage Friendly TCP Performance in Distributed Storage Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Muknahallipatna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibre channel storage area networks (SAN are widely implemented in production data center environments. Recently the storage industry has moved towards deployment of distributed SANs (DSAN, geographically dispersed across large physical distances. In a DSAN, specialized gateway devices interconnect the individual Fibre Channel (FC fabrics over IP networks using TCP/IP based protocols (iFCP or FCIP or over metro to long distance optical networks such as Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM based networks that utilize native FC ports supporting large numbers of link credits. When using TCP/IP based storage networking protocols to interconnect local FC fabrics in a DSAN, the sustained throughput achievable depends upon the link characteristics and TCP/IP stack implementation. Sustaining maximum possible storage traffic throughput across the wide area network enables practical DSAN deployments by maintaining the required site to site service level agreements.This study explores the effects of several TCP/IP modifications on sustained traffic throughput for a DSAN interconnected via iFCP gateways across an impaired network. The TCP/IP stack modifications, known as storage friendly, include changes to the window scaling, congestion avoidance, and fast recovery algorithms. The theoretical background and experimental results are presented to explain and illustrate these modifications.

  10. Confronting Theoretical Predictions With Experimental Data; Fitting Strategy For Multi-Dimensional Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Przedziński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After developing a Resonance Chiral Lagrangian (RχL model to describe hadronic τ lepton decays [18], the model was confronted with experimental data. This was accomplished using a fitting framework which was developed to take into account the complexity of the model and to ensure the numerical stability for the algorithms used in the fitting. Since the model used in the fit contained 15 parameters and there were only three 1-dimensional distributions available, we could expect multiple local minima or even whole regions of equal potential to appear. Our methods had to thoroughly explore the whole parameter space and ensure, as well as possible, that the result is a global minimum. This paper is focused on the technical aspects of the fitting strategy used. The first approach was based on re-weighting algorithm published in [17] and produced results in around two weeks. Later approach, with improved theoretical model and simple parallelization algorithm based on Inter-Process Communication (IPC methods of UNIX system, reduced computation time down to 2-3 days. Additional approximations were introduced to the model decreasing time to obtain the preliminary results down to 8 hours. This allowed to better validate the results leading to a more robust analysis published in [12].

  11. Experimental implementation of non-Gaussian attacks on a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Debuisschert, Thierry; García-Patrón, Raúl; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Cerf, Nicolas J; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-01-19

    An intercept-resend attack on a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution protocol is investigated experimentally. By varying the interception fraction, one can implement a family of attacks where the eavesdropper totally controls the channel parameters. In general, such attacks add excess noise in the channel, and may also result in non-Gaussian output distributions. We implement and characterize the measurements needed to detect these attacks, and evaluate experimentally the information rates available to the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The results are consistent with the optimality of Gaussian attacks resulting from the security proofs.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Indoor Air Distribution in High-Performance Residential Buildings: Part I. General Descriptions and Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.; Hancock, E.; Powell, D.

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to experimentally characterize an air distribution system in heating mode during a period of recovery from setback. The specific air distribution system under evaluation incorporates a high sidewall supply-air register/diffuser and a near-floor wall return air grille directly below. With this arrangement, the highest temperature difference between the supply air and the room can occur during the recovery period and create a favorable condition for stratification. The experimental approach will provide realistic input data and results for verification of computational fluid dynamics modeling.

  13. A comparison of experimental and theoretical electron energy distribution functions in the driver of a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretagne, J. (Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, Cedex (France)); Graham, W.G. (Physics Department, Queen' s University, Belfast (Northern Ireland)); Hopkins, M.B. (Physics Department, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland))

    1990-08-05

    Experimental and theoretical electron energy distribution functions (EEDF) measured and calculated for the driver of a multicusp ion source operating in hydrogen are compared. The results indicate that atomic physics based theoretical models can accurately predict the EEDF in such discharges if some appropriate experimentally determined quantities are used as input parameters. The magnitude and shape of the EEDF is found to be particularly sensitive to the effective surface to volume ratio for electrons.

  14. Distributed modeling of radiocesium washoff from the experimental watershed plots of the Fukushima fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivva, Sergei; Zheleznyak, Mark; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    The distributed hydrological "rainfall- runoff" models provide possibilities of the physically based simulation of surface and subsurface flow on watersheds based on the GIS processed data. The success of such modeling approaches for the predictions of the runoff and soil erosion provides a basis for the implementation of the distributed models of the radionuclide washoff from the watersheds. The field studies provided on the Chernobyl and Fukushima catchments provides a unique data sets for the comparative testing and improvements of the modeling tools for the watersheds located in the areas of the very different geographical and hydro-meteorological condition The set of USLE experimental plots has been established by CRIED, University of Tsukuba after the Fukushima accident to study soil erosion and 137Cs wash off from the watersheds (Onda et al, 2014). The distributed watershed models of surface and subsurface flow, sediment and radionuclide transport has been used to simulate the radionuclide transport in the basin Dnieper River, Ukraine and the watersheds of Prefecture Fuksuhima. DHSVM-R is extension of the distributed hydrological model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al, 1996-2014) by the including into it the module of the watershed radionuclide transport. DHSVM is a physically based, distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain based on the numerical solution of the network of one-dimensional equations. The surface flow submodel of DHSMV has been modified: four-directions schematization for the model's cells has been replaced by the eight-directions scheme, more numerically efficient finite -differences scheme was implemented. The new module of radionuclide wash-off from catchment and transport via stream network in soluble phase and on suspended sediments including bottom-water exchange processes was developed for DHSMV-R. DHSVM-R was implemented recently within Swedish- Ukrainian ENSURE project for the modeling of 234U wash-off from the

  15. Experimental Study on the Influence of the Spatial Distribution of Grains on the Graininess of Photographic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Som

    1968-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of the spatial distribution of grains on the graininess of photographic films. This has been done using model photographic films and a psychometric method of assessment of graininess. It has been shown, within the inherent limitations of the present experiment, that the spatial distribution of grains significantly influence the perception of graininess.

  16. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  17. X-Ray Spectroscopy: An Experimental Technique to Measure Charge State Distribution Right at the Ion-Solid Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Charge state distributions of $^{56}$Fe and $^{58}$Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.44 - 2.69 MeV/u using a novel method from the x-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk show Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the x-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state right at the interaction zone or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower projectile mean charge states compare to x-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for energies $\\geq$ 2 MeV/u.

  18. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.P. [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Physics Dept.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Collaboration: The PANDA Collaboration; and others

    2015-08-15

    show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with PANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard exclusive reactions and will open the possibility of experimentally accessing π TDAs. (orig.)

  19. Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuriyk@cinvestav.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Asomoza, R. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Gallardo-Hernandez, S.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, México (Mexico); Nevedomsky, V.; Moiseev, K. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, S-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

  20. The Comparison of Experimental and Analytical Study of the Gaussian IntensityDistribution for Light Emitting Diodes Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Ramza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Wireless communication using white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs is the latest research field for next-generation communication. This study studies the comparison of Gaussian intensity distribution of the white LED using experimental and analytical method. The white LEDs are conducted to transmit an audio signal to the receiver. The receiver circuit consist of solar cell connected to the speaker to recover the audio signal. From the comparison of experimental and analytical data, the Gaussian plot of experimental data is steeper than the analytical data, meaning that the LED has small-divergence beam. Conclusion/Recommendations: The output voltage of experimental works decrease exponentially with the distance whiles the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM value increase exponentially with the distance. The gradual increment and decrement of the analytical signal can be applicable to visible light communication implementation as such light source can cover wide area for signal transmission.

  1. Experimental grid access for dynamic discovery and data transfer in distributed interactive simulation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tirado-Ramos; K. Zajac; Z. Zhao; P.M.A. Sloot; G.D. van Albada; M. Bubak

    2003-01-01

    Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. New distributed infrastructures, like the Grid, support the access to a large variety of core services and resources that can be used by

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Primary Current Distribution in Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Aranda, Armando I.; Henquin, Eduardo R.; Torres, Israel Rodriguez; Bisang, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described to determine the primary current distribution in parallel-plate electrochemical reactors. The electrolyte is simulated by conductive paper and the electrodes are segmented to measure the current distribution. Experiments are reported with the electrolyte confined to the interelectrode gap, where the current…

  3. Experimental study of the relationship between local particle-size distributions and local ordering in random close packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Rei

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study the structural properties of a sediment of size distributed colloids. By determining each particle size using a size estimation algorithm, we are able to investigate the relationship between local environment and local ordering. Our results show that ordered environments of particles tend to generate where the local particle-size distribution is within 5%. In addition, we show that particles whose size is close to the average size have 12 coordinate neighbors, which matches the coordination number of the fcc and hcp crystals. On the other hand, bcc structures are observed around larger particles. Our results represent experiments to show a size dependence of the specific ordering in colloidal systems.

  4. Influence of quark energy loss on extracting nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; LIU Na

    2009-01-01

    By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the nuclear parton distribu-tions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order analysis is performed on the proton-induced Drell-Yau differential cross section ratios of tungsten versus deuterium as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei. It is found that the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. The quark energy loss effect produces approximately 3% to 11% suppression on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios RW/D in the range 0.05 ≤ x2≤ 0.3. The application of nuclear Drell-Yan data with heavy targets is remarkably subject to difficulty in the constraint of the nuclear sea quark distribution.

  5. Terrace width distribution during unstable homoepitaxial growth of GaAs(110): An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespillo, M.L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mcrespillo@icmm.csic.es; Sacedon, J.L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The temporal evolution of the step bunching instability formed during GaAs homoepitaxial growth on the GaAs(110) vicinal to (111)A has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the step-step distribution has been quantified as a function of deposition time. Analysis of the AFM data has shown that neither the terrace width distribution (TWD) nor the terrace height distribution (THD) fit to a Gaussian function in the initial stages of growth, but both evolve with time as the bunching instability develops. After deposition of 500 ML of GaAs the TWD exhibits a clear Gaussian behavior while the THD is very well fitted to a Lorentzian distribution. The GaAs surface morphology initially shows a great dispersion in terrace height and width values with a clear anisotropy along the <001> tilt direction, but evidence of self-controlled growth is observed irrespective of layer thickness.

  6. Retrieval of Droplet size Density Distribution from Multiple field of view Cross polarized Lidar Signals: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    is derived to facilitate use of secondary polarization. The model is supported by exper- imental MFOV lidar measurements carried out in a controlled ...Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of- view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation...Gilles Roy, Luc Bissonnette, Christian Bastille, and Gilles Vallee Multiple-field-of- view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to

  7. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle.

  8. On the possibility of kinetic energy density evaluation from the experimental electron-density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Yu.A. [National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    A simple new approach for the evaluation of the electronic kinetic energy density, G(r), from the experimental (multipole-fitted) electron density is proposed. It allows a quantitative and semi-quantitative description of the G(r) behavior at the bond critical points of compounds with closed-shell and shared interactions, respectively. This can provide information on the values of the kinetic electron energy densities at the bond critical points, which appears to be useful for quantum-topological studies of chemical interactions using experimental electron densities. (orig.).

  9. Radial forces in a centrifugal compressor; Experimental investigation by using magnetic bearings and static pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunanen, Arttu; Larjola, Jaakko

    2005-03-01

    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  10. Radial Forces in a Centrifugal Compressor; Experimental Investigation by Using Magnetic Bearings and Static Pressure Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arttu REUNANEN; Jaakko LARJOLA

    2005-01-01

    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  11. Charge cluster distribution in nanosites traversed by a single ionizing particle An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszona, S.; Bantsar, A.; Kula, J.

    2008-11-01

    A method for modeling charge cluster formation by a single ionizing particle in nanoelectronic structures of few nanometres size is presented. The method is based on experimental modeling of charge formation in the equivalent gaseous nanosites irradiated by single charged particles and the subsequent scaling procedure to a needed medium. Propane irradiated by alpha particles is presented as an example.

  12. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    . The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  13. Experimental Validation of Energy Resources Integration in Microgrids via Distributed Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative control scheme for the management of energy consumption in commercial build- ings with local energy production, such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbine and an energy storage unit. The presented scheme is based on distributed model predictive controllers, which...

  14. Evaluation of the radial pressure distribution of vortex models and comparison with experimental data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, T.; Bosschers, J.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2015-01-01

    An important input parameter for a recently developed semi-empirical prediction method for the noise generated by cavitating vortices is the diameter of the cavitating vortex. This diameter may be obtained from models of non-cavitating vortices that describe the radial distribution of the azimuthal

  15. Experimental testing and modeling analysis of solute mixing at water distribution pipe junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu; Jeffrey Yang, Y; Jiang, Lijie; Yu, Tingchao; Shen, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. The effect can lead to different outcomes of water quality modeling and, hence, drinking water management in a distribution network. Here we have investigated solute mixing behavior in pipe junctions of five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for network modeling are proposed. First, based on experiments, the degree of mixing at a cross is found to be a function of flow momentum ratio that defines a junction flow distribution pattern and the degree of departure from complete mixing. Corresponding analytical solutions are also validated using computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations. Second, the analytical mixing model is further extended to double-Tee junctions. Correspondingly the flow distribution factor is modified to account for hydraulic departure from a cross configuration. For a double-Tee(A) junction, CFD simulations show that the solute mixing depends on flow momentum ratio and connection pipe length, whereas the mixing at double-Tee(B) is well represented by two independent single-Tee junctions with a potential water stagnation zone in between. Notably, double-Tee junctions differ significantly from a cross in solute mixing and transport. However, it is noted that these pipe connections are widely, but incorrectly, simplified as cross junctions of assumed complete solute mixing in network skeletonization and water quality modeling. For the studied pipe junction types, analytical solutions are proposed to characterize the incomplete mixing and hence may allow better water quality simulation in a distribution network. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Approaches to Understanding the Anomalous Distribution of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Christensen, Elizabeth; Boyer, Charisa; Park, Manesseh; Benitez, Ezra; Nunn, Morgan; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Terri

    2016-06-01

    Decades of careful laboratory analysis of primitive meteorites have revealed an intriguing and unexplained pattern in the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system. With the recent analysis of solar wind oxygen by NASA’s Genesis mission, it appears that the Sun has a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the terrestrial planets, asteroids, and comets. These differences cannot be explained by mass-dependent diffusion and require a physical-chemical mechanism or mechanisms that separate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass dependent manner.Several hypothesis have been proposed to explain the anomalous distribution. Photochemical self-shielding of CO may explain the anomalous distribution, however, this mechanism has key weaknesses including the requirement of a very fine tuned timescale to explain the isotopic differences between the Sun and bulk of the terrestrial planets. Recently, attention has been directed at understanding specific chemical reactions that occur on interstellar dust grains due to their similarities with non-equilibrium photochemical reactions believed to be responsible for the mass-independent isotopic fractionation patterns observed in Earth’s atmosphere. A specific focus has been directed towards understanding the formation of H2O because some of its precursor (HO2, and O3) are well-known to acquire mass-independent isotopic signatures when formed in the gas-phase.In this presentation, I describe a series of laboratory astrophysical experiments whose goal is to understand the distribution of oxygen isotopes in the solar system and perhaps, by extension, the distribution in other planetary systems. Preliminary results for the isotopic composition of O3 formed at 5K will be presented as well as the first, to our knowledge, measurements of the isotopic composition of H2O (18O/16O, 17O/16O, D/H) formed at 32K. We find that H2O formed in the astrophysical conditions we simulated acquired an anomalous isotopic composition with a triple

  18. Workstation Analytics in Distributed Warfighting Experimentation: Results from Coalition Attack Guidance Experiment 3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural biometrics (e.g., keystroke and mouse dynamics ) to estimate participant workload, fatigue, boredom, etc.;  Detecting and tracking experimental...every mouse click;  Record details of all keystrokes ;  Have the ability to record video screen captures;  Have the ability to record screen...Details of all keystrokes . What application and window the text was typed/cut/copied/pasted into, which user typed the text, and when the user

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Measurements of Concentration Distributions in Acoustic Focusing Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K A; Fisher, K; Jung, B; Ness, K; Mariella Jr., R P

    2008-06-16

    We describe a modeling approach to capture the particle motion within an acoustic focusing microfluidic device. Our approach combines finite element models for the acoustic forces with analytical models for the fluid motion and uses these force fields to calculate the particle motion in a Brownian dynamics simulation. We compare results for the model with experimental measurements of the focusing efficiency within a microfabricated device. The results show good qualitative agreement over a range of acoustic driving voltages and particle sizes.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE TRANSITION REGION OF PIPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-hui; DU Guang-sheng; LIU Li-ping; SHAO Zhu-feng; ZHAI Cheng-yuan

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of an ultrasonic flowmeter meaurement depends on the profile-linear average velocity.But this velocity in the transition region is not available at the present.In this article,the velocity in the transition region in pipes is studied by experimental methods.The Particle Image Velocimetry ( PIV ) is used to measure the flow field in the transition region in pipes,and the measured results from PIV are in good agreement with the Westerwell's experimental data.Based on the experimental data of PIV,the curves of the profile-linear average velocity in the transition region against the Reynolds number in the range from 2 000 to 20 000 are obtained,and it is shown that the coefficient k is constant when the Reynolds number is in the range of 2 000-2 400 and 6 000-20 000,and the coefficient k is increasing when the Reynolds number is in the range of 2 400-6 000.The results of this article can be used to improve the measurement accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeters and as a theoretical basis for the research on the transition flow.

  1. Experimental Study on the Distribution of Velocity and Pressure near a Submarine Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yan; SHI Bing; REN Xingyue; JING Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    As a transport means of oil and gas the submarine pipeline has many merits, such as continuous delivery, large conveying capacity, convenient management, etc. A tube was chosen in our study to simulate the submarine pipeline in the experiments. A high accuracy instrument ADV and high precision point-type pressure sensors were used to measure the parameters of the flow field, including the pressure distribution, velocities at seven cross sections near the submarine pipeline with five different clearance ratios, and twelve dynamic pressure values around the pipeline. The pressure distributions and velocity changes around the pipe under different flow velocities and clearance ratios were analyzed. These results might be useful for further study of submarine pipeline erosion and protection.

  2. Experimental study of temperature distribution in rubber material during microwave heating and vulcanization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Li, Tao; Liang, Yun; Sun, Bin; Li, Qing-Ling

    2017-03-01

    Microwave technology has been employed to heat sheet rubber, the optical fiber temperature online monitor and optical fiber temperature sensor have been employed to measure the temperature in sheet rubber. The temperature of sheet rubber increased with increase of heating time during microwave heating process in which the maximum of temperature was rubber was higher than the rate of temperature rising in marginal zone of sheet rubber, and the final temperature in central zone of sheet rubber was also higher than the final temperature in marginal zone of sheet rubber. In the microwave heating and vulcanization process of sheet rubber, the maximum of rate of temperature rising and the maximum of temperature belong to the central zone of sheet rubber, so the distribution of electric field was uneven in heating chamber, which led to the uneven temperature distribution of sheet rubber. The higher electric field intensity value converges on the central zone of sheet rubber.

  3. Experimental access to transition distribution amplitudes with the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana, Manuel; Ahmed, Samer; Deiseroth, Malte; Froehlich, Bertold; Khaneft, Dmitry; Lin, Dexu; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zimmermann, Iris [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Ahmadi, Heybat; Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Prisma Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We address the feasibility of accessing proton to pion Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the future PANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center of mass energy and four-momentum transfer, the amplitude of signal channel anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -}π{sup 0} admits a QCD factorized description in terms of Distribution Amplitudes and Transition Distribution Amplitudes in the forward and backward regions. Assuming a factorized cross section, feasibility studies of measuring anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -}π{sup 0} with PANDA have been performed at the center of mass energy squared s=5 GeV{sup 2} and s=10 GeV{sup 2}, in the kinematic region of four-momentum transfer 3.0 < q{sup 2} < 4.3 GeV{sup 2} and 5 < q{sup 2} < 9 GeV{sup 2}, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone cosθ{sub π{sup 0}} > 0.5 in the anti pp center of mass frame. These include detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency, rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}, and the feasibility of the measurement using a sample of 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. Results of the simulations show that a background rejection factor from 10{sup 7} at s=5 GeV{sup 2} to 10{sup 8} at s=10 GeV{sup 2} can be achieved, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at the level of 40%, and that a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at both energies. The ''measured'' cross sections with the simulations are used to test QCD factorization at the leading order by measuring scaling laws and fitting angular distributions.

  4. Vibration suppression with approximate finite dimensional compensators for distributed systems: Computational methods and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, Ralph C.; Wang, Yun

    1994-01-01

    Based on a distributed parameter model for vibrations, an approximate finite dimensional dynamic compensator is designed to suppress vibrations (multiple modes with a broad band of frequencies) of a circular plate with Kelvin-Voigt damping and clamped boundary conditions. The control is realized via piezoceramic patches bonded to the plate and is calculated from information available from several pointwise observed state variables. Examples from computational studies as well as use in laboratory experiments are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this design.

  5. Experimental Assessment of Photon Fluence Rate Distributions in a Medium-Pressure UV Photoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkai; Qiang, Zhimin; Wang, Chen; Bolton, James R; Blatchley Iii, Ernest R

    2017-02-28

    The performance of a medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamp photoreactor is strongly influenced by the spatial photon fluence rate (PFR) distributions which are wavelength-dependent. To address this issue, PFR distributions in an MP lamp photoreactor were measured using a 360-degree response microfluorescent silica detector (MFSD). To accurately express the optical behavior in an MP photoreactor, PFR, MFSD response PFR (PFRMFSD), and effective germicidal PFR (PFRGER) were defined and compared. The measured axial and radial PFRMFSD values agreed well with the corresponding results from a simulation model (UVCalc). The PFR and PFRGER were obtained from the measured PFRMFSD by using correction factors calculated by the UVCalc. Under identical UV transmittance (254 nm) conditions (75% and 85%), the weighted average PFRGER values were 13.3-18.7% lower than the corresponding PFR values, indicating that PFRGER, rather than PFR should be used in MP photoreactor design to meet disinfection standards. Based on measured lamp output, medium absorption spectrum, MFSD response, and microbial DNA response spectrum, the detailed relationships between the PFR, PFRMFSD, and PFRGER were elucidated. This work proposes a new method for the accurate description of wavelength-dependent PFR distributions in MP photoreactors, thus providing an important tool for the optimal design of these systems.

  6. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2000-01-01

    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  7. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius

    2005-01-01

    The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process......) approach to compute the current density distribution over the electrodes. Experimental and computed layer thickness distributions are in very good agreement....

  8. Experimental investigations of flow distribution in coolant system of Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, M.; Schlindwein, G., E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu; Meyder, R.; Kuhn, T.; Albrecht, O.; Zinn, K.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental investigations of flow distribution in HCPB TBM are presented. • Flow rates in channels close to the first wall are lower than nominal ones. • Flow distribution in central chambers of manifold 2 is close to the nominal one. • Flow distribution in the whole manifold 3 agrees well with the nominal one. - Abstract: This paper deals with investigations of flow distribution in the coolant system of the Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) for ITER. The investigations have been performed by manufacturing and testing of an experimental facility named GRICAMAN. The facility involves the upper poloidal half of HCPB TBM bounded at outlets of the first wall channels, at outlet of by-pass pipe and at outlets of cooling channels in breeding units. In this way, the focus is placed on the flow distribution in two mid manifolds of the 4-manifold system: (i) manifold 2 to which outlets of the first wall channels and inlet of by-pass pipe are attached and (ii) manifold 3 which supplies channels in breeding units with helium coolant. These two manifolds are connected with cooling channels in vertical/horizontal grids and caps. The experimental facility has been built keeping the internal structure of manifold 2 and manifold 3 exactly as designed in HCPB TBM. The cooling channels in stiffening grids, caps and breeding units are substituted by so-called equivalent channels which provide the same hydraulic resistance and inlet/outlet conditions, but have significantly simpler geometry than the real channels. Using the conditions of flow similarity, the air pressurized at 0.3 MPa and at ambient temperature has been used as working fluid instead of HCPB TBM helium coolant at 8 MPa and an average temperature of 370 °C. The flow distribution has been determined by flow rate measurements at each of 28 equivalent channels, while the pressure distribution has been obtained measuring differential pressure at more than 250 positions. The

  9. Experimental open-air quantum key distribution with a single-photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleaume, R [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Treussart, F [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Messin, G [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, F-91403 Orsay (France); Dumeige, Y [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Roch, J-F [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, UMR 8537 du CNRS, ENS Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Beveratos, A [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, F-91403 Orsay (France); Brouri-Tualle, R [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, F-91403 Orsay (France); Poizat, J-P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, F-91403 Orsay (France); Grangier, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, UMR 8501 du CNRS, F-91403 Orsay (France)

    2004-07-01

    We describe the implementation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system using a single-photon source, operating at night in open air. The single-photon source at the heart of the functional and reliable set-up relies on the pulsed excitation of a single nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in a diamond nanocrystal. We tested the effect of attenuation on the polarized encoded photons for inferring the longer distance performance of our system. For strong attenuation, the use of pure single-photon states gives measurable advantage over systems relying on weak attenuated laser pulses. The results are in good agreement with theoretical models developed to assess QKD security.

  10. Experimental open air quantum key distribution with a single photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Alleaume, R; Brouri-Tualle, R; Dumeige, Y; Messin, G; Poizat, J P; Roch, J F; Treussart, F; Alleaume, Romain; Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri-Tualle, Rosa; Dumeige, Yannick; Messin, Gaetan; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Proxy, Philippe Grangier; Roch, Jean-Francois; Treussart, Francois; ccsd-00001148, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    We present a full implementation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with a single photon source, operating at night in open air. The single photon source at the heart of the functional and reliable setup relies on the pulsed excitation of a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond nanocrystal. We tested the effect of attenuation on the polarized encoded photons for inferring longer distance performance of our system. For strong attenuation, the use of pure single photon states gives measurable advantage over systems relying on weak attenuated laser pulses. The results are in good agreement with theoretical models developed to assess QKD security.

  11. Studies of the Electric Field Distribution in Biological Bodies - Experimental Dosimetry at Radiofrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-05

    Absorption Rate Distribution In Simple Geometrica ~l Bodies at Radio Frequencies", M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Ottawa. 24. G.H. Wong, S.S. Stuchly, A...desigted for operaion in air 12,4,51 or in the dielectric media • C2.7] can be used 1: our eysteia lo s a they coo- _ Cl three L-doperdeot aote-ra...dielectric media is detetaled by masuring the output voltage of the electric field probe, placed at varils locacioc 160 me1 208 3.9 NA I= a sphere made of tht

  12. Experimental investigation of static ice refrigeration air conditioning system driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. F.; Li, M.; Luo, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Yu, Q. F.; Hassanien, R. H. E.

    2016-08-01

    The static ice refrigeration air conditioning system (SIRACS) driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES) was proposed and the test experiment have been investigated in this paper. Results revealed that system energy utilization efficiency is low because energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker. So the immersed evaporator and co-integrated exchanger were suggested in system structure optimization analysis and the system COP was improved nearly 40%. At the same time, we have researched that ice thickness and ice super-cooled temperature changed along with time and the relationship between system COP and ice thickness was obtained.

  13. Influence of the spectral distribution of light on the characteristics of photovoltaic panel. Comparison between simulation and experimental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa; Chadel, Asma; Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-02-01

    We present and analyze experimental results obtained with a laboratory setup based on a hardware and smart instrumentation for the complete study of performance of PV panels using for illumination an artificial radiation source (Halogen lamps). Associated to an accurate analysis, this global experimental procedure allows the determination of effective performance under standard conditions thanks to a simulation process originally developed under Matlab software environment. The uniformity of the irradiated surface was checked by simulation of the light field. We studied the response of standard commercial photovoltaic panels under enlightenment measured by a spectrometer with different spectra for two sources, halogen lamps and sunlight. Then, we bring a special attention to the influence of the spectral distribution of light on the characteristics of photovoltaic panel, that we have performed as a function of temperature and for different illuminations with dedicated measurements and studies of the open circuit voltage and short-circuit current.

  14. Effect of solid distribution on elastic properties of open-cell cellular solids using numerical and experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2014-09-01

    Effect of solid distribution between edges and vertices of three-dimensional cellular solid with an open-cell structure was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Finite element analysis (FEA) with continuum elements and appropriate periodic boundary condition was employed to calculate the elastic properties of cellular solids using tetrakaidecahedral (Kelvin) unit cell. Relative densities between 0.01 and 0.1 and various values of solid fractions were considered. In order to validate the numerical model, three scaffolds with the relative density of 0.08, but different amounts of solid in vertices, were fabricated via 3-D printing technique. Good agreement was observed between numerical simulation and experimental results. Results of numerical simulation showed that, at low relative densities (numerical simulation and considering the relative density and solid fraction in vertices, empirical relations were derived for Young׳s modulus and Poisson׳s ratio.

  15. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    , and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results: SIV......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...

  16. The influence of die geometry on stress distribution by experimental and FEM simulation on electrolytic copper wiredrawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Kyo Kabayama

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of die geometry is vital in determining the surface and mechanical properties of drawn wires, and consequently, their application. In this work, annealed electrolytic copper wire (ETP, with 0.5 mm original diameter was reduced by 19% in dies with 2β = 10º and 18º and Hc = 35 and 50%. The best experimental results were then studied by the Finite Element Method to simulate residual stress distribution. The experimental results show that the friction coefficient decreases as the wire drawing speed increases, and that low 2β and Hc values bring about the most favorable wiredrawing conditions. The simulation shows a variation in the axial and radial tensions, both for the compression and traction stresses on all regions during the wire drawing process. In conclusion, the influence of the internal die geometry on the drawn wire is clarified.

  17. Ion velocity distribution functions in argon and helium discharges: detailed comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Sukhomlinov, Vladimir S.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Mustafaev, Alexander S.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo collision method, we have performed simulations of ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) taking into account both elastic collisions and charge exchange collisions of ions with atoms in uniform electric fields for argon and helium background gases. The simulation results are verified by comparison with the experiment data of the ion mobilities and the ion transverse diffusion coefficients in argon and helium. The recently published experimental data for the first seven coefficients of the Legendre polynomial expansion of the ion energy and angular distribution functions are used to validate simulation results for IVDF. Good agreement between measured and simulated IVDFs shows that the developed simulation model can be used for accurate calculations of IVDFs.

  18. Inferring Process Changes from 30 Years of Distributed Mountain Snowfall and Measured Streamflow at Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, P. R.; Marks, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.; Havens, S.; Hedrick, A. R.; Garen, D. C.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrologic system in snowy mountain catchments includes complicated linkages and feedbacks between climate, snow cover, transpiring vegetation, and streamflow. We use 30 water years (1984 - 2014) of precipitation, relative humidity, air temperature, and streamflow data to identify changes that have occurred in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho. The process changes that have occurred during this time are presented and analyzed. This unique spatially distributed data set clearly highlights the transition from snow to rain in mountain regions of western North America.

  19. Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE): a new research distributed infrastructure to tackle ecosystem complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Abad; Roy, Jacques; Beier, Claus; Miglietta, Franco

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems represent a critical zone that provide key ecological services to human populations in the form of food, fibre and energy climate protection or nutrient recycling, to name a few. In this critical zone, human activities are directly or indirectly generating major environmental pressures, such as pollution, global warming, and the destruction and alteration of natural habitats. Altogether, these global changes result in a rapid erosion of biodiversity and a major perturbation of ecological systems and services. It is therefore vital to understand how ecological systems respond and adapt to such pressures and perturbations and to test sustainable land use and innovative green technologies in order to address societal challenges. Today, a major focus in ecological and agricultural sciences is on the production of quantitative, experimentally reproducible and testable approaches using advances in our ability to characterize complex ecological systems from genes to ecosystem levels. The need for experimental approaches that require sophisticated equipment and instruments, technological advances, and strong theoretical foundation through conceptualization and modelling of ecosystem functioning is addressed by a new ESFRI FP7 distributed research infrastructures called AnaEE (Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). Such approaches are the mechanistic bases of adaptation and impacts on eco- and agrosystem functioning to be deciphered. ANAEE is setting up and offers a distributed infrastructure of open-access platforms providing facilities to conduct experiments and analyse and model complex ecological systems. ANAEE through its integrated and experimental approach to ecosystem functioning will provide a quantum leap in the quality and availability of data and projections on continental ecosystems responses to global changes and to management, enabling policy makers and stakeholders to sustainably manage ecosystem services for all citizens.

  20. Experimental observation of spatially resolved photo-luminescence intensity distribution in dual mode upconverting nanorod bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Singh, V. N.; Singh, Nidhi; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for demonstration of photoluminescence intensity distribution in upconverting nanorod bundles using confocal microscopy is reported. Herein, a strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent dual mode upconverting/downshift Y1.94O3:Ho3+0.02/Yb3+0.04 nanorod bundles by a facile hydrothermal route has been introduced. These luminescent nanorod bundles exhibit strong green emission at 549 nm upon excitations at 449 nm and 980 nm with quantum efficiencies of ~6.3% and ~1.1%, respectively. The TEM/HRTEM results confirm that these bundles are composed of several individual nanorods with diameter of ~100 nm and length in the range of 1–3 μm. Furthermore, two dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution study has been carried out using confocal photoluminescence microscope throughout the nanorod bundles. This study provides a new direction for the potential use of such emerging dual mode nanorod bundles as photon sources for next generation flat panel optical display devices, bio-medical applications, luminescent security ink and enhanced energy harvesting in photovoltaic applications.

  1. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the \\={P}ANDA experiment at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B P; Keshelashvili, I; Krusche, B; Steinacher, M; Liu, B; Liu, H; Liu, Z; Shen, X; Wang, C; Zhao, J; Albrecht, M; Fink, M; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Holtmann, T; Koch, H; Kopf, B; Kümmel, M; Kuhl, G; Kuhlmann, M; Leyhe, M; Mikirtychyants, M; Musiol, P; Mustafa, A; Pelizäus, M; Pychy, J; Richter, M; Schnier, C; Schröder, T; Sowa, C; Steinke, M; Triffterer, T; Wiedner, U; Beck, R; Hammann, C; Kaiser, D; Ketzer, B; Kube, M; Mahlberg, P; Rossbach, M; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Thoma, U; Walther, D; Wendel, C; Wilson, A; Bianconi, A; Bragadireanu, M; Caprini, M; Pantea, D; Pietreanu, D; Vasile, M E; Patel, B; Kaplan, D; Brandys, P; Czyzewski, T; Czyzycki, W; Domagala, M; Hawryluk, M; Filo, G; Krawczyk, M; Kwiatkowski, D; Lisowski, E; Lisowski, F; Fiutowski, T; Idzik, M; Mindur, B; Przyborowski, D; Swientek, K; Czech, B; Kliczewski, S; Korcyl, K; Kozela, A; Kulessa, P; Lebiedowicz, P; Malgorzata, K; Pysz, K; Schäfer, W; Siudak, R; Szczurek, A; Biernat, J; Jowzaee, S; Kamys, B; Kistryn, S; Korcyl, G; Krzemien, W; Magiera, A; Moskal, P; Palka, M; Psyzniak, A; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Smyrski, J; Strzempek, P; Wrońska, A; Augustin, I; Lehmann, I; Nicmorus, D; Schepers, G; Schmitt, L; Al-Turany, M; Cahit, U; Capozza, L; Dbeyssi, A; Deppe, H; Dzhygadlo, R; Ehret, A; Flemming, H; Gerhardt, A; Götzen, K; Karabowicz, R; Kliemt, R; Kunkel, J; Kurilla, U; Lehmann, D; Lühning, J; Maas, F; Morales, C Morales; Espí, M C Mora; Nerling, F; Orth, H; Peters, K; Piñeiro, D Rodríguez; Saito, N; Saito, T; Lorente, A Sánchez; Schmidt, C J; Schwarz, C; Schwiening, J; Traxler, M; Valente, R; Voss, B; Wieczorek, P; Wilms, A; Zühlsdorf, M; Abazov, V M; Alexeev, G; Arefiev, A; Astakhov, V I; Barabanov, M Yu; Batyunya, B V; Davydov, Yu I; Dodokhov, V Kh; Efremov, A A; Fedunov, A G; Festchenko, A A; Galoyan, A S; Grigoryan, S; Karmokov, A; Koshurnikov, E K; Lobanov, V I; Lobanov, Yu Yu; Makarov, A F; Malinina, L V; Malyshev, V L; Mustafaev, G A; Olshevskiy, A; Pasyuk, M A; Perevalova, E A; Piskun, A A; Pocheptsov, T A; Pontecorvo, G; Rodionov, V K; Rogov, Yu N; Salmin, R A; Samartsev, A G; Sapozhnikov, M G; Shabratova, G S; Skachkov, N B; Skachkova, A N; Strokovsky, E A; Suleimanov, M K; Teshev, R Sh; Tokmenin, V V; Uzhinsky, V V; Vodopyanov, A S; Zaporozhets, S A; Zhuravlev, N I; Zorin, A G; Branford, D; Glazier, D; Watts, D; Woods, P; Britting, A; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Uhlig, F; Dobbs, S; Seth, K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Bettoni, D; Carassiti, V; Ramusino, A Cotta; Dalpiaz, P; Drago, A; Fioravanti, E; Garzia, I; Savriè, M; Stancari, G; Akishina, V; Kisel, I; Kulakov, I; Zyzak, M; Arora, R; Bel, T; Gromliuk, A; Kalicy, G; Krebs, M; Patsyuk, M; Zuehlsdorf, M; Bianchi, N; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lucherini, V; Pace, E; Bersani, A; Bracco, G; Macri, M; Parodi, R F; Bianco, S; Bremer, D; Brinkmann, K T; Diehl, S; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Düren, M; Eissner, T; Etzelmüller, E; Föhl, K; Galuska, M; Gessler, T; Gutz, E; Hayrapetyan, A; Hu, J; Kröck, B; Kühn, W; Kuske, T; Lange, S; Liang, Y; Merle, O; Metag, V; Mülhheim, D; Münchow, D; Nanova, M; Novotny, R; Pitka, A; Quagli, T; Rieke, J; Rosenbaum, C; Schnell, R; Spruck, B; Stenzel, H; Thöring, U; Ullrich, T; Wasem, T; Werner, M; Zaunick, H G; Ireland, D; Rosner, G; Seitz, B; Deepak, P N; Kulkarni, A V; Apostolou, A; Babai, M; Kavatsyuk, M; Lemmens, P; Lindemulder, M; Löhner, H; Messchendorp, J; Schakel, P; Smit, H; van der Weele, J C; Veenstra, R; Tiemens, M; Vejdani, S; Kalita, K; Mohanta, D P; Kumar, A; Roy, A; Sahoo, R; Sohlbach, H; Büscher, M; Cao, L; Cebulla, A; Deermann, D; Dosdall, R; Esch, S; Georgadze, I; Gillitzer, A; Goerres, A; Goldenbaum, F; Grunwald, D; Herten, A; Hu, Q; Kemmerling, G; Kleines, H; Kozlov, V; Lehrach, A; Leiber, S; Maier, R; Nellen, R; Ohm, H; Orfanitski, S; Prasuhn, D; Prencipe, E; Ritman, J; Schadmand, S; Schumann, J; Sefzick, T; Serdyuk, V; Sterzenbach, G; Stockmanns, T; Wintz, P; Wüstner, P; Xu, H; Li, S; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Rigato, V; Fissum, S; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Lundin, M; Schröder, B; Achenbach, P; Bleser, S; Cardinali, M; Corell, O; Deiseroth, M; Denig, A; Distler, M; Feldbauer, F; Fritsch, M; Jasinski, P; Hoek, M; Kangh, D; Karavdina, A; Lauth, W; Leithoff, H; Merkel, H; Michel, M; Motzko, C; Müller, U; Noll, O; Plueger, S; Pochodzalla, J; Sanchez, S; Schlimme, S; Sfienti, C; Steinen, M; Thiel, M; Weber, T; Zambrana, M; Dormenev, V I; Fedorov, A A; Korzihik, M V; Missevitch, O V; Balanutsa, P; Balanutsa, V; Chernetsky, V; Demekhin, A; Dolgolenko, A; Fedorets, P; Gerasimov, A; Goryachev, V; Varentsov, V; Boukharov, A; Malyshev, O; Marishev, I; Semenov, A; Konorov, I; Paul, S; Grieser, S; Hergemöller, A K; Khoukaz, A; Köhler, E; Täschner, A; Wessels, J; Dash, S; Jadhav, M; Kumar, S; Sarin, P; Varma, R; Chandratre, V B; Datar, V; Dutta, D; Jha, V; Kumawat, H; Mohanty, A K; Roy, B; Yan, Y; Chinorat, K; Khanchai, K; Ayut, L; Pornrad, S; Barnyakov, A Y; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bobrovnikov, V S; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Sokolov, A A; Tikhonov, Y A; Atomssa, E; Hennino, T; Imre, M; Kunne, R; Galliard, C Le; Ma, B; Marchand, D; Ong, S; Ramstein, B; Rosier, P; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E; Van de Wiele, J; Boca, G; Costanza, S; Genova, P; Lavezzi, L; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Abramov, V; Belikov, N; Bukreeva, S; Davidenko, A; Derevschikov, A; Goncharenko, Y; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Kormilitsin, V; Melnik, Y; Levin, A; Minaev, N; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D; Nogach, L; Poslavskiy, S; Ryazantsev, A; Ryzhikov, S; Semenov, P; Shein, I; Uzunian, A; Vasiliev, A; Yakutin, A; Yabsley, B; Bäck, T; Cederwall, B; Makónyi, K; Tegnér, P E; von Würtemberg, K M; Belostotski, S; Gavrilov, G; Izotov, A; Kashchuk, A; Levitskaya, O; Manaenkov, S; Miklukho, O; Naryshkin, Y; Suvorov, K; Veretennikov, D; Zhadanov, A; Rai, A K; Godre, S S; Duchat, R; Amoroso, A; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; De Mori, F; Destefanis, M; Fava, L; Ferrero, L; Greco, M; Maggiora, M; Maniscalco, G; Marcello, S; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Zotti, L; Calvo, D; Coli, S; De Remigis, P; Filippi, A; Giraudo, G; Lusso, S; Mazza, G; Mingnore, M; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R; Balestra, F; Iazzi, F; Introzzi, R; Lavagno, A; Younis, H; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Martin, A; Clement, H; Gålnander, B; Balkeståhl, L Caldeira; Calén, H; Fransson, K; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Marciniewski, P; Pettersson, J; Schönning, K; Wolke, M; Zlomanczuk, J; Díaz, J; Ortiz, A; Vinodkumar, P C; Parmar, A; Chlopik, A; Melnychuk, D; Slowinski, B; Trzcinski, A; Wojciechowski, M; Wronka, S; Zwieglinski, B; Bühler, P; Marton, J; Suzuki, K; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J; Fröhlich, B; Khaneft, D; Lin, D; Zimmermann, I; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K

    2014-01-01

    We address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion ($\\pi N$) Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) from $\\bar{p}p \\to e^+e^- \\pi^0$ reaction with the future \\={P}ANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center of mass energy and high invariant mass of the lepton pair $q^2$, the amplitude of the signal channel $\\bar{p}p \\to e^+e^- \\pi^0$ admits a QCD factorized description in terms of $\\pi N$ TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward and backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring $\\bar{p}p \\to e^+e^- \\pi^0$ with the \\={P}ANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, {\\it i.e.} $\\bar{p}p \\to \\pi^+\\pi^- \\pi^0$ were performed for the center of mass energy squared $s = 5$ GeV$^2$ and $s = 10$ GeV$^2$, in the kinematic regions $3.0 0.5 $ in the proton-antiproton center of mass frame. Results of the simulation sho...

  2. Experimental study of temperature distribution in rubber material during microwave heating and vulcanization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Li, Tao; Liang, Yun; Sun, Bin; Li, Qing-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Microwave technology has been employed to heat sheet rubber, the optical fiber temperature online monitor and optical fiber temperature sensor have been employed to measure the temperature in sheet rubber. The temperature of sheet rubber increased with increase of heating time during microwave heating process in which the maximum of temperature was curves of temperature-time presented nonlinearity. The rate of temperature rising in central zone of sheet rubber was higher than the rate of temperature rising in marginal zone of sheet rubber, and the final temperature in central zone of sheet rubber was also higher than the final temperature in marginal zone of sheet rubber. In the microwave heating and vulcanization process of sheet rubber, the maximum of rate of temperature rising and the maximum of temperature belong to the central zone of sheet rubber, so the distribution of electric field was uneven in heating chamber, which led to the uneven temperature distribution of sheet rubber. The higher electric field intensity value converges on the central zone of sheet rubber.

  3. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  4. Experimental investigation of space--energy distributions of slow neutrons in water near plane absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, A.; El-Konsol, S.; Novikov, A.; Zakharkin, I.; Hamouda, I.

    1973-12-31

    A mechanical neutron time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure neutron space-energy distributions near a cadmium plate, of 1 mm thickness, immersed in a water-filled tank. The ET-RR-1 reactor served as a neutron source. Measurements of thermal and resonance neutron distributions, using activation technique, were performed in the tank with and without the cadmium plate. Measurements were made of the neutron spectra emerging normally from the plate ( mu = +1). The spectra were measured at the distances 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 cm from the plate surface. An exit tube was used to extract the neutron beam from the region of measurement. The required corrections were introduced to the measured spectra. The measurements are discussed and analyzed in the framework of the neutron temperature approximation. An appreciable softening effect is observed for the measured neutron spectra of mu = +1. The temperature for the spectrum at a distance of 0.25 cm from the plate was 41 deg lower than that of the asymptotic spectrum, and the softening effect relaxed and vanished at a distance of 5 cm. (18 figures) (auth)

  5. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  6. Experimental verification of a deep drawing tool system for adaptive blank holder pressure distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft

    2012-01-01

    In deep drawing, the strain path in the blank during the forming process can be significantly affected by application of temporal and spatial variation of the blank holder force. In this study, an active tool system capable of controlling the distribution of the blank holder force is presented...... which can be integrated into existing stacked deep drawing tools without need for modification of the press. A working system is presented consisting of a controller, designated volume displacement cavity pressure supply units and a shimming plate. It is applied to the deep drawing of a rectangular...... geometry using a conventional stacked tool design. The shimming plate is used to support the blank holder plate, and has four integrated hydraulic cavities in which the pressure can be controlled individually whereby a controlled deflection of the blank holder plate is achieved analogous...

  7. Chlorine fate and transport in drinking water distribution systems: Results from experimental and modeling studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert M. Clark

    2011-01-01

    It has become generally accepted that water quality can deteriorate in a distribution system through microbiological and chemical reactions in the bulk phase and/or at the pipe wall.The most serious aspect of water quality deterioration in a network is the loss of the disinfectant residual that can weaken the barrier against microbial contamination.Studies have suggested that one factor contributing to the loss of disinfectant residuals is the reaction between bulk phase disinfectants and pipe wall material.Free chlorine loss in corroded metal and PVC pipes,subject to changes in velocity,was assessed during an experiment conducted under controlled conditions in a specially constructed pipe loop located at the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati,Ohio (USA).These studies demonstrated that in older unlined metal pipes,the loss of chlorine residual increases with velocity but that wall demand in PVC was negligible.

  8. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with uncharacterized encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Ding, Yu-Yang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI QKD) is an efficient way to share secrets using untrusted measurement devices. However, the assumption on the characterizations of encoding states is still necessary in this promising protocol, which may lead to unnecessary complexity and potential loopholes in realistic implementations. Here, by using the mismatched-basis statistics, we present the first proof-of-principle experiment of MDI QKD with uncharacterized encoding sources. In this demonstration, the encoded states are only required to be constrained in a two-dimensional Hilbert space, and two distant parties (Alice and Bob) are resistant to state preparation flaws even if they have no idea about the detailed information of their encoding states. The positive final secure key rates of our system exhibit the feasibility of this novel protocol, and demonstrate its value for the application of secure communication with uncharacterized devices.

  9. Experimental demonstration on the deterministic quantum key distribution based on entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Zangana, Alaa Jabbar Jumaah; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Han, Yun-Guang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Tawfeeq, Shelan Khasro; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-02-01

    As an important resource, entanglement light source has been used in developing quantum information technologies, such as quantum key distribution(QKD). There are few experiments implementing entanglement-based deterministic QKD protocols since the security of existing protocols may be compromised in lossy channels. In this work, we report on a loss-tolerant deterministic QKD experiment which follows a modified “Ping-Pong”(PP) protocol. The experiment results demonstrate for the first time that a secure deterministic QKD session can be fulfilled in a channel with an optical loss of 9 dB, based on a telecom-band entangled photon source. This exhibits a conceivable prospect of ultilizing entanglement light source in real-life fiber-based quantum communications.

  10. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  11. A regional distributed hydrological modelling approach for flash-flood understanding and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Roux, Hélène; Vannier, Olivier; Maubourguet, Marie-Madeleine; Viallet, Pierre; Boudevillain, Brice; Dartus, Denis; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods represent the most destructive natural hazard in the Mediterranean region, causing around one billion Euros worth of damage in France over the last two decades. Flash floods are associated with extreme and rare rainfall events and usually occur in ungauged river basins. Amongst them, small-ungauged catchments are recognized as the most vulnerable to storm driven flash floods. In order to limit the damages to the population, there is a need to improve our understanding and the simulation tools for these events. In order to provide information over a whole region, hydrological models applicable at this scale, and able to take into account the spatial variability of rainfall and catchment characteristics, must be proposed. This paper presents such a regional distributed approach applied to the 8-9 September 2002 extreme event which affected the Gard region in the south-east of France. In order to identify the variables and catchment characteristics which require improved knowledge, two distributed hydrological models were set up on a set of catchments, with sizes ranging from 2.5 to 99 km2. The models differ in terms of spatial discretization and process representation. They were forced using radar data with a 1 km2 spatial resolution and 5 min time step. The model parameters were specified using the available information, namely a digital terrain model and a soil data base. The latter provides information about soil texture, soil porosity and soil depths. Soil hydraulic properties were defined using pedo-transfer functions. Data from a post-flood field survey of maximum peak discharge were used to assess the quality of the simulations. A reasonable agreement between modeled and observed values was obtained. Sensitivity studies were then performed to asses the respective impact of rainfall estimation and soil variability on the simulated discharge. The analysis shows that rainfall remains the first controlling factor of flash flood dynamics and that high

  12. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Randall Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  13. Unraveling the Organo-colloidal Control on Trace Element Distribution in Shallow Groundwaters : an Experimental Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, A.; Pedrot, M.; Davranche, M.; Pourret, O.; Petitjean, P.; Henin, O.; Le Coz-Bouhnik, M.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and plays a key role in the geochemistry of major and trace elements - acting as a major carrier and transport phase - through complexation, adsorption, dissolution reactions. It both does interact with mineral phases modifying the exchange rates with solutions and constrain part of pollutant mobilities such as that of trace metals or hydrophobic organic compounds. Not only does association with DOM influences the mobility of metals through the soil/water system, it also regulates their chemical reactivity, bioavailability and toxicity. In order to study DOM-metal interactions and the role of the colloidal pool in such groundwaters, DOM-rich soil/water interactions were performed (at different pH) through columns. This was coupled with ultrafiltration in a range of molecular weight cut-off - 30, 10, 5 and 2kDalton - to distinguish between organically colloidal complexed metals and `free' metals. The Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations, the associated aromaticity were determined in the different fractions as well as the trace metal concentrations by ICP-MS. Ascending hierarchical classification was also performed to evidence DOC-trace element relationship. DOC distribution through time follows the same trend whichever was the pH. Three groups can be distinguished based on aromaticity and DOC data whichever can be the pH conditions. While K, Rb, Mg or Ca appear to behave as `free' ions, Th, U, REE, Fe or Al concentrations are correlated to DOC concentrations, suggesting that the organic colloidal pool dominates the carrying of these latter elements. Further studies dedicated to space- and time-linked variations of the joined colloidal pool and trace element distribution, will be then undertaken in waters recovered from different DOM-rich environments.

  14. Theoretical calculation and experimental study on the load distribution coefficient (LDC) of three-ring gear reducer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, primary manufacturing and assembling errors of three-ring gear reducer (TRGR) are analyzed. TRGR is a new transmission type whose eccentric phase difference between middle ring plate and side ring plates is 120°. Its mass of middle ring plate is equal to that of side ring plate or 180°, and its mass of middle ring plate is twice of that of side ring plate, which affects load distribution between ring plates. The primary manufacturing and assembling errors include eccentric error of eccentric sheath Em, internal gear plate Er and output external gear Eic. A new theoretical method is presented in this paper, which converts load on ring plates into the dedendum bending stress of ring plate to calculate load distribution coefficient ( LDC ), by means of gap elenent method (GEM), one of finite element method (FEM). The theoretical calculation and experimental study, which measures ring plate dedendum bending stress by means of sticking strain gauges on the dedendum of middle ring plate internal gear and side ring plate internal gears, are presented. The theoretical calculation and comparison with experiment result of LDC are implemented on two kinds of three-ring gear reducers whose eccentric phase difference between eccentric sheaths is 120° and 180° respectively. The research indicates that the result of theoretical calculation is consistent with that of experimental study. That is to say, the theoretical calculation method is feasible.

  15. CHEMICAL ACTIVATION OF MOLECULES BY METALS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS AND BONDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LICHTENBERGER, DENNIS L.

    2002-03-26

    This research program is directed at obtaining detailed experimental information on the electronic interactions between metals and organic molecules. These interactions provide low energy pathways for many important chemical and catalytic processes. A major feature of the program is the continued development and application of our special high-resolution valence photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and high-precision X-ray core photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrumentation for study of organometallic molecules in the gas phase. The study involves a systematic approach towards understanding the interactions and activation of bound carbonyls, C-H bonds, methylenes, vinylidenes, acetylides, alkenes, alkynes, carbenes, carbynes, alkylidenes, alkylidynes, and others with various monometal, dimetal, and cluster metal species. Supporting ligands include -aryls, alkoxides, oxides, and phosphines. We are expanding our studies of both early and late transition metal species and electron-rich and electron-poor environments in order to more completely understand the electronic factors that serve to stabilize particular organic fragments and intermediates on metals. Additional new directions for this program are being taken in ultra-high vacuum surface UPS, XPS, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments on both physisorbed and chemisorbed organometallic thin films. The combination of these methods provides additional electronic structure information on surface-molecule and molecule-molecule interactions. A very important general result emerging from this program is the identification of a close relationship between the ionization energies of the species and the thermodynamics of the chemical and catalytic reactions of these systems.

  16. Changes in ocular mast cell numbers and histamine distribution during experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Lang, L S; Orr, E L

    1993-01-01

    Choroidal mast cells have been implicated in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an ocular inflammatory disease induced by S-antigen. Our data confirm that choroidal mast cell numbers decrease with clinical onset of S-antigen-induced EAU in Lewis rats, and establish that the decrease is statistically significant. In addition, we find that the numbers of limbal mast cells also decrease during S-antigen-induced EAU, and that this decrease occurs earlier in the course of the disease than that observed for choroidal mast cells. Activation and degranulation of mast cells, as evidenced by decreases in mast cell number, result in the synthesis and/or release of large quantities of mast cell mediators, such as histamine. Histamine levels in EAU were found to change significantly, decreasing in the anterior portion of the eye and increasing in the choroid and retina, in concert with changes in mast cell number over the course of EAU. Mast cell mediators may actively contribute to the pathogenesis of EAU through direct enhancement of the inflammation, by stimulation of other elements of the immune system, and/or through facilitation of the blood-retinal barrier breakdown that occurs in EAU. Overall, these results add to the evidence for a mast cell role in EAU, and, in addition, show that the mast cell involvement in EAU includes the mast cells of the limbus.

  17. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-12-07

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.

  18. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  19. Experimental hypervelocity impact into quartz sand - Distribution and shock metamorphism of ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeffler, D.; Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J.; Polkowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for vertical impacts of 0.3-g cylindrical plastic projectiles into noncohesive quartz sand in which vertical and horizontal reference strate were employed by using layers of colored sand. The impacts were performed at velocities of 5.9-6.9 km/sec with a vertical gun ballistic range. The craters, 30-33 cm in diameter, reveal a radial decay of the ejecta mass per unit area with a power of -2.8 to -3.5. Material displaced from the upper 15% of the crater depth d is represented within the whole ejecta blanked, material from deeper than 28% of d is deposited inside 2 crater radii, and no material from deeper than 33% of d was ejected beyond the crater rim. Shock-metamorphosed particles (glassy agglutinates, cataclastic breccias, and comminuted quartz) amount to some 4% of the total displaced mass and indicate progressive zones of decay of shock intensity from a peak pressure of 300 kbar. The shock-metamorphosed particles and the shock-induced change in the grain size distribution of ejected samples have close analogies to the basic characteristics of the lunar regolith. Possible applications to regolith formation and to ejecta formations of large-scale impact craters are discussed.

  20. Experimental study of flow field distribution over a generic cranked double delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow fields over a generic cranked double delta wing were investigated. Pressure and velocity distributions were obtained using a Pitot tube and a hot wire anemometer. Two different leading edge shapes, namely “sharp” and “round”, were applied to the wing. The wing had two sweep angles of 55° and 30°. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit wind tunnel at velocity 20 m/s and angles of attack of 5°–20° with the step of 5°. The Reynolds number of the model was about 2 × 105 according to the root chord. A dual vortex structure was formed above the wing surface. A pressure drop occurred at the vortex core and the root mean square of the measured velocity increased at the core of the vortices, reflecting the instability of the flow in that region. The magnitude of power spectral density increased strongly in spanwise direction and had the maximum value at the vortex core. By increasing the angle of attack, the pressure drop increased and the vortices became wider; the vortices moved inboard along the wing, and away from the surface; the flow separation was initiated from the outer portion of the wing and developed to its inner part. The vortices of the wing of the sharp leading edge were stronger than those of the round one.

  1. Experimental distribution of coolant in the IPR-R1 Triga nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Reis, Patricia A.L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.b, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a typical TRIGA Mark I light-water and open pool type reactor. The core has an annular configuration of six rings and is cooled by natural circulation. The core coolant channels extend from the bottom grid plate to the top grid plate. The cooling water flows through the holes in the bottom grid plate, passes through the lower unheated region of the element, flows upwards through the active region, passes through the upper unheated region, and finally leaves the channel through the differential area between a triangular spacer block on the top of the fuel element and a round hole in the grid. Direct measurement of the flow rate in a coolant channel is difficult because of the bulky size and low accuracy of flow meters. The flow rate through the channel may be determined indirectly from the heat balance across the channel using measurements of the water inlet and outlet temperatures. This paper presents the experiments performed in the IPR-R1 reactor to monitoring some thermo-hydraulic parameters in the core coolant channels, such as: the radial and axial temperature profile, temperature, velocity, mass flow rate, mass flux and Reynolds's number. Some results were compared with theoretical predictions, as it was expected the variables follow the power distribution (or neutron flux) in the core. (author)

  2. Using viral e-mails to distribute tobacco control advertisements: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert; Jalleh, Geoffrey

    2011-08-01

    The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements ("Toilet" and "Rubbish") emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web page playing Toilet or Rubbish on endless loop. Viewers were encouraged to forward the e-mail to their friends and invited to complete an online survey about the advertisement. Unique downloads for each advertisement were identified by internet provider (IP) location and tallied by date and geographical location to assess subsequent dissemination beyond the initial 200 students. There were 826 unique viewings of the advertisements averaging 26.9 viewings per day for the first fortnight, followed by a lower average of 4.1 hits per day for the next 3.5 months. IP addresses identified hits from 3 other Australian states and 7 other countries. Online surveys were completed by 103 respondents (12.5% of total hits) but included few smokers (n = 9). Significantly more respondents rated Toilet as "funny" compared with Rubbish (40% vs. 11%; p viral e-mails being forwarded onwards but only exceptionally compelling tobacco control materials are ever likely to become self-perpetuating.

  3. An Experimental Approach Using Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) to Investigate the Kinetics of Vesiculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholis, M. G.; Kilinc, A. I.

    2001-05-01

    The exsolution of volatiles in magma initiates the formation of gas bubbles as a result of the development of a state of supersaturation from either magma ascending in the conduit, decrease in temperature, or the crystallization of anhydrous solid phases. In this analysis bubble-free rhyolitic glasses were isothermally decompressed in a series of controlled nucleation experiments to investigate the kinetics of bubble nucleation and growth. A two-fold approach was used to synthetically saturate the high silica melt. The first method is based on using blocks of solid obsidian placed in gold capsules with > 10 wt.% H2O and saturated for 72 hours. The second technique uses powdered obsidian that was saturated with H2O at a given pressure and temperature for 48 hours, quenched, reground, and then repeated one more time. The use of powdered obsidian in the second method evenly saturates the melt by minimizing the volume to surface area ratio, hence the diffusion distance. In all experiments glass charges were saturated with H2O at 100 MPa and 850\\deg C, and than isothermally decompressed at a rate of approximately 0.26 MPa/sec to a final confining pressure of 30, 50, and 70 MPa. Samples were held at the final pressure for a period ranging from 5 to 300 seconds (residence time) to allow for nucleation to take place. Bubble-bearing glass charges were cut, polished, imaged under SEM and Nikon petrographic microscopes, and digitally analyzed with "Scion Image". All glass charges produced by the block method contained either no bubbles or only a few bubbles. The only indication of bubble nucleation was limited in a zone on the outer periphery of the glass charges. This leads us to believe that in the block method the time given for hydration was insufficient for homogeneous saturation of the melt. We directed our attention to the bubble-bearing glasses generated by the powder experiments. Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) was used to determine the kinetic behavior of bubbles

  4. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Temperature Distribution of Self-Lubricating Packing Rings in Reciprocating Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonuniform abrasion failure and high-temperature thermal failure of packing rings have a significant influence on compressor reliability, particularly that of oil-free compressors. In this study, a test rig was constructed to measure the dynamic temperature of packing rings under different operational conditions in an oil-free reciprocating compressor. The dynamic axial and radial temperature distributions of the packing rings were obtained using an innovative internal temperature testing device that kept the thermocouples and packing box relatively static during compressor operation. A three-dimensional heat transfer model was also developed to analyze the temperature distribution of the packing boxes, piston rod, and cylinder during such operation. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data, which showed an average relative error of less than 2.35%. The results indicate that the pressure ratio exerts a significant effect on the axial temperature distribution and determines which packing ring reaches the maximum temperature. They also show the average temperature to rise with an increase in the rotational speed and to fall with an improvement in the external cooling conditions. Finally, the material of the packing rings was found to affect the temperature gradient from their inner to outer surface.

  5. An experimental study on refrigerant distribution in a two row/four pass parallel flow minichannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ho-Won; Kim, Nae-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    R-410A distribution was experimentally studied for a parallel flow evaporator having two row/four pass configuration. The evaporator has inlet, intermediate and row-crossing headers. Tests were conducted for the mass flux from 70 to 130 kg/m2s with the quality at the inlet of 0.2 and exit superheat 5 °C. Significant heat transfer degradation (13-40 %) was realized for the two row/four pass configuration due to flow mal-distribution. Of the three insert hole sizes, 4.0 mm hole yielded the least heat transfer degradation followed by 6.0 and 2.0 mm holes. At the inlet header, more liquid flowed into upstream channels. At the intermediate headers, more liquid was supplied into downstream channels. Similar flow distribution was obtained before and after the row crossing header. Header pressure drops were obtained by subtracting the flat tube pressure drops and other minor pressure drops from measured pressure drops.

  6. Development and Experimental Testing of a FEM Model for the Stress Distribution Analysis in Agricultural Soil due to Artificial Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Ştefan Biriş

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the compaction phenomenon of agricultural soil can be defined as an increase in its dry density, respectively as in reduction of its porosity, and it can result from any natural causes as: rainfall impact, soaking, internal water stress from soil, and other. An important role has the artificial compaction, which is generated by the contact with tyres or caterpillars of tractors and agricultural machines. In present, one of the most advanced methods for modelling the phenomenon of stresses propagation in agricultural soil is the Finite Element Method (FEM, which is a numerical method for obtaining approximate solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations of this distribution. In this paper, the soil has been idealised as an elastic-plastic material by Drucker- Prager yield criteria. This paper presents a model for prediction of the stress state in agricultural soil below agricultural tyres in the driving direction and perpendicular to the driving direction, which are different from one another, using the Finite Element Method. General model of analysis was created using FEM, which allows the analysis of equivalent stress distribution and the total displacements distribution in the soil volume, making evident both of the conditions in which the soil compaction is favour and of the study of graphic variation of equivalent stress and the study of shifting in the depth of the soil volume. Using an acquisition data system and pressure sensors, the theoretical model was experimentally checked in the laboratory.

  7. Characterizing and distinguishing free and jammed traffic flows from the distribution and correlation of experimental speed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Kikuchi, Macoto; Nakayama, Akihiro; Shibata, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    From a physics point of view, the emergence of a traffic jam is considered to be a dynamical phase transition. To verify this, we performed a series of circuit experiments. In previous work, Tadaki et al (2013 New J. Phys 15 103034), we confirmed the occurrence of this phase transition and estimated the critical density between free and jammed flows by analyzing the fundamental diagram. In this paper, we characterize and distinguish free and jammed flows, beyond the analyses of fundamental diagrams, according to the distribution and correlation of experimental speed data. We find that the speed in free flow does not correlate and its distribution has a narrow single peak at the average. The distribution of speed in jammed flow has two peaks or a single broad peak. The two peaks indicate the car speeds inside and outside of jam clusters. The broad single peak appears as a result of the appearance and disappearance of jam clusters. We also find that the formation of jam clusters induces a long correlation in speed. We can identify the size of jam clusters and the relative distance between coexisting jam clusters from this speed correlation.

  8. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, P; Cimmino, P; Girone, M; La Commara, G; Maisto, D; Manna, C; Pezzetti, M

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy.

  9. Distribution pattern of versican, link protein and hyaluronic acid in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K; Yamauchi, M

    2002-02-01

    The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to rapidly remodel is the basis of orthodontic tooth movement. During the tooth movement, matrix proteoglycans (PGs) may play important roles in spatial, mechanical and biological aspects for the maintenance and repair of the PDL. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of a large hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding proteoglycan, versican, link protein (LP) and HA in the rat molar PDL during experimental tooth movement by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Experimental tooth movement was performed according to Waldo's method. Histologically, regressive changes, such as decrease of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and exudative change of edema were observed in the compressive side and progressive changes, such as proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, in the strain side one day after treatment. By 3 days after tooth movement, regressive or progressive changes were not observed in either side. Using monoclonal antibodies specific to versican core protein or LP, the positive immunoreactivity for both molecules was constantly observed throughout the PDL. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, however, the immunostainings of versican and LP became significantly intense only in the compressive side but decreased in the strain side. The intensity in the compressive side was strongest one day after the force was applied and gradually diminished thereafter. HA of both sides did not change during experimental tooth movement. Since HA is present in the PDL, large amounts of versican and LP expressed in the compressive side may create large hydrated aggregates via their association with HA that dissipates the compressive force applied to this tissue.

  10. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  11. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Toiviainen, Maunu; De Leersnyder, Fien; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2016-07-30

    of kneading discs was found to be critical for achieving a uniform distribution of the granulation liquid, the granulation performance was hampered due to insufficient solid-liquid mixing capacity of the current kneading discs which is essential for wet granulation. Thus, a balance between material throughput and screw speed should be strived for in order to achieve a specific granulation time and solid-liquid mixing for high granulation yield. Additionally, more efforts are needed both in modification of the screw configuration as well as the geometry of the mixing elements to improve the mixing capacity of the twin-screw granulator. The results from the current experimental study improved the understanding regarding the interplay between granulation time and the axial and solid-liquid mixing responsible for the granulation performance in twin-screw wet granulation.

  12. Experimental Investigation of a High-Speed Hydrofoil with Parabolic Thickness Distribution and an Aspect Ratio of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kenneth W.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the hydro-dynamic characteristics of a 10-percent-thick hydrofoil with an aspect ratio of 3 designed to operate with acceptable efficiency at speeds in the neighborhood of 100 knots (169 fps). A cambered hydrofoil model with parabolic thickness distribution was investigated at a depth of chord over a range of angles of attack from -0.5 deg to 4.0 deg and at speeds from 120 to 210 fps. substantially wider range of operation at acceptable lift-drag ratios as well as higher maximum lift-drag-ratio values than did a hydrofoil of similar design with an aspect ratio of 1.

  13. Reconstruction of the sound velocity and absorption spatial distributions in soft biological tissue phantoms from experimental ultrasound tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. A.; Zotov, D. I.; Rumyantseva, O. D.

    2015-03-01

    The paper is devoted to implementing in a specific tomographic device a two-step algorithm designed to reconstruct the spatial distributions of the sound velocity and absorption coefficient, primarily in soft biological tissues. To generate the input data of the first and second steps, a correlation algorithm is used based on determination of the time shift in the signal propagation time in the presence of an object. The results of reconstruction are presented, which are based on data measured for objects-phantoms using a developed experimental ultrasound tomograph model. We discuss problems that arise during reconstruction with a low resolution at the first step of the algorithm, and we demonstrate the high spatial resolving power achieved at the second step.

  14. Experimental and model investigation of the time-dependent 2-dimensional distribution of binding in a herringbone microchannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jennifer O; Mashadi-Hossein, Afshin; Fu, Elain; Finlayson, Bruce A; Yager, Paul

    2008-04-01

    A microfluidic device known to mix bulk solutions, the herringbone microchannel, was incorporated into a surface-binding assay to determine if the recirculation of solution altered the binding of a model protein (streptavidin) to the surface. Streptavidin solutions were pumped over surfaces functionalized with its ligand, biotin, and the binding of streptavidin to those surfaces was monitored using surface plasmon resonance imaging. Surface binding was compared between a straight microchannel and herringbone microchannels in which the chevrons were oriented with and against the flow direction. A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the surface binding reaction was developed for each of the geometries and showed strong qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Experimental and model results indicated that the forward and reverse herringbone microchannels substantially altered the distribution of protein binding (2-dimensional binding profile) as a function of time when compared to a straight microchannel. Over short distances (less than 1.5 mm) down the length of the microchannel, the model predicted no additional protein binding in the herringbone microchannel compared to the straight microchannel, consistent with previous findings in the literature.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigations on temperature distribution at the joint interface for copper joints using ultrasonic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Sooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state joining process that produces joints by the application of high frequency vibratory energy in the work pieces held together under pressure without melting. Copper and its alloys are extensively used in electrical and electronic industry because of its excellent electrical and thermal properties. This paper mainly focused on temperature distribution and the influence of process parameters at the joint interface while joining copper sheets using ultrasonic welding process. Experiments are carried out using Cu sheets (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness and the interface temperature is measured using Data Acquisition (DAQ System (thermocouple and thermal imager. Numerical and finite element based model for temperature distribution at the interface are developed and solved the same using Finite Difference Method (FDM and Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The results obtained from FDM and FEA model shows similar trend with experimental results and are found to be in good agreement.

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Temperature Distribution in a Dry Type Air Core Smoothing Reactor of HVDC Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor ultra-high voltage (UHV dry-type air-core smoothing reactors (DASR of High Voltage Direct Current systems are equipped with a rain cover and an acoustic enclosure. To study the convective heat transfer between the DASR and the surrounding air, this paper presents a coupled model of the temperature and fluid field based on the structural features and cooling manner. The resistive losses of encapsulations calculated by finite element method (FEM were used as heat sources in the thermal analysis. The steady fluid and thermal field of the 3-D reactor model were solved by the finite volume method (FVM, and the temperature distribution characteristics of the reactor were obtained. Subsequently, the axial and radial temperature distributions of encapsulation were investigated separately. Finally, an optical fiber temperature measurement scheme was used for an UHV DASR under natural convection conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which verifies the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation. These results can serve as a reference for the optimal design and maintenance of UHV DASRs.

  17. Reconciliation between experimental and Monte Carlo-based simulation of the pore size distribution in mesoporous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadvani, Jalil Khajepour; Falamaki, Cavus

    2008-07-23

    It is demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous PS structures obtained by the electrochemical etching of p(+)(100) oriented silicon wafers might assume the peculiarity of invariance of the first peak positions in their pore size distribution curves, albeit for current densities far from the electropolishing region and at constant electrolyte composition. A new Monte Carlo-based simulation model is presented that predicts reasonably the pore size distribution of the PS layers and the observed invariance of peak position with respect to changes in current density. The main highlight of the new model is the introduction of a 'light avalanche breakdown' process in a mathematical fashion. The model is also able to predict an absolute value of 4.23 Å for the smallest pore created experimentally. It is discussed that the latter value has an exact physical meaning: it corresponds with great accuracy to the width of a void created on the surface due to the exclusion of one Si atom.

  18. Reconciliation between experimental and Monte Carlo-based simulation of the pore size distribution in mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadvani, Jalil Khajepour [Ceramics Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, PO Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Falamaki, Cavus [Chemical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-23

    It is demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous PS structures obtained by the electrochemical etching of p{sup +}(100) oriented silicon wafers might assume the peculiarity of invariance of the first peak positions in their pore size distribution curves, albeit for current densities far from the electropolishing region and at constant electrolyte composition. A new Monte Carlo-based simulation model is presented that predicts reasonably the pore size distribution of the PS layers and the observed invariance of peak position with respect to changes in current density. The main highlight of the new model is the introduction of a 'light avalanche breakdown' process in a mathematical fashion. The model is also able to predict an absolute value of 4.23 A for the smallest pore created experimentally. It is discussed that the latter value has an exact physical meaning: it corresponds with great accuracy to the width of a void created on the surface due to the exclusion of one Si atom.

  19. Distribution of sac pressure in an experimental aneurysm model after endovascular repair: the effect of endoleak types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, Eleftherios S; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Pacanowski, John P; Cassada, David C; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2003-06-01

    To study in an experimental aneurysm model the differential distribution of strain/pressure (S/P) on the aneurysm wall before and after endograft exclusion and in the presence of individual type I and type II endoleaks. Two tapered elliptical Gore-Tex patches were sutured to an anterior and posterior longitudinal arteriotomy of an 8-mm Gore-Tex tube graft, thus creating a fusiform aneurysm. Two S/P transducers were placed at the proximal sac adjacent to the proximal neck, 2 at the site of the widest sac diameter, and 2 at the sac adjacent to the distal neck. The aneurysm, which was connected to a pulsatile pump system, was excluded using a 10-mm endograft. Type I and type II endoleaks were created and tested individually. S/P measurements were obtained at systemic systolic pressures (BP) of 80, 110, and 150 mmHg. Thrombosis of the sac contents was induced by injection of thrombin and calcium in the sac. Angiography was used to verify presence or absence of flow in the sac. Aneurysm exclusion resulted in significant S/P reductions at all 3 BP levels versus prior to exclusion (p0.05 for all 3 BP levels). In the presence of a proximal type I endoleak, S/P distribution was not uniform, and S/P at the proximal neck was close to S/P prior to exclusion (p>0.05 no graft versus type I endoleak for all 3 BP levels). This was also true in the presence of thrombus. With a type II endoleak, S/P was more evenly distributed and was not significantly elevated compared to the pressure without an endoleak (p>0.05, graft versus type II endoleak for all 3 BP levels). Thrombus had no effect on intrasac S/P with a type II endoleak. Intrasac S/P was significantly higher in the presence of a type I endoleak compared to a type II endoleak when BP=150 mmHg (p=0.008). Endovascular exclusion of an aneurysm results in uniform S/P reduction in the aneurysm sac. Type I endoleak, but not type II endoleak, results in significantly higher S/P in an area of the sac adjacent to the proximal neck

  20. Influence of hydraulic regimes on bacterial community structure and composition in an experimental drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R L; Boxall, J B

    2013-02-01

    Microbial biofilms formed on the inner-pipe surfaces of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) can alter drinking water quality, particularly if they are mechanically detached from the pipe wall to the bulk water, such as due to changes in hydraulic conditions. Results are presented here from applying 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene to investigate the influence of different hydrological regimes on bacterial community structure and to study the potential mobilisation of material from the pipe walls to the network using a full scale, temperature-controlled experimental pipeline facility accurately representative of live DWDS. Analysis of pyrosequencing and water physico-chemical data showed that habitat type (water vs. biofilm) and hydraulic conditions influenced bacterial community structure and composition in our experimental DWDS. Bacterial community composition clearly differed between biofilms and bulk water samples. Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in biofilms while Alphaproteobacteria was predominant in bulk water samples. This suggests that bacteria inhabiting biofilms, predominantly species belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Zooglea and Janthinobacterium, have an enhanced ability to express extracellular polymeric substances to adhere to surfaces and to favour co-aggregation between cells than those found in the bulk water. Highest species richness and diversity were detected in 28 days old biofilms with this being accentuated at highly varied flow conditions. Flushing altered the pipe-wall bacterial community structure but did not completely remove bacteria from the pipe walls, particularly under highly varied flow conditions, suggesting that under these conditions more compact biofilms were generated. This research brings new knowledge regarding the influence of different hydraulic regimes on the composition and structure of bacterial communities within DWDS and the implication that this

  1. An experimental study of wave propagation and velocity distributions in a vertically driven time-dependent granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, John Anthony

    Averaged over appropriate space and time scales the dynamics of highly fluidized granular systems are often reminiscent of molecular fluid flows. As a result, theoretical efforts to describe these systems have borrowed heavily from continuum mechanics, particularly hydrodynamics. This has led to various proposed granular hydrodynamic theories which have been used to simulate granular materials in various states of confinement and excitation. These studies suggest that a continuum model for granular gasses can accurately reproduce the mean density, velocity and temperature profiles for an experimental granular gas. This thesis contributes to this body of work by presenting an experimental study of the hydrodynamic fields and velocity distributions within a vertically driven quasi-2D granular gas. We have taken pictures as fast as possible of a time-dependent granular gas using a high-speed CCD camera. We have extracted the positions and velocities of 57-564 particles per frame over 400 GB of raw images collected at 3700 fps. We used this data to compute the density, velocity and temperature fields as functions of time and space to a very high resolution. This approach led to the discovery of novel substructures within the hydrodynamic fields which would have been overlooked had we chosen to average over a drive cycle as earlier studies have done. In particular, the high spatial resolution available from our measurements reveals a serrated substructure in the shock waves which has not been reported before. This substructure is the result of collisional momentum transport . One of the current issues in formulating a granular continuum model is how to incorporate local and non-local dependencies between stress and strain correctly. In this thesis we demonstrate that the collisional transfer of momentum produces a non-local effect in the stress tensor which plays a major role in determining the mean flow. Current models have incorporated only the collisional or

  2. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process.

  3. Space and Time Distribution of Pu Isotopes inside The First Experimental Fuel Pin Designed for PWR and Manufactured in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwardi; Setiawan, J.; Susilo, J.

    2017-01-01

    The first short fuel pin containing natural UO2 pellet in Zry4 cladding has been prepared and planned to be tested in power ramp irradiation. An irradiation test should be designed to allow an experiment can be performed safely and giving maximum results of many performance aspects of design and manufacturing. Performance analysis to the fuel specimen shows that the specimen is not match to be used for power ramp testing. Enlargement by 0.20 mm of pellet diameter has been proposed. The present work is evaluation of modified design for important aspect of isotopic Pu distribution during irradiation test, because generated Pu isotopes in natural UO2 fuel, contribute more power relative to the contribution by enriched UO2 fuel. The axial profile of neutrons flux have been chosen from both experimental measurement and model calculation. The parameters of ramp power has been obtained from statistical experiment data. A simplified and typical base-load commercial PHWR profile of LHR history has been chosen, to determine the minimum irradiation time before ramp test can be performed. The data design and Mat pro XI materials properties models have been chosen. The axial profile of neutrons flux has been accommodated by 5 slices of discrete pin. The Pu distribution of slice-4 with highest power rate has been chosen to be evaluated. The radial discretion of pellet and cladding and numerical parameter have been used the default best practice of TU. The results shows that Pu 239 increased rapidly. The maximum burn up of slice 4 at upper the median slice, it reached nearly 90% of maximum value at about 6000 h with peak of 0.8%a Pu/HM at 22000 h, which is higher than initial U 235. Each 240, 241 and 240 Pu grows slower and ends up to 0.4, 0.2 and 0.18 % respectively. This results can be used for verification of other aspect of fuel behavior in the modeling results and also can be used as guide and comparison to the future post irradiation examination for Pu isotopes distribution.

  4. Magnetic field distribution in the presence of paramagnetic plates in magnetic resonance imaging: a combined numerical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Philipp; Machann, Juergen; Mueller-Bierl, Bernd; Steidle, Guenter; Bellemann, Matthias E; Schick, Fritz

    2008-05-01

    The amount and geometric distribution of paramagnetic components in tissue is considered as the basis of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Such techniques are routinely applied for assessment of iron in parenchymal organs such as the liver (hemosiderosis). Furthermore, susceptibility sensitive MRI is discussed as an alternative method to x-ray techniques for quantitative assessment of paramagnetic spongy bone components in patients with osteoporosis. The presented work is dedicated to systematically examining the possible influences of macroscopic arrangements of paramagnetic plates on the magnetic field. In a theoretical approach magnetic field distribution was simulated applying decomposition of the plates in single dipoles. Plate size and distances between parallel plates, as well as plate orientation with respect to the static field, were varied for these numerical simulations. Experiments on corresponding plate arrangements were carried out on a 3 T whole body MR scanner using the field-sensitive MR sequence technique for B0 field mapping. Further examinations were carried out on a bone preparation of the femur, where T2* maps were measured and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis at two orientations with respect to the static field. A series of experiments were performed using isotropic and anisotropic volume elements in three-dimensional gradient echo sequences. Resulting magnetic field distributions in the experimentally recorded B0 field maps were in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Field distortions dominated in areas close to the plates and especially near the edges. Those areas showed strong local field gradients, leading to pronounced signal dephasing effects. The examination of the bone preparations revealed different T2* values for identical regions in the bone when the orientation of the bone or the pixel geometry was changed with respect to the magnetic field. Those effects amounted to nearly 70% (22.9 ms versus 13.6 ms in

  5. Engineering of electric field distribution in GaN(cap)/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Janicki, L.; Misiewicz, J.; Sobanska, M.; Klosek, K.; Zytkiewicz, Z. R.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization engineering of GaN-based heterostructures opens a way to develop advanced transistor heterostructures, although measurement of the electric field in such heterostructures is not a simple task. In this work, contactless electroreflectance (CER) spectroscopy has been applied to measure the electric field in GaN-based heterostructures. For a set of GaN(d  =  0, 5, 15, and 30 nm)/AlGaN(20 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of electric field in the GaN(cap) layer from 0.66 MV cm-1 to 0.27 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 have been observed with the increase in the GaN(cap) thickness from 5-30 nm. For a set of GaN(20 nm)/AlGaN(d  =  10, 20, 30, and 40 nm)/GaN(buffer) heterostructures a decrease of the electric field in the AlGaN layer from 1.77 MV cm-1 to 0.64 MV cm-1 and an increase of the electric field in the GaN layer from 0.57 MV cm-1 to 0.99 MV cm-1 were observed with the increase in the AlGaN thickness from 10-40 nm. To determine the distribution of the electric field in these heterostructures the Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved in a self-consistent manner and matched with experimental data. It is shown that the built-in electric field in the GaN(cap) and AlGaN layers obtained from measurements does not reach values of electric field resulting only from polarization effects. The measured electric fields are smaller due to a screening of polarization effects by free carriers, which are inhomogeneously distributed across the heterostructure and accumulate at interfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that CER measurements supported by theoretical calculations are able to determine the electric field distribution in GaN-based heterostructures quantitatively, which is very important for polarization engineering in this material system.

  6. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-02-21

    No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus) and varans (Varanus exanthematicus) have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average), medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average) cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%), sternomastoid (18%) and hind limb muscles (13%). In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%), longissimus complex (27%), forelimb muscles (20%) and hind limb muscles (10%). Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p crocodiles. Results from this study show that, in Nile crocodiles, larvae of T. zimbabwensis appear first to invade predilection muscles closest to their release site in the small intestine before occupying those muscles situated further away. The recommendation for the use of masseter, pterygoid and intercostal muscles as sampling sites for the detection of T. zimbabwensis

  7. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  8. The Search for Significance: A Few Peculiarities in the Distribution of P Values in Experimental Psychology Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Michał

    2015-01-01

    In this project I investigate the use and possible misuse of p values in papers published in five (high-ranked) journals in experimental psychology. I use a data set of over 135'000 p values from more than five thousand papers. I inspect (1) the way in which the p values are reported and (2) their distribution. The main findings are following: first, it appears that some authors choose the mode of reporting their results in an arbitrary way. Moreover, they often end up doing it in such a way that makes their findings seem more statistically significant than they really are (which is well known to improve the chances for publication). Specifically, they frequently report p values "just above" significance thresholds directly, whereas other values are reported by means of inequalities (e.g. "pstatistics (e.g. F or t) and it appears that there are "too many" "just significant" values. One interpretation of this is that researchers tend to choose the model or include/discard observations to bring the p value to the right side of the threshold.

  9. Experimental study of track density distribution on LR115 detector and deposition fraction of sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po in diffusion chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, V S Y; Ho, J P Y; Nikezic, D; Yu, K N

    2002-01-01

    The radial distribution of track density on a solid-state nuclear track detector inside a diffusion chamber is a function of the fraction f of sup 2 sup 1 sup 8 Po decay before deposition. In the present work, procedures are proposed to determine f experimentally by determining the track density distribution on an LR115 detector in a diffusion chamber. First, a relatively tall diffusion chamber, with a height of 8 cm, was chosen. After exposure, the LR115 detector was etched. A transparent template with concentric circles was devised to study the radial distribution of sensitivity using an optical microscope. The distributions according to different values of f were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. By minimizing the deviations between these Monte Carlo curves and the experimental data, f was found to be 0.4.

  10. Experimental study on the ejecta-velocity distributions caused by low-velocity impacts on quartz sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujido, S.; Arakawa, M.; Suzuki, A. I.; Yasui, M.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Regolith formation on asteroids is caused by successive impacts of small bodies. The ejecta velocity distribution during the crater formation process is one of the most important physical properties related to the surface-evolution process, and the distribution is also necessary to reconstruct the planetary-accretion process among planetesimals. The surface of small bodies, such as asteroids and planetesimals in the solar system, could have varying porosity, strength, and density, and the impact velocity could vary across a wide range from a few tens of m/s to several km/s. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct impact experiments by changing the physical properties of the target and the projectile in a wide velocity range in order to constrain the crater-formation process applicable to the small bodies in the solar system. Housen and Holsapple (2011) compiled the data of ejecta velocity distribution with various impact velocities, porosities, grain sizes, grain shapes, and strengths of the targets, and they improved their ejecta scaling law. But the ejecta velocity data is not enough for varying projectile densities and for impact velocities less than 1 km/s. In this study, to investigate the projectile density dependence of the ejecta velocity distribution at a low velocity region, we conducted impact experiments with projectile densities from 1.1 to 11.3 g/cm^3. Then, we try to determine the effect of projectile density on the ejecta velocity distribution by means of the observation of each individual ejecta grain. Experimental methods: We made impact cratering experiments by using a vertical-type one-stage light-gas gun (V-LGG) set at Kobe University. Targets were quartz sand (irregular shape) and glass beads (spherical shape) with the grain size of 500 μ m (porosity 44.7 %). The target container with the size of 30 cm was set in a large vacuum chamber with air pressure less than 10^3 Pa. The projectile materials that we used were lead, copper

  11. Experimental Measurements of Drop Size Distributions in 30 mm Diameter Annular Centrifugal Contactor with 30% TBP-Nitric Acid Biphasic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For design and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems, it is essential to have an accurate estimation of hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of the employed contactor. In the present study, experimental evaluations consisted primarily of determining the maximum solution throughput that could be processed without cross-phase contamination at a given rotor speed, O/A flow ratio, and organic-aqueous solution pair in a 30 mm bowl diameter centrifugal contactor. In addition, analysis included experimental drop size determinations as well as holdup determination. The experimental drop size distributions are expected to be helpful for modeling work.

  12. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis: Experimental evidence for the ideal free distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj K Veeranagoudar; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2004-06-01

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to assess the profitability of food habitats and distribute themselves accordingly was tested experimentally using a rectangular choice tank with a non-continuous input design. Food (boiled spinach) was placed at two opposite ends of the choice tank in a desired ratio (1 : 1, 1 : 2 or 1 : 4) to create habitat A and B. The tadpoles in Gosner stage 28–33, pre-starved for 24 h, were introduced in an open ended mesh cylinder placed in the center of the choice tank, held for 4 min (for acclimation) and then released to allow free movement and habitat selection. The number of tadpoles foraging at each habitat was recorded at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min time intervals. The actual suitability, (the food available in a habitat after colonization of tadpoles) of each habitat was obtained from the equation = - () where is basic suitability (amount of food provided at each habitat before release of tadpoles), is the rate of depletion of food (lowering effect) with introduction of each tadpole, and is the density of tadpoles in habitat . The expected number of tadpoles at each habitat was derived from the actual suitability. With no food in the choice tank, movement of the tadpoles in the test arena was random indicating no bias towards any end of the choice tank or the procedure. In tests with a 1 : 1 food ratio, the observed ratio of tadpoles (11.71 : 12.28) was comparable with the expected 12 : 12 ratio. The observed number of tadpoles in the habitats with a 1 : 2 food ratio was 8.71 : 15.29 and 7.87 : 16.13 for pure and mixed parental lines respectively. In both cases, the observed ratios were close to the expected values (7 : 17). Likewise, in experiments with a 1 : 4 food ratio, the observed number of tadpoles in the two habitats (10.78 : 37.22) did not differ significantly from the expected ratio of 7 : 41. In all tests, the number of R. temporalis tadpoles matched ideally with

  13. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius;

    2005-01-01

    The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process...... on the patterned wafer, and layer thickness measurements by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The simulations are based on a potential model approach taking into account electrolyte ohmic drop and electrode polarization effects, combined to a boundary element method (BEM......) approach to compute the current density distribution over the electrodes. Experimental and computed layer thickness distributions are in very good agreement....

  14. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  15. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin; Ondracková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, Carl; Bryja, Josef

    2009-02-01

    The spatial distribution of breeding resources can have pronounced demographic and evolutionary consequences. We used 20 experimental groups of the bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), an annual fish with a promiscuous, resource-based mating system, and extended breeding season to investigate how the spatial distribution (clumped or regular) of bitterling oviposition sites (live freshwater mussels) affected offspring production, variation in reproductive success, and directional selection on phenotypic traits over their entire reproductive lifetime. We did not detect any effect of resource distribution on offspring production or variation in reproductive success among individual fish, although variation between replicates was higher with a clumped distribution. This finding is discussed with regard to the incidence of alternative mating behaviors (sneaking) within the limitations imposed by our experimental design. Breeding resource distribution had a significant effect on selection on male phenotypic traits. Stronger directional selection on traits associated with intrasexual competition for fertilizations, gonad mass (an indicator of sperm competition), and the extent of red, carotenoid-based pigment in the iris (an index of dominance status), was detected with a clumped resource distribution. With a regular resource distribution, a stronger positive selection on male body size was detected. We discuss the implications of our results for natural populations.

  16. Automatic calibration of an erosion and sediment yield distributed conceptual model: application to the Goodwin Creek experimental river basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussi, G.; Francés, F.

    2010-05-01

    In the last decades, distributed hydrological models have achieved a fundamental importance in Hydrology, mainly for their capacity to describe the spatial variability of the basin processes. TETIS is a distributed conceptual model created to simulate rainfall-runoff processes. In the same way, a distributed approach to erosion and sediment yield modelling can lead to improvements for the solution of several sedimentological and geomorphological problems, such as sediment redistribution, localization of heavy erosion and soil loss zones, estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield and assessment of land use change effects on the sediment cycle. Following these considerations, the TETIS model has been coupled with a sediment cycle module with the purpose of representing erosion and sediment transport at basin scale. TETIS-SED is the result of integrating the erosion submodel of CASC2D-SED into the hydrological model TETIS. In the TETIS-SED model, the erosion/sedimentation rates are calculated as a function of the hydraulic properties of the flow, the physical properties of the soil and the surface characteristics. The modified Kilinc-Richardson equation is used to determine the upland sediment transport by grain size (silt, clay, and sand) from one cell into the next one. Sediment by size fraction is routed in the channels and the Engelund and Hansen equation is used to compute the transport capacity in one dimension. This formulation in both cases depends on hydraulic parameters (hydraulic radius, flow velocity and friction slope) and particle characteristics (specific gravity and particle diameter). Due to the uncertainty affecting the sediment parameters, the calibration stage may be a key issue in erosion and sediment yield modelling. In the TETIS model, automatic calibration is carried out by adjusting up to 9 hydrological correction factors with an automatic calibration algorithm, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA). In this work, 3 sedimentological

  17. Comparison of predicted and experimental real-gas pressure distributions on space shuttle orbiter nose for shuttle entry air data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of inviscid real-gas effects on the pressure distribution along the Space Shuttle Orbiter nose center line up to an angle of attack of 32 deg was performed in support of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). Free-stream velocities from 4.8 to 6.6 kn/s were generated at hypersonic conditions with helium, air, and CO2, resulting in normal-shock density ratios from 3.7 to 18.4. The experimental results for pressure distribution agreed closely with numerical results. Modified Newtonian theory deviates from both experiment and the numerical results as angle of attack increases or shock density ratio decreases. An evaluation of the use of modified Newtonian theory for predicting SEADS pressure distributions in actual flight conditions was made through comparison with numerical predictions.

  18. Determination of the experimental setup suitable for the evaluation of two-dimensional distributions of doses using the Map check; Determinacion del montaje experimental idoneo para la evaluacion de distribuciones bidimensionales de dosis empleando el Mapcheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinillach Ferrando, N.; Tortosa Oliver, R. A.; Lorente Franco, L.; Morales Marco, J. C.; Solar Catalan, P.; Andreu Martinez, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    During the process of commissioned and implementation of IMRT module we ask which would be the experimental set-up for the evaluation of the two-dimensional dose distributions using an array of detectors, taking into account the different possibilities offered by the materials available in the service, which allow as to provide three different configurations. The objective of the study is to determine which of the three offered us better results for checks of the two-dimensional distributions of dose in IMRT treatments, taking into account the workload involved in each method. (Author)

  19. Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)

  20. 基于试验损失的指数型产品Bayes可靠性试验设计%Bayes reliability experimental design for exponential distributed product based on experimental loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文哲; 刘琦

    2012-01-01

    The reliability demonstration experimental design for exponential distributed products was made based on Bayes theory. Considering the loss caused by the producer's risk and consumer's risk, and reliability experimental cost, the reliability experimental design model based on experimental loss (REDMEL) was constructed for the reliability experimental design of exponential distributed products. For given failure numbers, the least experimental time calculation method was presented, under the principle of minimizing the posterior expected loss, according to the 0-1 loss function. Considering average risk criteria, the formulas of the producer's risk and consumer's risk were deduced. At last, an example was given to show the validity of the method.%依据Bayes理论,对可靠性参数服从指数分布的装备产品进行了统计验证试验设计.综合考虑弃真和采伪的风险损失以及可靠性试验成本,建立了基于试验损失的可靠性验证试验设计模型.对于给定的失效数,运用0-1损失函数,按照验后期望损失最小的原则,给出了最短试验截止时间的计算方法.根据平均风险准则,推导出了弃真和采伪两类风险的计算公式.最后通过算例验证了方法的有效性.

  1. Theoretical and experimental studies of electric field distribution in N-polar GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, M., E-mail: marta.gladysiewicz@pwr.edu.pl; Janicki, L.; Kudrawiec, R. [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Siekacz, M.; Cywinski, G. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Skierbiszewski, C. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); TopGaN Sp. z o.o., Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-28

    Electric field distribution in N-polar GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures was studied theoretically by solving Schrodinger and Poisson equations in a self-consistent manner for various boundary conditions and comparing results of these calculations with experimental data, i.e., measurements of electric field in GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers by electromodulation spectroscopy. A very good agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data has been found for the Fermi-level located at ∼0.3 eV below the conduction band at N-polar GaN surface. With this surface boundary condition, the electric field distribution and two dimensional electron gas concentration are determined for GaN(channel)/AlGaN/GaN(buffer) heterostructures of various thicknesses of GaN(channel) and AlGaN layers.

  2. Numerical and experimental study of the distribution of charged species in a flat stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, an existing ion reaction mechanism is used to compute the distribution of charged species in a at stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame stabilized on top of a McKenna burner. The ion reaction rates and charged species thermodynamic data are updated according to the most recent data. A modified version of the detailed ARAMCO 1.3 reaction mechanism is used to describe the chemistry of neutral species. Because of the important role of CH in the chemi-ionization process, its prediction is improved based on the available measured data. The ability of the ion reaction mechanism to predict the distribution of positive ions is assessed by comparing to the experimental measurements performed in our group. The calculated results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental data, even though there exist quantitative differences that need to be addressed in future work.

  3. The self-preserving size distribution theory. II. Comparison with experimental results for Si and Si3N4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Petrus J; Tuinman, Ilse L; Marijnissen, Jan C M; Friedlander, Sheldon K; Scarlett, B

    2002-04-15

    The gas to particle synthesis route is a relatively clean and efficient manner for the production of high-quality ceramic powders. These powders can be subsequently sintered in any wanted shape. The modeling of these production systems is difficult because several mechanisms occur in parallel. From theoretical considerations it can be determined, however, that coagulation and sintering are dominant mechanisms as far as shape and size of the particles are considered. In part I of this article an extensive theoretical analysis was given on the self-preserving size distribution theory for power law particles. In this second part, cumulative particle size distributions of silicon and silicon nitride agglomerates, produced in a laser reactor, were determined from TEM pictures and compared to the distributions calculated from this self-preserving theory for power law particles. The calculated distributions were in fair agreement with the measured results, especially at the high end of the distributions. Calculated and measured particle growth rates were also in fair agreement. Using the self-preserving theory an analysis was made on the distribution of annealed silicon agglomerates, of interest in applications to nanoparticle technology.

  4. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D. [IRSN/DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dudoignon, N. [IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPAT, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E. [CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT BP no 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Bottlaender, M. [CEA/SHFJ, 4, place du General Leclerc F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  5. Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Jun; Jin, Xian-Min; Feng, Fa-Yong; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jian; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Nan; Tian, Bao-Li; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2005-04-22

    We report free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over a noisy ground atmosphere of 13 km. It is shown that the desired entanglement can still survive after both entangled photons have passed through the noisy ground atmosphere with a distance beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere. This is confirmed by observing a spacelike separated violation of Bell inequality of 2.45+/-0.09. On this basis, we exploit the distributed entangled photon source to demonstrate the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography scheme. The distribution distance of entangled photon pairs achieved in the experiment is for the first time well beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere, hence presenting a significant step towards satellite-based global quantum communication.

  6. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  7. Effect of Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of small intestine in experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine, Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji (KYQWJJ) used for diabetic treatment, on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of the small intestine in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Correlation analysis was also performed between the opening angle and residual strain with the blood glucose level. METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats weighing 220-240 g were included in this study. Thirty-two STZ-induced diabetic rats were subdivided into four groups (n = 8 in each group), i.e. diabetic control group (DM); high dose of KYQWJJ (T1, 36g/kg per day); low dose of KYQWJJ (T2, 17 g/kg per day) and Gliclazide (T3, 50 mg/kg per day). Another ten rats were used as non-diabetic control (CON). The medicines were poured directly into stomach lumen by gastric lavage twice daily. The rats of CON and DM groups were only poured the physiological saline. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured. Experimental period was 35 d. At the end of experiment, three 5-cm long segments were harvested from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Three rings of 1-2 mm in length for no-load and zero-stress state tests were cut from the middle of different segments. The morphometric data, such as the circumferential length, the wall thickness and the opening angle were measured from the digitized images of intestinal segments in the no-load state and zero-stress state. The residual strain was computed from the morphometry data. Furthermore, the linear regression analysis was performed between blood glucose level with morphometric and biomechanical data in the different intestinal segments. RESULTS: The blood glucose level of DM group was consistent 4-fold to 5-fold higher than those in CON group during the experiment (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 3.44 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P 0.05) was significantly lower than those in DM group. The plasma insulin levels of DM, T1, T2 and T3 groups were significantly lower than those in CON group (10.98 ± 1.02, 12.52 ± 1

  8. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  9. Effect of Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of small intestine in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Sha; Jing-Bo Zhao; Zhi-Yuan Zhang; Shui-Ping Zhou; Xiao-Lin Tong; Feng-Yuan Zhuang; Hans Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine,Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji (KYQWJJ) used for diabetic treatment, on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of the small intestine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Correlation analysis was also performed between the opening angle and residual strain with the blood glucose level.METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats weighing220-240 g were included in this study. Thirty-two STZ-induced diabetic rats were subdivided into four groups(n = 8 in each group), i.e. diabetic control group (DM);high dose of KYQWJJ (T1, 36g/kg per day); low dose of KYQWJJ (T2, 17 g/kg per day) and Gliclazide (T3,50 mg/kg per day). Another ten rats were used as nondiabetic control (CON). The medicines were poured directly into stomach lumen by gastric lavage twice daily.The rats of CON and DM groups were only poured the physiological saline. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured. Experimental period was 35 d.At the end of experiment, three 5-cm long segments were harvested from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Three rings of 1-2 mm in length for no-load and zero-stress state tests were cut from the middle of different segments. The morphometric data, such as the circumferential length, the wall thickness and the opening angle were measured from the digitized images of intestinal segments in the no-load state and zerostress state. The residual strain was computed from the morphometry data. Furthermore, the linear regression analysis was performed between blood glucose level with morphometric and biomechanical data in the different intestinal segments.RESULTS: The blood glucose level of DM group was consistent 4-fold to 5-fold higher than those in CON group during the experiment (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 3.44 ±0.15 mmol/L, P < 0.001). The blood glucose level in the T1 (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 11.08 ± 2.67 mmol/L, P < 0.01)and T3 groups (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 13.54 ± 1.73 mmol/L, P< 0.05), but not in T2 group (P > 0.05) was

  10. Experimental measurement and modeling of the distribution of solvent and ions between an aqueous phase and an ion exchange resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Gregers; Thomsen, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of solutes and solvent between an aqueous solution of salt and an ion exchange resin has been measured at ambient temperature. The experiments have been performed for aqueous solutions of KNO3, KCl, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0-3N. The absorption has been...

  11. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of `hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  12. The flux distribution from a 1.25m2 target aligned heliostat: comparison of ray tracing and experimental results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliage, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to validate SolTrace for concentrating solar investigations at CSIR by means of a test case: the comparison of the flux distribution in the focal spot of a 1.25 m2 target aligned heliostat predicted by the ray tracing...

  13. Experimental verification of improved depth-dose distribution using hyper-thermal neutron incidence in neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed the utilization of 'hyper-thermal neutrons' for neutron capture therapy (NCT) from the viewpoint of the improvement in the dose distribution in a human body. In order to verify the improved depth-dose distribution due to hyper-thermal neutron incidence, two experiments were carried out using a test-type hyper-thermal neutron generator at a thermal neutron irradiation field in Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), which is actually utilized for NCT clinical irradiation. From the free-in-air experiment for the spectrum-shift characteristics, it was confirmed that the hyper-thermal neutrons of approximately 860 K at maximum could be obtained by the generator. From the phantom experiment, the improvement effect and the controllability for the depth-dose distribution were confirmed. For example, it was found that the relative neutron depth-dose distribution was about 1 cm improved with the 860 K hyper-thermal neutron incidence, compared to the normal thermal neutron incidence.

  14. Active disturbance rejection control of a chaotic system based on immune binary-state particle swarm optimization algorithm%基于免疫双态微粒群的混沌系统自抗扰控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝华; 张英杰; 章兢; 吴建辉

    2011-01-01

    The active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has the property of requiring no knowledge about the precise mathematical model, but the parameters of controller is difficult to be tuned. An active disturbance rejection control based on immune binary-state particle swarm optimization algorithm (IBPSO-ADRC) is proposed, which takes advantage of the combination of the artificial immune systems (AIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed algorithm is applied to optimize the parameters of ADRC and then to control chaotic system. Furthermore, a new ADRC for the chaotic system is constructed. The simulation experiments indicate that the scheme requires no knowledge about the mathematical model with fast response speed, while restraining the parameter perturbation of chaotic system effectively and is robust to noise.%利用人工免疫算法及粒子群优化算法融合的优点,提出了一种免疫双态微粒群算法(immune binarystate particle swarm optimization,IBPSO)的自抗扰控制器(IBPSO-ADRC),应用于混沌系统控制,构建一种混沌系统自抗扰控制系统.实验研究表明:该控制方法无需了解动态系统精确模型,具有响应速度快,有效抑制混沌系统参数摄动及较强抗干扰能力的特点.

  15. Local Neutron Flux Distribution Measurements by Wire-Dosimetry in the AMMON Experimental Program in the EOLE Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dosimetry measurements were carried out during the AMMON experimental program, in the EOLE facility. Al-0.1 wt% Au wires were positioned along curved fuel plates of JHR-type assemblies to investigate the azimuthal and axial gold capture rate profiles, directly linked to the thermal and epithermal flux. After irradiation, wires were cut into small segments (a few mm, and the gold capture rate of each part was measured by gamma spectrometry on the MADERE platform. This paper presents results in the “hafnium” configuration, and more specifically the azimuthal flux profile characterization. The final uncertainty on each measured wire lies below 1% (at 2 standard deviations. Experimental profiles are in a good agreement against Monte Carlo calculations, and the 4% capture rate increase at the plate edge is well observed. The flux dissymmetry due to assembly position in the core is also measured, and shows a 10% discrepancy between the two edges of the plate.

  16. Experimental analysis of the effect of vegetation on flow and bed shear stress distribution in high-curvature bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Donatella

    2016-12-01

    The cross-sectional circulation, which develops in meandering bends, exerts an important role in velocity and the boundary shear stress redistributions. This paper considers the effect of vegetation on cross-sectional flow and bed shear distribution along a high-curvature bend. The analysis is conducted with the aid of data collected in a large-amplitude meandering flume during a reference experiment without vegetation and an experiment with vegetation on the bed. The results show that the presence of vegetation modifies the curvature-induced flow pattern and the directionality of turbulent structures. In fact, in the presence of vegetation, the turbulent structures tend to develop within and between the vegetated elements. The pattern of cross-sectional flow, modified by the presence of vegetation, affects the bed shear stress distribution along the bend so that the core of the highest value of the bed shear stress does not reach the outer bank.

  17. Experimental study and simulation of mass distribution of the covering layer of soybean seeds coated in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, it was observed that the covering of soybean seeds with bacteria and micronutrients enhances vigorous growth of the plant thereby avoiding use of ammoniacal fertilizers. In the spouted bed covering can be done by pulverization of the coater slurry on the soybean seeds using a pneumatic atomizer. The optimum thickness of the cover allows the fundamental gaseous interchanges for germination and provides the ideal conditions for bacterium activity. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the process variables on thickness of the cover. A simulation of the mass distribution of seeds was obtained using a population balance model. Through the results obtained the operational conditions under which the coating layer distribution were determined has the greatest uniformity.

  18. Linking granulation performance with residence time and granulation liquid distributions in twin-screw granulation: An experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Alakarjula, Maija; Vanhoorne, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising wet granulation technique for the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. A twin screw granulator displays a short residence time. Thus, the solid-liquid mixing must be achieved quickly by appropriate arrangement of transport and kneading...... elements in the granulator screw allowing the production of granules with a size distribution appropriate for tableting. The distribution of residence time and granulation liquid is governed by the field conditions (such as location and length of mixing zones) in the twin-screw granulator, thus contain...... interesting information on granulation time, mixing and resulting sub-processes such as wetting, aggregation and breakage. In this study, the impact of process (feed rate, screw speed and liquid-to-solid ratio) and equipment parameters (number of kneading discs and stagger angle) on the residence time...

  19. Influence of hydraulic regimes on bacterial community structure and composition in an experimental drinking water distribution system

    OpenAIRE

    Douterelo, I.; Sharpe, R.L.; Boxall, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial biofilms formed on the inner-pipe surfaces of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) can alter drinking water quality, particularly if they are mechanically detached from the pipe wall to the bulk water, such as due to changes in hydraulic conditions. Results are presented here from applying 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene to investigate the influence of different hydrological regimes on bacterial community structure and to study the potential mobilisatio...

  20. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, M; Wurz, P; Hohl, M, E-mail: bodendorfer@ep.isas.jaxa.j [Space Research and Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer fuer FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar{sup 1+} to Ar{sup 5+} and in good agreement for Ar{sup 6+}.

  1. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, M.; Wurz, P.; Hohl, M.

    2010-08-01

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer für FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar1+ to Ar5+ and in good agreement for Ar6+.

  2. Radial distribution of dose within heavy charged particle tracks. Models and experimental verification using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gieszczyk, W; Olko, P; Obryk, B

    2014-01-01

    A new method of experimental verification of radial dose distribution models using solid state thermoluminescent (TL) detectors LiF:Mg,Cu,P has been recently proposed. In this work the method was applied to verify the spatial distribution of energy deposition within a single 131Xe ion track. Detectors were irradiated at the Department of Physics of the University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, Finland. The obtained results have been compared with theoretical data, calculated according to the Zhang et al., Cucinotta et al. and Geiss et al. radial dose distribution (RDD) models. At the lowest dose range the Zhang et al. RDD model exhibited the best agreement as compared to experimental data. In the intermediate dose range, up to 104 Gy, the best agreement was found for the RDD model of Cucinotta et al. The probability of occurrence of doses higher than 104 Gy within a single 131Xe ion track was found to be lower than predicted by all the studied RDD models. This may be a result of diffusion of the charge, which is then capt...

  3. Research on Experimental Model of Water Distribution System%城市供水管网的试验模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠华; 袁一星

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate a study on hydraulic properties and water quality in the urban water distribution system,an experimental model of an actual pipe network was established based on the hydraulic similarity principle.The pressure pipe network was analyzed and determined to meet the Euler similarity criteria.Similarities between the experimental model and the actual pipe network were derived based on the distorted similarity theory of pipe flow.Through selecting proper geometric scale,the experimental model of the water distribution system was built.The operating condition of the experimental model was simulated by EPANET to determine the water head at various nodes.Experimental simulation of flow rates at various nodes was implemented by adjusting the opening of electric ball valves.The operating condition of the actual pipe network was also simulated by EPANET.The flow velocity in pipes in the experimental model was compared with those in the actual pipe network.The results indicated close similarities between the experimental model and the actual pipe network,suggesting that the modeling was feasible.%为便于研究城市供水管网中管流的水力特性和水质情况,依据水力相似原理,构建了与实际供水管网等效的管网试验模型.先分析并确定了压力供水管网符合欧拉相似准则,然后基于管流的变态相似理论,推导出管网原型与其试验模型间各物理量的相似关系.通过选定合适的几何比尺,建立供水管网试验模型.应用EPANET软件模拟管网模型运行工况,得到各节点的水头,据此调节各用户端电动球阀的开度,实现用户节点流量的试验模拟,同时应用EPANET软件模拟管网原型的运行工况.通过对比管网试验模型和原型中各相应管段的流速,验证了试验模型和原型能够很好地满足相似关系,表明该建模方法是可行的.

  4. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). Methods The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia’s cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. Results The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value <0.001). Treatment was associated with a 42 percent reduction in the odds of self-reported fever (p-value <0.001) and with a 49 percent reduction in the odds of self-reported malaria (p-value 0.002). This was accomplished at a cost of approximately five US$ per ITN to Zambia’s NMCP. Conclusions The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial. PMID:23506170

  5. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally...... amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV...

  6. Spectral distribution of infrared synchrotron radiation by an insertion device and its edges: A comparison between experimental and simulated spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy; Guidi Cestelli M; Nucara; Marcouille; Calvani; Giura; Paolone; Mathis; Gerschel

    2000-01-17

    The first measurements of the spectral distribution of infrared radiation emitted by an undulator are reported. They are compared with calculations including both velocity and acceleration terms. Measurements have been performed at the beam line SIRLOIN (Spectroscopie en InfraRouge Lointain). The agreement between the observations and this first exact numerical solution shows that the inclusion of the velocity term in the submillimeter frequency range is necessary. Moreover, structures due to undulator edges are observed in the far infrared and mid-infrared range, while the interference pattern due to redshifted harmonics of the undulator is dominating in the mid-infrared to near infrared.

  7. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally...... amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV...

  8. Experimental study for Yuen-Kim protocol of quantum key distribution with unconditional secure Bell's Theorem Without Inequalities for two Maximally Entangled Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Li Ming Wei; Tang, Z L; Liao, C C

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we simulate practical feature of Yuen-Kim protocol for quantum key distribution with unconditional secure. In order to demonstrate them experimentally by intensity modulation/direct detection(IMDD) optical fiber communication system, we use simplified encoding scheme to guarantee security for key information(1 or 0). That is, pairwise M-ary intensity modulation scheme is employed. Furthermore, we give an experimental implementation of YK protocol based on IMDD. A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities for two maximally entangled particles is proposed using the technique of quantum teleportation. It follows Hardy's arguments for a non-maximally entangled state with the help of two auxiliary particles without correlation. The present proof can be tested by measurements with 100% probability.

  9. Experimental investigations of the distribution of pulsed-plasma-generator radiation at its various spatial orientation and global anisotropy of space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurov, Yu.A.; Timofeev, I.B.; Chernikov, V.A.; Chalkin, S.F.; Konradov, A.A

    2003-05-26

    Results of experimental investigation of plasma luminous emittance (integrated with respect to time and quartz transmission band spectrum) of a pulsed plasma generator depending on its axis spatial position, are presented. It is shown that the spatial distribution of plasma radiant intensity is of clearly anisotropic character, that is, there exists a cone of the plasma generator axial directions in which the radiation of plasma reaches its peak. A possible explanation of the results obtained based on a hypothesis of global anisotropy of space caused by the existence of a cosmological vectorial potential A{sub g}, is given. It is shown that the vector A{sub g} has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system: right ascension {alpha}=293 deg. {+-}10 deg., declination {delta}=36 deg. {+-}10 deg. The experimental results are in accordance with those of the earlier experiments on determining the direction of A{sub g}.

  10. Effect of experimental jaw muscle pain on EMG activity and bite force distribution at different level of clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A; Hara, S; Svensson, P

    2013-11-01

    Bite force at different levels of clenching and the corresponding electromyographic (EMG) activity in jaw-closing muscles were recorded in 16 healthy women before, during and after painful stimulation of the left masseter muscle. Experimental pain was induced by infusion of 5·8% hypertonic saline (HS), and 0·9% isotonic saline (IS) was infused as a control. EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the masseter and temporalis muscles, and static bite force was assessed by pressure-sensitive films (Dental Pre-scale) at 5, 50 and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during each session. Visual feedback was applied by showing EMG activity to help the subject perform clenching at 5, 50 and 100% MVC, respectively. EMG activity at 100% MVC in left and right masseter decreased significantly during painful HS infusion (1·7-44·6%; P MVC was decreased during HS infusion in the painful masseter muscle (4·8-18·6%; P MVC during HS infusion and in the post-infusion condition (P MVC. In conclusion, experimental pain in the masseter muscle has an inhibitory effect on jaw muscle activity at maximal voluntary contraction, and compensatory mechanisms may influence the recruitment pattern at submaximal efforts.

  11. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Distribution in the Upper Airways During Nasal High Flow Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hove, S C; Storey, J; Adams, C; Dey, K; Geoghegan, P H; Kabaliuk, N; Oldfield, S D; Spence, C J T; Jermy, M C; Suresh, V; Cater, J E

    2016-10-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) therapy is used to treat a variety of respiratory disorders to improve patient oxygenation. A CO2 washout mechanism is believed to be responsible for the observed increase in oxygenation. In this study, experimentally validated Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the CO2 concentration within the upper airway during unassisted and NHF assisted breathing were undertaken with the aim of exploring the existence of this washout mechanism. An anatomically accurate nasal cavity model was generated from a CT scan and breathing was reproduced using a Fourier decomposition of a physiologically measured breath waveform. Time dependent CO2 profiles were obtained at the entrance of the trachea in the experimental model, and were used as simulation boundary conditions. Flow recirculation features were observed in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity upon application of the therapy. This causes the CO2 rich gas to vent from the nostrils reducing the CO2 concentration in the dead space and lowering the inspired CO2 volume. Increasing therapy flow rate increases the penetration depth within the nasal cavity of the low CO2 concentration gas. A 65% decrease in inspired CO2 was observed for therapy flow rates ranging from 0 to 60 L min(-1) supporting the washout mechanism theory.

  12. Biochemical changes and tissue distribution of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in naturally and experimentally EHP-infected whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, S; Sivakumar, S; Vimal, S; Abdul Majeed, S; Taju, G; Haribabu, P; Uma, A; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-04-01

    Stunted growth in pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei was observed in different farms located in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India. No mortality was associated with stunted growth. PCR assay on these samples revealed the presence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in stunted shrimp. Tissue distribution of EHP in naturally and experimentally infected shrimp was studied by PCR and histology. Histological examination revealed the presence of EHP in hepatopancreas and gut, but not in other organs. The PCR assay revealed the presence of EHP in all the organs tested in both naturally and experimentally infected shrimp. Healthy shrimp were challenged with E. hepatopenaei by intramuscular injection and oral route, and no mortality was observed in both routes after 30 days post-challenge. Different developmental stages of the microsporidian parasite were observed in the hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Biochemical parameters such as total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase were measured in the haemolymph of naturally and experimentally EHP-infected shrimp. All biochemical parameters mentioned were found to be significantly higher in EHP-infected shrimp when compared to normal shrimp. This is the first report relating AST and ALT levels to EHP infection in naturally and experimentally infected shrimp. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH, AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES, IN A STREAM FROM THE PAYS DE LOIRE REGION, FRANCE: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROQUET T.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes was studied from January to October 2000 in a stream from the Pays de Loire region (Western France. An experimental modification of habitat was performed in four stream sections by providing refuges for crayfish, followed by a regular survey of population dynamics in these areas. The crayfish distribution along the brook was studied in relation to several parameters, including water quality, current speed, brook depth and presence of refuges for crayfish. Presence of hiding places was the only habitat parameter correlated with crayfish distribution along the stream whereas colonization process in modified sections was determined by sun exposure and current speed conditions. Despite a presumably high growth rate and its ability to reach locally important densities, the population appeared to be fragmented.

  14. Experimental transmission of quantum digital signatures over 90 km of installed optical fiber using a differential phase shift quantum key distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert J.; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S.; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    Quantum digital signatures apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution. Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5-km of optical fiber in a laboratory setting. Here we report the first demonstration of quantum digital signatures over installed optical fiber as well as the longest transmission link reported to date. This demonstration used a 90-km long differential phase shift quantum key distribution system to achieve approximately one signed bit per second - an increase in the signature generation rate of several orders of magnitude over previous optical fiber demonstrations.

  15. Experimental study on temperature distribution of membrane water wall in an ultra-supercritical pressure once-through boiler burning zhundong coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghao; Li, Wenjun; Zeng, Jun; Xie, Guohong; Peng, Min; Duan, Xuenong

    2017-05-01

    Taking an ultra-supercritical pressure once-through boiler as an example, the temperature distribution of the lower membrane water wall is investigated experimentally, the conclusion reveals that increasing the proportion of Zhundong coal can effectively reduce the district heat load, which benefits the temperature uniformity in the lower membrane water wall. When the boiler being operated at middle load, the temperature deviation in lower membrane water wall increase simultaneously, one of the reasons is that the restriction orifice could not adjust the flow rate of working fluid as expected. By adjusting boiler performance, the temperature uniformity of lower membrane water wall can be improved to a certain degree.

  16. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elezov, M. S.; Ozhegov, R. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Makarov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a "backdoor" in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains "latched" in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  17. Experimental study on upward bubble velocity and pierce length distributions in a water model of copper converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Du; Jiayun Zhang; Tuping Zhou; Qifeng Shu

    2003-01-01

    The upward bubble velocity and the pierce length distributions in a sectional water model of the copper convener in Guixi Smelter in Jiangxi, China, were measured using a two-contact electro-resistivity probe. In the case of using a single tuyere, the bubble velocity distribution along longitudinal direction was similar to that derived from Guassian function. Beyond the center of the longitudinal range, the bubble pierce length exhibited a sudden increase. The upward bubble velocity at a specified location could go up to meters per second. Its probability at a fixed location obeys a lognormal function; the bubble pierce length there varies bellow a few centimeters. In the case of using multi-tuyeres, the upward bubble velocity was roughly uniform right above the tuyeres and showed a slow decrease beyond this region. The bubble pierce length within both of these two regions was roughly uniform. Its average value in the former region, however, was found to be somewhat lower than that in the later.

  18. An Experimental Study on Axial Temperature Distribution of Combustion of Dewatered Poultry Sludge in Fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustor was designed and fabricated to study the combustion of dewatered poultry sludge at different operational parameters. This paper present a study on the influence of equivalent ratio, secondary to primary air ratio and the fuel feed rate on the temperature distribution along the combustor. The equivalent ratio has been changed between 0.8 to 1.4% under poultry sludge feed rate of 10 kg/h and from 0.8 to 1 under poultry sludge feed rate of 15 kg/h. The secondary to primary air ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.5 at 0.65 m injection height and 1.25 equivalent ratio. The results showed that these factors had a significant influence on the combustion characteristics of poultry sludge. The temperature distribution along the combustor was found to be strongly dependent on the fuel feed rate and the equivalent ratio and it increased when these two factors increased. However, the secondary air ratio increased the temperature in the lower region of the combustor while no significant effect was observed at the upper region of the combustor. The results suggested that the poultry sludge can be used as a fuel with high thermal combustor efficiency.

  19. The distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in precipitates within a Zr alloy: A combined first-principles and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, B.F., E-mail: bfluan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, J.M.; Qiu, R.S.; Tao, B.R.; He, W.J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Q., E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-EDS) technique and first-principles calculation are jointly utilized to investigate the distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in the precipitates within Zr-1.0Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Mo-0.4Bi alloy. Based on selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results, the precipitates within the studied alloy are confirmed to be ZrCr{sub 2}-based Laves phase with FCC (C15) type structure. The STEM-EDS elemental mapping is acquired to clarify the distribution trends of alloying elements in precipitates, i.e. Fe>Mo>Bi. To better verify this distribution behavior, substitutional formation energies and equilibrium concentrations of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are calculated by first-principles. The calculated results show a good consistence with the STEM-EDS results. In addition, the site preferences of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are predicted by the calculation of transfer energies. Finally, the reasons accounting for different distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are discussed in terms of density of states, which attributed to the pseudogap effect and hybridizations between atoms. - Highlights: • Clarified the distribution trends of Fe>Mo>Bi in precipitates by STEM-EDS. • Verified the experimental results by first-principles calculation. • Predicted the site preferences of alloying elements by first-principles calculation. • Hybridization and pseudogap lead to the strong distribution and site preferences.

  20. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  1. Experimental observation of electron bounce resonance through electron energy distribution measurement in a finite size inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Seuli [Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chang, Yoon-Min; Chung, Chin-Wook, E-mail: joykang@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Deuk-Chul [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The electron bounce resonance was experimentally investigated in a low pressure planar inductively coupled plasma. The electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured at different chamber heights and the energy diffusion coefficients were calculated by the kinetic model. It is found that the EEPFs begin to flatten at the first electron bounce resonance condition, and the plateau shifts to a higher electron energy as the chamber height increases. The plateau which indicates strong electron heating corresponds not only to the electron bounce resonance condition but also to the peaks of the first component of the energy diffusion coefficients. As a result, the plateau formation in the EEPFs is mainly due to the electron bounce resonance in a finite inductive discharge.

  2. Experimental study and numerical simulation of axial solids distribution in fluidized bed boilers; Vertikaalisten kiintoainepitoisuuksien analysointi ja simulointi kiertoleijukattilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Inst. of Heat Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The project has concentrated on the study of the parameters affecting the drag correlations by examining the behaviour of the axial density profiles and especially the steady-state regions in different flow conditions both experimentally and theoretically. The empirical data analysed in this work is collected from hot conditions in a CFB pilot scale combustor. The data consists of pressure profiles and other macroscopic measurements from different flow conditions. In the analysis of the data and in the modelling work empirical methods such as neural network modelling have been used. The results show that the drag correlations written for cold conditions can be adapted to hot conditions by taking into account the change in the terminal velocity of a single particle. (orig.)

  3. Experimental study of the heat transfers and passive cooling potential of a ventilated plenum designed for uniform air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Lessing, Julian

    2016-01-01

    suspended ceiling to uniformly distribute the supply air to the occupied zone. This, in effect, increases the thermal mass of the room because the upper slab of the room no longer is isolated from the occupied zone. In this study, the cooling potential of a diffuse ceiling ventilation system...... is investigated by experiments focused toward characterizing the convective heat transfer of the plenum. The heat transfers are quantified from four different air flow rates, the temperature of the air supplied to the plenum and the mean surface temperature, i.e. the total heat transfer coefficient of the plenum...... with unventilated plenum. In conclusion this study disclosed the mean heat transfer of the plenum with an inlet jet of approx. 1.2-0.4 m/s and temperature differences of 0.5-4.5 °C and showed that ventilation supply through the plenum can be used to augment the night cooling potential....

  4. Experimental study of muonic x-ray transitions in mercury isotopes. [Fermi distribution, B(E2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Muonic x-ray spectra were measured for /sup 198/ /sup 199/ /sup 200/ /sup 201/ /sup 202/ and /sup 204/Hg. These data were interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments (Q/sub s/) of some of the 2/sup +/ nuclear states were inferred. For /sup 199/Hg the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2)'s connecting these states to the ground state were determined. For /sup 201/Hg the ground state quadrupole moment was obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data was hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts were measured and interpreted in terms of deltaR/sub k/ and are compared to electronic x-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. 41 references

  5. Experimental Study on Suspended Sediment Concentration and Its Vertical Distribution under Spilling Breaking Wave Actions in Silty Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yun-feng; XU Hua; CHEN Zhong; WU Dao-wen; ZHANG Shi-zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,flume experiments are focused on sediment transport inside and outside the surf zone.According to the energy dissipation balance principle of sediment-laden flow and the similarity between energy dissipation of spilling breaking wave and hydraulic jump,formulas are proposed to predict time averaged suspended sediment concentration under both non-breaking and breaking waves.Assuming that the sediment diffusion coefficient,which is related with energy dissipation,is proportional to water depth,formulas are proposed to predict close-to-bed suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of suspended sediment under spilling breaking waves,and the prediction shows a good agreement with the measurement.

  6. Effect of starting microstructure upon the nucleation sites and distribution of graphite particles during a graphitising anneal of an experimental medium-carbon machining steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inam, A., E-mail: aqil.ceet@pu.edu.pk; Brydson, R., E-mail: mtlrmdb@leeds.ac.uk; Edmonds, D.V., E-mail: d.v.edmonds@leeds.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    The potential for using graphite particles as an internal lubricant during machining is considered. Graphite particles were found to form during graphitisation of experimental medium-carbon steel alloyed with Si and Al. The graphite nucleation sites were strongly influenced by the starting microstructure, whether ferrite–pearlite, bainite or martensite, as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Favourable nucleation sites in the ferrite–pearlite starting microstructure were, not unexpectedly, found to be located within pearlite colonies, no doubt due to the presence of abundant cementite as a source of carbon. In consequence, the final distribution of graphite nodules in ferrite–pearlite microstructures was less uniform than for the bainite microstructure studied. In the case of martensite, this study found a predominance of nucleation at grain boundaries, again leading to less uniform graphite dispersions. - Highlights: • Metallography of formation of graphite particles in experimental carbon steel. • Potential for using graphite in steel as an internal lubricant during machining. • Microstructure features expected to influence improved machinability studied. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite nucleation sites. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite distribution. • Potential benefit is new free-cutting steel compositions without e.g. Pb alloying.

  7. Electrolyte-controlled discharge product distribution of Na-O2 batteries: a combined computational and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beizhou; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Lu, Wencong; Guo, Xiangxin; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-01-25

    Tuning the composition of discharge products is an important strategy to reduce charge potential, suppress side reactions, and improve the reversibility of metal-oxygen batteries. In the present study, first-principles calculations and experimental confirmation were performed to unravel the influence of O2 pressure, particle size, and electrolyte on the composition of charge products in Na-O2 batteries. The electrolytes with medium and high donor numbers (>12.5) are favorable for the formation of sole NaO2, while those with low donor numbers (size hardly affect discharge products. On the electrode, only one-electron-transfer electrochemical reaction to form NaO2 takes place, whereas two-electron-transfer electrochemical and chemical reactions to form Na2O2 and Na3O4 are prevented in thermodynamics. The present study explains why metastable NaO2 was identified as a sole discharge product in many experiments, while thermodynamically more stable Na2O2 was not observed. Therefore, to achieve low overpotential, a high-donor-number electrolyte should be applied in the discharge processes of Na-O2 batteries.

  8. Partitioning of Organic Ions to Muscle Protein: Experimental Data, Modeling, and Implications for in Vivo Distribution of Organic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2016-07-05

    The in vivo partitioning behavior of ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) is of paramount importance for their toxicokinetics and bioaccumulation. Among other proteins, structural proteins including muscle proteins could be an important sorption phase for IOCs, because of their high quantity in the human and other animals' body and their polar nature. Binding data for IOCs to structural proteins are, however, severely limited. Therefore, in this study muscle protein-water partition coefficients (KMP/w) of 51 systematically selected organic anions and cations were determined experimentally. A comparison of the measured KMP/w with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-water partition coefficients showed that anionic chemicals sorb more strongly to BSA than to muscle protein (by up to 3.5 orders of magnitude), while cations sorb similarly to both proteins. Sorption isotherms of selected IOCs to muscle protein are linear (i.e., KMP/w is concentration independent), and KMP/w is only marginally influenced by pH value and salt concentration. Using the obtained data set of KMP/w a polyparameter linear free energy relationship (PP-LFER) model was established. The derived equation fits the data well (R(2) = 0.89, RMSE = 0.29). Finally, it was demonstrated that the in vitro measured KMP/w values of this study have the potential to be used to evaluate tissue-plasma partitioning of IOCs in vivo.

  9. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christopher J W; Ware, Heidi E; Carlisle, Jay; Kaltenecker, Gregory; Barber, Jesse R

    2013-12-22

    Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale-thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals-alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off-during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our 'Phantom Road' and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites-suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals.

  10. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çatlı, Serap, E-mail: serapcatli@hotmail.com [Gazi University, Faculty of Sciences, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Tanır, Güneş [Gazi University, Faculty of Sciences, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.

  11. X-ray derived experimental charge density distribution in GaF3 and VF3 solid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, K.; Israel, S.; Anzline, C.; Niranjana Devi, R.; Sheeba, R. A. J. R.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure and bonding features of metal and transition metal fluorides in low oxidation states, GaF3 and VF3, have been studied from precise single crystal X-ray diffraction data using multipole and maximum entropy methods. The topology of the charge density is analyzed and the (3,-1) bond critical points are determined. Existences of ionic nature of bonding in low valent fluorine compounds are clearly evident. The spherical core of metal atom and aspherical or twisted core of transition metal atom reveal the fact that GaF3 is much more rigid than VF3. Aspherical cores of the polarized ligand atoms are also visible in the two-dimensional density distribution pictures. The true valence charge density surfaces with encapsulating the atomic basins maps are elucidated. An elongated saddle with mid-bond density of 0.6191 e/Å3, observed in the compound VF3, shows that its lattice is less rigid and has more ionic character than GaF3.

  12. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlı, Serap; Tanır, Güneş

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.

  13. Neuroanatomical distribution of disease-associated prion protein in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle after intracerebral inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Nikaido, Satoshi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Kazuo; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The pathologic disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) has been shown to be expressed in the central nervous system of Holstein cattle inoculated intracerebrally with 3 sources of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates. Several regions of the brain and spinal cord were analyzed for PrP(Sc) expression by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Animals euthanized at 10 months post-inoculation (mpi) showed PrP(Sc) deposits in the brainstem and thalamus, but no vacuolation; this suggested that the BSE agent might exhibit area-dependent tropism in the brain. At 16 and 18 mpi, a small amount of vacuolation was detected in the brainstem and thalamus, but not in the cerebral cortices. At 20 to 24 mpi, when clinical symptoms were apparent, heavy PrP(Sc) deposits were evident throughout the brain and spinal cord. The mean time to the appearance of clinical symptoms was 19.7 mpi, and the mean survival time was 22.7 mpi. These findings show that PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected approximately 10 months before the clinical symptoms of BSE became apparent. In addition, the 3 sources of BSE prion induced no detectable differences in the clinical signs, incubation periods, neuroanatomical location of vacuoles, or distribution and pattern of PrP(Sc) depositions in the brain.

  14. Physical dose distribution due to multi-sliced kV X-ray beam in labeled tissue-like media: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, M., E-mail: mghasemi@nrcam.or [Agricultural Medical and Industrial Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakuee, O.R.; Fathollahi, V. [Van de Graaff Laboratory, Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvar, A.; Mohati, M.; Ghafoori, M. [Agricultural Medical and Industrial Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Radiotherapy remains a major modality of cancer therapy. Thanks to high flux and high brilliance of synchrotron-generated X-ray, laboratory research with planar microscopically thin X-ray beam promise exciting new opportunities for treatment of cancer. High tolerance of normal tissues at doses up to several hundred Gy in a single dose fraction and preferential damage of tumors at very high doses have been uniquely observed in animal models exposed to microbeams. The fact that beams as thick as 0.68 mm could retain a part of these effects, opens the possibility that the required beam can be produced by high power X-ray tubes besides a dedicated synchrotron. Fortunately, dose distribution due to kilovolt X-rays could be enhanced by the introduction of high-Z contrast agents to tissue-like media. In this work, dose deposition in a phantom-partially loaded with Au and I as contrast agents-irradiated by multi-sliced kV X-ray beam was experimentally investigated in the peak and valley regions both on the surface and in the depth of phantom. The results of experimental dosimetry using Gaf-chromic films were compared with corresponding Monte-Carlo simulation. Relative reduction in the deposited dose in the peak regions downstream the area containing contrast agents in comparison with the adjacent areas was experimentally observed.

  15. Physical dose distribution due to multi-sliced kV X-ray beam in labeled tissue-like media: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M; Kakuee, O R; Fathollahi, V; Shahvar, A; Mohati, M; Ghafoori, M

    2011-02-01

    Radiotherapy remains a major modality of cancer therapy. Thanks to high flux and high brilliance of synchrotron-generated X-ray, laboratory research with planar microscopically thin X-ray beam promise exciting new opportunities for treatment of cancer. High tolerance of normal tissues at doses up to several hundred Gy in a single dose fraction and preferential damage of tumors at very high doses have been uniquely observed in animal models exposed to microbeams. The fact that beams as thick as 0.68 mm could retain a part of these effects, opens the possibility that the required beam can be produced by high power X-ray tubes besides a dedicated synchrotron. Fortunately, dose distribution due to kilovolt X-rays could be enhanced by the introduction of high-Z contrast agents to tissue-like media. In this work, dose deposition in a phantom--partially loaded with Au and I as contrast agents--irradiated by multi-sliced kV X-ray beam was experimentally investigated in the peak and valley regions both on the surface and in the depth of phantom. The results of experimental dosimetry using Gaf-chromic films were compared with corresponding Monte-Carlo simulation. Relative reduction in the deposited dose in the peak regions downstream the area containing contrast agents in comparison with the adjacent areas was experimentally observed.

  16. Experimental Study of Three-Dimensional Void Fraction Distribution in Heated Tight-Lattice Rod Bundles Using Three-Dimensional Neutron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureta, Masatoshi

    Three-dimensional (3D) void fraction distributions in a tight-lattice of heated 7- or 14-rod bundles were measured using 3D neutron tomography. The distribution was also studied parametrically from the thermal-hydraulic point of view in order to elucidate boiling phenomena in a fuel assembly of the FLWR which is being developed as an advanced BWR-type reactor. 7-rod tests were carried out to obtain high void fraction data. 14-rod tests were conducted for visualization and discussion of the 3D distribution extending from the vapor generation region to the high void fraction region at one time. Experimental data were obtained under atmospheric pressure with mass velocity, heater power and inlet quality as the test parameters. It was found from the visualization of data that the void fraction at the channel center became higher than that at the periphery, high void fraction spots appeared in narrow regions at the inlet, and a so-called 'vapor chimney' was generated at the center of a subchannel.

  17. Analytical modelling and experimental verification of the three-dimensional current distribution on the top surface of silicon solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagliola, Maurizio; Riccio, Michele; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Gianluca; Daliento, Santolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The approximation that the current is constant in any point of the emitter is not true for solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight. The transverse paths followed by photogenerated carriers to reach metal grid electrodes causes voltage drops leading to non-uniform distributed surface potential and a consequent reduction of the conversion efficiency. Moreover, concentrating lens often provide non-uniform light intensity thus worsening non-uniform current distribution. The correct design of surface geometry of the cell (metal grid, emitter depth, sheet resistance) should always take into account the above effects. Unfortunately a lack of reliable models still exists. In this paper we analytically solve the three-dimensional semiconductor equations with proper boundary conditions and taking into account, as source term, a distributed generation contribute. The reliability of the model has been tested by numerical simulations and experimentally verified with a lock-in thermography technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Experimental investigation and simulation of temperature distributions in a 16Ah-LiMnNiCoO2 battery during rapid discharge rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, S.; Dincer, I.; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Fraser, R.; Fowler, M.

    2017-03-01

    It is very important to have quantitative data regarding the temperature distributions of lithium-ion batteries at different discharge rates in order to design thermal management systems and also for battery thermal modellers. In this paper, the surface temperature distributions on a superior lithium polymer battery (SLPB) with lithium manganese nickel cobalt oxide (LiMnNiCoO2) cathode material (16 Ah capacity) at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates are presented. Additionally, a battery thermal model is developed for this battery using a neural network approach with the Bayesian Regularization method and the simulated results are compared with experimental results in terms of temperature and voltage profiles at C/8, C/4, C/2, 1C, 2C, and 3C discharge rates. Thermal images, which were also captured during experiments with an IR camera at various discharge rates, and are reported in the paper. The results of this study show that the increased discharge rates between C/8 and 3C results in increased surface temperature distributions on the principal surface of the battery and decreased discharge capacity.

  19. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios;

    2013-01-01

    and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...... + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... containing mixture-1 over a range of temperatures and pressures. Similarly the methanol content in the gas phase of mixture-1 + water + methanol systems is predicted satisfactorily with accuracy within experimental uncertainty. For VLLE of mixture-2. +. water, mixture-2 + MEG + water and mixture-2 + methanol...

  20. Experimental transmission of quantum digital signatures over 90  km of installed optical fiber using a differential phase shift quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert J; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-11-01

    Quantum digital signatures (QDSs) apply quantum mechanics to the problem of guaranteeing message integrity and non-repudiation with information-theoretical security, which are complementary to the confidentiality realized by quantum key distribution (QKD). Previous experimental demonstrations have been limited to transmission distances of less than 5 km of optical fiber in a laboratory setting. Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of QDSs over installed optical fiber, as well as the longest transmission link reported to date. This demonstration used a 90 km long differential phase shift QKD to achieve approximately one signed bit per second, an increase in the signature generation rate of several orders of magnitude over previous optical fiber demonstrations.

  1. A multiscale approach for the deformation mechanism in pearlite microstructure: Experimental measurements of strain distribution using a novel technique of precision markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yoshimi, Yusuke; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimokawa, Tomotsugu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ohashi, Tetsuya [Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koencho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Plastic deformation of fully pearlitic steels was investigated using a multiscale approach: experimentally, the finite element method and molecular dynamics. This paper is the first in a series of three papers demonstrating the strain distribution in uniaxial tensile deformation with high-precision markers drawn by electron beam lithography. Strain was measured at loads of 1.98 kN, 2.21 kN and 2.28 kN in tensile deformation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and strain maps show the plastic deformation of cementite lamellae and homogenous plastic deformation under uniaxial tensile deformation in the area where the cementite lamellae are aligned in the tensile direction. The areas where strain was enhanced were both block/colony boundaries and the areas where the cementite lamellae are inclined approximately 45° to the tensile direction.

  2. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  3. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor; Investigacao experimental da distribuicao de temperaturas no reator nuclear de pesquisa TRIGA IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2005-07-01

    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  4. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit- and qudit-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Wang, Qinan; Wong, Cardythy

    2017-02-01

    Recently, Chau [Phys. Rev. A 92, 062324 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.062324] introduced an experimentally feasible qudit-based quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme. In that scheme, one bit of information is phase encoded in the prepared state in a 2n-dimensional Hilbert space in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } with n ≥2 . For each qudit prepared and measured in the same two-dimensional Hilbert subspace, one bit of raw secret key is obtained in the absence of transmission error. Here we show that by modifying the basis announcement procedure, the same experimental setup can generate n bits of raw key for each qudit prepared and measured in the same basis in the noiseless situation. The reason is that in addition to the phase information, each qudit also carries information on the Hilbert subspace used. The additional (n -1 ) bits of raw key comes from a clever utilization of this extra piece of information. We prove the unconditional security of this modified protocol and compare its performance with other existing provably secure qubit- and qudit-based protocols on market in the one-way classical communication setting. Interestingly, we find that for the case of n =2 , the secret key rate of this modified protocol using nondegenerate random quantum code to perform one-way entanglement distillation is equal to that of the six-state scheme.

  5. Experimental procurement of the complete 3D etch rate distribution of Si in anisotropic etchants based on vertically micromachined wagon wheel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosálvez, M. A.; Pal, Prem; Ferrando, N.; Hida, H.; Sato, K.

    2011-12-01

    This is part I of a series of two papers dedicated to the presentation of a novel, large throughput, experimental procedure to determine the three-dimensional distribution of the etch rate of silicon in a wide range of anisotropic etchants, including a total of 30 different etching conditions in KOH, KOH+IPA, TMAH and TMAH+Triton solutions at various concentrations and temperatures. The method is based on the use of previously reported, vertically micromachined wagon wheels (WWs) (Wind and Hines 2000 Surf. Sci. 460 21-38 Nguyen and Elwenspoek 2007 J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 D684-91), focusing on speeding up the etch rate extraction process for each WW by combining macrophotography and image processing procedures. The proposed procedure positions the WWs as a realistic alternative to the traditional hemispherical specimen. The obtained, extensive etch rate database is used to perform wet etching simulations of advanced systems, showing good agreement with the experimental counterparts. In part II of this series (Gosálvez et al J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 125008), we provide a theoretical analysis of the etched spoke shapes, a detailed comparison to the etch rates from previous studies and a self-consistency study of the measured etch rates against maximum theoretical values derived from the spoke shape analysis.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Local Packing Distributed Dynamic Channel Allocation Strategy Application for AI-Madar Telephone Telecommunication Network in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The great challenge of the remarkably growing demand for personal communication mobile service in Libya has actively motivated Al-Madar Telephone Telecommunication Company to adopt various techniques in order to substantially improve its network capacity. An efficient allocation strategy of communication channels that could ensure good performance of the cellular network is critically needed, given the limited spectrum currently available that uses the Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA strategy. In this study, experimental investigations were conducted to improve Al-Madar Company network by proposing the evaluation of the adoption of the Local Packing Distributed Dynamic Channel Allocation (LP-DDCA strategy. The main reasons for proposing the adoption of the LP-DDCA strategy are; to minimize the call blocking probability, enhancing the network performance and increasing the number of network subscribers. This work has been done by applying actual data from an existing cellular network of Al-Madar Company in to the experimental simulation program. The results demonstrated clearly the superiority of the proposed the LP-DDCA strategy in the investigated locations (cells compared with the currently used FCA strategy. Conclusion: Application of the LP-DDCA strategy could give rise to substantial improvement in Al-Madar telecommunication mobile network performance and it will considerably increase the number of network subscribers.

  7. Analysis and interpretation of residence time distribution experimental curves in FM01-LC reactor using axial dispersion and plug dispersion exchange models with closed-closed boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Diaz, Martin R., E-mail: mcruz@tese.edu.m [Division de Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnologico S/N Esq. Av. Hank Gonzalez, Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55120, Ecatepec, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Rivero, Eligio P. [Departamento de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, Av. Primero de Mayo, Cuautitlan Izcalli, C.P. 54740, Edo. de Mex (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The liquid phase mixing flow pattern at low (20 < Re < 120) and intermediate liquid flow rate (120 < Re < 400) was studied by means of residence time distribution (RTD) experimental curve in an up-flow Filter Press electrochemical reactor (FM01-LC) bench scale. For this purpose, a plastic turbulence promoter was used with stainless-steel and platinised titanium structural meshes as electrodes in channel configuration. To visualize and determine the mixing flow pattern in the liquid phase, the stimulus-response technique was employed using dextran blue (D{sub M} = 1.058 x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 25 {sup o}C, in water) as model tracer. A theoretical analysis and approximation RTD experimental curves with axial dispersion model (ADM) and plug dispersion exchange model (PDE), with 'closed-closed vessel' boundary conditions were used in order to establish a better approximation of the axial dispersion, stagnant zones, channelling and by-pass (preference flow) effects present at low and intermediate Re. RTD curves show that the liquid flow pattern in the FM01-LC deviates considerably from axial dispersion model at low Re, where the FM01-LC exhibits large channelling, stagnant zones, and dead zone. The PDE model represents fairly this deviation from ideal flow (less dead zone).

  8. Effect of Carbon Distribution During the Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Steels Studied Using Cellular Automata, Genetic Algorithms, and Experimental Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Chandan; Karmakar, Anish; Hasan, Sk. Md.; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Pietrzyk, Maciej; Chakraborti, Nirupam

    2016-12-01

    The development of ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructures by cold-rolling and intercritical annealing of 0.06 wt pct carbon steel was systematically studied using a dilatometer for two different heating rates (1 and 10 K/s). A step quenching treatment has been designed to develop dual-phase structures having a similar martensite fraction for two different heating rates. An increase in heating rate seemed to refine the ferrite grain size, but it increased the size and spacing of the martensitic regions. As a result, the strength of the steel increased with heating rate; however, the formability was affected. It has been concluded that the distribution of C during the annealing treatment of cold-rolled steel determines the size, distribution, and morphology of martensite, which ultimately influences the mechanical properties. Experimental detection of carbon distribution in austenite is difficult during annealing of the cold-rolled steel as the phase transformation occurs at a high temperature and C is an interstitial solute, which diffuses fast at that temperature. Therefore, a cellular automata (CA)-based phase transformation model is proposed in the present study for the prediction of C distribution in austenite during annealing of steel as the function of C content and heating rate. The CA model predicts that the carbon distribution in austenite becomes more inhomogeneous when the heating rate increases. In the CA model, the extent of carbon inhomogeneity is measured using a kernel averaging method for different orders of neighbors, which accounts for the different physical space during calculation. The obtained results reveal that the 10th order (covering 10- µm physical spaces around the cell of interest) is showing the maximum inhomogeneity of carbon and the same effect has been investigated and confirmed using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for 0.06 wt pct carbon steel. Furthermore, the optimization of carbon homogeneity with respect to heating

  9. Experimental and numerical simulations of bottom hole temperature and pre-ssure distributions of supercritical CO2 jet for well-drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞和; 霍洪俊; 黄志远; 宋慧芳; 倪红坚

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drilling is a novel drilling technique developed in recent years. A detailed study of temperature and pressure distributions of the SC-CO2 jet on the bottom of a well is essensial to the SC-CO2 drilling. In this paper, the distributions of pressure and temperature on the bottom of the hole during the SC-CO2 jet drilling are simulated experimentally and numerically, and the impacts of the nozzle diameter, the jet length, and the inlet pressure of the SC-CO2 jet are analyzed. It is shown that, the bottom hole temperature and pressure increase with the increase of the nozzle diameter, and the bottom hole temperature reduces and the pressure increases first and then decreases with the increase of the jet length, indicating that the jet length has an optimum value. The increase of the inlet pressure can increase the temperature and pressure on the bottom, which has a positive effect on the drilling rate.

  10. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around {sup 192}Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate {sup 192}Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate ({approx}0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a {sup 192}Ir wire source.

  11. Distribution of lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-containing cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acosta-Dibarrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The distribution of cells involved in the immune response in accessory sex glands of rams experimentally infected with Actinobacillus seminis was studied. Twelve one-year old rams were experimentally infected by intraurethral (IU (n=4 and intraepididymal (IE (n=4 route, and four control (CON animals were used. The animals were slaughtered 35 days post-inoculation, samples were taken from accessory sex glands, and bacteriology and histopathology tests were performed. The presence of CD4, CD8 and TCRγδ (WC1 lymphocytes, CD45RO cells, macrophages (CD14, dendritic cells (CD1b, IgA-, IgG- and IgM-containing cells (IgCC was determined. Animals of the IE group developed clinical epididymitis. No lesions were seen in rams of the IU group; two of the intraepididymal inoculated CON developed small lesions in the epididymis. A. seminis isolates were achieved from 6:16 (37.5% accessory sex glands in the IE group, but not in the IU and CON groups. In the CON group, IgA- and IgM- containing cells predominated in the bulbourethral glands and the disseminated prostate, and they were scarce or null in the vesicles and ampullae. A significant increase of IgA-, IgG- and IgM- containing cells was confirmed in the seminal vesicles, the ampullae and the bulbourethral glands in the IE group. In the IE and IU groups, an increase in CD4, CD8, WC1, CD45RO and CD14 was evidenced in the vesicles and ampullae. CD1b dendritic cells were present in the ampullae and vesicles with inflammatory processes. A. seminis triggered a local immune response in the IE and IU groups. These results indicate a different pattern of infiltrating immune cells in the accessory sex glands of infected A. seminis rams.

  12. Spatial distribution of top soil water content in an experimental catchment of Southeast Brazil Distribuição espacial da umidade superficial do solo em uma bacia hidrográfica experimental do Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is essential to understand the hydrological cycle. It controls the surface runoff generation, water infiltration, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. This work aims to analyze the spatial distribution of top soil water content and to characterize the spatial mean and standard deviation of top soil water content over time in an experimental catchment located in the Mantiqueira Range region, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Measurements of top soil water content were carried out every 15 days, between May/2007 and May/2008. Using time-domain reflectometry (TDR equipment, 69 points were sampled in the top 0.2 m of the soil profile. Geostatistical procedures were applied in all steps of the study. First, the spatial continuity was evaluated, and the experimental semi-variogram was modeled. For the development of top soil water content maps over time a co-kriging procedure was used having the slope as a secondary variable. Rainfall regime controlled the top soil water content during the wet season. Land use was also another fundamental local factor. The spatial standard deviation had low values under dry conditions, and high values under wet conditions. Thus, more variability occurs under wet conditions.A umidade do solo é essencial para o entendimento do ciclo hidrológico, uma vez que controla a geração do escoamento superficial, infiltração de água no solo, evaporação do solo e transpiração das plantas. Este trabalho objetivou analisar os padrões espaciais da umidade superficial do solo e caracterizar a média e o desvio padrão espaciais da mesma ao longo do tempo em uma bacia hidrográfica experimental localizada na Serra da Mantiqueira, MG. As medidas da umidade superficial do solo foram conduzidas a cada 15 dias, entre Maio/2007 e Maio/2008, usando um equipamento TDR portátil, em 69 pontos amostrados na camada de 0-20 cm. Procedimentos geoestatísticos foram aplicados em todas as etapas do trabalho

  13. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  14. Design and Application of a Distributed Programming Experimental Platform%分布式程序设计实验平台的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春明; 杜炯; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the problems of the lack of basic skill training and code plagiarism in programming courses, a distributed programming experimental platform is designed and developed by using Python and Open Source Software. The platform can automatically test and evaluate the codes submitted by students in Linux environment, and detect code plagiarism by using Moss. The performance evaluation and application shows that this platform can respond quickly to the mass request of users. The design and application of the platform improved the comprehensive programming ability of students.%针对程序设计类课程教学中基本技能训练不足、代码抄袭严重等问题,提出并设计了分布式程序设计实验平台.该平台在Linux环境下自动测评学生提交的代码,采用Moss系统用以检测程序抄袭,利用Python及源软件开发并部署.对平台的性能评估及应用效果表明,分布式环境下的实验平台能满足大规模并发请求下的快速响应要求,提高了学生的程序设计综合能力.

  15. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-07-01

    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Indoor Air Distribution in Low Temperature Air Supply Room%低温送风室内气流组织的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 柳建华; 张良

    2015-01-01

    低温送风在空气调节系统的节能和提高体感舒适度上有着独特的优势。但同时,送风温度偏低也带来了冷风下坠、温度场不均匀、热舒适性下降的隐患。本文针对低温送风中存在的这些问题,首先确立了低温送风的气流组织评价标准,并设计了包含制冷系统、冰蓄冷系统和测量系统在内的一整套低温送风实验系统,最后对不同的送风温度下实验结果进行定性和定量的分析,从而得到了相应的解决方法和结论。%Low temperature air supply possesses unique advantages on energy conservation and thermal comfort improvement for the air conditioning system. However, the supply air with low temperature also brings possible defects of cold air draught, asymmetrical temperature field or thermal comfort reduction. Thus, in order to explore and solve the above problems, the evaluation standards on airflow distribution of the low temperature air are first defined, then the corresponding experimental system is designed and introduced, including its refrigeration system, ice storage system and measurement system. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative analysis on experiment results is carried out for different air supply temperatures, and the targeted solving methods and conclusions are acquired and presented.

  17. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from broilers infected experimentally with Eimeria spp and fed with diets containing different supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.V. Cassenego

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L, tet(M and erm(B genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%, followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%, E. mundtii (10.8%, E. faecium (10.8%, E. columbae (5.8% and E. gallinarum (4.2%. Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M, tet(L and erm(B genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci.

  18. Macroscopic fluorescence imaging: a novel technique to monitor retention and distribution of injected microspheres in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martens

    Full Text Available The limited effectiveness of cardiac cell therapy has generated concern regarding its clinical relevance. Experimental studies show that cell retention and engraftment are low after injection into ischemic myocardium, which may restrict therapy effectiveness significantly. Surgical aspects and mechanical loss are suspected to be the main culprits behind this phenomenon. As current techniques of monitoring intramyocardial injections are complex and time-consuming, the aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple model to study cardiac retention and distribution following intramyocardial injections. For this purpose, our main hypothesis was that macroscopic fluorescence imaging could adequately serve as a detection method for intramyocardial injections.A total of 20 mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD for myocardial infarction. Fluorescent microspheres with cellular dimensions were used as cell surrogates. Particles (5 × 10(5 were injected into the infarcted area of explanted resting hearts (Ex vivo myocardial injetions EVMI, n = 10 and in vivo into beating hearts (In vivo myocardial injections IVMI, n = 10. Microsphere quantification was performed by fluorescence imaging of explanted organs. Measurements were repeated after a reduction to homogenate dilutions. Cardiac microsphere retention was 2.78 × 10(5 ± 0.31 × 10(5 in the EVMI group. In the IVMI group, cardiac retention of microspheres was significantly lower (0.74 × 10(5 ± 0.18 × 10(5; p<0.05. Direct fluorescence imaging revealed venous drainage through the coronary sinus, resulting in a microsphere accumulation in the left (0.90 × 10(5 ± 0.20 × 10(5 and the right (1.07 × 10(5 ± 0.17 × 10(5 lung. Processing to homogenates involved further particle loss (p<0.05 in both groups.We developed a fast and simple direct fluorescence imaging method for biodistribution analysis which enabled the quantification of fluorescent microspheres after

  19. Distribution of Foxp3(+) T cells in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of goats and sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Zafra, R; Pérez, J; McNeilly, T N; Pacheco, I L; Buffoni, L; Martínez-Moreno, F J; Molina-Hernández, V; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2016-10-30

    Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are now considered to play a key role in modulation of immune responses during parasitic helminth infections. Immunomodulation is a key factor in Fasciola hepatica infection; however, the distribution and role of Foxp3(+) Tregs cells have not been investigated in F. hepatica infected ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Foxp3(+) Tregs in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes from experimentally infected sheep and goats during acute and chronic stages of infection. Three groups of goats (n=6) and three groups of sheep (n=6) were used in this study. Goats in groups 1-2 and sheep in groups 4-5 were orally infected with metacercarie of ovine origin. Groups 1 and 4 were killed during the acute stage of the infection, at nine days post infection (dpi); groups 2 and 5 were killed during the chronic stage, at 15 and19 weeks post infection respectively (wpi). Groups 3 (goats) and 6 (sheep) were left as uninfected controls. Fluke burdens and liver damage were assessed and the avidin-biotin-complex method was used for the immunohistochemical study. At nine dpi in acute hepatic lesions, the number of both Foxp3(+) and CD3(+) T lymphocytes increased significantly in goats and sheep. In the chronic stages of infection (15-19wpi), the number of Foxp3(+) and CD3(+) T lymphocytes were also significantly increased with respect to control livers, particularly in portal spaces with severely enlarged bile ducts (response to adult flukes) while the increase was lower in granulomas, chronic tracts and smaller portal spaces (response to tissue damage). Foxp3(+) Tregs were increased in the cortex of hepatic lymph nodes of sheep (chronic infection) and goats (acute and chronic infection). The estimated proportion of T cells which were Foxp3+ was significantly increased in the large bile ducts and hepatic lymph node cortex of chronically infected goats but not sheep. This first report of the expansion of Foxp3(+) Tregs in acute and

  20. Charge state distribution of {sup 16}O from the {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengjin, E-mail: liusj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, China Academy of Science, 19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Makoto [Department of Physics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kato, Daiji [Fusion Systems Research Division, National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tolstikhina, I.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-01

    In astrophysics, {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product {sup 16}O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of {sup 16}O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the {sup 16}O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of {sup 16}O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary {sup 16}O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  2. Experimental study of the water depth and rainfall intensity effects on the bed roughness coefficient used in distributed urban drainage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

    2013-11-01

    Variability of roughness coefficients with water depth and rainfall is studied.Experimental measurements and numerical calibration are performed.Results show bed friction variations, not well captured by any standard formulation.

  3. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Species Distribution, and an Exploration of Rhizosphere Microbes and Mycorrhizae at a Deliberately Leakimg Experimental Carbon Sequestration Field (ZERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; Apple, M. E.; Morales, S.; Zhou, X.; Holben, B.; Olson, J.; Prince, J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    One measure to reduce atmospheric CO2 is to sequester it in deep geological formations. Rapid surface detection of any CO2 leakage is crucial. CO2 leakage rapidly affects vegetation above sequestration fields. Plant responses to high CO2 are valuable tools in surface detection of leaking CO2. The Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental field for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010) from a 100m horizontal injection well, HIW, 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, VI, (6/3-6/24/2010). The vegetation includes Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), and other herbaceous plants. We collected soil and roots 1, 3 and 5 m from the VI to determine the responses of mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microbes to high CO2. Mycorrhizal fungi obtain C from root exudates, increase N and P availability, and reduce desiccation, while prokaryotic rhizosphere microbes fix atmospheric N and will be examined for abundance and expression of carbon and nitrogen cycling genes. We are quantifying mycorrhizal colonization and the proportion of spores, hyphae, and arbuscules in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in cleared and stained roots. Stomatal conductance is an important measure of CO2 uptake and water loss via transpiration. We used a porometer (5-40°C, 0-90% RH, Decagon) to measure stomatal conductivity in dandelion and orchard grass at 1, 3, and 5 m from the VI and along a transect perpendicular to the HIW. Dandelion conductance was highest close to the VI and almost consistently higher close to hot spots (circular regions with maximum CO2 and leaf dieback) at the HIW, with 23.2 mmol/m2/s proximal to the hot spot, and 10.8 mmol/m2/s distally. Average conductance in grass (50.3 mmol/m2/s) was higher than in dandelion, but grass did not have high conductance near hot spots. Stomata generally close at elevated CO2

  4. Experimental verification of the effect of cable length on voltage distribution in stator winding of an induction motor under surge condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyegoke, B.S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of surge distribution tests performed on a stator of a 6 kV induction motor. The primary aim of these tests was to determine the wave propagation properties of the machine winding fed via cables of different lengths. Considering the measured resorts, conclusions are derived regarding the effect of cable length on the surge distribution within the stator winding of an ac motor. (orig.) 15 refs.

  5. Water-mediated conformations of the alanine dipeptide as revealed by distributed umbrella sampling simulations, quantum mechanics based calculations, and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Víctor; Ramos, Javier; Martínez-Salazar, Javier

    2011-04-28

    An exhaustive umbrella sampling simulation of the alanine dipeptide in solution is reported. The presence of stable Y conformations in solution is assessed by both quantum calculations and experimental data from X-ray and NMR protein-solved structures available in the protein coil library. The agreement between experimental and simulation Ramachandran plots of the dipeptide in solution is excellent. A suitable explanation of the stabilization of the Y conformation mediated by water for the alanine dipeptide is discussed on the basis of Car-Parrinello MD calculations of the dipeptide in water.

  6. Experimental studies on tissue distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled anitimicrobic drugs in otorhinolaryngological field. Special reference to apply macro-autoradiography to these studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Kanetaka (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-08-01

    The distribution and concentration of antimicrobic drugs in the otorhinolaryngological field was studied together in the excised tissue by freezing macro-autoradiography in rabbits. Of the three Nalidixic acid antimicrobic analogues, i.e., pipemidic acid, AM-715 and rosoxacine, the first two accumulated remarkably in the soft palate, showing affinity for the cartilage. The concentrations of the three drugs in the paranasal sinus were higher on the medial portion of the maxilla than on the lateral portion, and the order of concentrations for ethmoidsinus were the lateral > anterior > posterior > medial portions. The present technique was thought to be a useful means for clarifying the distribution of drugs in vivo.

  7. 财产损失分布建模与实证分析研究%Modeling the Distribution of Property Losses and the Relevant Experimental Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新军

    2003-01-01

    The paper is going to introduce some methods about select distributional model、select an eistimation technique、iterate to minimize objective function、record estimated parameters、select one or more models which had low value of the objective function and test of-fit of selected model by empirical distribution function、mean of residual life function、minimum distance and minimum chi-square. This should prove especially useful to those readers who want to set up a computer system to perform the model-fitting operation.

  8. Trichinella spiralis, T-britovi, and T-nativa: infectivity, larval distribution in muscle, and antibody response after experimental infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Lind, Peter;

    1998-01-01

    The infectivity of Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi was experimentally compared in pigs. Blood sampling was performed weekly, and muscle juices were obtained at slaughter 10 weeks after inoculation. Muscle larvae were found in all of four pigs inoculated with T. spiralis [mean 190...

  9. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  10. The longitudinal and transverse distributions of the pion wave function from the present experimental data on the pion-photon transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Wu, Xing-Gang; Huang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    The low-energy and high-energy behavior of the pion-photon transition form factor F_{π γ }(Q^2) are sensitive to the transverse and longitudinal distributions of the pion wave function, respectively. A careful study of F_{π γ }(Q^2) shall thus provide helpful constraints on the properties of the pion wave function. In this paper, we present a combined analysis of the data on F_{π γ }(Q^2) reported by the CELLO, the CLEO, the BABAR, and the BELLE Collaborations. It is performed by using the method of least squares. By using the combined measurements of the BELLE and CLEO Collaborations, the pion wave function longitudinal and transverse behavior can be fixed to a certain degree, i.e. we obtain β in [0.691,0.757] GeV and B in [0.00,0.235] for P_{χ ^2} ≥ 90 %, where β and B are two parameters of a convenient pion wave function model. It is noted that the distribution amplitude of such a pion wave function can mimic various longitudinal behaviors, as suggested in the literature under a proper choice of parameters. We observe that the CELLO, CLEO, and BELLE data are consistent with each other, all of which prefer the asymptotic-like distribution amplitude; while the BABAR data prefers a more broad distribution amplitude, such as the CZ-like one.

  11. Mathematical modeling and experimental validation of the spatial distribution of boron in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana identify high boron accumulation in the tip and predict a distinct root tip uptake function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotohno, Akie; Sotta, Naoyuki; Sato, Takafumi; De Ruvo, Micol; Marée, Athanasius F M; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-04-01

    Boron, an essential micronutrient, is transported in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mainly by two different types of transporters, BORs and NIPs (nodulin26-like intrinsic proteins). Both are plasma membrane localized, but have distinct transport properties and patterns of cell type-specific accumulation with different polar localizations, which are likely to affect boron distribution. Here, we used mathematical modeling and an experimental determination to address boron distributions in the root. A computational model of the root is created at the cellular level, describing the boron transporters as observed experimentally. Boron is allowed to diffuse into roots, in cells and cell walls, and to be transported over plasma membranes, reflecting the properties of the different transporters. The model predicts that a region around the quiescent center has a higher concentration of soluble boron than other portions. To evaluate this prediction experimentally, we determined the boron distribution in roots using laser ablation-inductivity coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analysis indicated that the boron concentration is highest near the tip and is lower in the more proximal region of the meristem zone, similar to the pattern of soluble boron distribution predicted by the model. Our model also predicts that upward boron flux does not continuously increase from the root tip toward the mature region, indicating that boron taken up in the root tip is not efficiently transported to shoots. This suggests that root tip-absorbed boron is probably used for local root growth, and that instead it is the more mature root regions which have a greater role in transporting boron toward the shoots.

  12. Analysis and experimental study of the temperature and stress distribution in the slab of a solid-state heat capacity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiankun; Wan, Xuebin; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng

    2008-03-01

    In conventional cooling operation, thermal effects and stress distribution in slabs of solid-state laser are presented by many workers, it is different with that in the solid state heat capacity laser. In this paper, the transient temperature and stress distribution in Xeon flash lamps pumped slabs for single-shot and repetitively pulsed operations will be produced in the heat capacity operation. A high speed CCD camera was used to set up an experiment system to measure the interference fringes, from these fringes' changes, the extension of the slab due to the stress and thermal expansion can be obtained. Since dielectric materials are inherently several factors stronger in compression than in tension, this temperature reversal in heat capacity operation increases the inherent fracture limit of the system and allows a heat capacity operated laser to be pumped much harder than a conventionally operated slab laser.

  13. Temperature change and stress distribution analysis of die surface in Al-alloy die casting process and experimental study on die heat check

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xinping; Zhao Guoqun; Wu Bingyao

    2008-01-01

    The temperature change of the die surface in practical aluminum alloy die casting process was analyzed,and a 2D model was formulated on the basis of a deep concave round cavity without sliding core to analyze the stress distributions along the die surface in detail. Equipment was designed to test the thermal state of the die steel in different thermal loading conditions. The results of stress analysis showed that, the value of thermal stress (maximum 1.5 GPa) caused in the die filling and die spraying stages was larger than the mechanical stress (maximum 85 MPa)caused in the die locking stage. The results of the thermal check experiment showed that there were three stages of die dissolving, and that the stress distribution shown by the samples' cracking routine was close to the die surface stress analysis.

  14. Dexamethasone-induced reactivation of bovine herpesvirus type 5 latent infection in experimentally infected rabbits results in a broader distribution of latent viral DNA in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Mayer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5 is a major agent of meningoencephalitis in cattle and establishes latent infections mainly in sensory nerve ganglia. The distribution of latent BHV-5 DNA in the brain of rabbits prior to and after virus reactivation was studied using a nested PCR. Fifteen rabbits inoculated intranasally with BHV-5 were euthanized 60 days post-inoculation (group A, N = 8 or submitted to dexamethasone treatment (2.6 mg kg-1 day-1, im, for 5 days and euthanized 60 days later (group B, N = 7 for tissue examination. Two groups of BHV-1-infected rabbits (C, N = 3 and D, N = 3 submitted to each treatment were used as controls. Viral DNA of group A rabbits was consistently detected in trigeminal ganglia (8/8, frequently in cerebellum (5/8, anterior cerebral cortex and pons-medulla (3/8 and occasionally in dorsolateral (2/8, ventrolateral and posterior cerebral cortices, midbrain and thalamus (1/8. Viral DNA of group B rabbits showed a broader distribution, being detected at higher frequency in ventrolateral (6/7 and posterior cerebral cortices (5/7, pons-medulla (6/7, thalamus (4/7, and midbrain (3/7. In contrast, rabbits inoculated with BHV-1 harbored viral DNA almost completely restricted to trigeminal ganglia and the distribution did not change post-reactivation. These results demonstrate that latency by BHV-5 is established in several areas of the rabbit's brain and that virus reactivation leads to a broader distribution of latent viral DNA. Spread of virus from trigeminal ganglia and other areas of the brain likely contributes to this dissemination and may contribute to the recrudescence of neurological disease frequently observed upon BHV-5 reactivation.

  15. The CTTC 5G End-to-End Experimental Platform : Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless/Optical Networks, Distributed Cloud, and IoT Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Muñóz, Raul; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Vilalta, Ricard; Verikoukis, Christos; Alonso-Zarate, Jesús; Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Payaró, Miquel; Pérez-Neira, Ana; Casellas, Ramon; Martínez, Ricardo; Núñez-Martínez, Jose; Manuel Requena Esteso, Manuel; Pubill, David; Font-Batch, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) will facilitate a wide variety of applications in different domains, such as smart cities, smart grids, industrial automation (Industry 4.0), smart driving, assistance of the elderly, and home automation. Billions of heterogeneous smart devices with different application requirements will be connected to the networks and will generate huge aggregated volumes of data that will be processed in distributed cloud infrastructures. On the other hand, there is also a gen...

  16. Effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain on the spatial distribution of surface EMG activity of the human masseter muscle during tooth clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Farina, D

    2012-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that painful injections of glutamate into the human masseter muscle differentially affect the distribution of the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the masseter muscle at rest and during tooth clenching. Surface EMG signals were recorded bilaterally from the superficial masseter of nine healthy men with a grid of 32 electrodes, before and after intramuscular injection of glutamate or isotonic saline, during rest and isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximal voluntary bite force. Intramuscular injection of glutamate evoked moderate pain (0-10 visual analogue scale: 6·4 ± 1·4), with sensory-discriminative characteristics of the perceived pain, evaluated with the use of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), similar to those previously reported for patients with temporomandibular disorders. There was no effect of the glutamate injection on EMG amplitude during rest, whereas during tooth clenching, the spatial distribution of the masseter EMG activity on both sides was more uniform in the painful condition compared to the control condition. Moreover, the overall EMG amplitude decreased on both sides during the more forceful tooth clenching following glutamate injection. In conclusion, a unilateral painful stimulation was associated with a bilateral inhibition of the masseter muscles during tooth clenching which resulted in a more uniform distribution of EMG activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. 低温向上倾斜管内Taylor泡初始形成位置分布的实验研究%Experimental study on the initial position distribution of Taylor bubbles in cryorenic upward inclined tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 王淑华; 刘夷平; 王经

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to understand the phenomena of the boiling flow of liquid nitrogen in inclined tubes with closed bottom by using the high speed digital cerera.The tubes in the experiment ale 0.018 m and 0.014 m in inner diameter and 1.0 m in length.The range ofthe inclination angles is 0-45°from the vertical.The statistical method iS employed to analyze the experimental data.The experiment was focused on the effect of the inelination angle on the initial position distribution of Taylor bubbles.The formation criterion of Taylor bubbles was confirmed by analyzing the images of Taylor bubbles.The experimental results show that the initial position of Taylor bubble increased first.and then decreased with the increasing inclination angle,with the maximum at 30.The standard deviation of the initial position of Taylor bubble in tubes was different with difierent inner diameters.The lognormal shape was fined to the measured the initial position distributions of Taylor bubbles in the cryogenic tubes.

  18. Distribution of genes for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide, Indian hedgehog, PTH receptor and patched in the process of experimental spondylosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Takanobu; Ariga, Kenta; Meng, Wenxiang; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tomita, Tetsuya; Myoui, Akira; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2002-07-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of spondylosis. The authors determined the extent of genetic localization of major regulators of chondrogenesis such as Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) and their receptors during the development of spondylosis in their previously established experimental mouse model. Experimental spondylosis was induced in 5-week-old ICR mice. The cervical spines were chronologically harvested, and histological sections were prepared. Messenger (m) RNA for PTHrP, Ihh, PTH receptor (PTHR; a receptor for PTHrP), patched (Ptc; a receptor for Ihh), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, and collagen type X (COL10; a marker for mature chondrocyte) was localized in the tissue sections by performing in situ hybridization. In the early stage, mRNA for COL10, Ihh, and BMP-6 was absent; however, mRNA for PTHrP, PTHR, and Ptc was detected in the anterior margin of the cervical discs. In the late stage, evidence of COL10 mRNA began to be detected, and transcripts for Ihh, PTHrP, and BMP-6 were localized in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the bone-forming area in osteophyte. Messenger RNA for Ptc and PTHR continued to localize at this stage. In control mice, expression of these genes was absent. The localization of PTHrP, Ihh, BMP-6, and the receptors PTHR and Ptc demonstrated in the present experimental model indicates the possible involvement of molecular signaling by PTHrP (through the PTHR), Ihh (through the Ptc), and BMP-6 in the regulation of chondrocyte maturation leading to endochondral ossification in spondylosis.

  19. Distribution of gas hydrate inhibitor monoethylene glycol in condensate and water systems: Experimental measurement and thermodynamic modeling using the cubic-plus-association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Frost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    hydrate formation in subsea pipelines, monoethylene glycol (MEG) and methanol are injected in large amounts. It is important to know the distribution of these chemicals in oil and water systems for economical operation of a production facility and environmental perspective. In this work, we present new......The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. To meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling, and foaming, the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years. To inhibit gas...

  20. Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures over 43 dB channel loss using differential phase shift quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Robert J; Amiri, Ryan; Fujiwara, Mikio; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Andersson, Erika; Buller, Gerald S

    2017-06-12

    Ensuring the integrity and transferability of digital messages is an important challenge in modern communications. Although purely mathematical approaches exist, they usually rely on the computational complexity of certain functions, in which case there is no guarantee of long-term security. Alternatively, quantum digital signatures offer security guaranteed by the physical laws of quantum mechanics. Prior experimental demonstrations of quantum digital signatures in optical fiber have typically been limited to operation over short distances and/or operated in a laboratory environment. Here we report the experimental transmission of quantum digital signatures over channel losses of up to 42.8 ± 1.2 dB in a link comprised of 90 km of installed fiber with additional optical attenuation introduced to simulate longer distances. The channel loss of 42.8 ± 1.2 dB corresponds to an equivalent distance of 134.2 ± 3.8 km and this represents the longest effective distance and highest channel loss that quantum digital signatures have been shown to operate over to date. Our theoretical model indicates that this represents close to the maximum possible channel attenuation for this quantum digital signature protocol, defined as the loss for which the signal rate is comparable to the dark count rate of the detectors.

  1. Review of experimental and natural invertebrate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens and its distribution and abundance in macroinvertebrates in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcogliese

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and natural invertebrate intermediate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens as well as transmission experiments of sealworm from invertebrates to fish are reviewed and summarized. Experimental hosts include copepods, mysids, cumaceans, isopods, amphipods, decapods, annelids, and molluscs. Invertebrates collected from eastern Canada between 1989 and 1995 were checked for nematode infections by microscopic examination of dissected animals or enzymatic digestion of bulk samples. Third-stage larval sealworm were found in mysids (Neomysis americana, Mysis stenolepis from Passamaquoddy Bay, the Bras d’Or Lakes, inshore Cape Breton, Sable Island and Sable Island Bank. Infected amphipods (Amphiporeia virginiana, Americorchestia megalophthalma, Gammarus spp. were found only on Sable Island. Typical infection rates in macroinvertebrates were 1-4/1000. No sealworm infections were found in approximately 18,000 amphipods examined from Sable Island Bank, the site of the most heavily infected fishes in eastern Canada. In Wallace Lake, a brackish pond on Sable Island, infection rates were much higher in mysids than in amphipods. Estimates of rates of transmission of sealworm from invertebrates to fish were derived from infection levels in Wallace Lake and feeding experiments involving sticklebacks and invertebrate prey. It is concluded that mysids may be much more important than amphipods in transmitting sealworm to fish hosts.

  2. An analytical and experimental approach for pressure distribution analysis of a particular lobe and plain bearing performance keeping in view of all impeding varying parameters associating with fixed lubrication SAE20W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania (India); Belkar, Sanjay [Pravara Rural Engineering CollegeLoni, Rahata taluka (India)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents both analytical and experimental pressure analysis approach of a typical Lobe and plain bearing for determining effective performance of the bearing. This is found to be dependent on several variables viz. angular velocity (1200-1900 rpm), load (300- 750 N) and pressure angle (0.deg.-180.deg.). This study in particular has been carried out for better rectifications and comparative prediction of lobe and plain bearing in terms of pressure distribution behavior under lubrication oil grade of SAE20W40. Influencing parameters were varied in this set up only to get optimum parametric combination considering all relevant practical issues. The experimentation was done based on significant directives of relevant literatures in these sectors. Attempt was made to compare the analytical findings with experimental results and found matched appreciably. After that attention was diverted to find the nature of pressure and load carrying capacity at various fluctuating speed and load with a fixed lubrication of SAE20W40 for appropriate decision making towards its characteristic performance. The analytical data generated by MATLAB are compared with experimental data which is generated by JBTR.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Axial Magnetic Field Distribution on Resisting the Constriction of a High-Current Vacuum Arc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zongqian; LIU Zhigang; JIA Shenli; SONG Xiaochuan; WANG Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the axial magnetic field (AMF) on resisting the constriction of a high-current vacuum arc is studied in this paper. Two typical AMF distributions were investigated, i.e., the traditional bell-shaped AMF, and the saddle-shaped AMF. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with a rms arc current in the range of 10 kA to 25 kA. The arc column was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 microseconds. The constriction of the vacuum arc was compared by processing the images of the arc column under the two different field configurations and numerically determining the dimensions of the arc column near the electrodes. It was also confirmed that the AMF distribution had a signifcant influence on its effectiveness in resisting arc constriction, Furthermore, the AMF strength near the periphery of the arc is more influential than that at the centre of the electrodes in resisting arc constriction.

  4. Experimental Study of the Distribution of Au and Cu in Aqueous Vapor Phase at High Temperatures and Its Role on Ore-forming Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ronghua; HU Shumin; ZHANG Xuetong

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on experiments of Au and Cu dissolved in vapor phase in hydrothernmlfluids. Experiments prove that Au and Cu can re-distribute in vapor phase and liquid phase duringseparation of Au- and Cu-bearing supercriticai fluids to vapor and liquid phases. These experimentalresults can illustrate some ore geneses, where boiling phenomena of ore fluids were found. Au- and Cu-bearing NaHCO3-HCl solutions were heated up to more than 350℃ in the main vessel, and then passedthrough a phase separator in a temperature range from 250oC to 300℃, separated into vapor andliquid phases. We collected and analyzed the liquid and vapor samples separately, and found that Auand Cu dissolved and distributed in vapor phase. In some cases, the concentrations of Au and Cu invapor are higher than those in liquid phase. Those experiments are used to interpret field observationsof fluid inclusion data of some Au and Cu deposits, and demonstrate that some Au and Cu ore depositsare derived from metals transportation in vapor phase.

  5. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  6. Experimental study of distribution law of shields curve in laminar regime%层流区Shields曲线分布规律试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安宇; 王正中; 赵延风

    2015-01-01

    为探明层流条件下Shields曲线的分布规律,运用电荷耦合组件( Charge Coupled Device, CCD)成像技术结合激光扫描及计算机图像处理技术,在水和甘油混合液中对无黏性均匀玻璃颗粒的起动拖曳力进行测量,并根据层流绕流理论建立了无黏性均匀颗粒的滚动起动模型,提出层流条件下无黏性均匀颗粒的量纲一起动拖曳力公式。试验观测发现在层流范围内希尔兹数呈规则的带状分布,流体作用引起颗粒床表面粗化并导致床面颗粒突起减小,使颗粒起动拖曳力增大1倍以上。结果表明颗粒床表面结构性状直接影响着颗粒起动拖曳力的大小,在层流区Shields曲线具有带状分布特性。%In order to study the distribution law of Shields curve in laminar regime, the critical tractive force for the onset motion of uniform non⁃cohesive glass beads is investigated based on the CCD ( charge coupled device) imaging technology combined with laser scanning and computer image processing technology, using a mixture of water and glycerol. According to the laminar flow theory, the rolling model for the onset motion of non⁃cohesive particles is estab⁃lished and an equation for non⁃dimensional critical tractive force is derived. Experiments show that the particle Reyn⁃olds number versus Shields number is a systematic band distribution in the laminar region;further, fluid flow induces bed armoring and leads to the decrease in particle protrusion on the granular surface, the critical tractive force can be doubled consequently. This indicates that the structure of the granular surface has a significant impact on the critical tractive force for the onset motion of particles, and band distribution is a characteristic of Shields curve in the laminar regime.

  7. Experimental study on the low flow CHF in vertical 3x3 rod bundle with non-uniform axial heat flux distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Ki; Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Baek, Won Pil

    2004-05-01

    An experimental study of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) has been performed for a water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical 3x3 rod bundle under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. Since most of experimental studies on the low flow CHF have been performed under low pressure conditions, present study has investigated the effects of various parameters on the CHF under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. Especially, these experiments are focused on the CHF under Return-To-Power (RTP) conditions that are expected to occur in a main steam line break accident of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Using present CHF data, the applicability of conventional CHF correlations are investigated in a return-to-power condition. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.47 to 15.06 MPa, mass flux from 49.66 to 654.44 kg/m{sup 2}s, inlet subcooling from 67.90 to 722.70 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.36 to 1.29. In this study, the return-to-power conditions are defined as conditions with low mass flux less than 250 kg/m{sup 2}s, intermediated pressure between 6.0 MPa and 12.0 MPa, and high inlet subcooling greater than 200 kJ/kg. Total 299 CHF data including 93 CHF data in return-to-power conditions are obtained. The effects of various parameters on the CHF are consistent with previous understandings on the round tube CHF. Conventional CHF correlations predict the present return-to-power CHF data with reasonable accuracies. However, the prediction capabilities become worse in a very low mass flux below than about 100 kg/m{sup 2}s.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON TROPISM-DISTRIBUTION OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE AND THE CONTENT OF cAMP IN ARTHRITIS RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yu; CHEN Yi-guo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To verify two hypotheses: 1) Acupuncture can increase the re-distribution of tetramethylpyrazine (ligustrazine) hydrochloride (TMPH) to the target organs in adjuvant arthritic rats. 2) Cyclic Adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the guidance cues involved in this event. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar rats were randomized into blank control (BC), model (MO), medication (ME), Acupuncture (Acu) and Acu+ME groups, with 8 cases in each group. Arthritis model was established by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 mL) into the rat's foot pad. Electroacupuncture (15 Hz, 0.2-0.3V) was applied to bilateral "Daling"(大陵PC 7), "Taichong" (太冲LR 3) and "Xiguan" (膝关LR 7) for 20 min, and the contents of TMPH in the heart, liver, kidney and the foot (affected focus) tissues and the contents of cAMP in the heart and liver tissues were determined with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay techniques respectively. Results: Compared with medication group, the TMPH contents in the heart, liver, kidney and the affected foot tissues in Acu-ME group was obviously higher (P<0.05, P<0.01). In comparison with ME and Acu groups, the cAMP contents in the heart and liver in Acu+ME group was also significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01). No significant differences were found between ME and Acu+ME groups in TMPH content of kidney and between Acu+ME and BC groups in cAMP contents in both liver and heart tissues. Conclusion: Acupuncture may promote the target-tropism distribution of ligustrazine, and cAMP may play an important role in it.

  9. Differential dissolution susceptibility in late Paleocene to early Eocene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages: comparing experimental and distributional data from Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. M. P.; Petrizzo, M. R.; Speijer, R. P.

    2009-04-01

    We carried out dissolution experiments on well-preserved planktonic foraminifera species from the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene ODP Sites 865B (Allison Guyot) and 1209B, 1210B, 1212A (Shatsky Rise) in the Pacific Ocean. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in dissolution susceptibility between taxa, unravel the impact of dissolution on the composition of the assemblages, and from this, improving the reliability of paleoenvironmental interpretations of this time interval. The topic is of particular interest, since the time interval under investigation includes the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), which is frequently characterized by signs of carbonate dissolution. The preservation state of chosen specimens of the most common genera occurring in the late Paleocene to early Eocene assemblages (Acarinina, Morozovella, Subbotina and Igorina) was checked under binocular microscope. These specimens were then subjected to the experiment through exposure to acetic acid buffered solution pH of 6.6 with experimental duration increments of 2 and 10 hours. After every period of acid treatment, specimens were cleaned with distilled water, dried and the state of preservation of the specimens was again assessed. After this, SEM studies were carried out, together with quantitative studies. The results show that at generic level, Acarinina is the most resistant genus, followed by Morozovella and Subbotina, respectively. This dissolution susceptibility ranking is in good agreement with inferences on differential dissolution based on quantitative records from Sites 1209 and 1210 (Petrizzo, 2007; Petrizzo et al. 2008). Focusing on the interval of high shell fragmentation, these studies indicated that among Acarinina, Morozovella and Subbotina, the number of fragments of Subbotina exceeds its number of whole specimens, and only fragments of Subbotina occur in the interval of maximum fragmentation. Statistical analysis also confirmed Subbotina to be the

  10. Distribution of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus provirus, RNA, and antigen in the reproductive tract of one naturally and seven experimentally infected bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Andréia P; Paniago, Juliana J; da Costa, Luciana F; da Cruz, Juliano C M; Braz, Gissandra F; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2013-11-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis is a worldwide, multisystemic disease caused by a small ruminant lentivirus. Although the main route of transmission is oral, detection of proviral DNA of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in caprine semen has been previously described. However, the presence of viral antigens in the male reproductive tract has apparently never been reported. The objective was to study lesions in the buck reproductive system and to detect, in these tissues, the presence of proviral DNA, viral RNA and CAEV antigens. Tissues from eight CAEV-infected bucks (one naturally and seven experimentally infected) were analyzed by histopathology, nested polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Interstitial pneumonia, synovitis, and lesions in the male reproductive tract were detected in some of the bucks. Proviral DNA was detected in the lungs and joints as well as in the reproductive systems of all animals, whereas viral RNA was detected only in the genital tract of the naturally infected buck. Viral antigens were immunostained in most of the organs of the male reproductive tract. This report was apparently the first to clearly demonstrate CAEV antigen expression in the male reproductive tract, which indicates the possibility of venereal transmission of CAEV.

  11. An experimental health smart home and its distributed internet-based information and communication system: first steps of a research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialle, V; Noury, N; Hervé, T

    2001-01-01

    We present a study and whole experimental tele-monitoring and medical tele-surveillance system for maintaining patients at home. The project features networked sensors, in a fully equipped apartment, operated by an advanced information and communication system based on Internet, Java, and object oriented modeling. The sensors are connected, mainly wirelessly, with a in-home software module devoted to signals analysis and detection of critical situation such as falls, sickness, sudden palsy, stroke, hypothermia, etc. This module communicates, either via modem or ethernet network, with a remote medical control station in charge of appropriate response to received information and alarms. The system is designed to be a powerful information and communication tools for medical and social workers. It offers a series of functions such as medical file management, user profiles and rights management, drafting and management of ordinances and visit notes, confidentiality of medical information, and management of scenarios of detectable events. The access to the system is allowed to authorized users only (physicians, emergentists, social workers, etc.), and is available on as much authorized computers as needed, by means of a Java applet invoked from any traditional web browsers.

  12. Bromide and chloride distribution across the snow-sea ice-ocean interface: A comparative study between an Arctic coastal marine site and an experimental sea ice mesocosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Tenuta, Mario; Wang, Feiyue

    2016-08-01

    During springtime in the Arctic, bromine explosion events occur when high concentrations of reactive bromine species are observed in the boundary layer with the concurrence of ozone depletion events and mercury depletion events. While a variety of substrates including snow, sea ice, frost flowers, and aerosols have been proposed to be the substrate and/or source of bromine activation in the Arctic, recent studies have highlighted the role of snow. Here we report concentration profiles of halides (Br- and Cl-), Na+, and mercury across the snow-sea ice-seawater interface at a coastal marine site in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in March and June 2014, as well as in an experimental sea ice mesocosm in Winnipeg in January and February 2014. The occurrence of bromine activation at the Arctic site in March was indicated by the high mercury concentrations in snowpack. At both the Arctic and mesocosm sites, the molar ratios of Br-/Na+ were nearly constant throughout the sea ice depth, but highly variable in the upper layer of the overlying snowpack, revealing that bromine activation takes place in the sunlit snow instead of sea ice. This is supported by calculations showing that the loss of Br- from the upper layer of the snowpack is large enough to produce the observed concentrations of reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the upper layer of the Arctic snowpack tends to be generally enriched in Br- due to the net addition of Br--containing gases and nonsea-salt aerosols.

  13. X-ray derived experimental charge density distribution in GaF{sub 3} and VF{sub 3} solid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujatha, K.; Israel, S., E-mail: israel.samuel@gmail.com; Anzline, C.; Niranjana Devi, R.; Sheeba, R.A.J.R.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure and bonding features of metal and transition metal fluorides in low oxidation states, GaF{sub 3} and VF{sub 3}, have been studied from precise single crystal X-ray diffraction data using multipole and maximum entropy methods. The topology of the charge density is analyzed and the (3,−1) bond critical points are determined. Existences of ionic nature of bonding in low valent fluorine compounds are clearly evident. The spherical core of metal atom and aspherical or twisted core of transition metal atom reveal the fact that GaF{sub 3} is much more rigid than VF{sub 3}. Aspherical cores of the polarized ligand atoms are also visible in the two-dimensional density distribution pictures. The true valence charge density surfaces with encapsulating the atomic basins maps are elucidated. An elongated saddle with mid-bond density of 0.6191 e/Å{sup 3}, observed in the compound VF{sub 3}, shows that its lattice is less rigid and has more ionic character than GaF{sub 3}.

  14. Experimental detailed power distribution in a fast spectrum thermionic reactor fuel element at the core/BeO reflector interface region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, P. G.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the prupose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power conversion system. The critical assembly was modified to simulate a fast spectrum advanced thermionics reactor by: (1) using BeO as a reflector in place of some of the existing molybdenum, (2) substituting Nb-1Zr tubing for some of the existing Ta tubing, and (3) inserting four full-scale mockups of thermionic type fuel elements near the core and BeO reflector boundary. These mockups were surrounded with a buffer zone having the equivalent thermionic core composition. In addition to measuring the critical mass of this thermionic configuration, a detailed power distribution in one of the thermionic element stages in the mixed spectrum region was measured. A power peak to average ratio of two was observed for this fuel stage at the midplane of the core and adjacent to the reflector. Also, the power on the outer surface adjacent to the BeO was slightly more than a factor of two larger than the power on the inside surface of a 5.08 cm (2.0 in.) high annular fuel segment with a 2.52 cm (0.993 in. ) o.d. and a 1.86 cm (0.731 in.) i.d.

  15. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high-efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Gao, Zhan; Barnett, Scott A.; Braun, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical energy storage is expected to be a critical component of the future world energy system, performing load-leveling operations to enable increased penetration of renewable and distributed generation. Reversible solid oxide cells, operating sequentially between power-producing fuel cell mode and fuel-producing electrolysis mode, have the capability to provide highly efficient, scalable electricity storage. However, challenges ranging from cell performance and durability to system integration must be addressed before widespread adoption. One central challenge of the system design is establishing effective thermal management in the two distinct operating modes. This work leverages an operating strategy to use carbonaceous reactant species and operate at intermediate stack temperature (650 °C) to promote exothermic fuel-synthesis reactions that thermally self-sustain the electrolysis process. We present performance of a doped lanthanum-gallate (LSGM) electrolyte solid oxide cell that shows high efficiency in both operating modes at 650 °C. A physically based electrochemical model is calibrated to represent the cell performance and used to simulate roundtrip operation for conditions unique to these reversible systems. Design decisions related to system operation are evaluated using the cell model including current density, fuel and oxidant reactant compositions, and flow configuration. The analysis reveals tradeoffs between electrical efficiency, thermal management, energy density, and durability.

  16. POSIX and Object Distributed Storage Systems Performance Comparison Studies With Real-Life Scenarios in an Experimental Data Taking Context Leveraging OpenStack Swift & Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing infrastructure has become an intensive dynamic system used for first-hand data collection and analysis resulting in a dense collection of data output. As we have transitioned to our current state, inefficient, limited storage systems have become an impediment to fast feedback to online shift crews. Motivation for a centrally accessible, scalable and redundant distributed storage system had become a necessity in this environment. OpenStack Swift Object Storage and Ceph Object Storage are two eye-opening technologies as community use and development have led to success elsewhere. In this contribution, OpenStack Swift and Ceph have been put to the test with single and parallel I/O tests, emulating real world scenarios for data processing and workflows. The Ceph file system storage, offering a POSIX compliant file system mounted similarly to an NFS share was of particular interest as it aligned with our requirements and was retained as our solution. I/O performance tests were run against the Ceph POSIX file system and have presented surprising results indicating true potential for fast I/O and reliability. STAR'S online compute farm historical use has been for job submission and first hand data analysis. The goal of reusing the online compute farm to maintain a storage cluster and job submission will be an efficient use of the current infrastructure.

  17. Intermolecular interactions, charge-density distribution and the electrostatic properties of pyrazinamide anti-TB drug molecule: an experimental and theoretical charge-density study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, Gnanasekaran; Hathwar, Venkatesha R; Kumaradhas, Poomani

    2014-06-01

    An experimental charge-density analysis of pyrazinamide (a first line antitubercular drug) was performed using high-resolution X-ray diffraction data [(sin θ/λ)max = 1.1 Å(-1)] measured at 100 (2) K. The structure was solved by direct methods using SHELXS97 and refined by SHELXL97. The total electron density of the pyrazinamide molecule was modeled using the Hansen-Coppens multipole formalism implemented in the XD software. The topological properties of electron density determined from the experiment were compared with the theoretical results obtained from CRYSTAL09 at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The crystal structure was stabilized by N-H...N and N-H...O hydrogen bonds, in which the N3-H3B...N1 and N3-H3A...O1 interactions form two types of dimers in the crystal. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out to analyze the intermolecular interactions. The fingerprint plot reveals that the N...H and O...H hydrogen-bonding interactions contribute 26.1 and 18.4%, respectively, of the total Hirshfeld surface. The lattice energy of the molecule was calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with the 6-31G** basis set. The molecular electrostatic potential of the pyrazinamide molecule exhibits extended electronegative regions around O1, N1 and N2. The existence of a negative electrostatic potential (ESP) region just above the upper and lower surfaces of the pyrazine ring confirm the π-electron cloud.

  18. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  19. Experimental studies on tissue distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled antimicrobial agent in otorhinolaryngological field. Application of macro-autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, K.; Baba, S. (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Morita, S.; Ishigami, M.

    1982-08-01

    The tissue distribution of nalidixic acid analog OPC-7241 was investigated. Autoradiography was performed 30 minutes after intravenous administration of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 in 2.96 MBq(80.0 ..mu..Ci)/12.5 mg/kg to New Zealand White rabbit. Radiometry was performed 30 minutes, 1 hour and 3 hours after intravenous administration of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 in 740 kBq(20.0 ..mu..Ci)/10.0 mg/kg to NZW rabbits. Such care was taken in filling the carboxymethyl cellulose paste into the paranasal cavity, nasal cavity, oral cavity and external ear canal not to damage mechanically. Horizontal frozen sections parallel to mandibular basis were cut in 50 ..mu..m thickness in a cryostat. Blackening of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 was most significant in soft palate and its expanse which is apparently the same gland-like tissues as soft palate when stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Significant radioactivity was recognized in tonsils, the cartilage of external ear canal, septal cartilage, periodontal membrane, dental pulp, muscle and concha nasalis ventralis. The levels were low in ethmoid cells, mucosa of tympanic cavity, cochlea, maxillary sinus and bone. Quantitatively, the levels of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 radioactivity were high in soft palate, mandibular gland and tonsils. Radioactivity was significant in tongue and concha nasalis ventralis. The levels were low in turbinates, ethmoid cells, maxillary sinus, septal cartilage, septal mucosa, cochlea, brain, optic nerve and lens. Thus radiometric results agreed with the above autoradiographic findings. Macro-autoradiography can be one of useful means for the evaluation chemotherapeutic agents for possible clinical application.

  20. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  1. Experimental analysis on NOx generation and emission distribution off aviation afterburners%加力燃烧室NOx排放生成规律试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 胡筱敏

    2012-01-01

    An afterburners was designed to get aviation engine extra thrust, but higher inlet temperature will generate higher NO. emission. One V style structure test facilities was adopted as an afterburners flow fields stabilizer, the section concentration of different NO. and 02 emission from the afterburners were analyzed in condition of inlet T 600 ℃ to outlet T 600 - 1 200 ℃ , the test was fulfilled at 4 experimental conditions of same flux and flow fields. The results show that the chamber combustion is of "higher temperature, rich oxy- gen, poor fuel" characteristics, most Oxygen consumption in an afterburner chamber is contributed to generate CO2 and in the emission temperature scope of 800 - 1 200 ℃, the NO thermal generation is restrained and af- fected by incomplete combustion product CO evidently.%实现航空发动机大推力通常采用加力燃烧室设计,燃烧室进气温度升高会同步导致排放尾气中NOx浓度提高.采用典型加力燃烧室主稳定器的V型结构试验件,测试加力燃烧前后(进口600℃,出口600~1200℃)燃烧室排放断面的NOx浓度分布,通过相同流场4种试验工况的NOx生成浓度组分和氧含量变化分析,验证了加力燃烧室NOx生成以热力型NO为主的"高温、富氧、贫油"燃烧特性.结果表明加力燃烧室燃烧过程中消耗的氧含量大多贡献于CO2增量,在800~1000℃燃气排放温度范围内,不完全燃烧产物CO对NO的热力生成有明显抑制作用.

  2. Bayesian Analysis of Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalmohan Bhar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of experimental data from Bayesian point of view has been considered. Appropriate methodology has been developed for application into designed experiments. Normal-Gamma distribution has been considered for prior distribution. Developed methodology has been applied to real experimental data taken from long term fertilizer experiments.

  3. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerrado e não aos forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos. As fisionomias são mais semelhantes quanto à flora de musgos do que em relação à flora de hepáticas. As briófitas distribuem-se em três grupos de fisionomias: cerrado sentido restrito, campo cerrado e transição / cerrado sentido restrito de Myrsine / campo cerrado queimado.This paper refers to the distribution of the brioflora in the cerrado vegetation of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu. This biome includes forests to grassland physiognomies. Collects of bryophytes was made between 1993 and 1995 on bark of 15 shrubby-arboreous phorophytes species along a transect, through five different physiognomies of the cerrado vegetation. The studied material totalized 1,345 numbers from 49 genera and 92 species of bryophytes. The brioflora is not related to the shrubby-arboreous phorophytes, but to the cerrado physiognomies. Similarity between physiognomies is higher due to mosses than hepatics distribution. Bryophytes are distributed in three physiognomic groups: cerrado 'stricto sensu', cerrado grassland and transition / cerrado 'stricto sensu' of Myrsine / burned cerrado grassland.

  4. Experimental study on the temperature distribution of fire-induced smoke in railway tunnel fires%铁路隧道火灾烟气温度场分布规律的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红莉; 徐志胜; 姜学鹏; 李冬; 张仁兵; 李洪

    2012-01-01

    The present paper intends to introduce our experimental study on the temperature distribution of fire-induced smoke in railway tunnel fires. In order to provide appropriate fire rescue measures and diminish the damage caused by the fire, we have carried out eighteen tests in a reduced-scale model tunnel in hoping to trace the distribution of smoke temperature along the tunnel ceiling and the high-temperature smoke dispersing regularity in the tunnel. On the basis of studying the first extra-long underwater railway tunnel in China, we have traced the longitudinal ventilation velocity with the variation of the fire size. From the tests we have found the smoke temperature below the tunnel ceiling in diverse situations, the maximum smoke temperatures below the ceiling at the near-fire position and the downstream situation, in addition to the distribution range of given smoke temperatures under the ceiling. The results of our study show that the decreases of smoke temperature along the tunnel ceiling at different longitudinal ventilation velocities and fire sizes can fall into an exponential function. The smoke temperatures for the upstream back layering prove to be more sensitive to the longitudinal ventilation. At the lower wind velocities, the smoke temperature below the ceiling for the upstream back layering tends to be higher at the near fire positions while decreasing faster when travelling away from the fire than that of the downstream fire current. However, when the longitudinal ventilation velocity is not lower than the critical one, the smoke temperature won' t be rising. The maximum smoke temperature below the tunnel ceiling should be lower with the higher longitudinal ventilation velocity , but higher with larger fire size. In addition, we have obtained an exponential expression about the relationship among the maximum smoke temperature, longitudinal ventilation velocities and the fire sizes based on the experimental data measured. And the predictions of the

  5. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  6. 电镀单层CBN薄片砂轮磨粒分布的实验研究%Experimental Study on Abrasive Distribution of Electroplating Single-layer CBN Thin-grinding-wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国星; 吕明; 刘圣晨; 李文斌; 马麟

    2012-01-01

    A new method for evaluating the density and uniformity on electroplating single layer CBN thin-grinding-wheel was mentioned herein.The maximum area-percentage-concentration of CBN abrasive was derived by means of establishing mathematical model under the condition of single layer distribution.Combining the experimental results,the relationships among the space-factor,planting-grit time and grinding-wheel density and among the space-factor,planting-grit time and uniformity were analyzed.Then the changing regular of grinding-wheel density and uniformity were obtained at the different space-factor and planting time.It is shown in the experimental results that the nonuniformity of the grit distribution mainly presents the specific surface difference of crowded grit and the amount difference of non-crowded grit in each observation area when the average current density value is 0.6A/dm2 and the duty factor is from 0.4 to 0.6.When the average cathode current density value is 0.2A/dm2,and the duty factor is from 0.1 to 0.3,the nonuniformity of the grit distribution mainly presents the amount difference of non-crowded grit in each observation area.In addition,extending plant-grind-time can increase the density of grinding wheel effectively when the average value electric current is a constant,but the abrasive distribution level of uniformity will be reduced obviously.%提出一种电镀单层CBN砂轮磨粒浓度和分布均匀性的评价计算方法,通过建立数学模型推导出磨粒在单层分布状态下的面积百分比浓度最大值。结合实验分析了脉冲占空比和植砂时间与砂轮浓度及分布均匀性之间的关系,得出不同的占空比和植砂时间下砂轮磨粒浓度及分布均匀性的变化规律。实验结果表明:当阴极均值电流密度取0.6A/dm2,且占空比为0.4~0.6时,磨粒分布的不均匀性主要表现形式为堆挤磨粒比面积在各观测区域的差异和未堆积磨粒在各观测区域数量上的差

  7. 琅琊山水电站发电机层气流组织试验研究%Experimental Study of Air Flow Distribution of Generator Floor for Langya Mountain Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊翰林; 李素萍; 付详钊

    2011-01-01

    Taking Langya Mountain hydropower station for an example, the thermal state similarity model test of the dome in generator floor is discussed. Based on similarity theory and similarity number of heat Archimedes, the similarity scales of experimental model are established. Based on the different vents numbers, air temperature, velocity, ways of ventilation and exhaust ways, the change of velocity and temperature field distribution in generator floor are analyzed. The results show that the air flow distribution is uniform when the air-conditioning cold is supplied and the fans for the ventilation are working; the wind velocity meets requirements and the temperature is effectively reduced.%以琅琊山水电站为例,对发电机层顶拱送风方式进行了热态相似模型试验,采用相似理论与热量阿基米德相似准则数,构建试验模型相似比例尺,探讨了同一风量下不同风口个数、送风温度、送风方式及排风方式对发电机层工作区速度场与温度场的影响程度.结果表明,在空调送风、机械排风时发电机层工作区气流组织均匀,风速满足要求,能有效消除工作区热负荷.

  8. Experimental Study of Gear Bending Fatigue Strength under Random Load with Gaussian Normal Distribution%服从正态分布随机载荷作用下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 许洪斌; 祖世华; 高孝旺

    2013-01-01

    For the bending fatigue under the random load conditions with normal distribution,an equivalent load was analyzed and limiting value of gear bending fatigue strength was computed based on equivalent fatigue damage.The effect of load spectrum distributed parameter on equivalent load was analyzed,and load spectrum was compiled for luffing amplitude fatigue experiments.Then experiments of gear bending fatigue strength were achieved under random load according to normal distribution on MTS electro-hydraulic servo material fatigue tester,where the group method was used.The R-S-N curve was acquired in a concrete coefficient of variation.The tests prove that bending fatigue strength of gear under random load is less than that under constant load.By contrasting with the bending fatigue strength computed based on constant load,the theoretical results can agree with experimental ones.%根据齿轮传动过程中普遍承受的高斯分布载荷谱,编制了试验用随机变幅疲劳载荷谱,在MTS电液伺服疲劳试验机上利用成组试验方法完成了该随机载荷作用下全寿命齿轮弯曲疲劳试验,得到了特定变差系数高斯分布载荷谱下齿轮弯曲强度的R-S-N曲线.试验结果证明,随机变幅疲劳试验得出的轮齿疲劳寿命低于由疲劳载荷上限值取为载荷谱均值的恒载荷疲劳试验得出的疲劳寿命,因此,如果采用后者的试验结果去估算实际服役中的齿轮的弯曲疲劳寿命是非常危险的.对随机载荷下的齿轮设计的疲劳极限的理论值进行了预测,并与试验结果进行了比较.结果表明,理论分析结果与试验结果基本相符.

  9. 中国实验快堆全堆芯流量分配计算与试验%Calculation and Test of Core Flow Rate Distribution of China Experimental Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一哲; 薛秀丽; 许义军; 冯预恒; 侯志峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on the core and primary circuit design of China Experimental Fast Reactor(CEFR), a multiple-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code DAEMON was developed to calculate the core flow rate distribution and unsymmetric coefficient in different conditions. In the commissioning stage, a series of full-scale tests for reactor core were performed in CEFR with a permanent-magnet sodium flow meter. The numerical results of code DAEMON showed a good agreement with test data. The core hydraulic design was also validated with a view to the requirements of design criteria, commissioning and operation specifications.%针对中国实验快堆(CEFR)堆芯和一回路的设计特点,开发水力特性计算程序DAEMON,完成不同工况下的全堆芯流量分配计算,给出流量分配不均匀性等参数.在反应堆调试阶段,进行全堆芯流量分配试验.结果表明,程序计算值与试验值符合较好.在此基础上,验证了CEFR堆芯的流体力学设计,并为反应堆调试和运行提供了基础数据.

  10. Monopoly experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers a firm facing an uncertain demand curve. The firm can experimentally adjust its output in order to gain information that willincrease expected future profits. We examine two basic questions. Under whatconditions is it worthwhile for the firm to experiment? How does the firmadjust its output away from the myopic optimism to exploit its ability to experiment? Two necessary conditions are established for experimentation tooccur, involving requirements that experimentation be...

  11. Modeling particle size distributions by the Weibull distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang (Rogers Tool Works, Rogers, AR (United States)); Patterson, B.R.; Turner, M.E. Jr (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A method is proposed for modeling two- and three-dimensional particle size distributions using the Weibull distribution function. Experimental results show that, for tungsten particles in liquid phase sintered W-14Ni-6Fe, the experimental cumulative section size distributions were well fit by the Weibull probability function, which can also be used to compute the corresponding relative frequency distributions. Modeling the two-dimensional section size distributions facilitates the use of the Saltykov or other methods for unfolding three-dimensional (3-D) size distributions with minimal irregularities. Fitting the unfolded cumulative 3-D particle size distribution with the Weibull function enables computation of the statistical distribution parameters from the parameters of the fit Weibull function.

  12. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data.

  13. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  14. 鸭肠炎病毒强毒参考株在感染鸭体内的动态分布研究%Dynamic Distribution of Duck Enteritis Virus Standard Challenge Strain in Experimentally Infected Ducklings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文晶亮; 李俊平; 李启红; 李岭; 孙淼; 李慧姣; 杨承槐; 夏业才

    2014-01-01

    为研究鸭肠炎病毒( DEV)强毒株在感染鸭体内的动态分布规律,根据DEV的gD基因序列设计检测引物RT-gDF和RT-gDR,建立了特异性强、敏感性高、重复性好的检测DEV的SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光定量PCR方法。应用已建立的方法,对DEV强毒参考株感染鸭的组织脏器进行了定量检测。结果显示,接种后6 h即可在所有受检组织中检测到DEV DNA,随着病程发展, DNA拷贝数持续升高,直至接种5 d后感染鸭全部死亡。其中结肠病毒DNA拷贝数为最高,达到1013.26 copies/g,法氏囊、肝脏和盲肠次之,约1012 copies/g。证实了DEV强毒对感染鸭的免疫器官、神经组织和消化系统均具有广泛的嗜性。%To explore the dynamic distribution of duck enteritis virus challenge standard strain ( DEV CSC ) in experimentally infected ducklings, the specific primers ( RT-gDF and RT-gDR) were designed according to the gene DEV gD, and the SYBR GreenⅠreal-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for virulent strain with satisfaction of specificity, sensibility and repeatability was established. Copies of DEV DNA were quantified in the collected tissues by the fluorescent quantitative PCR method. In result, DEV CSC DNA were firstly detected in all the samples at six hours after inoculation and the DNA copies subsequently continued to rise till the death of all the ducklings infected with DEV CSC virulent strain five days after inoculation. The DNA copies of DEV CSC strain in colon(1013.26 copies/g) of dead ducklings was highest, and then came to bursa of Fabricius, caecum and liver, about 1012 copies/g. The results above comfirmed that the virulent strain CSC had broad tissue tropism on immune organs, nerve tissue and digestive system of infected ducks.

  15. Experimental research of data fusion algorithms in monitoring services under distributed environment%分布式监控服务中数据融合算法实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笑梅; 仲哲卿

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of decision-making in monitor services of distributed environment, a new multi-level multi-aspect framework for monitor data was proposed, and a data fusion algorithm was introduced. Firstly, the resource data, including host, process and network, were collected on the platform of publish/subscribe middleware. Secondly, the resource data were fused into logical data through threshold method and Three-Sigma method. The experimental evaluation results show that the threshold method can find the user-defined events timely and accurately, but need strong empirical parameter settings. Three-Sigma method can do it without any setting, but has a poor anti-interference, resulting in a higher false alarm rate. At last, the trend moving average method was used to analyze the used memory in a process and detected that the process leaked memory periodically.%针对分布式环境下监控服务的决策判断准确度不够高的问题,提出了多层次多方面的监控数据框架,并将数据融合过程加入监控服务中。首先,基于发布/订阅中间件平台,设计了采集主机、进程和网络资源数据的监控服务;然后;应用阈值法和Three-Sigma法,把资源数据融合生成逻辑数据。真实环境中的实验结果表明,阈值法能及时准确检测用户定义事件,但参数设置经验性较强;Three-Sigma法无需事先确定参数,但抗干扰性差,导致虚警率较高。最后,利用趋势移动平均法分析某个进程内存使用量,得出内存周期性泄漏的结论。

  16. Experimental Investigation of Bending Characteristics of Distributed Feed Back Fiber Lasers%分布反馈光纤激光器弯曲特性的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓燕; 张文涛; 李芳; 刘育梁

    2011-01-01

    The bending characteristics of distributed feed back fiber lasers were investigated.Firstly, a theoretical model of fiber lasers output wavelength and bending radius was presented.It shows a linear correlation between the output wavelength variation of fiber lasers and the inverse square of the bending radius, and as the bending radius increases, the Bragg wavelength experiences a blue shift. In corresponding experiments, 3 fiber lasers were used to test output wavelength with bending radii between 10 mm and 90 mm; these experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis. Secondly, fiber lasers output power and bending radius were studied. One fiber laser was used as reference to eliminate environmental interference. The experiment shows fluctuation ranges of fiber lasers output power are less than 2 dB during the experimental time in 32 days. Finally, the slope efficiency is investigated, showing excellent bending insensitivity. The results provide an important reference for DFB fiber lasers in applications of bending sensing.%为了研究分布反馈光纤激光器的弯曲特性,对光纤激光器输出波长和弯曲半径的关系进行了理论分析和实验研究.理论分析表明,光纤激光器输出波长变化量与弯曲半径平方的倒数为线性相关,并且随着弯曲半径的增大布拉格波长向短波长方向移动;实验中通过对3支不同波长的光纤激光器在弯曲半径分别为1O mm、20 mm、90 mm时输出波长的测量,验证了理论分析的正确性.实验中采用参考光纤激光器法排除环境干扰,对光纤激光器的激射功率进行了耐弯曲测试,并验证了光纤激光器斜率效率优越的抗弯曲特性.结果表明,在测试的32天内,待测光纤激光器激射功率变化量均小于2 dB,为分布反馈光纤激光器做为弯曲类传感应用的研究提供了重要的参考依据.

  17. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    1999-01-01

    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  18. Distributed Analysis in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Fanfani, Alessandra; Sanches, Jose Afonso; Andreeva, Julia; Bagliesi, Giusepppe; Bauerdick, Lothar; Belforte, Stefano; Bittencourt Sampaio, Patricia; Bloom, Ken; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Brew, Chris; Calloni, Marco; Cesini, Daniele; Cinquilli, Mattia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Dong, Liang; Dongiovanni, Danilo; Donvito, Giacinto; Dykstra, David; Edelmann, Erik; Egeland, Ricky; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, Dave; Fanzago, Federica; Farina, Fabio; Feichtinger, Derek; Fisk, Ian; Flix, Josep; Grandi, Claudio; Guo, Yuyi; Happonen, Kalle; Hernandez, Jose M; Huang, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kejing; Karavakis, Edward; Kasemann, Matthias; Kavka, Carlos; Khan, Akram; Kim, Bockjoo; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Kress, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter; Kurca, Tibor; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Letts, James; Linden, Tomas; Lueking, Lee; Maes, Joris; Magini, Nicolo; Maier, Gerhild; McBride, Patricia; Metson, Simon; Miccio, Vincenzo; Padhi, Sanjay; Pi, Haifeng; Riahi, Hassen; Riley, Daniel; Rossman, Paul; Saiz, Pablo; Sartirana, Andrea; Sciaba, Andrea; Sekhri, Vijay; Spiga, Daniele; Tuura, Lassi; Vaandering, Eric; Vanelderen, Lukas; Van Mulders, Petra; Vedaee, Aresh; Villella, Ilaria; Wicklund, Eric; Wildish, Tony; Wissing, Christoph; Wurthwein, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment expects to manage several Pbytes of data each year during the LHC programme, distributing them over many computing sites around the world and enabling data access at those centers for analysis. CMS has identified the distributed sites as the primary location for physics analysis to support a wide community with thousands potential users. This represents an unprecedented experimental challenge in terms of the scale of distributed computing resources and number of user. An overview of the computing architecture, the software tools and the distributed infrastructure is reported. Summaries of the experience in establishing efficient and scalable operations to get prepared for CMS distributed analysis are presented, followed by the user experience in their current analysis activities.

  19. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. Distribution Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, H.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Davydenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Distribution structures are important elements of the freight transportation system. Goods are routed via warehouses on their way from production to consumption. This chapter discusses drivers behind these structures, logistics decisions connected to distribution structures on the micro level, and

  1. Distributed Knight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe......An extension of Knight (2005) that support distributed synchronous collaboration implemented using type-based publish/subscribe...

  2. Distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Van Renesse, R

    1991-01-01

    This series will start with an introduction to distributed computing systems. Distributed computing paradigms will be presented followed by a discussion on how several important contemporary distributed operating systems use these paradigms. Topics will include processing paradigms, storage paradigms, scalability and robustness. Throughout the course everything will be illustrated by modern distributed systems notably the Amoeba distributed operating system of the Free University in Amsterdam and the Plan 9 operating system of AT&T Bell Laboratories. Plan 9 is partly designed and implemented by Ken Thompson, the main person behind the successful UNIX operating system.

  3. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  4. Statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re

  5. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    by taking the distributed structure of the system into account and improving the efficiency in terms of computation and communication by data packing. While our construction can be easily adjusted to a centralized or a distributed computing model, we rely on a set of particular users that help the service...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  6. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  7. THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRAJEWSKI,R.F.; ANDREWS,J.W.; WEI,G.

    1999-09-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted which tests for the effects of distribution system purging on system Delivery Effectiveness (DE) as defined in ASHRAE 152P. The experiment is described in its configuration, instrumentation, and data acquisition system. Data gathered in the experiment is given and discussed. The results show that purging of the distribution system alone does not offer any improvement of the system DE. Additional supporting tests were conducted regarding experimental simulations of buffer zones and bare pipe and are also discussed.

  8. Distribution center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distribution center is a logistics link fulfill physical distribution as its main functionGenerally speaking, it's a large and hiahly automated center destined to receive goods from various plants and suppliers,take orders,fill them efficiently,and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.

  9. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  10. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  11. MAIL DISTRIBUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    PLEASE NOTE: changed schedule for mail distribution on 21 December 2001 afternoon delivery will be one hour earlier than usual, delivery to LHC sites will take place late morning. Thank you for your understanding.

  12. Stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Svante

    2011-01-01

    We give some explicit calculations for stable distributions and convergence to them, mainly based on less explicit results in Feller (1971). The main purpose is to provide ourselves with easy reference to explicit formulas. (There are no new results.)

  13. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns......, depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly...

  14. Aid Distribution and Cooperation in Unequal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exelle, D' B.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study aid distribution and cooperation in a field lab in rural Nicaragua. In the first stage of the experimental game, participants contribute to a collective effort that determines the amount of aid given to the group, which is distributed among the players in a second stage. We f

  15. Distributed optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Trommer, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In dieser Dissertation schlage ich eine Synthese (Distributed Optimality, DO) von Optimalitätstheorie und einem derivationellen, morphologischem Asatz, Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz, 1993) vor. Durch die Integration von OT in DM wird es möglich, Phänomene, die in DM durch sprachspezifische Regeln oder Merkmale von lexikalischen Einträge erfasst werden, auf die Interaktion von verletzbaren, universellen Constraints zurückzuführen. Andererseits leistet auch DM zwei substantielle B...

  16. Distributed Subtyping

    OpenAIRE

    Baehni, Sébastien; Barreto, Joao; Guerraoui, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    One of the most frequent operations in object-oriented programs is the "instanceof" test, also called the "subtyping" test or the "type inclusion" test. This test determines if a given object is an instance of some type. Surprisingly, despite a lot of research on distributed object-oriented languages and systems, almost no work has been devoted to the implementation of this test in a distributed environment. This paper presents the first algorithm to implement the "subtyping" test on an obje...

  17. Simulation and Experimental Study of a Multifunctional Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation System%一种多功能分布式光伏发电系统的仿真和实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁良; 张颖媛

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of distributed photovoltaic power generation is still facing many difficulties, in addition to the cost factor, the equipment utilization rate is low, the function is simple, and it has low awareness. To promote the popularization and application of distributed photovoltaic power generation system, in-depth comparative analysis of photovoltaic systems, active power filter and off-line UPS was conducted, functional expansion for distributed photovoltaic systems was proposed. New system configuration and control strategy proposed not only can achieve functions of APF and PV grid connected generation at the same time, but also can compensate the voltage interruption to ensure uninterrupted work for load when the power interruption occurs. Validity and feasibility of the proposed method were proved by the results of experiment and simulation.%针对我国推广分布式光伏发电面临诸如成本高、设备利用率低、功能单一、认知度低等因素,同时为促进分布式光伏发电系统的推广应用,在深入对比分析分布式光伏系统、有源滤波装置和后备式不间断电源(uninterrupted power supply,UPS)原理的基础上,提出对分布式光伏系统进行功能拓展。设计一种可同时进行光伏发电和有源滤波,又具有后备式 UPS 功能的分布式光伏发电系统。仿真和实验结果验证了所提系统和方法的可行性和正确性。

  18. 旋转盘式雾化雾滴粒径分布实验研究%Experimental Investigation of Spray Droplet Size Distribution Using a Spinning Disk Atomizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立新; 王春鹏; 周瑞君; 谢普军; MUJUMDAR A S

    2011-01-01

    旋转雾化盘是喷雾干燥系统中的重要部件,但是文献很少涉及到关于这类雾化器产生的雾滴粒径的分布和变化情况.采用一个工业化的2000 t/a生产可再分散性乳胶粉的雾化机作为模型雾化器,该雾化器最大处理量为2 000 kg/h.实验的雾化盘直径是180 mm,盘上有24个通道,激光粒径分析仪用于实测雾化嚣产生的雾滴粒径分布.采用变频嚣控制转速在10000~16000r/min间变化.喷雾干燥后粉体的平均粒径为72 tm,比雾化盘产生的雾滴平均粒径92μm小,同时喷雾干燥后最大粉体直径比雾化盘产生雾滴直径小,表明喷雾干燥过程中存在着雾滴间团聚效应.%Spinning disk atomizer is a key part in many spray drying systems.Few works exist in the literatures dealing with size distribution and changes of the droplets produced by such a type of atomizer.In this work,a model atomizer is used to spray-dry a re-dispersible glue emulsion on an industrial scale production 2 000 t/a.The maximum spray capacity of such an atomizer is 2 000 kg/h.The disk tested has a diameter of 180 mm and 24 channels.A laser analyzer was used to measure the droplet size distribution of sprays produced by the spinning disk atomizer.The effects of the disk rotating speed on water droplet size distribution were investigated.The rotating speed of the disk was varied from 16 000 to 10 000 r/ain using a frequency-inverter.In order to investigate the change of droplet size to dried particle size from the spray dryer,the droplet size distribution of the redispersible glue emulsion and the dried particle size distribution produced were measured.The results show that the mean size was reduced from 92 μm of droplets to 72 pm of dried particles.It was also observed that the maximum dried particle size was larger than that of droplets due to droplet and particle agglomeration taking place within the spray drying chamber.

  19. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  20. 威布尔分布随机载荷下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验分析%Experimental study of gear bending fatigue strength under random load according to three-parameter Weibull distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建军; 许洪斌; 高孝旺; 祖世华

    2012-01-01

    根据齿轮传动过程中普遍承受的三参数威布尔分布载荷谱,编制了试验用随机变幅疲劳载荷谱,在MTS电液伺服疲劳试验机上利用成组试验方法完成了该随机载荷作用下齿轮弯曲疲劳试验,得到了特定变异系数三参数威布尔分布载荷谱下齿轮弯曲强度的S-N曲线。试验结果证明,在服从三参数威布尔分布随机载荷谱下,随机变幅疲劳试验得出的轮齿疲劳寿命远低于恒载荷疲劳试验得出的疲劳寿命。对随机载荷下的齿轮设计的疲劳极限的理论值进行了预测,并与试验结果进行了比较。随机载荷下的理论值与试验结果相吻合,因此可以通过随机载荷谱的载荷比例系数去推断随机载荷下齿轮弯曲疲劳强度值。%Random-amplitude fatigue load spectrum for experiments is made according to the ubiquitous three-parameter Weibull distribution in gear transmission.Gear bending fatigue test under the random load is carried out on a MTS electro-hydraulic servo material fatigue tester by using group testing method,and the S-N curve of gear bending strength under three-parameter Weibull distribution with specific variation coefficients is obtained.The fatigue test results show the gear's endurance life under random load is far less than that under constant load when the load submits to three-parameter Weibull distribution random load spectrum.The theoretical value of fatigue limit for gear under random load is predicated and compared with test results.The theoretical value is in accordance with the test results.Therefore,the fatigue strength of gear bending under random load can be deduced according to the load ratio coefficient of random load spectrum.

  1. Damage Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie

    2001-01-01

    the damage location, the damage sizes and the main particulars of the struck vessel. From the numerical simulation and the analyse of the damage statistics it is found that the current formulation from the IMO SLF 43/3/2 can be used as basis for determination of the p-, r-, and v-factors. Expressions...... and methods of calculation have been discussed. The damage distributions for the different vessels have been compared and analyses regarding relations between damage parameters and main particulars have been performed. The damage statistics collected in work package 1 have been analysed for relations between...... for the distribution of the non-dimensional damage location, the non-dimensional damage length and the non-dimensional penetrations have been derived. These distributions have been used as basis for a proposal for the p- and r-factors. Two proposals for the v-factor have been performed using the damage statistics...

  2. Distributed creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...

  3. Experimental Study of Surface Temperature Distribution in Dropwise Condensation at Low Pressure%低压蒸汽滴状冷凝表面温度分布实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学虎; 温荣福; 兰忠; 张崇峰; 王四芳; 彭本利

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1-octadecanethiol [CHa(CH2)lTSHI were applied to promote dropwise condensation on copper substrate. At low pressure, the temperature distribution of droplet surface and the temperature variation of condensation surface during droplet falling off were measured using ThermoVisionA40. Major conclusions drawn in this study are as follows: The temperature distribution on the condensing surface is nonuniform while the temperature distribution of droplet surface is convex. The temperature of droplet surface is higher for larger condensate droplet. However, the temperature of droplet surface decreases with an increase in subcooling at given vapor pressure. The temperature of droplet surface rises gradually due to the falling behavior of the droplet. Consequently the temperature of the renewed location decreases with the surface subcooling increasing and then rises back. As the vapor pressure decreases, an increase in the critical surface subcooling for condensation results in a higher activated nucleation site density in the center of the renewed location where the temperature is lower and eventually lead to the nonuniformity of the temperature distribution.%本文利用自组装技术制备了铜基十八烷基硫醇疏水表面(SAM),通过红外热像仪分析了低压条件下液滴表面和换热表面的温度分布以及液滴脱落引起的温度分布演变。实验结果表明:低压蒸汽冷凝条件下,冷凝表面局部温度分布不均匀;单个液滴表面温度呈中心高边缘低的凸型分布;随着液滴半径的增加,液滴表面温度升高;相同操作压力下,随着过冷度的增加,液滴表面温度降低。在液滴脱落过程中,液滴表面温度逐渐升高,同时裸露出的换热表面局部过冷度增大,局部表面温度呈现出中心低周围高的凹型温度分布,随之恢复到液滴脱落前的温度。随着蒸汽压力降低,冷凝临界过冷度增加,导致裸露表面

  4. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  5. Distributed Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-03

    that must be woven into proofs of security statements. 03-10-2014 Memorandum Report Logic System-on-a-Chip Distributed systems 9888 ASDR&EAssistant...can be removed without damaging the logic. For all propositional letters p, E1. p ⊃ [r] p From now on, a distributed logic contains at least the...a ∈ x iff 〈h〉 ∈ x. These same definitions work for the canonical relation R for r : h y k where now a ∈ MA(k), [r] a, 〈r〉 a ∈ MA(h), x ∈ CF(h), and

  6. Electric field distribution of electron emitter surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, M.; Takenobu, S.; Ohmae, N.; Umeno, M.

    1987-03-01

    The electric field distribution of a tungsten field emitter surface and a LaB6 thermionic emitter surface has been studied. The computer simulation of electric field distribution on the emitter surface was carried out with a charge simulation method. The electric field distribution of the LaB6 thermionic emitter was experimentally evaluated by the Schottky plot. Two independent equations are necessary for obtaining local electric field and work function; the Fowler-Nordheim equation and the equation of total energy distribution of emitted electron being used to evaluate the electric field distribution of the tungsten field emitter. The experimental results agreed with the computer simulation.

  7. Distributed Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Jane N.

    1988-01-01

    The microcomputer revolution, in which small and large computers have gained tremendously in capability, has created a distributed computing environment. This circumstance presents administrators with the opportunities and the dilemmas of choosing appropriate computing resources for each situation. (Author/MSE)

  8. 高压水射流冲击刚壁压力分布规律研究%Experimental Research of Impact Force Distribution on Rigid Wall by High Pressure Waterjet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智谋; 毛桂庭; 柯熠; 欧阳邓培

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨高压纯水射流和高压磨料射流冲击刚壁时射流冲击压力的分布规律,利用建立的专用测力工作台,研究了射流方向与刚壁成90°角时冲击压力的分布规律及靶距、系统工作压力对冲击压力的影响,并对磨料射流的强化效果进行了分析。结果表明:射流冲击力随径向距离的增加急速降低,是一非单调递减阶梯函数,连接各阶中心冲击力值,可视其为具非单调负指数下降规律。在靶距不变的情况下,纯水射流和磨料射流,其中心(最高压力)位置的冲击压力和系统压力呈正相关。%For exploring the distribution of impact force on rigid wall by pure waterjet and abrasive jet, the distribution of impact force with waterjet cutting angle at a 90° angle to the rigid wall, and effects on the impact force by the distance of nozzle from the rigid wall and water pressure available for the waterjet system were all tested with a specific force⁃measurement table, and the intensifying effect achieved by abrasive jetting was also analyzed. It is found that impact force of waterjet decreases rapidly with the increasing of radial distance, as a non⁃monotonically decreasing step function, connecting the central position of workbench and following a non⁃monotonic negative exponential decreasing rule. With the same distance between the nozzle and rigid wall for both pure waterjet and abrasive jet, the central position ( with the highest pressure) correlates positively with the system pressure.

  9. Experimental study on the distribution of air concentration in flow after bottom aerator%泄槽底部掺气坎后水流掺气浓度分布模型试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马关博; 徐一民; 乔梁; 荣岩

    2014-01-01

    针对泄槽底部掺气坎后的掺气浓度分布规律较为复杂、研究成果较少的问题,为了更清楚地探究泄槽底部掺气坎后上游直段、反弧段及下游直段水流掺气浓度分布规律,采用含有反弧段的泄槽进行模型试验研究。试验结果表明:上游直段、反弧段及下游直段水流中不同水深处掺气浓度的沿程变化规律是不相同的;其他条件不变时,水流掺气浓度随掺气坎高度的增加而增大,随反弧段反弧半径的减小而减小;掺气坎高度和反弧半径对掺气设施的有效保护范围有一定的影响,适当提高掺气坎的高度和反弧段的半径对增大掺气设施的有效保护长度有利。%Setting an aerator on the chute contained ogee section is an important subject of cavitation erosion. The distribution of air concentration in flow after bottom aerator still a challenge task and relevant research results are quite limited. In order to explore the distribution of air concentration on straight section after aerator, ogee section, and straight section after ogee section on chute, we use the chute with ogee section to set up an experiment. By doing it so, different size of aerator with different radius of ogee section have been tested, measured rand analyzed. The overall experiment results show that when other conditions remain unchanged, the air concentration in the flow increases with the increase of aerator's height and decreases with the decrease of the anti-arc radius of the chute. According to the air concentration in the flow, the length of protective segment of the chute may vary with aerator's height and the radius of anti-arc of the chute. To some extent, increasing aerator's height and the anti-arc radius of the flow chute can prolong the length of protective segment.

  10. Parametrization of nuclear parton distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Hirai; S Kumano; M Miyama

    2001-08-01

    Optimum nuclear parton distributions are obtained by analysing available experimental data on electron and muon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). The distributions are given at 2 = 1 GeV2 with a number of parameters, which are determined by a 2 analysis of the data. Valencequark distributions are relatively well determined at medium , but they are slightly dependent on the assumed parametrization form particularly at small . Although antiquark distributions are shadowed at small , their behavior is not obvious at medium from the 2 data. The gluon distributions could not be restricted well by the inclusive DIS data; however, the analysis tends to support the gluon shadowing at small . We provide analytical expressions and computer subroutines for calculating the nuclear parton distributions, so that other researchers could use them for applications to other high-energy nuclear reactions.

  11. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  12. Annual Variations of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity and Seasonal Distribution of the Cloudless Days and Cloudless Nights in Abastumani (41.75oN, 42.82oE; Georgia): (1) experimental study and (2) theoretical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Alania, M V; Modzelewska, R; Todua, M; Wawrzynczak, A

    2015-01-01

    We study a possible relationships between seasonal distributions of the visually observed cloudless days (CD) and cloudless nights (CN) at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory (41.75N, 42.82E; Georgia) in 1957-1993. The annual variations of monthly numbers of CD and CN have been observed, with maximum in August for CD and in September for CN. During geomagnetic disturbances it is also observed the growth of number of CD in September andMarch (equinoctial months), and for CN, together with September, in June, April and February. We assume that this phenomenon indicates an influence of cosmic factors on cloudiness, as well as the existence of semiannual and possibly shorter-periodicity variations. This cosmic factor can be the manifestation of different rates of the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) flux variations in CD and CN periods. The influence of GCR flux on ionization of lower atmosphere and variations of density of cloud condensation nuclei also can be connected to the annual and seasonal changes of temperat...

  13. 不同风场下典型高层建筑风压分布的试验研究%Experimental Investigation of Wind Pressure Distributions on a Typical Tall Building in Different Wind Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅伦海; 李秋胜

    2013-01-01

    通过不同边界层条件下的风洞试验,对典型高层建筑表面风压分布规律进行了对比研究.获得了不同风场下建筑幕墙表面的平均风压系数和峰值风压系数,评估了风场的改变对各种无量纲风压系数的影响.测试的结果可以为高层建筑幕墙设计提供依据,同时,也为其它高层建筑的抗风设计和风洞试验提供技术参考.%The distributions of wind-induced pressure on a tall building were evaluated by a wind tunnel test in two boundary layers. This paper presents some selected results of the mean pressure coefficients and peak pressure coefficients on the tall building based on the analysis of the data obtained in the wind tunnel test. In addition, further studies were conducted to investigate how the pressure coefficients of the tall building are influenced by the variations of boundary layers. The outcomes of this study are expected to be useful to determine the wind loads on curtain walls of the tall building in the design stage, and also provide guidelines for the design and wind tunnel tests for other similar structures in the future.

  14. MAIL DISTRIBUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Ferguson

    2002-01-01

    Following discussions with the mail contractor and Mail Service personnel, an agreement has been reached which permits deliveries to each distribution point to be maintained, while still achieving a large proportion of the planned budget reduction in 2002. As a result, the service will revert to its previous level throughout the Laboratory as rapidly as possible. Outgoing mail will be collected from a single collection point at the end of each corridor. Further discussions are currently in progress between ST, SPL and AS divisions on the possibility of an integrated distribution service for internal mail, stores items and small parcels, which could lead to additional savings from 2003 onwards, without affecting service levels. J. Ferguson AS Division

  15. Quasihomogeneous distributions

    CERN Document Server

    von Grudzinski, O

    1991-01-01

    This is a systematic exposition of the basics of the theory of quasihomogeneous (in particular, homogeneous) functions and distributions (generalized functions). A major theme is the method of taking quasihomogeneous averages. It serves as the central tool for the study of the solvability of quasihomogeneous multiplication equations and of quasihomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Necessary and sufficient conditions for solvability are given. Several examples are treated in detail, among them the heat and the Schrödinger equation. The final chapter is devoted to quasihomogeneous wave front sets and their application to the description of singularities of quasihomogeneous distributions, in particular to quasihomogeneous fundamental solutions of the heat and of the Schrödinger equation.

  16. STUDY ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF RH STRAIN TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTED MICE%弓形虫RH株在实验感染小鼠体内分布的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊燕; 杨秀珍; 吴增强; 杨树森

    2000-01-01

    Aim In order to observe the pathological features and the dynamic distribution of RH strain T. gondii in main organs of infected mice, using indirect immunoenzymatic technique. To provide pathological diagonsising reference of toxoplasmosis and increase to understand the pathologensis of Toxoplasmosis. Methods Mice were infected intraperitoneally with 103 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain,and the parasites were detected using indirect immunoenzymatic technique in the liver, spleen, lungs and brain at 2,4,6 and 8 days postinfection. Results The liver was the first organ parasitized at D2, followed by spleen and lungs at D4, the brain at D8. At the early phase of infection, parasites were found on the edge of the liver and spleen. A few parasites were detected within the liver, spleen and lungs with time being. But parasites increased progressively and distributed well during the whole phase. The brain was the last organ to be parasitized. Parasites multiplicated rapidly so that the mice were seriously ill and died. Conclusions The indirect immunoenzymatic technique can demonstrate tachyzoites and Toaxoplasma antigen clearly in infected mice during acute stage. Many organs were infected such as liver, spleen,lungs and brain. The results suggest that the organs in the peritoneal cavity were infected directly by tachyzoites as IP infection, then the parasites disseminate through a blood way, and in the end, tachyzoites cross the blood-brain barries to reach the brain.%目的以间接免疫酶法观察弓形虫(RH株)感染时的急性期病变特点及虫体在主要脏器的动态分布,以期为弓形虫病的病理诊断提供依据,并对弓形虫致病机理加深理解。方法用弓形虫RH株速殖子103个经腹腔感染昆明小鼠,于感染后第2、4、6和8d,取肝、脾、肺和脑进行间接免疫酶染色。结果虫体首先在肝脏内被发现(第2d),其次是脾和肺(第4d),最后是脑(第8d)。感染早期,肝与脾边缘均可

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the distributed source boundary point method for acoustic sensitivity analysis%声学灵敏度分析的分布源边界点法理论及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立涛; 陈剑; 张炳荣

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical model for acoustic sensitivity based on the distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM) was established, and the calculation formula for sensitivity was deduced. Compared to traditional BEM, complicated numerical calculation and the disposal of singular integral were avoided in the proposed method. The advantage of computational efficiency is shown by the comparison of computational time with BEM. An experiment of a vibrating box is investigated here, in which the design variable is the excitation frequency. Comparison of the experiment result and that calculated by DSBPM shows that the proposed method is correct and effective.%建立了基于分布源边界点法的声学灵敏度数学模型,推导出了基于分布源边界点法的声学灵敏度计算公式.与基于边界元法的声学灵敏度分析方法相比,文中方法避开了繁复的数值计算和奇异积分的处理,通过与边界元法在计算时间上的比较,证明了文中声学灵敏度计算方法在计算效率方面的优势.以箱体为对象,以激励频率为设计变量进行了实验研究,并通过场点声压灵敏度实验值与文中方法计算值的对比证明了文中方法的正确性和有效性

  18. Distributed Games

    OpenAIRE

    Dov Monderer; Moshe Tennenholtz

    1997-01-01

    The Internet exhibits forms of interactions which are not captured by existing models in economics, artificial intelligence and game theory. New models are needed to deal with these multi-agent interactions. In this paper we present a new model--distributed games. In such a model each players controls a number of agents which participate in asynchronous parallel multi-agent interactions (games). The agents jointly and strategically control the level of information monitoring by broadcasting m...

  19. Distributed scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Toptal, Ayşegül

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Science of Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references. Distributed Scheduling (DS) is a new paradigm that enables the local decisionmakers make their own schedules by considering local objectives and constraints within the boundaries and the overall objective of the whole system. Local schedules from different parts of the system are...

  20. STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF A Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville POPULATION IN THE CERRADO OF THE BIOLOGICAL RESERVE AND EXPERIMENTAL STATION OF MOGI GUAÇU, SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = ESTRUTURA E DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DE UMA POPULAÇÃO DE Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville EM CERRADO DA RESERVA BIOLÓGICA E ESTAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DE MOGI GUAÇU, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and spatial distribution of a Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville (Leguminosae population, were studied using a sampling area of 0.50 hectares, divided into 50 plots of 10m x 10m, located inside the cerrado of the Biological Reservation and Experimental Center of Mogi Guaçu, São Paulo State, Brazil (22º15’-16’S, 47º08’-12W. The population was inventoried during three surveys. The total number of plants measured and mapped were 250 (census 1, 297 (census 2 and 287 (census 3. These individuals were categorized into 15 height classes. The distribution of the individuals classed according to size evidenced an inverted “J”. The indexes of relative density denoted that the classes between 11 and 60cm height were the best represented in the sample area. The population presented an aggregate spatial distribution pattern and the degree of aggregation was lower than that found among taller plant classes. The population spatial distribution maps denote the occurrence of associated groups, especially young individuals, and the considerable spacing among adults indicates the effects of density-dependent factors affecting plant survival. The population of S. adstringens sampled seems to have a specific dynamics within the community in which they are inserted, being subject to natural disturbances that occur sporadically, and which in a way have a moderate impact in the sample area. = A estrutura e distribuição espacial da população de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, (Leguminosae foram estudadas em área amostral de 0,50ha, dividida em 50 parcelas de 10m X 10m, localizada em cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi Guaçu, Mogi Guaçu, SP (22º15’-16’S, 47º08’-12W. A população foi inventariada em três levantamentos e os totais de plantas mensuradas e mapeadas foram 250 (1º censo, 297 (2º censo e 287 (3º censo. A distribuição desses indivíduos em 15 classes de tamanho

  1. 泥质膨胀岩崩解物粒径分布与膨胀性关系试验研究%Grain size distribution of collapsed scraps of argillaceous rock and its relationship with expansibility: An experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 尚彦军; 曲永新; 孙元春; 林达明; 王开洋

    2013-01-01

    Slaking is one of the most basic characteristics of swelling rocks. However, criteria refer to slaking and characteristics of collapsed scraps are rare among rapid identification and classification criteria available. Thus, it is necessary to explore into slaking and grain size distribution (GSD) of the dry collapsed scraps of swelling rock and their relationships with the level of expansibility, which can complete the rapid identification and classification criteria with respect to slaking. With argillaceous rock samples collected from Daban Tunnel in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Heidong Cavern of Taizhou and Shepan Island in Zhejiang province, laboratory tests of saturated water absorptivity of dry rock block and slaking test are conducted; and GSD of the dry collapsed scraps, slake durability index and their relationship with expansibility derived from saturated water absorptivity of the swelling rock are analyzed. Results show that the effective grain size, grain sizes of the particle group with the maximum content and slake durability index are inversely correlated with the level of expansibility of the swelling rock. It is concluded that GSD of dry collapsed scraps of swelling rock can approximately act as an indicator for the level of expansibility.%崩解性是膨胀岩最基本的特性之一,但在膨胀岩膨胀性的快速判别指标中少见关于崩解性及崩解物的定量指标.因此,有必要开展膨胀岩崩解物粒径分布特征和崩解性与膨胀性之间关系的研究,以对膨胀岩的快速判别进行补充.以浙江台州黑洞、蛇蟠岛和新疆大阪隧洞泥质岩样品为例,进行了干燥饱和吸水率和干燥饱和崩解试验,并分析了干燥崩解物粒径分布特征、耐崩解性指数及其与基于干燥饱和吸水率的膨胀性判别结果之间的关系.结果表明,膨胀岩膨胀性的强弱与其崩解物的最大含量粒组颗粒粒径、有效粒径和耐崩解性指数呈反相关关系.膨

  2. 损伤混凝土毛细吸水性能试验研究和水分分布预测分析%Experimental study of capillary water absorption in damage concrete and prediction of water content distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立成; 鲍玖文; 李淑红

    2015-01-01

    of concrete after subjected to different load levels are obtained.In terms of the test results of sorptivity, and combined with the theoretical model of capillary absorption of unsaturated water, the prediction method for relative water content distribution in concrete is proposed by means of introducing the Bolzmann variables,which is foreseen to facilitate the transport analysis of aggressive agents (such as chloride or sulfate ions)through concrete.

  3. Expression and distribution of connexin 32 in rat liver with experimentally induced fibrosis Expressão e distribuição da conexina 32 em fígados de ratos com fibrose induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro dos S. Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The connexin 32 (Cx32 is a protein that forms the channels that promote the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC in the liver, allowing the diffusion of small molecules through cytosol from cell-to-cell. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a disruption of normal tissue architeture by cellular lesions, and may alter the GJIC. This work aimed to study the expression and distribution of Cx32 in liver fibrosis induced by the oral administration of dimethylnitrosamine in female Wistar rats. The necropsy of the rats was carried out after five weeks of drug administration. They presented a hepatic fibrosis state. Sections from livers with fibrosis and from control livers were submitted to immunohistochemical, Real Time-PCR and Western-Blot analysis to Cx32. In fibrotic livers the Cxs were diffusely scattered in the cytoplasm, contrasting with the control livers, where the Cx32 formed junction plaques at the cell membrane. Also it was found a decrease in the gene expression of Cx32 without reduction in the protein quantity when compared with controls. These results suggest that there the mechanism of intercellular communication between hepatocytes was reduced by the fibrotic process, which may predispose to the occurrence of a neoplastic process, taken in account that connexins are considered tumor suppressing genes.A conexina 32 (Cx32 é uma proteína que constitui os canais que promovem as comunicações intercelulares via junções comunicantes (CIJC no fígado, permitindo difusão de pequenas moléculas citoplasmáticas de uma célula à outra. A fibrose hepática caracteriza-se pela alteração da arquitetura normal do fígado e podem alterar as CIJCs. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição de Cx32 na fibrose hepática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição da Cx32 em fígados com fibrose induzida pela administração oral de dimetilnitrosamina em fêmeas de ratos Wistar. A

  4. Distribution switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.

  5. Mail distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the mail distribution and collection times will be modified for the following buildings: 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 69, 40, 70, 101, 102, 109, 118, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174, 261, 354, 358, 576, 579 and 580. Complementary Information on the new times will be posted on the entry doors and left in the mail boxes of each building. TS/FM Group

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF UNLOADING CREEP MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVELY DISTRIBUTED SOFT AND HARD ROCKMASS%软硬互层岩体卸荷蠕变力学特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昱州; 朱杰兵; 王瑞红

    2012-01-01

    利用岩石全自动三轴蠕变仪对锦屏二级水电站辅助交通洞典型灰白色细晶大理岩与绿片岩软硬互层岩样开展卸荷蠕变试验,得到岩样轴向、侧向典型的蠕变全程曲线.蠕变试验结果表明:围压较高时,试样的轴向与侧向变形随时间的推移变化不大,蠕变现象不明显;随着围压逐渐减小,试样的蠕变变形越来越显著,在最后一级出现了典型的蠕变3个阶段并发生了非线性加速蠕变现象直至试样破坏.软硬互层岩样三轴卸荷蠕变破裂形式主要以剪切破坏为主,局部伴随着一定程度的张拉破坏,主裂纹与水平面大致呈45°角,剪切破裂面较为单一平整,且破坏面基本是沿着强度较低的绿片岩层理内部并平行于层理而产生和扩展贯通而形成的.在加速蠕变阶段之前,其侧向蠕变变形比轴向蠕变变形小,但试样处于加速蠕变阶段时,侧向蠕变变形量与蠕变速率均要高于轴向蠕变;这表明随着时间的增长和围压的降低,岩样的侧向蠕变比轴向蠕变更为灵敏,而且体积扩容效应显著.卸荷条件下,蠕变力学参数表现出较为显著的非定常性规律,当外荷载小于岩样长期强度时,岩石卸荷蠕变力学参数与卸荷量有关,随着卸荷量的增大逐渐弱化;当外荷载大于岩样长期强度时,岩石卸荷蠕变力学参数不仅与卸荷量有关,而且还与蠕变时间有关.%Triaxial unloading creep tests with alternatively distributed soft and hard rock specimen from auxiliary traffic tunnel of Jinping II hydropower station are carried out by the rock servo-controlled rheological testing machine. The creep laws of axial and lateral deformations under unloading confining pressure are obtained. According to creep test results, axial and lateral deformations are both unchangeable under high confining pressure with time; and the creep phenomenon of rock specimen is not obvious. As confining pressure decreases

  7. Distributed Priority Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Ruess

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Given a set of interacting components with non-deterministic variable update and given safety requirements, the goal of priority synthesis is to restrict, by means of priorities, the set of possible interactions in such a way as to guarantee the given safety conditions for all possible runs. In distributed priority synthesis we are interested in obtaining local sets of priorities, which are deployed in terms of local component controllers sharing intended next moves between components in local neighborhoods only. These possible communication paths between local controllers are specified by means of a communication architecture. We formally define the problem of distributed priority synthesis in terms of a multi-player safety game between players for (angelically selecting the next transition of the components and an environment for (demonically updating uncontrollable variables. We analyze the complexity of the problem, and propose several optimizations including a solution-space exploration based on a diagnosis method using a nested extension of the usual attractor computation in games together with a reduction to corresponding SAT problems. When diagnosis fails, the method proposes potential candidates to guide the exploration. These optimized algorithms for solving distributed priority synthesis problems have been integrated into the VissBIP framework. An experimental validation of this implementation is performed using a range of case studies including scheduling in multicore processors and modular robotics.

  8. Justice sensitivity and distributive decisions in experimental games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fetchenhauer, D; Huang, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The concept of "justice sensitivity" has been introduced as a personality disposition by Schmitt, Neumann and Montada (1995) and is supposed to explain inter-individual differences in reactions to unfair situations. Justice sensitivity can be differentiated in three subdimensions: (1) Sensitivity wi

  9. 9 CFR 103.1 - Preparation of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.1 Preparation of experimental biological products. Except as otherwise provided in this section, experimental...

  10. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Air Pattern and Temperature Distribution Inside Compartment of All-Terrain Emergency Ambulance Vehicle%全地形履带式卫生急救车车厢内气流组织及温度分布的数值模拟与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀国; 徐新喜; 刘亚军; 崔向东

    2011-01-01

    运用计算流体动力学方法,对全地形履带式卫生急救车车厢内的气流组织和温度分布进行了数值模拟,分析了车厢内气流组织形式和温度分布规律,同时将数值模拟结果与试验结果进行了对比分析,验证了数值模拟结果的准确性。结果表明:在人员活动的绝大部分区域内气流速度分布在0.5 m/s以下,仅在空调送风口射流区域内,气流速度较高,整个车厢内气流速度分布较均匀;车厢内垂直方向和前后方向上不存在明显的温度梯度,整个车厢内温度分布均匀性较好,温度分布在27.5℃左右,温差较小;车厢内人员的舒适性较好,能够满足相关医学作业要求。%The air pattern and the temperature distribution inside the compartment of all-terrain emergency ambulance vehicle are simulated by the technique of computational fluid dynamics(CFD),the air pattern and the temperature distribu-tion are analysed and the simulation result are compared with experimental result.The results show that the air velocity is under 0.5 m/s in the most zone of person activity and the air velocity is distributed uniformly in compartment.The high air velocity exists in the jet zone of the air conditioning.The obvious temperature gradient doesn’t exist in the vertical plane and the anteroposterior of the compartment.The temperature distribution in the compartment is quite uniform and the tempera-ture is almost at 27.5℃ with little temperature difference.The human thermal comfort is good in the compartment and the environment in the compartment can satisfy requirements of the medical operation.

  11. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  12. A method for experimental modal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  13. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  14. HIRENASD Experimental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  15. Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-01-25

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  16. Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-04-03

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  17. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  18. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  19. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  20. The Folded t Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Psarakis, Stelios; Panaretos, John

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are frequently recorder without their algebraic sign. As a consequence the underlying distribution of measurements is replaced by a distribution of absolute measurements. When the underlying distribution is t the resulting distribution is called the “folded-t distribution”. Here we study this distribution, we find the relationship between the folded-t distribution and a special case of the folded normal distribution and we derive relationships of the folded-t distribution to othe...

  1. Product Distributions for Distributed Optimization. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    With connections to bounded rational game theory, information theory and statistical mechanics, Product Distribution (PD) theory provides a new framework for performing distributed optimization. Furthermore, PD theory extends and formalizes Collective Intelligence, thus connecting distributed optimization to distributed Reinforcement Learning (FU). This paper provides an overview of PD theory and details an algorithm for performing optimization derived from it. The approach is demonstrated on two unconstrained optimization problems, one with discrete variables and one with continuous variables. To highlight the connections between PD theory and distributed FU, the results are compared with those obtained using distributed reinforcement learning inspired optimization approaches. The inter-relationship of the techniques is discussed.

  2. CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Trent

    2005-01-01

    There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be i...

  3. Distributed k-Core Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Montresor, Alberto; Miorandi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Among the novel metrics used to study the relative importance of nodes in complex networks, k-core decomposition has found a number of applications in areas as diverse as sociology, proteinomics, graph visualization, and distributed system analysis and design. This paper proposes new distributed algorithms for the computation of the k-core decomposition of a network, with the purpose of (i) enabling the run-time computation of k-cores in "live" distributed systems and (ii) allowing the decomposition, over a set of connected machines, of very large graphs, that cannot be hosted in a single machine. Lower bounds on the algorithms complexity are given, and an exhaustive experimental analysis on real-world graphs is provided.

  4. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    CERN Document Server

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Confined Turbulent Multiple Transverse Jets (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-29

    Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited • Objectives • Jet in Crossflow characteristics • ONERA Air-to-air Experimental...transverse jets • Single phase/component ONERA experimental/LES studies of an eight jet mixing chamber 9 Distribution A: Approved for public release... ONERA ) Distribution C: Distribution authorized to US Government agencies and their contractors; Critical Technology, April 2013. Warning – Export

  6. Reliability optimization of binary state non-repairable systems: A state of the art survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Soltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available IThe purpose of this paper is to discuss the state of the art on models and methods for reliability optimization problems (ROPs including reliability allocation, redundancy allocation and reliability-redundancy allocation. There are literally few surveys for reviewing the literature of the ROPs. Tillman et al. (1980 classified the related papers by system structure, problem type, and solution methods, separately. In another work, Tzafestas (1980 reviewed system reliability optimization models and the optimization techniques. Yearout (1986 reviewed the literature related to standby redundancy. Kuo (2000 studied the system reliability optimization based on system structure and solution methods. Kuo and Prasad (2004 overviewed system reliability optimization methods. Later, Kuo (2007 reviewed recent advances in optimal reliability allocation problems. The present study adds to the previous literature surveys and focuses mainly on papers after year 2000 but with a quick review on the previous works so that the readers become familiar with the existing approaches. This research investigates the literature from system structure, system performance, uncertainty state and solution approach standpoints, simultaneously.

  7. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  8. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given.

  9. Root approach for estimation of statistical distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, Yu I

    2014-01-01

    Application of root density estimator to problems of statistical data analysis is demonstrated. Four sets of basis functions based on Chebyshev-Hermite, Laguerre, Kravchuk and Charlier polynomials are considered. The sets may be used for numerical analysis in problems of reconstructing statistical distributions by experimental data. Based on the root approach to reconstruction of statistical distributions and quantum states, we study a family of statistical distributions in which the probability density is the product of a Gaussian distribution and an even-degree polynomial. Examples of numerical modeling are given. The results of present paper are of interest for the development of tomography of quantum states and processes.

  10. Dynamic object management for distributed data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, Brian K.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    In distributed-memory multiprocessors, remote memory accesses incur larger delays than local accesses. Hence, insightful allocation and access of distributed data can yield substantial performance gains. The authors argue for the use of dynamic data management policies encapsulated within individual distributed data structures. Distributed data structures offer performance, flexibility, abstraction, and system independence. This approach is supported by data from a trace-driven simulation study of parallel scientific benchmarks. Experimental data on memory locality, message count, message volume, and communication delay suggest that data-structure-specific data management is superior to a single, system-imposed policy.

  11. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  12. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  13. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  14. Experimental Investigation and Analysis on Temperature Distribution in Water Pool of External Reactor Vessel Cooling System%压力容器外部冷却系统冷却水池温度场的实验研究及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永春; 李飞; 程旭; 杨燕华

    2013-01-01

    压力容器外部非能动冷却系统采用换料水池作为冷却水源。在浮升力驱动的自然循环流动作用下,冷却水池内会逐渐出现热分层现象。本实验基于先进压水堆压力容器外部冷却系统模拟装置REPEC实验回路,通过测量实验系统内冷却水箱的温度场空间分布,对冷却水池的热分层与混合现象、发展规律和主要影响因素进行了实验分析。结果表明:实验水箱内温度场分布差异主要表现在高度方向;循环流量是影响热分层的重要参数,而水箱工质初始温度的影响非常微弱;针对本实验的无量纲一维瞬态温度场方程分析表明,水箱内温度场的发展规律主要受对流传热控制。%In the external reactor vessel passive cooling system ,the refueling water pool is used as the heat trap .Driven by buoyancy force ,thermal stratification phenomena occur spontaneously in the pool . T he thermal stratification and mixing phenomena , development process and main influencing factors in the refueling water pool with the REPEC test facility were studied .The experimental results show that the temperature distribution in the experimental water tank varies with height ,the circulation flow is one of the most important factors w hich influence the thermal stratification process in the water tank ,and the effect of initial water temperature is negligible .The analysis result of the 1-D non-dimensional transient temperature field equation show s that the development of the temperature field in the water tank is mainly controlled by convective heat transfer .

  15. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  16. Generalizing Experimental Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    new method using propensity score stratified sampling. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness 7 114–135. 11 ...Generalizing Experimental Findings Judea Pearl University of California, Los Angeles Computer Science Department Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1596, USA...Selection Bias The classical problem of generalizing experimental findings from the trial sample to the population as a whole, also known as the problem

  17. Experimental quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J S

    1977-01-01

    Presented here, is, in the opinion of the author, the essential minimum of quantum field theory that should be known to cultivated experimental particle physicists. The word experimental describes not only the audience aimed at but also the level of mathematical rigour aspired to. (0 refs).

  18. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  19. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  20. The Experimental College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiklejohn, Alexander

    "The Experimental College" tells the story of a 4-year academic experiment at the University of Wisconsin established by Alexander Meiklejohn. Aimed at finding a method of teaching that would help students develop "intelligence in the conduct of their own lives," the Experimental College discarded major requirements,…

  1. Effect of Intravenous Iron Injection on Distributions of T Lymphocytes Subsets,Experimental Research in Renal Anemia Mice%静脉铁剂影响肾性贫血小鼠组织中T淋巴细胞亚群分布的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌卫; 荣光华; 赖学莉; 张懿; 郭志勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of two commercial intravenous iron agents ( Low molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose ) on distributions of T lymphocytes subsets from experimental renal anemia mice. Methods: Twenty - four hours later than iron administration via tail vein,the mononuclear cells were separated from peripheral vein blood,liver,spleen and kidney in experimental renal anemia mice. The ratios of helper T lymphocytes ( Th ), suppress T lymphocytes ( Ts ) and natural killer cells ( NK ) in difference tissues were assayed by flow cytometry. Results: After the iron injection, the ratios of Th cells in liver and kidney were decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ), meanwhile the distributions of Ts in spleen, liver and kidney were also elevated ( P < 0. 05 ). And then the NK populations in peripheral blood, liver and spleen were much less than that before iron supplement P <0. 05 ). Conclusion : Combination with uremic status or alone, the intravenous iron agent could be result of multiple organs immune dysfunction.%目的:观察并比较低分子右旋糖酐铁、蔗糖铁两种常用的静脉铁剂对肾性贫血小鼠不同组织中T淋巴细胞亚群分布的影响.方法:构建肾性贫血小鼠模型,尾静脉注射静脉铁剂24 h后,分离小鼠外周血、肝脏、脾脏、肾脏中单个核细胞,利用流式细胞仪分析辅助性T(T help、T)细胞、抑制性T(Ts、Ts)细胞、自然杀伤(natural killer,NK)细胞在不同组织中的分布.结果:接受静脉铁剂后,小鼠肝脏和肾脏中Th细胞的比例下调,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),同时铁剂在脾脏、肝脏和肾脏中还不同程度地提高T细胞向Ts细胞分化的比例,同样差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).另外,静脉铁剂还抑制了外周血、肝脏和脾脏中NK细胞的分布,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:静脉铁剂可以单独也可协同尿毒症一起导致机体多脏器中免疫微环境的紊乱.

  2. Hail Size Distribution Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D weather radar visualization software program was developed and implemented as part of an experimental Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor System. 3DRadPlot, a radar plotting program, is one of several software modules that form building blocks of the hail data processing and analysis system (the complete software processing system under development). The spatial and temporal mapping algorithms were originally developed through research at the University of Central Florida, funded by NASA s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), where the goal was to merge National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) volume reflectivity data with drop size distribution data acquired from a cluster of raindrop disdrometers. In this current work, we adapted these algorithms to process data from a cluster of hail disdrometers positioned around Launch Pads 39A or 39B, along with the corresponding NWS radar data. Radar data from all NWS NEXRAD sites is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). That data can be readily accessed at . 3DRadPlot plots Level III reflectivity data at four scan elevations (this software is available at Open Channel Software, ). By using spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation based on hydrometeor fall dynamics, we can merge the hail disdrometer array data coupled with local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) radial velocity and reflectivity data into a 4-D (3-D space and time) picture of hail size distributions. Hail flux maps can then be generated and used for damage prediction and assessment over specific surfaces corresponding to structures within the disdrometer array volume. Immediately following a hail storm, specific damage areas and degree of damage can be identified for inspection crews.

  3. Probability distribution relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Abdelkader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interesting to show the most famous distributions and their relations to the other distributions in collected diagrams. Four diagrams are sketched as networks. The first one is concerned to the continuous distributions and their relations. The second one presents the discrete distributions. The third diagram is depicted the famous limiting distributions. Finally, the Balakrishnan skew-normal density and its relationship with the other distributions are shown in the fourth diagram.

  4. Distributed Computing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Firoj Ali; Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in hardware costs and advances in computer networking technologies have led to increased interest in the use of large-scale parallel and distributed computing systems. Distributed computing systems offer the potential for improved performance and resource sharing. In this paper we have made an overview on distributed computing. In this paper we studied the difference between parallel and distributed computing, terminologies used in distributed computing, task allocation in distribute...

  5. 乳蛋白影响试验动物体脂肪酸分布及摄食相关激素研究%Effect of bovine milk protein on the fat acid distribution of body and hormones on feeding of experimental animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉堂; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    文章依据AIN-93设计大鼠饲料配方,将乳粉、酪蛋白、乳清蛋白作为蛋白来源加入饲料.以SpragueDawley大鼠作为试验动物,分成对照组、乳粉蛋白饲料组、酪蛋白饲料组及乳清蛋白饲料组共计4组,喂饲35 d,测定大鼠肝脏、脂肪垫、粪便中的脂肪酸分布及血清中摄食行为相关激素水平.结果表明,乳清蛋白显著降低血浆中Ghrelin水平,提高GLP-1水平,对其他激素无影响.乳清蛋白对肝中的脂肪酸合成无影响,但影响脂肪垫、粪便中脂肪酸组成.%In this research,rat feed formula based on the AIN-93 and powder,casein and whey protein as a source of protein was designed.SpragueDawley rats as experimental animal,divided into the control group,the milk powder protein group,the casein protein group and whey protein feed group,were fed in 35 days then the fatty acid distribution of rat liver and hormone levels on feeding behavior in the serum,fat pad and the faces were analysed.The study found that whey protein was significantly reduced in the plasma Ghrelin level,improve the GLP 1 level,for other hormone no effect.Whey protein hasn't effect on fatty acid synthesis in liver,but on the fatty acid composition of its fat pad and feces.

  6. EAS thermal neutron lateral and temporal distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V; Petrukhin, A A; Shchegolev, O B; Stepanov, V I; Volchenko, V I; Yashin, I I; Zadeba, E A

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of EAS array (PRISMA-32) has been constructed on the base of NEVOD-DECOR experiment (MEPhI,Moscow) and is now taking data. It consists of 32 specially designed scintillator en-detectors able to measure two main EAS components: hadrons (n) and electrons (e). First results on thermal neutron lateral as well as temporal distributions are presented. Obtained exponential neutron lateral distributions are consistent with that expected for normal hadron production with exponential transverse momentum distribution. As there are no other experimental data on thermal neutron distributions and so, to compare results with other measurements, we additionally obtained electron lateral distribution function (using the same detectors) and compared it with NKG - function. Recorded neutron temporal distributions are very close to that obtained with data of our previous prototypes.

  7. Ansiedade experimental humana Human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Graeff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A ansiedade experimental no ser humano constitui-se em ponte entre os modelos animais e os ensaios clínicos. OBJETIVO: Este artigo focaliza métodos químicos e psicológicos utilizados para provocar ansiedade experimental em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão seletiva da literatura. RESULTADOS: Os desafios farmacológicos têm sido usados principalmente para induzir ataques de pânico em pacientes com transtorno de pânico, os quais são mais sensíveis a eles que indivíduos normais ou pacientes portadores de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. Uma das mais importantes contribuições deste método é a de ter mostrado que os agentes panicogênicos mais seletivos, como o lactato ou a inalação de CO2, não ativam o eixo hormonal do estresse. Entre os métodos psicológicos, destacam-se o condicionamento de respostas elétricas da condutância da pele, cujo perfil farmacológico se aproxima daquele do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, e o teste da simulação do falar em público, cuja farmacologia é semelhante à do transtorno de pânico. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados salientam a diferença entre a neurobiologia da ansiedade e a do pânico.BACKGROUND: Human experimental anxiety methods bridge the gap between animal models and clinical assays. OBJECTIVE: This article is focused on chemical and psychological procedures used to generate experimental anxiety in human beings. METHODS: A selective review of the literature has been carried out. RESULTS: Pharmacological challenges have been mainly used to induce panic attacks in panic disorder patients, who are more susceptible than normal individuals or patients with other psychiatric disorders. One of the most important contributions of this method is to have shown that the most selective panicogenic agents, such as lactate or CO2 inhalation, do not activate the hormonal stress axis. Among the psychological methods stand the conditioning of the electrical skin conductance

  8. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  9. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J

    1976-03-01

    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  10. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  11. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Experimentation Ecosystem 3 2.1 Multi-thread Campaign of Experimentation 4 2.1.1 Need for a CAMPX 4 2.1.2 CAMPX Overview 5 2.1.3 Conceptual Model ...Collaborative Research Alliance (CS CRA) and Applied Research and Experimentation Partner (AREP) Programs 19 3.3 Researcher Empowerment and...Productivity 20 4. Composite Network CAMPX 21 4.1 Military Relevance 21 iv 4.2 Goals 22 4.3 Conceptual Model 23 4.3.1 Endeavor Space 23 4.3.2 Single

  12. Experimental Aspects of Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlers, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the problem of experimentally evaluating linear-time temporal logic (LTL) synthesis tools for reactive systems. We first survey previous such work for the currently publicly available synthesis tools, and then draw conclusions by deriving useful schemes for future such evaluations. In particular, we explain why previous tools have incompatible scopes and semantics and provide a framework that reduces the impact of this problem for future experimental comparisons of such tools. Furthermore, we discuss which difficulties the complex workflows that begin to appear in modern synthesis tools induce on experimental evaluations and give answers to the question how convincing such evaluations can still be performed in such a setting.

  13. Systems biology: experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  14. Modeling the pion Generalized Parton Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mezrag, C

    2015-01-01

    We compute the pion Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) in a valence dressed quarks approach. We model the Mellin moments of the GPD using Ans\\"atze for Green functions inspired by the numerical solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSE) and the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE). Then, the GPD is reconstructed from its Mellin moment using the Double Distribution (DD) formalism. The agreement with available experimental data is very good.

  15. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  16. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  17. Experimental economics in antitrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  18. The Kumaraswamy Laplace Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mohamed Nassar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A generalized Laplace distribution using the Kumaraswamy distribution is introduced. Different structural properties of this new distribution are derived, including the moments, and the moment generating function. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the model parameters and obtain the observed and expected information matrix. A real data set is used to compare the new model with widely known distributions.

  19. the impact of distribut impact of distribut impact of distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: distributed generation; wind energy; integration of renewable sources and technical losses. 1. .... Against this background, the objectives of this paper .... this is the subject of further research. Also the .... biomass, geothermal etc.

  20. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  1. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de W.S.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Svenson, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the tissue distribution of inorganic mercury, organic mercury selenium in Dutch and British seals as well as in seals which were dosed with methylmercury under experimental conditions. In the experimental animals, a time-related increase of both mercury and selenium was found in

  2. Mercury and selenium in wild and experimental seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de W.S.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Svenson, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the tissue distribution of inorganic mercury, organic mercury selenium in Dutch and British seals as well as in seals which were dosed with methylmercury under experimental conditions. In the experimental animals, a time-related increase of both mercury and selenium was found in

  3. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  4. Experimental Eavesdropping Attack against Ekert's Protocol based on Wigner's Inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G C; Degiovanni, I P; Berchera, I R; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L

    2003-01-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.

  5. On the multiplicity distribution in statistical model: (I) negative binomial distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    With the distribution of principal thermodynamic variables (e.g.,volume) and the probability condition from reference multiplicity, we develop an improved baseline measure for multiplicity distribution in statistical model to replace the traditional Poisson expectations. We demonstrate the mismatches between experimental measurements and previous theoretical calculations on multiplicity distributions. We derive a general expression for multiplicity distribution, i.e. a conditional probability distribution, in statistical model and calculate its cumulants under Poisson approximation in connection with recent data for multiplicity fluctuations. We find that probability condition from reference multiplicity are crucial to explain the centrality resolution effect in experiment. With the improved baseline measure for multiplicity distribution, we can quantitatively reproduce the cumulants (cumulant products) for multiplicity distribution of total (net) charges measured in experiments.

  6. Generalized Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zakerzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a three–parameter generalization of the Lindley distribution. This includes as special cases the exponential and gamma distributions. The distribution exhibits decreasing, increasing and bathtub hazard rate depending on its parameters. We study various properties of the new distribution and provide numerical examples to show the flexibility of the model. We also derive a bivariate version of the proposed distribution.

  7. Experimental study on partial coherence source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Xue Qing; Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Wang Long Hua; Tang Ying; Huang, Kerson

    2002-01-01

    Partial coherence source is a key part in the laser system using echelon-free introduced spatial incoherence beam smoothing technique. Different kinds of partial coherence sources have been studied experimentally for improving the uniformity of laser intensity distribution. It is found that the source produced by excimer laser scattering on the surface of a teflon plate is ideal. The properties of this kind of source are studied. As a result, the uniformity of source beam intensity distribution, the beam spatial coherence and energy transfer efficiency of the source are obtained

  8. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  9. Workshop on momentum distributions: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    This has been an extraordinary Workshop touching many branches of physics. The Workshop has treated momentum distributions in fluid and solid condensed matter, in nuclei, and in electronic systems. Both theoretical and experimental concepts and methods have been considered in all these branches. A variety of specific illustrations and applications in physical systems have been presented. One finds that some common unifying themes emerge. One finds, also, that some examples are available to illustrate where one branch is more mature than others and to contrast where expectations for future progress may be most encouraged. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  11. Ioffe-time distributions instead of parton momentum distributions in description of deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M; Mankiewicz, L; Braun, V; Górnicki, P; Mankiewicz, L

    1995-01-01

    We argue that parton distributions in coordinate space provide a more natural object for nonperturbative methods compared to the usual momentum distributions in which the physics of different longitudinal distances is being mixed. To illustrate the advantages of the coordinate space formulation, we calculate the coordinate space distributions for valence quarks in the proton using the QCD sum rule approach. A remarkable agreement is found between the calculated and the experimentally measured u-quark distribution up to distances of order \\sim 2 fm in the proton rest frame. The standard calculation completely fails, however, for valence d quarks; the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  12. Software Reliability Experimentation and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Yuan Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper classifies software researches as theoretical researches, experimental researches, and engineering researches, and is mainly concerned with the experimental researches with focus on software reliability experimentation and control. The state-of-the-art of experimental or empirical studies is reviewed. A new experimentation methodology is proposed, which is largely theory discovering oriented. Several unexpected results of experimental studies are presented to justify the importance of software reliability experimentation and control. Finally, a few topics that deserve future investigation are identified.

  13. Distributed Algorithms for Time Optimal Reachability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengkui; Nielsen, Brian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2016-01-01

    . We propose distributed computing to accelerate time optimal reachability analysis. We develop five distributed state exploration algorithms, implement them in \\uppaal enabling it to exploit the compute resources of a dedicated model-checking cluster. We experimentally evaluate the implemented...... algorithms with four models in terms of their ability to compute near- or proven-optimal solutions, their scalability, time and memory consumption and communication overhead. Our results show that distributed algorithms work much faster than sequential algorithms and have good speedup in general....

  14. Probing CP violation systematically in differential distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Durieux, Gauthier

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the topic of triple-product asymmetries which probe CP violation through differential distributions. We construct distributions with well-defined discrete symmetry properties and characterize the asymmetries formed upon them. It is stressed that the simplest asymmetries may not be optimal. We explore systematic generalizations having limited reliance on the process dynamics and phase-space parametrization. They exploit larger fractions of the information contained in differential distributions and may lead to increased sensitivities to CP violation. Our detailed treatment of the case of spinless four-body decays paves the way for further experimental studies.

  15. Etude numérique et expérimentale des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques. Influence et comportement de l'aération de l'huile Numerical and Experimental Study of Valvetrains Equipped with Hydraulic Lash Adjusters. Influence and Behaviour of Oil Aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un code numérique de simulation des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques a été développé. Le code est basé sur trois sous-modèles couplés : mécanique, hydraulique et physique. Le premier étudie la distribution comme un assemblage masses ressorts, le deuxième étudie le poussoir comme un organe hydraulique à part entière et le dernier permet d'étudier l'aération de l'huile et en particulier les phénomènes de dissolution. Une validation expérimentale a été menée sur un banc culasse alimenté par une huile mélangée à de l'air en proportions mesurées. L'instrumentation permettait de mesurer l'accélération de la tête de soupape, son déplacement au voisinage du siège et la force entre poussoir et soupape. Cette validation a montré que la simulation reflétait bien la réalité, notamment en ce qui concerne les effets de l'aération. A model of valvetrain equipped with a direct acting hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA is presented. As it is the cause of many problems, a possible aeration is taken into account. The main model is made of three submodels:1. The first one is a mechanical one with masses, springs and dampers and needs the cam laws and the pressure of the chamber of the HLA as data. 2. The second submodel is an hydraulic one. It studies the HLA chamber through the check valve flows, the leakage flow and the mechanical strains on the chamber oil. This submodel gives the chamber pressure to the first submodel. 3. The third submodel is a physical one and evaluates the instantaneous amount of air present in the chamber oil. It takes into account the arrival of new bubbles through the check valve and the mass exchanges (diffusion, dissolution between the bubbles and the oil bulk. This amount of air has a direct influence on the chamber pressure calculation made in the second submodel. Experimental validation of the model was conducted on an engine head. This engine head was feeded by an oil circuit in which

  16. Modified Slash Lindley Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new distribution, called the modified slash Lindley distribution, which can be seen as an extension of the Lindley distribution. We show that this new distribution provides more flexibility in terms of kurtosis and skewness than the Lindley distribution. We derive moments and some basic properties for the new distribution. Moment estimators and maximum likelihood estimators are calculated using numerical procedures. We carry out a simulation study for the maximum likelihood estimators. A fit of the proposed model indicates good performance when compared with other less flexible models.

  17. Self-experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2003-01-01

    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  18. Frozen waves: experimental generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tarcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), where FW CGHs were first computationally implemented, and later electronically implemented, on the LC-SLM for optical reconstruction. The experimental results are in agreement with the corresponding theoretical analytical solutions and hold excellent prospects for implementation in scientific and technological applications.

  19. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  20. Neuronal variability during handwriting: lognormal distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I Rupasov

    Full Text Available We examined time-dependent statistical properties of electromyographic (EMG signals recorded from intrinsic hand muscles during handwriting. Our analysis showed that trial-to-trial neuronal variability of EMG signals is well described by the lognormal distribution clearly distinguished from the Gaussian (normal distribution. This finding indicates that EMG formation cannot be described by a conventional model where the signal is normally distributed because it is composed by summation of many random sources. We found that the variability of temporal parameters of handwriting--handwriting duration and response time--is also well described by a lognormal distribution. Although, the exact mechanism of lognormal statistics remains an open question, the results obtained should significantly impact experimental research, theoretical modeling and bioengineering applications of motor networks. In particular, our results suggest that accounting for lognormal distribution of EMGs can improve biomimetic systems that strive to reproduce EMG signals in artificial actuators.

  1. Applying Prolog to Develop Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Nuno P; Rybalchenko, Andrey; Singh, Atul; 10.1017/S1471068410000360

    2010-01-01

    Development of distributed systems is a difficult task. Declarative programming techniques hold a promising potential for effectively supporting programmer in this challenge. While Datalog-based languages have been actively explored for programming distributed systems, Prolog received relatively little attention in this application area so far. In this paper we present a Prolog-based programming system, called DAHL, for the declarative development of distributed systems. DAHL extends Prolog with an event-driven control mechanism and built-in networking procedures. Our experimental evaluation using a distributed hash-table data structure, a protocol for achieving Byzantine fault tolerance, and a distributed software model checker - all implemented in DAHL - indicates the viability of the approach.

  2. Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a procedure for inducing conditional densities within the mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTE) framework. We analyse possible conditional MTE specifications and propose a model selection scheme, based on the BIC score, for partitioning the domain of the conditioning variables....... Finally, experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the learning procedure as well as the expressive power of the conditional MTE distribution....

  3. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  4. Experimental probes of axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Experimental searches for axions or axion-like particles rely on semiclassical phenomena resulting from the postulated coupling of the axion to two photons. Sensitive probes of the extremely small coupling constant can be made by exploiting familiar, coherent electromagnetic laboratory techniques, including resonant enhancement of transitions using microwave and optical cavities, Bragg scattering, and coherent photon-axion oscillations. The axion beam may either be astrophysical in origin as in the case of dark matter axion searches and solar axion searches, or created in the laboratory from laser interactions with magnetic fields. This note is meant to be a sampling of recent experimental results.

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. Experimental fully contextual correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Amselem, Elias; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J; Portillo, Jose R; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum correlations are contextual yet, in general, nothing prevents the existence of even more contextual correlations. We identify and test a simple noncontextual inequality in which the quantum violation cannot be improved by any hypothetical post-quantum resource, and use it to experimentally obtain correlations in which the maximum noncontextual content, defined as the maximum fraction of noncontextual correlations, is less than 0.06. Our correlations are experimentally generated from the outcomes of sequential compatible measurements on a four-state quantum system encoded in the polarization and path of a single photon.

  7. Hyperfinite Representation of Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Hyperfinite representation of distributions is studied following the method introduced by Kinoshita [2, 3], although we use a different approach much in the vein of [4]. Products and Fourier transforms of representatives of distributions are also analysed.

  8. Distributed computer control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suski, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the theory, applications and techniques for distributed computer control systems. Contents (partial): Real-time distributed computer control in a flexible manufacturing system. Semantics and implementation problems of channels in a DCCS specification. Broadcast protocols in distributed computer control systems. Design considerations of distributed control architecture for a thermal power plant. The conic toolset for building distributed systems. Network management issues in distributed control systems. Interprocessor communication system architecture in a distributed control system environment. Uni-level homogenous distributed computer control system and optimal system design. A-nets for DCCS design. A methodology for the specification and design of fault tolerant real time systems. An integrated computer control system - architecture design, engineering methodology and practical experience.

  9. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  10. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    This paper provides detailed insights into predictability of the entire stock and bond return distribution through the use of quantile regression. This allows us to examine speci…c parts of the return distribution such as the tails or the center, and for a suf…ciently …ne grid of quantiles we can...... are predictable as a function of economic state variables. The results are, however, very different for stocks and bonds. The state variables primarily predict only location shifts in the stock return distribution, while they also predict changes in higher-order moments in the bond return distribution. Out...... trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions...

  11. Unintegrated double parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Golec-Biernat, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the construction of unintegrated double parton distribution functions which include dependence on transverse momenta of partons. We extend the formulation which was used to obtain the single unintegrated parton distributions from the standard, integrated parton distribution functions. Starting from the homogeneous part of the evolution equations for the integrated double parton distributions, we construct the unintegrated double parton distributions as the convolutions of the integrated double distributions and the splitting functions, multiplied by the Sudakov form factors. We show that there exist three domains of external hard scales which require three distinct forms of the unintegrated double distributions. The additional transverse momentum dependence which arises through the Sudakov form factors leads to non-trivial correlations in the parton momenta. We also discuss the non-homogeneous contribution to the unintegrated double parton distributions, which arises due to the splitting of a singl...

  12. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors-random distributed feedback fibre laser-was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (˜0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the generation

  13. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-10

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  14. Evolution of Optimum Foraging Distributions in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Nathan; Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank

    2008-03-01

    In the pursuit of optimally efficient foraging, preferred distributions of movement characteristics have been shown to exist for many types of animals and environments. Specifically, planktonic organisms such as Daphnia use exponential distributions of turning angles, α, in a ``hop, pause, turn by angle α, hop'' random walk-type sequence of movement when traversing experimentally prepared feeding solutions consisting of freeze dried Spirolina and water. We investigate the evolution of such random walks in a two-dimensional foraging model. In this model, agents traverse a feeding patch of finite size and for a finite amount of time using hop lengths and turning angles chosen randomly from inherited distributions. Distributions evolve as the choices made by the most efficient forager of one generation influence the distributions available to the succeeding generation. Preliminary results show that initially uniform turning angle distributions evolve to explicit exponential distributions after thousands of generations, consistent with the experimental observations described above.

  15. Intelligent Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0006 Intelligent Distributed Systems A Stephen Morse YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT Final Report 10/23/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...and D. Fullmer. A distributed algorithm for efficiently solving linear equations and its applications. System and Control Letters, 2015. submitted... Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ RTA2 Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force

  16. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  17. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) was used as an experimental model of ischemic stroke. MCAO produces an acute lesion consisting of an ischemic core or focus with severely reduced blood flow surrounded by a borderzone or ischemic penumbra with less pronounced blood flow reduction. Cells in the ischemic focus...

  18. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  19. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...

  20. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.