WorldWideScience

Sample records for distributed binary-state experimental

  1. Graphic display of spatially distributed binary-state experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data collected from a large number of transducers spatially distributed throughout a three-dimensional volume has typically posed a difficult interpretation task for the analyst. This paper describes one approach to alleviating this problem by presenting color graphic displays of experimental data; specifically, data representing the dynamic three-dimensional distribution of cooling fluid collected during the reflood and refill of simulated nuclear reactor vessels. Color-coded binary data (wet/dry) are integrated with a graphic representation of the reactor vessel and displayed on a high-resolution color CRT. The display is updated with successive data sets and made into 16-mm movies for distribution and analysis. Specific display formats are presented and extension to other applications discussed

  2. Experimental Entanglement Distribution by Separable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Christina E.; Schulze, Daniela; Eberle, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of entanglement between macroscopically separated parties is crucial for future quantum information networks. Surprisingly, it has been theoretically shown that two distant systems can be entangled by sending a third system that is not entangled with either of them. Here, we experimentally distribute entanglement and successfully prove that our transmitted light beam is indeed not entangled with the parties’ local systems. Our work demonstrates an unexpected variant of entanglement distribution and improves the understanding necessary to engineer multipartite quantum networks.

  3. Experimental studies of generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuss, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized parton distributions (GPD) provide a new way to study the nucleon structure. Experimentally they can be accessed using hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and meson production. First insights to GPDs were already obtained from measurements at DESY, JLAB and CERN, while new ambitious studies are planned at the upgraded JLAB at 12 GeV and at CERN. Here, some emphasis will be put onto the planned COMPASS II programme. (author)

  4. Experimental energy-dependent nuclear spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidy, T. von; Bucurescu, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed to determine the energy-dependent spin distribution in experimental nuclear-level schemes. This method compares various experimental and calculated moments in the energy-spin plane to obtain the spin-cutoff parameter σ as a function of mass A and excitation energy using a total of 7202 levels with spin assignment in 227 nuclei between F and Cf. A simple formula, σ 2 =0.391 A 0.675 (E-0.5Pa ' ) 0.312 , is proposed up to about 10 MeV that is in very good agreement with experimental σ values and is applied to improve the systematics of level-density parameters.

  5. The distribution coefficient concept and aspects on experimental distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Torstenfelt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Aspects on the distribution coefficient concept, sorption mechanisms and measurements of sorption phenomena are given. The distribution constant was shown to be pH-dependent. The temperature dependence of the sorption has been studied. The influence of the liquid/solid ratio has been studied for Cs and Sr. (G.B.)

  6. Experimental distribution of entanglement with separable carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Zuppardo, Margherita; Gillett, Geoff; Broome, Matthew; de Almeida, Marcelo; Paternostro, Mauro; White, Andrew; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-03-01

    Quantum networks will allow us to overcome distance limitations in quantum communication, and to share quantum computing tasks between remote quantum processors. The key requirement for quantum networking is the distribution of entanglement between nodes. Surprisingly, entanglement can be generated across a network without directly being communicated between nodes. In contrast to information gain, which cannot exceed the communicated information, the entanglement gain is bounded by the communicated quantum discord, a more general measure of quantum correlation that includes but is not limited to entanglement. Here we report an experiment in which two communicating parties who share three initially separable photonic qubits are entangled by exchange of a carrier photon that is not entangled with either party at all times. We show that distributing entanglement with separable carriers is resilient to noise and in some cases becomes the only way of distributing entanglement over noisy environments.

  7. Experimental determination of neutron temperature distribution in reactor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.

    1965-12-01

    This paper describes theoretical preparation of the experiment for measuring neutron temperature distribution at the RB reactor by activation foils. Due to rather low neutron flux Cu and Lu foil were irradiated for 4 days. Special natural uranium fuel element was prepared to enable easy removal of foils after irradiation. Experimental device was placed in the reactor core at half height in order to measure directly the mean neutron density. Experimental data of neutron temperature distribution for square lattice pitch 16 cm are presented with mean values of neutron temperature in the moderator, in the fuel and on the fuel element surface

  8. Experimental study of spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.; Pai, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma were experimentally investigated. By means of direct comparisons between theory and experiment, the effects of the variation of gap separation, gas pressure, and electrode radius on the spatial distributions of electron density and electric field were studied. Results indicate that the maximum electron density moves toward the cathode as the gap separation or gas pressure increases while variation of electrode radius produces little effect. Predictions from a theoretical model have been experimentally verified. General agreements between theory and experiment were found to be reasonably good except in the cathode region, where discrepancy exists. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....

  10. Distributed computing testbed for a remote experimental environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, D.N.; Casper, T.A.; Howard, B.C.; Henline, P.A.; Davis, S.L.; Barnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    Collaboration is increasing as physics research becomes concentrated on a few large, expensive facilities, particularly in magnetic fusion energy research, with national and international participation. These facilities are designed for steady state operation and interactive, real-time experimentation. We are developing tools to provide for the establishment of geographically distant centers for interactive operations; such centers would allow scientists to participate in experiments from their home institutions. A testbed is being developed for a Remote Experimental Environment (REE), a ''Collaboratory.'' The testbed will be used to evaluate the ability of a remotely located group of scientists to conduct research on the DIII-D Tokamak at General Atomics. The REE will serve as a testing environment for advanced control and collaboration concepts applicable to future experiments. Process-to-process communications over high speed wide area networks provide real-time synchronization and exchange of data among multiple computer networks, while the ability to conduct research is enhanced by adding audio/video communication capabilities. The Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment is being used to test concepts in distributed control, security, naming, remote procedure calls and distributed file access using the Distributed File Services. We are exploring the technology and sociology of remotely participating in the operation of a large scale experimental facility

  11. Experimental determination of size distributions: analyzing proper sample sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffo, A; Alopaeus, V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of various particle size distributions is a crucial aspect for many applications in the process industry. Size distribution is often related to the final product quality, as in crystallization or polymerization. In other cases it is related to the correct evaluation of heat and mass transfer, as well as reaction rates, depending on the interfacial area between the different phases or to the assessment of yield stresses of polycrystalline metals/alloys samples. The experimental determination of such distributions often involves laborious sampling procedures and the statistical significance of the outcome is rarely investigated. In this work, we propose a novel rigorous tool, based on inferential statistics, to determine the number of samples needed to obtain reliable measurements of size distribution, according to specific requirements defined a priori. Such methodology can be adopted regardless of the measurement technique used. (paper)

  12. Experimental farming and Ricardo's political arithmetic of distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Mary S. Morgan

    2005-01-01

    The development of David Ricardo’s economic theory of distribution - the laws that determine the share of output between the economic classes - depended on specific connections at several levels between two practical sciences of the early 19th century, namely experimental agriculture and political economy. This paper shows how Ricardo, one of the foremost British economists of his day, combined his empirical knowledge of farming and agricultural experiments to develop both the content and met...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION AT CHANNEL BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.M. Tarekul ISLAM; M.R. KABIR; Ainun NISHAT

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on the distribution of sediments at channel bifurcation.The experiments have been conducted in a physical model of channel bifurcation. It consists of a straight main channel which bifurcates into two branch channels of different widths. The test rig is a mobile bed with fixed bank. Four different noses have been used to study the phenomenon. For each nose, three upstream discharges viz. 20 l/s, 30 l/s and 40 l/s have been employed. From the measured data, discharges and sediment transport ratios per unit width are calculated in the downstream branches.These data have been set to the general nodal point relation and a set of equations has been developed to describe the distribution of sediments to the downstream branches for different nose angles.

  14. Experimental investigation of statistical models describing distribution of counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1992-01-01

    The binomial, Poisson and modified Poisson models which are used for describing the statistical nature of the distribution of counts are compared theoretically, and conclusions for application are considered. The validity of the Poisson and the modified Poisson statistical distribution for observing k events in a short time interval is investigated experimentally for various measuring times. The experiments to measure the influence of the significant radioactive decay were performed with 89 Y m (T 1/2 =16.06 s), using a multichannel analyser (4096 channels) in the multiscaling mode. According to the results, Poisson statistics describe the counting experiment for short measuring times (up to T=0.5T 1/2 ) and its application is recommended. However, analysis of the data demonstrated, with confidence, that for long measurements (T≥T 1/2 ) Poisson distribution is not valid and the modified Poisson function is preferable. The practical implications in calculating uncertainties and in optimizing the measuring time are discussed. Differences between the standard deviations evaluated on the basis of the Poisson and binomial models are especially significant for experiments with long measuring time (T/T 1/2 ≥2) and/or large detection efficiency (ε>0.30). Optimization of the measuring time for paired observations yields the same solution for either the binomial or the Poisson distribution. (orig.)

  15. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  16. Experimental investigations on frictional resistance and velocity distribution of rough wall with regularly distributed triangular ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozawa, Masaaki; Ito, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Kawashima, Hideki; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow over the regularly distributed triangular ribs was investigated. • Simultaneous measurement of flow resistance and velocity profile was performed. • Flow resistance was measured directly and velocity profile was measured by LDV. • Flow resistance was estimated by the information of the velocity field. • Estimated flow resistance has good agreement with the measured flow resistance. -- Abstract: The relationship between the flow resistance of a turbulent flow over triangular ribs regularly distributed on a wall surface and the velocity distribution around the ribs was investigated experimentally. A concentric cylinder device composed of an inner test cylinder and an outer cylinder was employed to measure the flow resistance using the torque of the shaft of the inner cylinder and the velocity distribution of the flow around a rib by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) simultaneously. We prepared four inner test cylinders having 4, 8, 12 and 16 triangular ribs on the surface with the same interval between them. Each rib had an isosceles right triangle V-shape and a height of 2 mm. To investigate the relationship between flow resistance and velocity distribution, we estimated the frictional drag and pressure drag acting on the surface of the ribs separately using the velocity distribution. Therefore, we could also estimate the total flow resistance using the velocity distribution. As a result of the experiment, the flow resistance and the attachment point downstream of the rib were shown to depend on the distance between ribs. Moreover, the flow resistance estimated using the velocity distribution had good agreement with the flow resistance measured using the torque of the inner cylinder

  17. Binary-State Dynamics on Complex Networks: Pair Approximation and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Gleeson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wide class of binary-state dynamics on networks—including, for example, the voter model, the Bass diffusion model, and threshold models—can be described in terms of transition rates (spin-flip probabilities that depend on the number of nearest neighbors in each of the two possible states. High-accuracy approximations for the emergent dynamics of such models on uncorrelated, infinite networks are given by recently developed compartmental models or approximate master equations (AMEs. Pair approximations (PAs and mean-field theories can be systematically derived from the AME. We show that PA and AME solutions can coincide under certain circumstances, and numerical simulations confirm that PA is highly accurate in these cases. For monotone dynamics (where transitions out of one nodal state are impossible, e.g., susceptible-infected disease spread or Bass diffusion, PA and the AME give identical results for the fraction of nodes in the infected (active state for all time, provided that the rate of infection depends linearly on the number of infected neighbors. In the more general nonmonotone case, we derive a condition—that proves to be equivalent to a detailed balance condition on the dynamics—for PA and AME solutions to coincide in the limit t→∞. This equivalence permits bifurcation analysis, yielding explicit expressions for the critical (ferromagnetic or paramagnetic transition point of such dynamics, that is closely analogous to the critical temperature of the Ising spin model. Finally, the AME for threshold models of propagation is shown to reduce to just two differential equations and to give excellent agreement with numerical simulations. As part of this work, the Octave or Matlab code for implementing and solving the differential-equation systems is made available for download.

  18. Uncertainties of predictions from parton distributions 1, experimental errors

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Stirling, William James; Thorne, R S; CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    We determine the uncertainties on observables arising from the errors on the experimental data that are fitted in the global MRST2001 parton analysis. By diagonalizing the error matrix we produce sets of partons suitable for use within the framework of linear propagation of errors, which is the most convenient method for calculating the uncertainties. Despite the potential limitations of this approach we find that it can be made to work well in practice. This is confirmed by our alternative approach of using the more rigorous Lagrange multiplier method to determine the errors on physical quantities directly. As particular examples we determine the uncertainties on the predictions of the charged-current deep-inelastic structure functions, on the cross-sections for W production and for Higgs boson production via gluon--gluon fusion at the Tevatron and the LHC, on the ratio of W-minus to W-plus production at the LHC and on the moments of the non-singlet quark distributions. We discuss the corresponding uncertain...

  19. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beirsdorfer, P; Crespo-Lopez-Urrutia, J R; Utter, S B.

    1999-01-01

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to place

  20. Experimental analysis of flowrates distribution features in double-loop reactor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, E.F.; Chusov, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data on the flowrate distribution in working channels dummies of a research reactor model with double-loop configuration are presented in the paper. The procedures of experiments and received experimental data processing are provided in details [ru

  1. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.

    1970-01-01

    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  2. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, collecting close to 1 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the first...

  3. Distributed processing and analysis of ATLAS experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is taking data steadily since Autumn 2009, and collected so far over 5 fb-1 of data (several petabytes of raw and reconstructed data per year of data-taking). Data are calibrated, reconstructed, distributed and analysed at over 100 different sites using the World-wide LHC Computing Grid and the tools produced by the ATLAS Distributed Computing project. In addition to event data, ATLAS produces a wealth of information on detector status, luminosity, calibrations, alignments, and data processing conditions. This information is stored in relational databases, online and offline, and made transparently available to analysers of ATLAS data world-wide through an infrastructure consisting of distributed database replicas and web servers that exploit caching technologies. This paper reports on the experience of using this distributed computing infrastructure with real data and in real time, on the evolution of the computing model driven by this experience, and on the system performance during the...

  4. Experimental tests of charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londergan, J.T.; Murdock, D.P.; Thomas, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions

  5. Hardware-Efficient On-line Learning through Pipelined Truncated-Error Backpropagation in Binary-State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANNs trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation. Learning is performed in parallel with inference in the forward pass, removing the need for an explicit backward pass and requiring no extra weight lookup. By using binary state variables in the feedforward network and ternary errors in truncated-error backpropagation, the need for any multiplications in the forward and backward passes is removed, and memory requirements for the pipelining are drastically reduced. Further reduction in addition operations owing to the sparsity in the forward neural and backpropagating error signal paths contributes to highly efficient hardware implementation. For proof-of-concept validation, we demonstrate on-line learning of MNIST handwritten digit classification on a Spartan 6 FPGA interfacing with an external 1Gb DDR2 DRAM, that shows small degradation in test error performance compared to an equivalently sized binary ANN trained off-line using standard back-propagation and exact errors. Our results highlight an attractive synergy between pipelined backpropagation and binary-state networks in substantially reducing computation and memory requirements, making pipelined on-line learning practical in deep networks.

  6. Hardware-Efficient On-line Learning through Pipelined Truncated-Error Backpropagation in Binary-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham; Pedroni, Bruno; Sheik, Sadique; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation. Learning is performed in parallel with inference in the forward pass, removing the need for an explicit backward pass and requiring no extra weight lookup. By using binary state variables in the feedforward network and ternary errors in truncated-error backpropagation, the need for any multiplications in the forward and backward passes is removed, and memory requirements for the pipelining are drastically reduced. Further reduction in addition operations owing to the sparsity in the forward neural and backpropagating error signal paths contributes to highly efficient hardware implementation. For proof-of-concept validation, we demonstrate on-line learning of MNIST handwritten digit classification on a Spartan 6 FPGA interfacing with an external 1Gb DDR2 DRAM, that shows small degradation in test error performance compared to an equivalently sized binary ANN trained off-line using standard back-propagation and exact errors. Our results highlight an attractive synergy between pipelined backpropagation and binary-state networks in substantially reducing computation and memory requirements, making pipelined on-line learning practical in deep networks.

  7. QCD-based pion distribution amplitudes confronting experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.; Stefanis, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    We use QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates to recalculate more accurately the moments and their confidence intervals of the twist-2 pion distribution amplitude including radiative corrections. We are thus able to construct an admissible set of pion distribution amplitudes which define a reliability region in the a 2 , a 4 plane of the Gegenbauer polynomial expansion coefficients. We emphasize that models like that of Chernyak and Zhitnitsky, as well as the asymptotic solution, are excluded from this set. We show that the determined a 2 , a 4 region strongly overlaps with that extracted from the CLEO data by Schmedding and Yakovlev and that this region is also not far from the results of the first direct measurement of the pion valence quark momentum distribution by the Fermilab E791 collaboration. Comparisons with recent lattice calculations and instanton-based models are briefly discussed

  8. Application of quantum key distribution for mutual identification - experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.; Haderka, O.; Hendrych, M.

    1998-01-01

    A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are 're fuelled' from a shared secret key transferred over a quantum channel. The question of authentication of information sent over a public channel is discussed. An apparatus using two unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers has been built, and quantum key distribution and 'quantum identification' have been successfully tested through a single-mode optical fibre at 830 nm, employing low intensity coherent states (below 0,1 photons per pulse). (author)

  9. Experimental measurements of spatial dose distributions in radiosurgery treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Perez-Pastenes, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of stereotactic radiosurgery dose distributions requires an integrating, high-resolution dosimeter capable of providing a spatial map of absorbed dose. This paper describes the use of a commercial radiochromic dye film (GafChromic MD-55-2) to measure radiosurgery dose distributions with 6 MV X-rays in a head phantom. The response of the MD-55-2 was evaluated by digitizing and analyzing the films with conventional computer systems. Radiosurgery dose distributions were measured using the radiochromic film in a spherical acrylic phantom of 16 cm diameter undergoing a typical SRS treatment as a patient, and were compared with dose distributions provided by the treatment planning system. The comparison lead to mean radial differences of ±0.6 mm, ±0.9 mm, ±1.3 mm, ±1.9 mm, and ±2.8 mm, for the 80, 60, 50, 40, and 30% isodose curves, respectively. It is concluded that the radiochromic film is a convenient and useful tool for radiosurgery treatment planning validation

  10. Experimental aspects of deterministic secure quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walenta, Nino; Korn, Dietmar; Puhlmann, Dirk; Felbinger, Timo; Hoffmann, Holger; Ostermeyer, Martin [Universitaet Potsdam (Germany). Institut fuer Physik; Bostroem, Kim [Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Most common protocols for quantum key distribution (QKD) use non-deterministic algorithms to establish a shared key. But deterministic implementations can allow for higher net key transfer rates and eavesdropping detection rates. The Ping-Pong coding scheme by Bostroem and Felbinger[1] employs deterministic information encoding in entangled states with its characteristic quantum channel from Bob to Alice and back to Bob. Based on a table-top implementation of this protocol with polarization-entangled photons fundamental advantages as well as practical issues like transmission losses, photon storage and requirements for progress towards longer transmission distances are discussed and compared to non-deterministic protocols. Modifications of common protocols towards a deterministic quantum key distribution are addressed.

  11. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  12. Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4 oE to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air. The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.

  13. Holographic atom imaging from experimental photoelectron angular distribution patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terminello, L.J.; Lapiano-Smith, D.A.; Barton, J.J.; Shirley, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    One of the most challenging areas of materials research is the imaging of technologically relevant materials with microscopic and atomic-scale resolution. As part of the development of these methods, near-surface atoms in single crystals were imaged using core-level photoelectron holograms. The angle-dependent electron diffraction patterns that constitute an electron hologram were two-dimensionally transformed to create a three dimensional, real-space image of the neighboring scattering atoms. They have made use of a multiple-wavenumber, phased-summing method to improve the atom imaging capabilities of experimental photoelectron holography using the Cu(001) and Pt(111) prototype systems. These studies are performed to evaluate the potential of holographic atom imaging methods as structural probes of unknown materials

  14. Experimental evaluation of air distribution in mechanically ventilated residential rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, R.; Krajčík, M.; Simone, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low ventilation rates (1 or 0.5 air change per hour) on thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness was experimentally studied in a simulated residential room equipped with radiant floor heating/cooling and mixing ventilation systems. The tests were performed for various positions...... of supply and extract air terminals and different winter and summer boundary conditions. Vertical air temperature, operative temperature and air velocity profiles were measured in different positions in the room, and equivalent temperatures were derived, in order to characterize thermal comfort. Contaminant...... with unconditioned outdoor air supply, i.e. at the supply air temperatures higher than the room air temperature. Moreover, low floor temperatures were needed to maintain the desired reference temperature in the stratified thermal environment. Mainly in cooling conditions the ventilation effectiveness depended...

  15. Experimental multiplexing of quantum key distribution with classical optical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liu-Jun; Chen, Luo-Kan; Ju, Lei; Xu, Mu-Lan; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the realization of quantum key distribution (QKD) when combined with classical optical communication, and synchronous signals within a single optical fiber. In the experiment, the classical communication sources use Fabry-Pérot (FP) lasers, which are implemented extensively in optical access networks. To perform QKD, multistage band-stop filtering techniques are developed, and a wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is designed for the multi-longitudinal-mode FP lasers. We have managed to maintain sufficient isolation among the quantum channel, the synchronous channel and the classical channels to guarantee good QKD performance. Finally, the quantum bit error rate remains below a level of 2% across the entire practical application range. The proposed multiplexing scheme can ensure low classical light loss, and enables QKD over fiber lengths of up to 45 km simultaneously when the fibers are populated with bidirectional FP laser communications. Our demonstration paves the way for application of QKD to current optical access networks, where FP lasers are widely used by the end users

  16. Experimental investigation of leak detection using mobile distributed monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Zheng, Junli; Xiong, Feng; Ge, Qi; Yan, Qixiang; Cheng, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The leak detection of rockfill dams is currently hindered by spatial and temporal randomness and wide monitoring range. The spatial resolution of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing technology is related to the distance between measuring points. As a result, the number of measuring points should be increased to ensure that the precise location of the leak is detected. However, this leads to a higher monitoring cost. Consequently, it is difficult to promote and apply this technology to effectively monitor rockfill dam leakage. In this paper, a practical mobile distributed monitoring system with dual-tubes is used by combining the FBG sensing system and hydrothermal cycling system. This dual-tube structure is composed of an outer polyethylene of raised temperature resistance heating pipe, an inner polytetrafluoroethylene tube, and a FBG sensor string, among which, the FBG sensor string can be dragged freely in the internal tube to change the position of the measuring points and improve the spatial resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of the system, the large-scale model test of concentrated leakage in 13 working conditions is carried out by identifying the location, quantity, and leakage rate of leakage passage. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, the leakage state is identified using the seepage identification index ζ v that was confirmed according to the cooling curve. Results suggested that the monitoring system shows high sensitivity and can improve the spatial resolution with limited measuring points, and thus better locate the leakage area. In addition, the seepage identification index ζ v correlated well with the leakage rate qualitatively.

  17. A Squeezed Artificial Neural Network for the Symbolic Network Reliability Functions of Binary-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Chang

    Network reliability is an important index to the provision of useful information for decision support in the modern world. There is always a need to calculate symbolic network reliability functions (SNRFs) due to dynamic and rapid changes in network parameters. In this brief, the proposed squeezed artificial neural network (SqANN) approach uses the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the corresponding reliability of a given designed matrix from the Box-Behnken design, and then the Taguchi method is implemented to find the appropriate number of neurons and activation functions of the hidden layer and the output layer in ANN to evaluate SNRFs. According to the experimental results of the benchmark networks, the comparison appears to support the superiority of the proposed SqANN method over the traditional ANN-based approach with at least 16.6% improvement in the median absolute deviation in the cost of extra 2 s on average for all experiments.Network reliability is an important index to the provision of useful information for decision support in the modern world. There is always a need to calculate symbolic network reliability functions (SNRFs) due to dynamic and rapid changes in network parameters. In this brief, the proposed squeezed artificial neural network (SqANN) approach uses the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the corresponding reliability of a given designed matrix from the Box-Behnken design, and then the Taguchi method is implemented to find the appropriate number of neurons and activation functions of the hidden layer and the output layer in ANN to evaluate SNRFs. According to the experimental results of the benchmark networks, the comparison appears to support the superiority of the proposed SqANN method over the traditional ANN-based approach with at least 16.6% improvement in the median absolute deviation in the cost of extra 2 s on average for all experiments.

  18. Experimental research on velocity distribution in narrow slots of plane type reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinxing; Zhang Youjie; Jia Haijun; Jiang Shengyao; Bo Hanliang; Min Gang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental research on velocity distribution in multiple parallel narrow channels formed by fuel plane of assembly is carried out under various Re and the water without ions as fluid in testing loop. The experimental results show that under various Re within a channel the velocity in the middle area is high and the velocity in the edge of channel decreases rapidly to zero, and the velocity is symmetrically distributed along the central line, thus the velocity distribution within a channel is like a trapezium. While in parallel channels the velocity of the middle channel is low and the velocity of the channel close to the edge is high, it is supposed to be caused by the inlet structure of channels, this concave distribution is a disadvantage to the even distribution of reactor flux

  19. An evaluation of the multi-state node networks reliability using the traditional binary-state networks reliability algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, W.-C.

    2003-01-01

    A system where the components and system itself are allowed to have a number of performance levels is called the Multi-state system (MSS). A multi-state node network (MNN) is a generalization of the MSS without satisfying the flow conservation law. Evaluating the MNN reliability arises at the design and exploitation stage of many types of technical systems. Up to now, the known existing methods can only evaluate a special MNN reliability called the multi-state node acyclic network (MNAN) in which no cyclic is allowed. However, no method exists for evaluating the general MNN reliability. The main purpose of this article is to show first that each MNN reliability can be solved using any the traditional binary-state networks (TBSN) reliability algorithm with a special code for the state probability. A simple heuristic SDP algorithm based on minimal cuts (MC) for estimating the MNN reliability is presented as an example to show how the TBSN reliability algorithm is revised to solve the MNN reliability problem. To the author's knowledge, this study is the first to discuss the relationships between MNN and TBSN and also the first to present methods to solve the exact and approximated MNN reliability. One example is illustrated to show how the exact MNN reliability is obtained using the proposed algorithm

  20. Experimental investigation of particle size distribution influence on diffusion controlled coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhigang; Patterson, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of initial particle size distribution on coarsening during liquid phase sintering has been experimentally investigated using W-14Ni-6Fe alloy as a model system. It was found that initially wider size distribution particles coarsened more rapidly than those of an initially narrow distribution. The well known linear relationship between the cube of the average particle radius bar r -3 , and time was observed for most of the coarsening process, although the early stage coarsening rate constant changed with time, as expected with concomitant early changes in the tungsten particle size distribution. The instantaneous transient rate constant was shown to be related to the geometric standard deviation, 1nσ, of the instantaneous size distributions, with higher rate constants corresponding to larger 1nσ values. The form of the particle size distributions changed rapidly during early coarsening and reached a quasi-stable state, different from the theoretical asymptotic distribution, after some time. A linear relationship was found between the experimentally observed instantaneous rate constant and that computed from an earlier model incorporating the effect of particle size distribution. The above results compare favorably with those from prior theoretical modeling and computer simulation studies of the effect of particle size distribution on coarsening, based on the DeHoff communicating neighbor model

  1. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  2. Unfolding of true distributions from experimental data distorted by detectors with finite resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure for unfolding the true distribution from experimental data distorted by a detector is proposed. For the given detector a result can be found by the least squares method, hence, without bias and involving minimal statistical errors. Stability of the result is achieved at the expense of its information content and/or using additional information on the shape of the distributions to be measured. The method may be applied for detectors with linear or nonlinear distortions. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  3. First evaluation of experimental results describing pressure buildup and hydrogen distribution, obtained by experimental series E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzbauer, H.; Wolf, L.; Valencia, L.

    1990-01-01

    The beginning of the core meltdown process in the reactor pressure vessel, with a supposed release position for hydrogen in the upper part of the containment, is simulated, and the influence of the plant geometry on the distribution process is studied. In addition, the release point is shifted to the lower containment area, additional hydrogen production owing to the interaction between concrete and melt is taken into account, and sump boiling is simulated. The experimental program covers analytical investigations in the form of blind post-calculations. (DG) [de

  4. Comparison of experimental and calculated neutron emission spectra and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental and calculated neutron emission spectra and angular distributions have been intercompared for 14.6-MeV neutron-induced reactions. The experimental data, measured by Hermsdorf et al., cover 34 elements in a large mass range. To calculate the differential neutron scattering cross sections a unified model of preequilibrium neutron emission was used, in which the generalized master equation of Mantzouranis et al. was solved with a fast exact matrix method, recently introduced by Akkermans. For the scattering kernel a three-term Legendre polynomial representation was adopted, which was either derived from the differential free nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section or fitted to obtain optimal agreement with the set of experimental data of Hermsdorf et al. The results of the last-mentioned calculation are quite acceptable in view of the fact that only two global parameters have been to describe the angular distributions of all experimental data. The report contains tables and graphs of the calculated Legendre coefficients and graphs of energy-averaged angular distributions for all 34 elements. It is further shown that improvements in the energy and angular distributions could be obtained by means of adjustment of the level-density parameters of the individual residual nuclei. Finally a short discussion is devoted to the problems of fitting angular distributions at backward angles by varying the model parameters or the specification of the initial condition. It is indicated that the so-called preequilibrium phase of the nuclear reaction actually consists of two different stages, the first one generating the forward-peaked angular distributions and the second one showing angular distributions symmetric about 90 0

  5. Zen law and features of liquidus-solidus curves in binary state diagrams based on elements VIIIA and IB of the periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Kondratyuk, A. A.; Porobova, S. A.; Klopotov, A. A.; Markova, T. N.; Kakushkin, Yu A.; Klopotov, V. D.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of binary state diagrams based on elements VIIIA and IB of the periodic table and crystal geometry parameters of solid solutions and intermetallic compositions. The analysis shows an explicit correlation between the type of the evolution of phase diagrams classified by Lebedev depending on the nature of atomic volume deviations observed in solid solutions and intermetallic compounds from Zen law.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L.; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P.

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity.

  8. Experimental investigation of the Boltzmann relation for a bi-Maxwellian distribution in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Jin Young; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-01-01

    In plasma, the Boltzmann relation is often used to connect the electron density to the plasma potential because it is not easy to calculate electric potentials on the basis of the Poisson equation due to the quasineutrality. From the Boltzmann relation, the electric potential can be simply obtained from the electron density or vice versa. However, the Boltzmann relation assumes that electrons are in thermal equilibrium and have a Maxwellian distribution, so it cannot be applied to non-Maxwellian distributions. In this paper, the Boltzmann relation for bi-Maxwellian distributions was newly derived from fluid equations and the comparison with the experimental results was given by measuring electron energy probability functions in an inductively coupled plasma. It was found that the spatial distribution of the electron density in bulk plasma is governed by the effective electron temperature, while that of the cold and hot electrons are governed by each electron temperature.

  9. Experimental design and estimation of growth rate distributions in size-structured shrimp populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, H T; Davis, Jimena L; Ernstberger, Stacey L; Hu, Shuhua; Artimovich, Elena; Dhar, Arun K

    2009-01-01

    We discuss inverse problem results for problems involving the estimation of probability distributions using aggregate data for growth in populations. We begin with a mathematical model describing variability in the early growth process of size-structured shrimp populations and discuss a computational methodology for the design of experiments to validate the model and estimate the growth-rate distributions in shrimp populations. Parameter-estimation findings using experimental data from experiments so designed for shrimp populations cultivated at Advanced BioNutrition Corporation are presented, illustrating the usefulness of mathematical and statistical modeling in understanding the uncertainty in the growth dynamics of such populations

  10. Experimental and numerical simulation the effect of distribution plates in a mobile electrostatic precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorpoor, A. R.; Sadeghi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, behaviour of airflow inside an electrostatic precipitator with three different distribution plates has been considered by means of numerical and experimental methods and results have been compared together. This device has been designed and produced in this center for the first time in Iran, and its ability to absorb particles, haze and soot is good. But for increasing the efficiency there must be some changes to an miscellaneous sections. Therefore, here we consider the effect of distribution plates to increase performance, because when distribution flow at cross sections of precipitator is uniform, the efficiency will increase. To have a numerical simulation, fluent software version 5.3 was and for modeling turbulence the RNG k-Σ turbulent model applied. This program after discretization governing equations on a body fitted coordinate system, that is produced in preprocessor, integrates this equations on control volumes and determines the rate of quantities on control volume faces using order two (upwind)approximations. Finally by means of a pitot tube velocity magnitude of fluid in two sections of domain was measured and compared with numerical results which shows a good agreement. After simulation the three model, e.g. without distribution plate, with a distribution plate after inlet duct and with two distribution plates (one after inlet duct and before outlet duct), and taking some results and by comparing them, we conclude that use of combined distribution plate can give a good result

  11. Experimentally determined distribution of granular-flow characteristics in collisional bed load transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of laboratory experiments on turbulent open-channel two-phase flow in a form of intense bed load transport is reported. Measurements in a laboratory tilting flume included camera based imaging techniques to identify the structure of the flow at the local level. Obtained experimental distributions of two-phase flow related parameters - granular velocity, concentration, and temperature - across a collisional transport layer are discussed. The results are analysed together with additional measured quantities (discharges of mixture and grains, flow depth, bed slope etc. Our major goal is to evaluate the distribution of granular stresses across the transport layer with a special attention paid to the interface between the transport layer and the bed. Furthermore, comparisons are discussed between the experimental results and predictions produced by suitable kinetic-theory based models.

  12. A global analysis of recent experimental results: How well determined are the parton distribution functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.

    1990-08-01

    Following is a brief summary of the results of an analysis of experimental data performed to extract the patron distribution functions. In contrast to other global analyses, this study investigated how the fit results depend on: Experimental Systematic Errors; Kinematic Cuts on the Analyzed Data and Choice of Initial Functional Forms, with a prime goal being a close look at the range of low-x behavior allowed by data. This is crucial for predictions for the SSC/LHC, HERA, and even at Tevatron Collider energies. Since all details can be found in the just released Fermilab preprint Parton Distributions from a Global QCD Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering and Lepton-Pair Production by J. G. M. and Wu-Ki Tung, this summary will be only a brief outline of major results. 11 refs., 13 figs

  13. On the possible ''normalization'' of experimental curves of 230Th vertical distribution in abyssal oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Al'terman, Eh.I.; Lisitsyn, A.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Okeanologii)

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of normalization of experimental ionic curves in reference to dating of abyssal sediments and establishing their accumulation rapidities are studied. The method is based on using correlation between ionic curves extrema and variations of Fe, Mn, C org., and P contents in abyssal oceanic sediments. It has been found that the above method can be successfully applied for correction of 230 Th vertical distribution data obtained by low-background γ-spectrometry. The method leads to most reliable results in those cases when the vertical distribution curves in sediments of elements concentrators of 230 Th are symbasic between themselves. The normalization of experimental ionic curves in many cases gives the possibility to realize the sediment age stratification [ru

  14. Duration and distribution of experimental muscular hyperalgesia in humans following combined infusions of serotonin and bradykinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babenko, Victor; Svensson, Peter; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    -infusions interval of 3 min. Infusions of isotonic saline (NaCl, 0.9%) were given as control. Pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects drew the distribution of the pain areas on an anatomical map. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed with an electronic algometer....... In addition, PPTs were significantly decreased (Peffect of bradykinin in producing experimental muscle pain and muscle hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli. The combination of serotonin and bradykinin can produce muscle...

  15. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  16. A Flexible Experimental Laboratory for Distributed Generation Networks Based on Power Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Miret

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recently deregulated electricity market, distributed generation based on renewable sources is becoming more and more relevant. In this area, two main distributed scenarios are focusing the attention of recent research: grid-connected mode, where the generation sources are connected to a grid mainly supplied by big power plants, and islanded mode, where the distributed sources, energy storage devices, and loads compose an autonomous entity that in its general form can be named a microgrid. To conduct a successful research in these two scenarios, it is essential to have a flexible experimental setup. This work deals with the description of a real laboratory setup composed of four nodes that can emulate both scenarios of a distributed generation network. A comprehensive description of the hardware and software setup will be done, focusing especially in the dual-core DSP used for control purposes, which is next to the industry standards and able to emulate real complexities. A complete experimental section will show the main features of the system.

  17. Experimental study on ratcheting of a cylinder subjected to axially moving temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Wada, H.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a design of cylinder subjected to axially moving temperature distribution is very important in the design of the reactor vessel of fast breeder reactor containing high-temperature sodium. So far, however, a mechanism and a prediction method for this ratcheting have not been clarified. This paper proposes the ratcheting mechanism as well as the predictive equations of the ratcheting strain for the representative two temperature distributions. The proposed ratcheting mechanism was based on the hoop-membrane stress-strain behavior of the cylinder, and the movement of the temperature distribution was regarded as a driving force of this ratcheting. This paper describes the results of the experimental study on the proposed ratcheting mechanism and the predictive equations

  18. Dynamics of Rn-222 daughter size distribution evolution: modelling and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.; El Moussaoui, B.; Renoux, A.

    1989-01-01

    Size distribution of short lived radon daughters is considered as a fundamental parameter in radiation protection in so far as about 40% of human exposure is due to inhalation of such radioactive particles, in mines as well as in indoor environments. Many experiments have been carried out in various conditions: controlled atmospheres, uranium mine atmospheres, atmospheric air, and more recently in houses because of the increasing interest in exposure to natural radiation. From an experimental point of view, previous measurements dealt with the cumulative size distribution of radon progeny alpha activity. Then, in spite of the difficulty in comparing data of different investigators, it was often found that a significant part of the activity was associated with particles above 0.1 μm in diameter. Otherwise, a bimodality was often observed in the case of airborne radioactive particles. The attachment of small radioactive ions or atoms produced by the radon decay on ambient particles has been studied. Differences arise in the calculation of the attachment coefficient and in the choice of the natural particle size distribution. This paper presents our investigation in this field by studying the theoretical and experimental aspects of the radon daughter behaviour in a cylindrical vessel simultaneously. (author)

  19. Experimental Determination of the Neutron Radiation-Dose Distribution in the Human Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipcic, Neda [Institute Rudjer Bogkovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1967-01-15

    The quality of the radiation delivering the radiation dose to the human phantom is quite different from that of the incident neutron beam. This paper describes the experimental investigation of the variation of neutron dose related to the variation of neutron fluence with depth in the human phantom. The distribution of neutron radiation was determined in the human phantom - a cube of paraffin wax 25 cm x 25 cm x 50 cm with a density of 0.92 cm{sup -3}. Po-Be and Ra-Be point sources were used as neutron sources. Neutron fluences were measured using different types of detector: scintillation detector, BF{sub 3} counter, and nuclear-track emulsions. Since the fluence measurements with these three types of detectors were carried out under the same experimental conditions, it was possible to separate and analyse each part of the radiation dose in the paraffin. From the investigations, the distribution of the total radiation dose was obtained as a function of the paraffin depth. The maximum value of this dose distribution is constant with respect to the distance between the source and the paraffin phantom. From the results obtained, some conclusions may be drawn concerning the amount of absorbed radiation dose in the human phantom. (author)

  20. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  1. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  2. A systematic study of distribution characters of infiltration parameters in an experimental basin by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weizu; Lu Jieju; Lu Mingjiang; Chen Tingyang

    1988-01-01

    A case study of spatial variability of Philip's infiltration parameters was carried out in a small experimental catchment with an area of 0.8 ha by nuclear monitoring methods. Relationships between sorptivity S, parameter A and the average initial soil water content within 0.5 m depth of soil profiles over the catchment have been plotted. A watershed infiltration parameter distribution curve is set up and fitted approximately by f/F=1-(1-S/S M ) n . The parameters of composite infiltration response related to whole catchment are suggested. The author has studied it on an experimental basin by combined method of nuclear technology and micro-geomorphic analysis. The results are satisfactory. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Perturbation method for experimental determination of neutron spatial distribution in the reactor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takac, S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The method is based on perturbation of the reactor cell from a few up to few tens of percent. Measurements were performed for square lattice calls of zero power reactors Anna, NORA and RB, with metal uranium and uranium oxide fuel elements, water, heavy water and graphite moderators. Character and functional dependence of perturbations were obtained from the experimental results. Zero perturbation was determined by extrapolation thus obtaining the real physical neutron flux distribution in the reactor cell. Simple diffusion theory for partial plate cell perturbation was developed for verification of the perturbation method. The results of these calculation proved that introducing the perturbation sample in the fuel results in flattening the thermal neutron density dependent on the amplitude of the applied perturbation. Extrapolation applied for perturbed distributions was found to be justified

  4. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-10-21

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability.

  5. Measurement of aerosol size distribution by impaction and sedimentation An experimental study and data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouri, Mohamed.

    1981-09-01

    This study concerns essentially solid aerosols produced by combustion and more particulary the aerosol liberated by a sodium fire taken into account in safety studies related to sodium cooled nuclear reactors. The accurate determination of the aerosol size distribution depends on the selection device use. An experimental study of the parameters affecting the solid aerosol collection efficiency was made with the Andersen Mark II cascade impactor (blow off and bounce, electrical charge of particles, wall-loss). A sedimentation chamber was built and calibrated for the range between 4 and 10 μm. The second part describes a comparative study of different data reduction methods for the impactor and a new method for setting up the aerosol size distribution with data obtained by the sedimentation chamber [fr

  6. Experimental equivalent cluster-size distributions in nano-metric volumes of liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; De Nardo, L.; Colautti, P.; Pszona, S.; Conte, V.; Tornielli, G.

    2004-01-01

    Ionisation cluster-size distributions in nano-metric volumes of liquid water were determined for alpha particles at 4.6 and 5.4 MeV by measuring cluster-size frequencies in small gaseous volumes of nitrogen or propane at low gas pressure as well as by applying a suitable scaling procedure. This scaling procedure was based on the mean free ionisation lengths of alpha particles in water and in the gases measured. For validation, the measurements of cluster sizes in gaseous volumes and the cluster-size formation in volumes of liquid water of equivalent size were simulated by Monte Carlo methods. The experimental water-equivalent cluster-size distributions in nitrogen and propane are compared with those in liquid water and show that cluster-size formation by alpha particles in nitrogen or propane can directly be related to those in liquid water. (authors)

  7. Comparison of Finite Element Modeling and Experimental Pressure Distribution in a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'yev, Andreiy I.; Murphy, Michael J.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2002-10-01

    Ultra high pressures can be obtained in a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) device by optimizing the geometrical shape of diamond anvil and by use of high strength gasket materials. Radial pressure distribution in a diamond-coated rhenium gasket was measured by the micro-collimated X-ray diffraction techniques at NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory up to peak pressure of 220 GPa. The process of DAC compression was described by finite element analysis using NIKE-2D software. The mechanical properties of the diamond-coated gasket material were modeled and radial pressure distribution obtained was in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated shear stress in diamond in the axial direction was shown to depend strongly on the yield strength of the gasket material and may limit the ultimate pressure that can be obtained with the use of high strength gasket materials. Supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. DMR-0203779.

  8. Distribution of iodine between water and steam: a reassessment of experimental data on hypoiodous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A re-analysis has been made of published data on the steam/ water distribution of iodine between 118 0 and 287 0 C. The analysis assumes that the principal reactions are as follows: I 2 + H 2 O = HIO + H + + I - 3I 2 + 3H 2 O = IO 3 - + 5I - + 6H + for which the equilibrium constants are respectively K 2 and K 5 . The analysis of the experimental data was supported by using empirically and theoretically based equations which describe the temperature dependence of equilibrium constants and by comparing predicted behaviour with the observations reported from a number of boiling water reactors. (author)

  9. Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for upward bubbly flow in inclined tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Liu Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experimental study on characteristics of interfacial parameter distribution for air-water bubbly flow in an inclined circular tube was performed by using the double sensor probe method. Parameters including radial distributions of local void fraction, bubble passing frequency, interfacial area concentration and bubble equivalent diameter were measured using the probe. The inner diameter of test section is 50 mm, and the liquid superficial velocity is 0.144 m/s, with the gas superficial velocity ranging from 0 to 0.054 m/is. The results show that bubbles obviously move toward the upper wall and congregate. The local interfacial area concentration, bubble passing frequency and void fraction have similar radial distribution profiles. Different from the vertical condition, for a cross-sectional area of the test section, the peak value near the upper side increases, while decreases or even disappears near the underside. The local parameter increases as the radial positions change from lower to upper location, and the increased slope becomes larger as the inclination angles increase. The equivalent bubble diameter doesn't vary with radial position, superficial gas velocity and inclination angle, and bubble aggregation and breaking up nearly doesn't occur. The mechanism of effects of inclination on local parameter distribution for bubbly flow is explained by analyzing the transverse force governing the bubble motion. (authors)

  10. Computational and experimental study of the cluster size distribution in MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveugle, Elodie; Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Sellinger, Aaron; Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    2007-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study is performed to investigate the origin and characteristics of the surface features observed in SEM images of thin polymer films deposited in matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Analysis of high-resolution SEM images of surface morphologies of the films deposited at different fluences reveals that the mass distributions of the surface features can be well described by a power-law, Y(N) ∝ N -t , with exponent -t ∼ -1.6. Molecular dynamic simulations of the MAPLE process predict a similar size distribution for large clusters observed in the ablation plume. A weak dependence of the cluster size distributions on fluence and target composition suggests that the power-law cluster size distribution may be a general characteristic of the ablation plume generated as a result of an explosive decomposition of a target region overheated above the limit of its thermodynamic stability. Based on the simulation results, we suggest that the ejection of large matrix-polymer clusters, followed by evaporation of the volatile matrix, is responsible for the formation of the surface features observed in the polymer films deposited in MAPLE experiments

  11. Experimental study on manufacturing of grits-spiral- distribution electroplated wire saw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei GAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high performance electroplating diamond wire saw, experimental studies are conducted for development of grits-spiral-distribution electroplated diamond wire saw using sand-suspend electroplating method. The influences of pre-plating cathode current density, grits electro-embedding cathode current density and time on composite deposite coating appearance and grits distribution of wire saw are analyzed, and the sawing experiment is carried out by using the trial wire saw. The results show that good bonding strength between the coating and the steel wire can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 at pre-plating stage; good coating and girts distribution can be obtained when the adopted cathode current density is 5.0 A/dm2 and the electroplating time is 7~8 min at grits electro-embedding stage. By winding insulation wire on the surface of steel wire and reasonably selecting technological parameters before pre-plating can make the diamond wire saw with grits-spiral-distribution on surface, and the new type of wire saw has a better crumbs-clearing effect in wire sawing process.

  12. A survey and experimental comparison of distributed SPARQL engines for very large RDF data

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Harbi, Razen; Khayyat, Zuhair; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Distributed SPARQL engines promise to support very large RDF datasets by utilizing shared-nothing computer clusters. Some are based on distributed frameworks such as MapReduce; others implement proprietary distributed processing; and some rely on expensive preprocessing for data partitioning. These systems exhibit a variety of trade-offs that are not well-understood, due to the lack of any comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a survey of 22 state-of-the-art systems that cover the entire spectrum of distributed RDF data processing and categorize them by several characteristics. Then, we select 12 representative systems and perform extensive experimental evaluation with respect to preprocessing cost, query performance, scalability and workload adaptability, using a variety of synthetic and real large datasets with up to 4.3 billion triples. Our results provide valuable insights for practitioners to understand the trade-offs for their usage scenarios. Finally, we publish online our evaluation framework, including all datasets and workloads, for researchers to compare their novel systems against the existing ones.

  13. A survey and experimental comparison of distributed SPARQL engines for very large RDF data

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim

    2017-10-19

    Distributed SPARQL engines promise to support very large RDF datasets by utilizing shared-nothing computer clusters. Some are based on distributed frameworks such as MapReduce; others implement proprietary distributed processing; and some rely on expensive preprocessing for data partitioning. These systems exhibit a variety of trade-offs that are not well-understood, due to the lack of any comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a survey of 22 state-of-the-art systems that cover the entire spectrum of distributed RDF data processing and categorize them by several characteristics. Then, we select 12 representative systems and perform extensive experimental evaluation with respect to preprocessing cost, query performance, scalability and workload adaptability, using a variety of synthetic and real large datasets with up to 4.3 billion triples. Our results provide valuable insights for practitioners to understand the trade-offs for their usage scenarios. Finally, we publish online our evaluation framework, including all datasets and workloads, for researchers to compare their novel systems against the existing ones.

  14. Solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem using efficient epsilon-constraint, multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm, and DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh; Amiri, Maghsoud

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proposed for solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem (MORAP). In first module, a set of qualified non-dominated solutions on Pareto front of binary-state MORAP is generated using an efficient epsilon-constraint method. In order to test the quality of generated non-dominated solutions in this module, a multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm is also proposed for MORAP. The performance of both procedures is compared using different metrics on well-known benchmark instance. The statistical analysis represents that not only the proposed efficient epsilon-constraint method outperform the multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm but also it improves the founded upper bound of benchmark instance. Then, in second module, a DEA model is supplied to prune the generated non-dominated solutions of efficient epsilon-constraint method. This helps reduction of non-dominated solutions in a systematic manner and eases the decision making process for practical implementations. - Highlights: ► A procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and DEA was proposed for solving MORAP. ► The performance of proposed procedure was compared with a multi-start PBEA. ► Methods were statistically compared using multi-objective metrics.

  15. Distribution of cesium between colloid-rock phases-establishment of experimental system and investigation of Cs distribution between colloid and rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    Distribution and re-distribution of cesium between 3-phases (colloid, rock and water) was investigated. Analcite and bentonite colloid ware used as colloid phase and muscovite was used as rock phase. Before investigating the distribution between 3-phases, sorption and desorption behavior of Cs on analcite colloid, bentonite colloid and muscovite was investigated. It was found some fraction of Cs sorbed irreversibly on analcite colloid, while Cs sorbed reversibly on bentonite colloid. The experimental system was established for assessment of the distribution of nuclides between 3-phases by using combination of membrane filter and experimental cell. Since colloid and muscovite were separated by membrane filter, sorption of colloid on muscovite could be prevented and we could obtain distribution of Cs as ion. The distribution of Cs between 3-phases were obtained by this experimental system. Furthermore, re-distribution experiment was also carried out by using this system. After 7 days contact of colloid with Cs, distribution of sorbed Cs on colloid to liquid or muscovite phase was investigated. Comparing sorption and desorption isotherm with the distribution of Cs between 3-phases, it was found that Kd value of colloid (ratio of Cs concentration in liquid phase to amount of sorbed Cs on colloid phase) estimated in 2-phases (water and colloid) is different from that in 3-phases. Furthermore, in the case of analcite colloid, Kd value of colloid obtained in 3-phases distribution experiment was different from that obtained in re-distribution experiment. This is considered because of the irreversibility of Cs sorption on analcite colloid. Thus, it was found distribution of Cs in 3-phases was not predictable from sorption and desorption isotherm or Kd value of 2-phases (water-rock, water-colloid). (author)

  16. Sedimentary organic matter distributions, burrowing activity, and biogeochemical cycling: Natural patterns and experimental artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Emma; Aller, Robert, C.; Stora, Georges

    2010-11-01

    The coupling between biogenic reworking activity and reactive organic matter patterns within deposits is poorly understood and often ignored. In this study, we examined how common experimental treatments of sediment affect the burrowing behavior of the polychaete Nephtys incisa and how these effects may interact with reactive organic matter distributions to alter diagenetic transport - reaction balances. Sediment and animals were recovered from a subtidal site in central Long Island Sound, USA. The upper 15 cm of the sediment was sectioned into sub-intervals, and each interval separately sieved and homogenized. Three initial distributions of sediment and organic substrate reactivity were setup in a series of microcosms: (1) a reconstituted natural pattern with surface-derived sediment overlying sediment obtained from progressively deeper material to a depth of 15 cm (Natural); (2) a 15 cm thick sediment layer composed only of surface-derived sediment (Rich); and (3) a 15 cm thick layer composed of uniformally mixed sediment from the original 15 cm sediment profile (Averaged). The two last treatments are comparable to that used in microcosms in many previous studies of bioturbation and interspecific functional interaction experiments. Sediment grain size distributions were 97.5% silt-clay and showed no depth dependent patterns. Sediment porosity gradients were slightly altered by the treatments. Nepthys were reintroduced and aquariums were X-rayed regularly over 5 months to visualize and quantify spatial and temporal dynamics of burrows. The burrowing behaviour of adult populations having similar total biovolume, biomass, abundance, and individual sizes differed substantially as a function of treatment. Burrows in sediment with natural property gradients were much shallower and less dense than those in microcosms with altered gradients. The burrow volume/biovolume ratio was also lower in the substrate with natural organic reactivity gradients. Variation in food

  17. Confluence of calculational and experimental information for determination of power distribution and burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, I.V.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for the statistical confluence of any number of possibly correlated informational sources employed in reactor analysis can be used to improve the estimates of physical quantities given by the sources taken separately. The formulas of the presented technique being based on multivariate Bayesian conditioning are general and can be employed in different applications. Insight into the nature of the informational source allows different types of data associated with the source to be improved. Estimation of biases, variances and correlation coefficients for the systematic and statistical errors associated with the informational sources is reliable confluence, but pays off by providing optimal estimates. The technique of the calculational and experimental information confluence is applied to the determination of the power distribution and burnup for the research reactor HOR of the Delft University of Technology. The code system CONHOR carries out all the stages of the calculation for the HOR reactor, using an existing code for static core calculations and burnup calculations. (author)

  18. Confluence of calculational and experimental information for determination of power distribution and burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, I.V.; Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1996-05-01

    A technique for the statistical confluence of any number of possibly correlated informational sources employed in reactor analysis can be used to improve the estimates of physical quantities given by the sources taken separately. The formulas of the presented technique being based on multivariate Bayesian conditioning are general and can be employed in different applications. Insight into the nature of the informational source allows different types of data associated with the source to be improved. Estimation of biases, variances and correlation coefficients for the systematic and statistical errors associated with the informational sources is reliable confluence, but pays off by providing optimal estimates. The technique of the calculational and experimental information confluence is applied to the determination of the power distribution and burnup for the research reactor HOR of the Delft University of Technology. The code system CONHOR carries out all the stages of the calculation for the HOR reactor, using an existing code for static core calculations and burnup calculations. (author).

  19. A general technique for confluence of calculational and experimental information with application to power distribution determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, I.V.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical quantities can be obtained by utilizing different informational sources. The available information is usually associated with systematic and statistical errors. If the informational sources are utilized simultaneously, then it is possible to obtain posterior estimates of the quantities with better statistical properties than exhibited by any prior estimates. The general technique for confluence of any number possibly dependent informational sources can be developed. Insight into the nature of the informational source allows different types of data associated with the source to be improved. The formulas of the technique are presented and applied to the power distribution determination for research reactor HOR of the Delft University of Technology, employing calculational and experimental data. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  20. Experimental verification of distributed piezoelectric actuators for use in precision space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, E. F.; De Luis, J.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic model for structures with distributed piezoelectric actuators is experimentally verified for the cases of both surface-bonded and embedded actuators. A technique for the selection of such piezoelectric actuators' location has been developed, and is noted to indicate that segmented actuators are always more effective than continuous ones, since the output of each can be individually controlled. Manufacturing techniques for the bonding or embedding of segmented piezoelectric actuators are also developed which allow independent electrical contact to be made with each actuator. Static tests have been conducted to determine how the elastic properties of the composite are affected by the presence of an embedded actuator, for the case of glass/epoxy laminates.

  1. Experimental study of the density distribution of the particles of the material in screw installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidov S. F.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the experimental studies of density distribution of the particles of a mixture of wheat, oats, rye to feed pigs by infrared heating at the time of stay and temperature at the exit of the installation. The purpose of the work is to study the quality of treatment of the product with the settings with the screw and the screw with installed round jumper on the pen of the screw. Screw installations with infrared emitters of selected wavelength give the opportunity for intense and continuous heat treatment process. The authors used the optimal parameters of the process with the screw and the screw with installed round jumper on the pen of the screw. The parameters of screw installation during the study were the following: the number of revolutions of the screw was 10 rpm, density of heat flux was 12 kW/m2, output capacity – 250 kg/h.

  2. The experimental method of measurement for spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light by circular PIN-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuefeng; Wang Chuanke; Hu Feng; Kuang Longyu; Wang Zhebin; Li Sanwei; Liu Shengye; Jiang Gang

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of backscatter light is very important for understanding the production of backscatter light. The experimental method of spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is based on the circular PIN array composed of concentric orbicular multi-PIN detectors. The image of backscatter light spatial distribution of full aperture SBS is obtained by measuring spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light using the method in the experiment of laser hohlraum targets interaction at 'Shenguang II'. A preliminary method to measure spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is established. (authors)

  3. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) from 2011 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso-González, Esteban; Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Alba; Navarro-Serrano, Francisco; Rico, Ibai; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i) continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS), (ii) detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology) for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season) and (iii) time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA). The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface), and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277) is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which snow dynamics play a

  4. Experimental implementation of acoustic impedance control by a 2D network of distributed smart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, P; Collet, M; Cote, J-M

    2010-01-01

    New miniaturization and integration capabilities available from emerging microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology will allow silicon-based artificial skins involving thousands of elementary actuators to be developed in the near future. Smart structures combining large arrays of elementary motion pixels are thus being studied so that fundamental properties could be dynamically adjusted. This paper investigates the acoustical capabilities of a network of distributed transducers connected with a suitable controlling strategy. The research aims at designing an integrated active interface for sound attenuation by using suitable changes of acoustical impedance. The control strategy is based on partial differential equations (PDE) and the multiscaled physics of electromechanical elements. Specific techniques based on PDE control theory have provided a simple boundary control equation able to annihilate the reflections of acoustic waves. To experimentally implement the method, the control strategy is discretized as a first order time–space operator. The obtained quasi-collocated architecture, composed of a large number of sensors and actuators, provides high robustness and stability. The experimental results demonstrate how a well controlled active skin can substantially modify sound reflectivity of the acoustical interface and reduce the propagation of acoustic waves

  5. Detection and distribution of ostreid herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected Pacific oyster spat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Amélie; Baillon, Laury; Faury, Nicole; Tourbiez, Delphine; Renault, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates are reported in spat and larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and associated with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection in France. Although the viral infection has been experimentally reproduced in oyster larvae and spat, little knowledge is currently available concerning the viral entry and its distribution in organs and tissues. This study compares OsHV-1 DNA and RNA detection and localization in experimentally infected oysters using two virus doses: a low dose that did not induce any mortality and a high dose inducing high mortality. Real time PCR demonstrated significant differences in terms of viral DNA amounts between the two virus doses. RNA transcripts were detected in oysters receiving the highest dose of viral suspension whereas no transcript was observed in oysters injected with the low dose. This study also allowed observing kinetics of viral DNA and RNA detection in different tissues of oyster spat. Finally, viral detection was significantly different in function of tissues (p<0.005), time (p<0.005) with an interaction between tissues and time (p<0.005) for each probe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Moreno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal and Pisa (Italy.

  7. Design and Field Experimentation of a Cooperative ITS Architecture Based on Distributed RSUs †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Asier; Osaba, Eneko; Onieva, Enrique; Perallos, Asier; Iovino, Giovanni; Fernández, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new cooperative Intelligent Transportation System architecture that aims to enable collaborative sensing services. The main goal of this architecture is to improve transportation efficiency and performance. The system, which has been proven within the participation in the ICSI (Intelligent Cooperative Sensing for Improved traffic efficiency) European project, encompasses the entire process of capture and management of available road data. For this purpose, it applies a combination of cooperative services and methods for data sensing, acquisition, processing and communication amongst road users, vehicles, infrastructures and related stakeholders. Additionally, the advantages of using the proposed system are exposed. The most important of these advantages is the use of a distributed architecture, moving the system intelligence from the control centre to the peripheral devices. The global architecture of the system is presented, as well as the software design and the interaction between its main components. Finally, functional and operational results observed through the experimentation are described. This experimentation has been carried out in two real scenarios, in Lisbon (Portugal) and Pisa (Italy). PMID:27455277

  8. Experimental implementation of acoustic impedance control by a 2D network of distributed smart cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P.; Collet, M.; Cote, J.-M.

    2010-03-01

    New miniaturization and integration capabilities available from emerging microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology will allow silicon-based artificial skins involving thousands of elementary actuators to be developed in the near future. Smart structures combining large arrays of elementary motion pixels are thus being studied so that fundamental properties could be dynamically adjusted. This paper investigates the acoustical capabilities of a network of distributed transducers connected with a suitable controlling strategy. The research aims at designing an integrated active interface for sound attenuation by using suitable changes of acoustical impedance. The control strategy is based on partial differential equations (PDE) and the multiscaled physics of electromechanical elements. Specific techniques based on PDE control theory have provided a simple boundary control equation able to annihilate the reflections of acoustic waves. To experimentally implement the method, the control strategy is discretized as a first order time-space operator. The obtained quasi-collocated architecture, composed of a large number of sensors and actuators, provides high robustness and stability. The experimental results demonstrate how a well controlled active skin can substantially modify sound reflectivity of the acoustical interface and reduce the propagation of acoustic waves.

  9. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters' approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers.

  10. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters’ approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers. PMID:26508826

  11. Experimental and calculated LET distributions in the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Karpov, O.N.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Watts, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    During the flight of the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite, joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. investigations of different characteristics of cosmic radiation (CR) in the near-Earth environment were carried out. The U.S. dielectric track detectors CR-39 and Soviet BYa- and BR-type nuclear photo-emulsions were used as detectors. The present work shows some results of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of CR particles obtained with the use of these detectors, which were placed both inside and outside the satellite. The LET spectra measurement with plastic detectors is composed of two parts: the measurement of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) particles, and of short-range particles. The contributions of these components to the total LET distribution at various thicknesses of the shielding were analyzed and the results of these studies are presented. Calculated LET spectra in the Cosmos-2044 orbit were compared with experimental data. On the basis of experimental and calculated values of the LET spectra, absorbed and equivalent CR doses were calculated. In the shielding range of 1-1.5 g cm -2 , outside the spacecraft, the photo-emulsions yielded 10.3 mrad d -1 and 27.5 mrem d -1 (LET ≥ 2 MeV cm -1 ) while the CR-39 yielded averages of 1.43 mrad d -1 and 13.4 mrem d -1 (LET ≥ 40 MeV cm -1 ). Inside the spacecraft (≥10 g cm -2 ) the photo-emulsions yielded 8.9 mrad d -1 and 14.5 mrem d -1 . (author)

  12. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  13. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  14. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2005-01-01

    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  15. An experimental test of fitness variation across a hydrologic gradient predicts willow and poplar species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojing; Savage, Jessica A; Riggs, Charlotte E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-05-01

    Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly. We performed an experimental test of environmental filtering in 14 closely related willow and poplar species (family Salicaceae) by transplanting cuttings of each species into 40 common gardens established along a natural hydrologic gradient in the field, where competition was minimized and herbivory was controlled. We analyzed species fitness responses to the hydrologic environment based on cumulative growth and survival over two years using aster fitness models. We also examined variation in nine drought and flooding tolerance traits expected to contribute to performance based on a priori understanding of plant function in relation to water availability and stress. We found substantial evidence that environmental filtering along the hydrologic gradient played a critical role in determining species distributions. Fitness variation of each species in the field experiment was used to model their water table depth optima. These optima predicted 68% of the variation in species realized hydrologic niches based on peak abundance in naturally assembled communities in the surrounding region. Multiple traits associated with water transport efficiency and water stress tolerance were correlated with species hydrologic niches, but they did not necessarily covary with each other. As a consequence, species occupying similar hydrologic niches had different combinations of trait values

  16. Watchdog - a workflow management system for the distributed analysis of large-scale experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michael; Friedel, Caroline C

    2018-03-13

    The development of high-throughput experimental technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, have led to new challenges for handling, analyzing and integrating the resulting large and diverse datasets. Bioinformatical analysis of these data commonly requires a number of mutually dependent steps applied to numerous samples for multiple conditions and replicates. To support these analyses, a number of workflow management systems (WMSs) have been developed to allow automated execution of corresponding analysis workflows. Major advantages of WMSs are the easy reproducibility of results as well as the reusability of workflows or their components. In this article, we present Watchdog, a WMS for the automated analysis of large-scale experimental data. Main features include straightforward processing of replicate data, support for distributed computer systems, customizable error detection and manual intervention into workflow execution. Watchdog is implemented in Java and thus platform-independent and allows easy sharing of workflows and corresponding program modules. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for workflow construction using pre-defined modules as well as a helper script for creating new module definitions. Execution of workflows is possible using either the GUI or a command-line interface and a web-interface is provided for monitoring the execution status and intervening in case of errors. To illustrate its potentials on a real-life example, a comprehensive workflow and modules for the analysis of RNA-seq experiments were implemented and are provided with the software in addition to simple test examples. Watchdog is a powerful and flexible WMS for the analysis of large-scale high-throughput experiments. We believe it will greatly benefit both users with and without programming skills who want to develop and apply bioinformatical workflows with reasonable overhead. The software, example workflows and a comprehensive documentation are freely

  17. Experimental Electron Density Distribution in Two Cocrystals of Betaines with p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Owczarzak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental determination of electron density distribution in crystals by means of high-resolution X-ray diffraction allows, among others, for studying the details of intra- and inter-molecular interactions. In case of co-crystals, this method may help in finding the conditions of creating such species. The results of such analysis for two co-crystals containing betaines, namely trigonelline (TRG: nicotinic acid N-methylbetaine, IUPAC name: 1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate and N-methylpiperidine betaine (MPB: 1-methylpiperidinium-1-yl-carboxylate with p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA are reported. TRG-HBA crystallizes as a hydrate. For both of the co-crystals, high-quality diffraction data were collected up to sinθ/λ = 1.13 Å−1. Hansen-Coppens multipolar model was then applied for modelling the electron density distribution and Atoms-In-Molecules approach was used for detailed analysis of interactions in crystals. A number of intermolecular interactions was identified, ranging from strong O-H···O hydrogen bonds through C-H···O to C-H···π and π···π interactions. Correlations between the geometrical characteristics of the contacts and the features of their critical points were analyzed in detail. Atomic charges show that in zwitterionic species there are regions of opposite charges, rather than charges that are localized on certain atoms. In case of MPB-HBA, a significant charge transfer between the components of co-crystal (0.5 e was found, as opposed to TRG-HBA, where all of the components are almost neutral.

  18. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  19. Experimental energy consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for data collection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-07-24

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  20. Theoretical and experimental investigation into structural and fluid motions at low frequencies in water distribution pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Liu, Yuyou

    2017-06-01

    Vibrational energy is transmitted in buried fluid-filled pipes in a variety of wave types. Axisymmetric (n = 0) waves are of practical interest in the application of acoustic techniques for the detection of leaks in underground pipelines. At low frequencies n = 0 waves propagate longitudinally as fluid-dominated (s = 1) and shell-dominated (s = 2) waves. Whilst sensors such as hydrophones and accelerometers are commonly used to detect leaks in water distribution pipes, the mechanism governing the structural and fluid motions is not well documented. In this paper, the low-frequency behaviour of the pipe wall and the contained fluid is investigated. For most practical pipework systems, these two waves are strongly coupled; in this circumstance the ratios of the radial pipe wall displacements along with the internal pressures associated with these two wave types are obtained. Numerical examples show the relative insensitivity of the structural and fluid motions to the s = 2 wave for both metallic and plastic pipes buried in two typical soils. It is also demonstrated that although both acoustic and vibration sensors at the same location provide the identical phase information of the transmitted signals, pressure responses have significantly higher levels than acceleration responses, and thus hydrophones are better suited in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environment. This is supported by experimental work carried out at a leak detection facility. Additional pressure measurements involved excitation of the fluid and the pipe fitting (hydrant) on a dedicated water pipe. This work demonstrates that the s = 1 wave is mainly responsible for the structural and fluid motions at low frequencies in water distribution pipes as a result of water leakage and direct pipe excitation.

  1. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the P¯ANDA experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Erni, W.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kümmel, M.; Kuhl, G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Leyhe, M.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Kaiser, D.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Pietreanu, D.; Vasile, M. E.; Patel, B.; Kaplan, D.; Brandys, P.; Czyzewski, T.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Hawryluk, M.; Filo, G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lisowski, E.; Lisowski, F.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Czech, B.; Kliczewski, S.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Malgorzata, K.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A.; Biernat, J.; Jowzaee, S.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Palka, M.; Psyzniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wrońska, A.; Augustin, I.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus, D.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Al-Turany, M.; Cahit, U.; Capozza, L.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Kunkel, J.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Lühning, J.; Maas, F.; Morales Morales, C.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Nerling, F.; Orth, H.; Peters, K.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Saito, N.; Saito, T.; Sánchez Lorente, A.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Valente, R.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, A.; Astakhov, V. I.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A. A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Festchenko, A. A.; Galoyan, A. S.; Grigoryan, S.; Karmokov, A.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, V. I.; Lobanov, Yu. Yu.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mustafaev, G. A.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pasyuk, M. A.; Perevalova, E. A.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T. A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V. K.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Salmin, R. A.; Samartsev, A. G.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G. S.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M. K.; Teshev, R. Sh.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Uzhinsky, V. V.; Vodopyanov, A. S.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Woods, P.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savriè, M.; Stancari, G.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kulakov, I.; Zyzak, M.; Arora, R.; Bel, T.; Gromliuk, A.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Patsyuk, M.; Zuehlsdorf, M.; Bianchi, N.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Bianco, S.; Bremer, D.; Brinkmann, K. T.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Eissner, T.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Galuska, M.; Gessler, T.; Gutz, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hu, J.; Kröck, B.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, S.; Liang, Y.; Merle, O.; Metag, V.; Mülhheim, D.; Münchow, D.; Nanova, M.; Novotny, R.; Pitka, A.; Quagli, T.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schnell, R.; Spruck, B.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wasem, T.; Werner, M.; Zaunick, H. G.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.; Lindemulder, M.; Löhner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; van der Weele, J. C.; Tiemens, M.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Kalita, K.; Mohanta, D. P.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sohlbach, H.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Deermann, D.; Dosdall, R.; Esch, S.; Georgadze, I.; Gillitzer, A.; Goerres, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lehrach, A.; Leiber, S.; Maier, R.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Schumann, J.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Fissum, S.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Lundin, M.; Schröder, B.; Achenbach, P.; Bleser, S.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Deiseroth, M.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Jasinski, P.; Hoek, M.; Kangh, D.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Leithoff, H.; Merkel, H.; Michel, M.; Motzko, C.; Müller, U.; Noll, O.; Plueger, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Steinen, M.; Thiel, M.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Dormenev, V. I.; Fedorov, A. A.; Korzihik, M. V.; Missevitch, O. V.; Balanutsa, P.; Balanutsa, V.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Varentsov, V.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Semenov, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A. K.; Khoukaz, A.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.; Wessels, J.; Dash, S.; Jadhav, M.; Kumar, S.; Sarin, P.; Varma, R.; Chandratre, V. B.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Roy, B.; Yan, Y.; Chinorat, K.; Khanchai, K.; Ayut, L.; Pornrad, S.; Barnyakov, A. Y.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Sokolov, A. A.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Atomssa, E.; Hennino, T.; Imre, M.; Kunne, R.; Le Galliard, C.; Ma, B.; Marchand, D.; Ong, S.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Van de Wiele, J.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Melnik, Y.; Levin, A.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Yabsley, B.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Makónyi, K.; Tegnér, P. E.; von Würtemberg, K. M.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Kashchuk, A.; Levitskaya, O.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Naryshkin, Y.; Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhadanov, A.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S. S.; Duchat, R.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Zotti, L.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mingnore, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Younis, H.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Clement, H.; Gålnander, B.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Calén, H.; Fransson, K.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Díaz, J.; Ortiz, A.; Vinodkumar, P. C.; Parmar, A.; Chlopik, A.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Fröhlich, B.; Khaneft, D.; Lin, D.; Zimmermann, I.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.

    2015-08-01

    Baryon-to-meson Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDAs) encoding valuable new information on hadron structure appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description for several types of hard exclusive reactions. In this paper, we address the possibility of accessing nucleon-to-pion ( πN) TDAs from reaction with the future P¯ANDA detector at the FAIR facility. At high center-of-mass energy and high invariant mass squared of the lepton pair q 2, the amplitude of the signal channel admits a QCD factorized description in terms of πN TDAs and nucleon Distribution Amplitudes (DAs) in the forward and backward kinematic regimes. Assuming the validity of this factorized description, we perform feasibility studies for measuring with the P¯ANDA detector. Detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency as well as on rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. were performed for the center-of-mass energy squared s = 5 GeV2 and s = 10 GeV2, in the kinematic regions 3.0 < q 2 < 4.3 GeV2 and 5 < q 2 GeV2, respectively, with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone in the proton-antiproton center-of-mass frame. Results of the simulation show that the particle identification capabilities of the P¯ANDA detector will allow to achieve a background rejection factor of 5 · 107 (1 · 107) at low (high) q 2 for s = 5 GeV2, and of 1 · 108 (6 · 106) at low (high) q 2 for s = 10 GeV2, while keeping the signal reconstruction efficiency at around 40%. At both energies, a clean lepton signal can be reconstructed with the expected statistics corresponding to 2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained from the simulations are used to show that a test of QCD collinear factorization can be done at the lowest order by measuring scaling laws and angular distributions. The future measurement of the signal channel cross section with P¯ANDA will provide a new test of the perturbative QCD description of a novel class of hard

  2. Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Control of a Wing with Distributed Plasma Actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Menghu; Li Jun; Liang Hua; Zhao Guangyin; Niu Zhongguo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental investigation of active flow control on the aerodynamic performance of a flying wing is conducted. Subsonic wind tunnel tests are performed using a model of a 35° swept flying wing with an nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (NS-DBD) plasma actuator, which is installed symmetrically on the wing leading edge. The lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment coefficient are tested by a six-component force balance for a range of angles of attack. The results indicate that a 44.5% increase in the lift coefficient, a 34.2% decrease in the drag coefficient and a 22.4% increase in the maximum lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved as compared with the baseline case. The effects of several actuation parameters are also investigated, and the results show that control efficiency demonstrates a strong dependence on actuation location and frequency. Furthermore, we highlight the use of distributed plasma actuators at the leading edge to enhance the aerodynamic performance, giving insight into the different mechanism of separation control and vortex control, which shows tremendous potential in practical flow control for a broad range of angles of attack. (paper)

  3. Lead distribution in soils impacted by a secondary lead smelter: Experimental and modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Arnaud R., E-mail: arnaud.schneider@univ-reims.fr [GEGENAA, EA 3795, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France); Cancès, Benjamin; Ponthieu, Marie [GEGENAA, EA 3795, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France); Sobanska, Sophie [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie IR et Raman, UMR-CNRS 8516, Bât. C5 Université de Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Benedetti, Marc F. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, UMR 7154, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Pourret, Olivier [HydrISE, Institut Polytechnique LaSalle Beauvais, FR-60000 Beauvais (France); Conreux, Alexandra; Calandra, Ivan; Martinet, Blandine; Morvan, Xavier; Gommeaux, Maxime; Marin, Béatrice [GEGENAA, EA 3795, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, 2 esplanade Roland Garros, 51100 Reims (France)

    2016-10-15

    Smelting activities are one of the most common sources of trace elements in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the lead distribution in upper horizons (0–5 and 5–10 cm) of acidic soils in the vicinity of a lead-acid battery recycling plant in northern France. The combination of chemical methods (sequential extractions), physical methods (Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer) and multi-surface complexation modelling enabled an assessment of the behaviour of Pb. Regardless of the studied soil, none of the Pb-bearing phases commonly identified in similarly polluted environments (e.g., anglesite) were observed. Lead was mainly associated with organic matter and manganese oxides. The association of Pb with these soil constituents can be interpreted as evidence of Pb redistribution in the studied soils following smelter particle deposition. - Highlights: • Lead behavior was studied in smelter impacted soils. • A combination of experimental methods and modelling was employed. • Pb was mainly associated with organic matter and to a lesser degree with Mn oxides. • Pb was redistributed in soils after smelter particle deposition.

  4. Confronting Theoretical Predictions With Experimental Data; Fitting Strategy For Multi-Dimensional Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Przedziński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After developing a Resonance Chiral Lagrangian (RχL model to describe hadronic τ lepton decays [18], the model was confronted with experimental data. This was accomplished using a fitting framework which was developed to take into account the complexity of the model and to ensure the numerical stability for the algorithms used in the fitting. Since the model used in the fit contained 15 parameters and there were only three 1-dimensional distributions available, we could expect multiple local minima or even whole regions of equal potential to appear. Our methods had to thoroughly explore the whole parameter space and ensure, as well as possible, that the result is a global minimum. This paper is focused on the technical aspects of the fitting strategy used. The first approach was based on re-weighting algorithm published in [17] and produced results in around two weeks. Later approach, with improved theoretical model and simple parallelization algorithm based on Inter-Process Communication (IPC methods of UNIX system, reduced computation time down to 2-3 days. Additional approximations were introduced to the model decreasing time to obtain the preliminary results down to 8 hours. This allowed to better validate the results leading to a more robust analysis published in [12].

  5. Modeling and experimental methods to predict oxygen distribution in bone defects following cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylman, Christopher M; Santoso, Sharon; Krebs, Melissa D; Saidel, Gerald M; Alsberg, Eben; Muschler, George F

    2014-04-01

    We have developed a mathematical model that allows simulation of oxygen distribution in a bone defect as a tool to explore the likely effects of local changes in cell concentration, defect size or geometry, local oxygen delivery with oxygen-generating biomaterials (OGBs), and changes in the rate of oxygen consumption by cells within a defect. Experimental data for the oxygen release rate from an OGB and the oxygen consumption rate of a transplanted cell population are incorporated into the model. With these data, model simulations allow prediction of spatiotemporal oxygen concentration within a given defect and the sensitivity of oxygen tension to changes in critical variables. This information may help to minimize the number of experiments in animal models that determine the optimal combinations of cells, scaffolds, and OGBs in the design of current and future bone regeneration strategies. Bone marrow-derived nucleated cell data suggest that oxygen consumption is dependent on oxygen concentration. OGB oxygen release is shown to be a time-dependent function that must be measured for accurate simulation. Simulations quantify the dependency of oxygen gradients in an avascular defect on cell concentration, cell oxygen consumption rate, OGB oxygen generation rate, and OGB geometry.

  6. Security analysis on some experimental quantum key distribution systems with imperfect optical and electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin-Mei; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yan

    2014-10-01

    In general, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proved unconditionally secure for perfect devices due to quantum uncertainty principle, quantum noncloning theorem and quantum nondividing principle which means that a quantum cannot be divided further. However, the practical optical and electrical devices used in the system are imperfect, which can be exploited by the eavesdropper to partially or totally spy the secret key between the legitimate parties. In this article, we first briefly review the recent work on quantum hacking on some experimental QKD systems with respect to imperfect devices carried out internationally, then we will present our recent hacking works in details, including passive faraday mirror attack, partially random phase attack, wavelength-selected photon-number-splitting attack, frequency shift attack, and single-photon-detector attack. Those quantum attack reminds people to improve the security existed in practical QKD systems due to imperfect devices by simply adding countermeasure or adopting a totally different protocol such as measurement-device independent protocol to avoid quantum hacking on the imperfection of measurement devices [Lo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108: 130503].

  7. Lead distribution in soils impacted by a secondary lead smelter: Experimental and modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Arnaud R.; Cancès, Benjamin; Ponthieu, Marie; Sobanska, Sophie; Benedetti, Marc F.; Pourret, Olivier; Conreux, Alexandra; Calandra, Ivan; Martinet, Blandine; Morvan, Xavier; Gommeaux, Maxime; Marin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    Smelting activities are one of the most common sources of trace elements in the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the lead distribution in upper horizons (0–5 and 5–10 cm) of acidic soils in the vicinity of a lead-acid battery recycling plant in northern France. The combination of chemical methods (sequential extractions), physical methods (Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer) and multi-surface complexation modelling enabled an assessment of the behaviour of Pb. Regardless of the studied soil, none of the Pb-bearing phases commonly identified in similarly polluted environments (e.g., anglesite) were observed. Lead was mainly associated with organic matter and manganese oxides. The association of Pb with these soil constituents can be interpreted as evidence of Pb redistribution in the studied soils following smelter particle deposition. - Highlights: • Lead behavior was studied in smelter impacted soils. • A combination of experimental methods and modelling was employed. • Pb was mainly associated with organic matter and to a lesser degree with Mn oxides. • Pb was redistributed in soils after smelter particle deposition.

  8. Experimental validation of the Wigner distributions theory of phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, Edwin F.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new theory of phase-contrast imaging has been proposed by Wu and Liu [Med. Phys. 31, 2378-2384 (2004)]. This theory, based upon Wigner distributions, provides a much stronger foundation for the evaluation of phase-contrast imaging systems than did the prior theories based upon Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. In this paper, we compare results of measurements made in our laboratory of phase contrast for different geometries and tube voltages to the predictions of the Wu and Liu model. In our previous publications, we have used an empirical measurement (the edge enhancement index) to parametrize the degree of phase-contrast effects in an image. While the Wu and Liu model itself does not predict image contrast, it does measure the degree of phase contrast that the system can image for a given spatial frequency. We have found that our previously published experimental results relating phase-contrast effects to geometry and x-ray tube voltage are consistent with the predictions of the Wu and Liu model

  9. Experimental determination of neutron temperature distribution in reactor cell; Eksperimentalno odredjivanje raspodele neutronske temperature u celiji reaktorske resetke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-12-15

    This paper describes theoretical preparation of the experiment for measuring neutron temperature distribution at the RB reactor by activation foils. Due to rather low neutron flux Cu and Lu foil were irradiated for 4 days. Special natural uranium fuel element was prepared to enable easy removal of foils after irradiation. Experimental device was placed in the reactor core at half height in order to measure directly the mean neutron density. Experimental data of neutron temperature distribution for square lattice pitch 16 cm are presented with mean values of neutron temperature in the moderator, in the fuel and on the fuel element surface.

  10. Distributed modeling of radiocesium washoff from the experimental watershed plots of the Fukushima fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivva, Sergei; Zheleznyak, Mark; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    The distributed hydrological "rainfall- runoff" models provide possibilities of the physically based simulation of surface and subsurface flow on watersheds based on the GIS processed data. The success of such modeling approaches for the predictions of the runoff and soil erosion provides a basis for the implementation of the distributed models of the radionuclide washoff from the watersheds. The field studies provided on the Chernobyl and Fukushima catchments provides a unique data sets for the comparative testing and improvements of the modeling tools for the watersheds located in the areas of the very different geographical and hydro-meteorological condition The set of USLE experimental plots has been established by CRIED, University of Tsukuba after the Fukushima accident to study soil erosion and 137Cs wash off from the watersheds (Onda et al, 2014). The distributed watershed models of surface and subsurface flow, sediment and radionuclide transport has been used to simulate the radionuclide transport in the basin Dnieper River, Ukraine and the watersheds of Prefecture Fuksuhima. DHSVM-R is extension of the distributed hydrological model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al, 1996-2014) by the including into it the module of the watershed radionuclide transport. DHSVM is a physically based, distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain based on the numerical solution of the network of one-dimensional equations. The surface flow submodel of DHSMV has been modified: four-directions schematization for the model's cells has been replaced by the eight-directions scheme, more numerically efficient finite -differences scheme was implemented. The new module of radionuclide wash-off from catchment and transport via stream network in soluble phase and on suspended sediments including bottom-water exchange processes was developed for DHSMV-R. DHSVM-R was implemented recently within Swedish- Ukrainian ENSURE project for the modeling of 234U wash-off from the

  11. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  12. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  13. Microvascular distribution in the ocular conjunctiva and digestive tract in an experimental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranskūnas, Andrius; Pilvinis, Vidas; Dambrauskas, Žilvinas; Rasimavičiūtė, Renata; Milieškaitė, Eglė; Bubulis, Algimantas; Veikutis, Vincentas; Vaitkaitis, Dinas; Boerma, E Christiaan

    2012-01-01

    Recently improved microcirculatory imaging techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) and its technical successor sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging, in handheld devices have allowed a direct observation of the microcirculation at the bedside. Usually a cut-off of 20 µm in diameter is used to differentiate small vessels (mainly capillaries) from large vessels (mainly venules) during this technique. We hypothesized that it was possible to measure the small vessels with a considerably smaller inner diameter. Images of the sublingual, conjunctival, jejunal, and rectal mucosa microcirculation were obtained with SDF videomicroscopy (Microscan®, Microvision Medical, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Using the validated software, the length and diameter of microvessels were manually traced with a computer-generated line. All vessels were divided into the groups according to the inner diameter. A total of 156 SDF images of the sublingual, ocular conjunctival, jejunal, and rectal mucosa were taken in 13 pigs. The length of microscopic vessels progressively increased with a decrease in the vessel diameter less than 8 mm in all the lodges, such as sublingual (80.6% of total vessel length), ocular conjunctival (76.5% of total vessel length), jejunal (99.8% of total vessel length), and rectal (97.8% of total vessel length), due to capillary network formation. There was no significant difference in the distribution of vessels from 0 to 10 µm in diameter comparing sublingual and eye conjunctival as well as jejunal and rectal mucosa. In pigs, small-diameter microscopic vessels (lodges (sublingual, ocular conjunctival, jejunal, and rectal mucosa), and this is evidence to establish a new cut-off for capillaries in microcirculatory analysis of SDF imaging in experimental and clinical studies.

  14. The hydrogen atom-deuterium molecule reaction: Experimental determination of product quantum state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinnen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The H + H 2 atom exchange reaction (and its isotopic analogs) is the simplest neutral bimolecular chemical reaction because of the small number of electrons in the system and the lightness of the nuclei. The H 3 potential energy surface (PES) is the most accurately known reactive surface (LSTH surface); there have been both quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) and quantal calculations performed on it. This is one of the few systems for which theory is ahead of experiment, and many theoretical predictions await experimental comparison. The H + D 2 → HD + D reaction is studied using thermal D 2 (∼298 K) and translationally hot hydrogen atoms. Photolysis of HI at 266 nm generates H atoms with center-of-mass collision energies of 1.3 and 0.55 eV, both of which are above the classical reaction barrier of 0.42 eV. The rovibrational population distribution of the molecular product is measured by (2+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). A major effort has been directed toward calibrating the (2+1) REMPI detection procedure, to determine quantitatively the relationship between ion signals and relative quantum state populations for HD. An effusive, high-temperature nozzle has been constructed to populate thermally the high rovibrational levels observed in the reaction. The results are compared to theoretical calculations of the E,F 1 Σ g + - X 1 Σ g + two-photon transition moments. For the H + D 2 reaction, the populations of all energetically accessible HD product levels are measured. Specifically, the following levels are observed: HD(v = 0, J = 0-15), HD(v = 1, J = 0-12), and HD(v = 2, J = 0-8). Of the available energy, 73% is partitioned into product translation, 18% into HD rotation, and 9% into HD vibration

  15. Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota

  16. Responsiveness of performance and morphological traits to experimental submergence predicts field distribution pattern of wetland plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Fang-Li; Huang, Lin; Lei, Ting; Xue, Wei; Li, Hong-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Question: Plant trait mean values and trait responsiveness to different environmental regimes are both important determinants of plant field distribution, but the degree to which plant trait means vs trait responsiveness predict plant distribution has rarely been compared quantitatively. Because

  17. Application of the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with new numerical method to the high stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawong, Jai Sug; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Dong Ha; Tche, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    In this research, the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves numerical method has been developed: This method is more precise and stable than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Newton-Rapson numerical method with Gaussian elimination method. Using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves numerical method, we can separate stress components from isochromatics only and stress intensity factors and stress concentration factors can be determined. The photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Hook-Jeeves had better be used in the full field experiment than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method with Newton-Rapson with Gaussian elimination method

  18. Experimental investigation of localized stress-induced leakage current distribution in gate dielectrics using array test circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeonwoo; Teramoto, Akinobu; Kuroda, Rihito; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2018-04-01

    Localized stress-induced leakage current (SILC) has become a major problem in the reliability of flash memories. To reduce it, clarifying the SILC mechanism is important, and statistical measurement and analysis have to be carried out. In this study, we applied an array test circuit that can measure the SILC distribution of more than 80,000 nMOSFETs with various gate areas at a high speed (within 80 s) and a high accuracy (on the 10-17 A current order). The results clarified that the distributions of localized SILC in different gate areas follow a universal distribution assuming the same SILC defect density distribution per unit area, and the current of localized SILC defects does not scale down with the gate area. Moreover, the distribution of SILC defect density and its dependence on the oxide field for measurement (E OX-Measure) were experimentally determined for fabricated devices.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Distribution along the Length of Uniform Area Fin for Forced and Free Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannojiya, Vikas; Sharma, Riya; Gaur, Rahul; Jangra, Anil; Yadav, Pushpender; Prajapati, Pooja

    2018-03-01

    The overheating of an industrial component sometimes may leads to system failure. The convection heat transfer from a heated surface can be effectively enhanced by employing fins on that surface. This Paper emphasizes on the experimental investigation of temperature distribution along the length of pin shaped fin. The analysis is performed on a 100 mm long fin made up of brass with 19.6 mm diameter having thermal conductivity as 111 W/m.K. Temperature at different section of the fin along its length is evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The influence of convection mode viz natural & forced convection and variable heat input on the temperature distribution is evaluated. The result outcomes are then compared with the widely accepted analytical relations. A comparison of convective heat transfer coefficient for uniform and non-uniform area fin is also presented. The results by experimental and analytical method are found to be in good agreement for free convection phenomenon.

  20. Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuriyk@cinvestav.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Asomoza, R. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Gallardo-Hernandez, S.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, México (Mexico); Nevedomsky, V.; Moiseev, K. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, S-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

  1. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  2. Relation of immediate and delayed thallium-201 distribution to localization of iodine-125 antimyosin antibody in acute experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Fallon, J.T.; Katus, H.A.; Haber, E.

    1983-01-01

    Thallium-201 (TI-201) distribution in acute experimental myocardial infarction (MI) (n . 18) was compared with cardiac-specific antimyosin Fab (AM-Fab) uptake, a specific marker for myocardial necrosis. When antimyosin was injected 4 hours after ligation with TI-201 administered 23 hours 55 minutes later and measurement of myocardial distribution determined 5 minutes after intravenous administration of TI-201, (1) TI-201 distribution closely correlated with microsphere regional blood flow, and (2) an inverse exponential relation to iodine-125 (I-125) AM-Fab uptake was apparent. In another group of 4 animals, TI-201 and AM-Fab were administered intravenously 4 hours after MI, and 36 hours later myocardial distribution was measured. This delayed TI-201 distribution had a close inverse linear correlation with I-125 AM-Fab uptake. This inverse linear relation also was apparent in 28-hour-old MIs in dogs (n . 4) where collateral circulation had been established. TI-201 was administered intravenously at 27 hours after MI, and TI-201 distribution was determined 1 hour later. The present study demonstrated that whereas immediate TI-201 distribution is flow-limited, delayed TI-201 distribution is a marker of cell viability which, due to prolonged circulation time and redistribution, is not flow-limited

  3. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  4. Determining of the nuclear composition of primary cosmic rays from the experimental distributions of multiple muons in atmospheric showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1993-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for determining the nuclear composition of the primary cosmic radiation from the distributions of multiple muons. Results are presented of calculations of the distributions of multiple muons for A 1 , A 4 , A 14 , A 26 , A 56 nuclei for an infinite plane and for the underground scintillation telescope of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Academy of Sciences of Russia.The most suitable technique for determination of the primary nuclear composition of cosmic rays from the distribution of multiple muons is shown to be the approximate solution of a set of N equations, in which the respective coefficients of the contributions of various nuclei A i (i=1-N) to the primary composition serve as variables, while the remaining parts of these equations are the distributions of multiple muons obtained experimentally. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  6. Retrieval of Droplet size Density Distribution from Multiple field of view Cross polarized Lidar Signals: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of-view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation...Gilles Roy, Luc Bissonnette, Christian Bastille, and Gilles Vallee Multiple-field-of-view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to...use secondary polarization. A mathematical relation among the PSD, the lidar fields of view, the scattering angles, and the angular depolarization

  7. Some elementary viewpoints on the recording and analysis of angular distributions in experimental fast neutron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedling, T.

    1980-01-01

    Total neutron elastic scattering cross-sections are usually estimated from the angular distributions of the differential cross sections. This circumstance makes some demands on the quality of the collection and evaluation of experimental differential cross-section data. In the present paper some problems associated with such measurements and effects which influence the analytical descriptions of the observations are discussed. Part of the paper is concerned with the problem of the proper fitting of a Legendre polynomial expansion to an experimental distribution which can only be recorded in a limited angular interval because of the geometrical dimensions of the shielding of a huge neutron detector. The effects of small angular shifts of some data points in the forward direction of angular distribution are discussed in some specific cases, namely for 209 Bi and 208 Pb at 8.05 and 25.7 MeV, respectively. Such shifts may be associated with a false position of the zero angle of the detector. A method is proposed for calibrating the zero-angle direction of the detector and some experimental results are reported. (orig.)

  8. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  9. Influence of experimental parameters inherent to optical fibers on Quantum Key Distribution, the protocol BB84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bouchoucha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we represent the principle of quantum cryptography (QC that is based on fundamental laws of quantum physics. QC or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD uses various protocols to exchange a secret key between two communicating parties. This research paper focuses and examines the quantum key distribution by using the protocol BB84 in the case of encoding on the single-photon polarization and shows the influence of optical components parameters on the quantum key distribution. We also introduce Quantum Bit Error Rate (QBER to better interpret our results and show its relationship with the intrusion of the eavesdropper called Eve on the optical channel to exploit these vulnerabilities.

  10. IS THE MATRIX REALLY INHOSPITABLE? VOLE RUNWAY DISTRIBUTION IN AN EXPERIMENTALLY FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat fragmentation is a common feature of modern landscapes, with significant impacts on the population densities of and space use by animals. A frequest model system for studying these effects is that of voles (Microtus spp.) and other rodents in experimentally fragmented gr...

  11. Determination of the physical parameters distribution in spin transition compounds using experimental FORC diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasa, Radu; Linares, Jorge; Enachescu, Cristian; Varret, Francois; Stancu, Alexandru

    2006-01-01

    Spin transitions materials are characterized with an innovative experimental method, i.e. first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagram. The interpretation of the results is performed in the framework of two different Ising-like models: a mean-field approach and the exact solution done by the Monte Carlo entropic sampling (MCES) method

  12. Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multiwavelength distributed Fabry-Pérot fiber lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brochu, G.; LaRochelle, S.; Slavík, Radan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2005), s. 44-53 ISSN 0733-8724. [OFC'04 - Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Los Angeles, 22.02.2004-27 .02.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : optical fibre amplifiers * Bragg gratings * distributed feedback lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2005

  13. Experimental comparison of phase retrieval methods which use intensity distribution at different planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevkunov, I A; Petrov, N V

    2014-01-01

    Performance of the three phase retrieval methods that use spatial intensity distributions was investigated in dealing with a task of reconstruction of the amplitude characteristics of the test object. These methods differ both by mathematical models and order of iteration execution. The single-beam multiple-intensity reconstruction method showed the best efficiency in terms of quality of reconstruction and time consumption.

  14. Daily micro particle distribution of an experimental recirculating aquaculture system – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2014-01-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) was investigated duringa 24-h cycle. PSD was analyzed in water sampled at several locations in a recirculation loop containing a60-m drum filter, a submerged fixed-bed biofilter and a trickling filter.In relation...

  15. Experimental study of the E2 strength distribution in the 12C and 16O nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; California Univ., Berkeley; Gelbke, C.K.; Hendrie, D.L.; Mahoney, J.; Olmer, C.; Scott, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of the E2 strength in 12 C and 16 O nuclei is investigated by inelastic scattering of 3 He. The giant quadrupole resonance is found to be splitted into several states in both nuclei and exhausts 31% and 37% of the quadrupole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) in 12 C and 16 O respectively

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance.

  17. Comparison of MCNP6 and experimental results for neutron counts, Rossi-α, and Feynman-α distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Sadovich, S.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    MCNP6, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, has the capability to perform time-dependent calculations by tracking the time interval between successive events of the neutron random walk. In fixed-source calculations for a subcritical assembly, the zero time value is assigned at the moment the neutron is emitted by the external neutron source. The PTRAC and F8 cards of MCNP allow to tally the time when a neutron is captured by 3 He(n, p) reactions in the neutron detector. From this information, it is possible to build three different time distributions: neutron counts, Rossi-α, and Feynman-α. The neutron counts time distribution represents the number of neutrons captured as a function of time. The Rossi-a distribution represents the number of neutron pairs captured as a function of the time interval between two capture events. The Feynman-a distribution represents the variance-to-mean ratio, minus one, of the neutron counts array as a function of a fixed time interval. The MCNP6 results for these three time distributions have been compared with the experimental data of the YALINA Thermal facility and have been found to be in quite good agreement. (authors)

  18. Comparison of MCNP6 and experimental results for neutron counts, Rossi-{alpha}, and Feynman-{alpha} distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Sadovich, S.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K. Krasin Str., Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2013-07-01

    MCNP6, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, has the capability to perform time-dependent calculations by tracking the time interval between successive events of the neutron random walk. In fixed-source calculations for a subcritical assembly, the zero time value is assigned at the moment the neutron is emitted by the external neutron source. The PTRAC and F8 cards of MCNP allow to tally the time when a neutron is captured by {sup 3}He(n, p) reactions in the neutron detector. From this information, it is possible to build three different time distributions: neutron counts, Rossi-{alpha}, and Feynman-{alpha}. The neutron counts time distribution represents the number of neutrons captured as a function of time. The Rossi-a distribution represents the number of neutron pairs captured as a function of the time interval between two capture events. The Feynman-a distribution represents the variance-to-mean ratio, minus one, of the neutron counts array as a function of a fixed time interval. The MCNP6 results for these three time distributions have been compared with the experimental data of the YALINA Thermal facility and have been found to be in quite good agreement. (authors)

  19. Experimental integration of quantum key distribution and gigabit-capable passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Liu-Jun; Sun, Xiang-Xiang; Mao, Yingqiu; Yin, Hua-Lei; Wang, Bi-Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) ensures information-theoretic security for the distribution of random bits between two remote parties. To extend QKD applications to fiber-to-the-home optical communications, such as gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPONs), an effective method is the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. However, the Raman scattering noise from intensive classical traffic and the huge loss introduced by the beam splitter in a GPON severely limits the performance of QKD. Here, we demonstrate the integration of QKD and a commercial GPON system with fiber lengths up to 14 km, in which the maximum splitting ratio of the beam splitter reaches 1:64. By placing the QKD transmitter on the optical line terminal side, we reduce the Raman noise collected at the QKD receiver. Using a bypass structure, the loss of the beam splitter is circumvented effectively. Our results pave the way to extending the applications of QKD to last-mile communications.

  20. The experimental investigation of refrigerant distribution and leaking characteristics of R290 in split type household air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Weier; He, Guogeng; Cai, Dehua; Zhu, Yihao; Zhang, Aoni; Tian, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new quasi-liquid nitrogen method (QLNM) was proposed and firstly applied in experiments. • The R290 distribution was investigated by QLNM and the results proved the validation. • A solenoid valve was proposed to install near the capillary in STHAC in order to reduce risk factor. • R290 leaking rate was firstly measured by QLNM before and after the installation a solenoid valve. - Abstract: As a high-profile replacement for R22 split type household air conditioner (STHAC), R290 has several advantages in terms of thermodynamic properties, environmental characteristics, and cost. However, the obvious shortcoming of R290 is its flammability, which has a potential fire risk to the building. At present, the most important measure to ensure the safety of a R290 STHAC is to limit the refrigerant charge by domestic and international standards. But in fact, when the leakage of R290 occur from a STHAC, the distribution of R290 in STHAC, and the leaking rate also will seriously affect the safety of an R290 STHAC. In this study, a new quasi-liquid nitrogen method (QLNM) has been proposed in order to investigate the refrigerant distribution in R290 STHACs and the leaking rate under various conditions, and the experiments have been conducted. The experimental results of distribution proved the validation of the QLNM and showed that a large portion of the refrigerant distributed in the condenser when the air conditioner is on running stage and the refrigerant will migrate from the condenser to the evaporator when the air conditioner is on closed stage. Based on this, the installation of a solenoid valve near the capillary has been proposed. The comparison of experimental results of R290 leaking rate before and after the installation of a solenoid valve showed it will obviously reduce the leaking rate and thereby improve the safety of the R290 STHACs.

  1. An experimental study of the surface elevation probability distribution and statistics of wind-generated waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the surface elevation probability density function and associated statistical properties for a wind-generated wave field. The laboratory data along with some limited field data were compared. The statistical properties of the surface elevation were processed for comparison with the results derived from the Longuet-Higgins (1963) theory. It is found that, even for the highly non-Gaussian cases, the distribution function proposed by Longuet-Higgins still gives good approximations.

  2. Experimental Validation of Energy Resources Integration in Microgrids via Distributed Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative control scheme for the management of energy consumption in commercial build- ings with local energy production, such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbine and an energy storage unit. The presented scheme is based on distributed model predictive controllers, which...... sources, a vanadium redox battery system, resistive load, and a point of common coupling to the national grid. Several experiments are carried to assess the performance of the control scheme in managing local energy pro- duction and consumption....

  3. Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution with position and momentum of photon pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.P.; Walborn, S.P.; Souto Ribeiro, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the utility of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of the position and momentum of photon pairs from parametric down-conversion in the implementation of a secure quantum key distribution protocol. We show that security is guaranteed by the entanglement between down-converted pairs, and can be checked by either direct comparison of Alice and Bob's measurement results or evaluation of an inequality of the sort proposed by Mancini et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002)

  4. Experimental results of current distribution in Rutherford-type LHC cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2000-01-01

    Current distribution among the wires of multi-strand superconducting cables is an important item for accelerator magnets. A non-uniform distribution could cause additional field distortions in the magnet bore and can as well be one of the reasons of premature quenching. Since two years electrical measurements on superconducting Rutherford-type cables are performed at CERN as part of the reception tests for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Cable samples of 2.4 m length are tested at currents up to 32 kA, temperatures around 1.9 and 4.3 K, and fields up to 10 T, applied perpendicularly as well as parallel to the broad face of the cable. Last year, an array of 24 Hall probes was installed in the test set-up in order to measure the self-field of the cable samples along one cable pitch. Each of the probes measures the local field generated by the current in the strands close by, and the results of the all probes reflect therefore the distribution of the strand currents. Experiments are done varying the applied fie...

  5. Phase distribution phenomena in upward cocurrent bubbly flows. A critical review of the experimental and theoretical works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, C.

    1992-09-01

    The most important and challenging problems in two-phase bubbly flow today are related to the physical understanding and the modeling of multidimensional phenomena such as the distribution of phases in space. We present here a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical studies in gas-liquid adiabatic and non-reactive upward bubbly flows which have been carried out to define and improve the physical models needed to close the three-dimensional two-fluid model equations. It appears that: so far, the axial development of two-phase upward bubbly flows has not been handled thoroughly. Little is known about the way the pressure gradient as well as the gas-liquid mixing conditions affect the distribution of phases, the problems related to the closing of the two-fluid model equations are far from being solved. The physical models proposed seem often to be too much complex considering how little we know about the mechanisms involved, there are still very few multidimensional numerical models whose results have been compared with experimental data on bubbly flows. The boundary conditions introduced in the codes as well as the sensitivity of the results to the parameters of the codes are never precisely stated. To bridge some of those gaps, we propose to perform an experimental and numerical study of the axial development of two-phase air-water upward bubbly flows in vertical pipes

  6. Comparison of simulated and experimental results of temperature distribution in a closed two-phase thermosyphon cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaanika, E.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miki, M.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Murase, Y.; Oryu, T.; Yanamoto, T.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators offer numerous advantages over conventional generators of the same rating. They are lighter, smaller and more efficient. Amongst a host of methods for cooling HTS machinery, thermosyphon-based cooling systems have been employed due to their high heat transfer rate and near-isothermal operating characteristics associated with them. To use them optimally, it is essential to study thermal characteristics of these cryogenic thermosyphons. To this end, a stand-alone neon thermosyphon cooling system with a topology resembling an HTS rotating machine was studied. Heat load tests were conducted on the neon thermosyphon cooling system by applying a series of heat loads to the evaporator at different filling ratios. The temperature at selected points of evaporator, adiabatic tube and condenser as well as total heat leak were measured. A further study involving a computer thermal model was conducted to gain further insight into the estimated temperature distribution of thermosyphon components and heat leak of the cooling system. The model employed boundary conditions from data of heat load tests. This work presents a comparison between estimated (by model) and experimental (measured) temperature distribution in a two-phase cryogenic thermosyphon cooling system. The simulation results of temperature distribution and heat leak compared generally well with experimental data.

  7. Experimental investigations of flow distribution in coolant system of Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, M.; Schlindwein, G., E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu; Meyder, R.; Kuhn, T.; Albrecht, O.; Zinn, K.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental investigations of flow distribution in HCPB TBM are presented. • Flow rates in channels close to the first wall are lower than nominal ones. • Flow distribution in central chambers of manifold 2 is close to the nominal one. • Flow distribution in the whole manifold 3 agrees well with the nominal one. - Abstract: This paper deals with investigations of flow distribution in the coolant system of the Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) for ITER. The investigations have been performed by manufacturing and testing of an experimental facility named GRICAMAN. The facility involves the upper poloidal half of HCPB TBM bounded at outlets of the first wall channels, at outlet of by-pass pipe and at outlets of cooling channels in breeding units. In this way, the focus is placed on the flow distribution in two mid manifolds of the 4-manifold system: (i) manifold 2 to which outlets of the first wall channels and inlet of by-pass pipe are attached and (ii) manifold 3 which supplies channels in breeding units with helium coolant. These two manifolds are connected with cooling channels in vertical/horizontal grids and caps. The experimental facility has been built keeping the internal structure of manifold 2 and manifold 3 exactly as designed in HCPB TBM. The cooling channels in stiffening grids, caps and breeding units are substituted by so-called equivalent channels which provide the same hydraulic resistance and inlet/outlet conditions, but have significantly simpler geometry than the real channels. Using the conditions of flow similarity, the air pressurized at 0.3 MPa and at ambient temperature has been used as working fluid instead of HCPB TBM helium coolant at 8 MPa and an average temperature of 370 °C. The flow distribution has been determined by flow rate measurements at each of 28 equivalent channels, while the pressure distribution has been obtained measuring differential pressure at more than 250 positions. The

  8. Experimental validation of a distributed algorithm for dynamic spectrum access in local area networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    Next generation wireless networks aim at a significant improvement of the spectral efficiency in order to meet the dramatic increase in data service demand. In local area scenarios user-deployed base stations are expected to take place, thus making the centralized planning of frequency resources...... activities with the Autonomous Component Carrier Selection (ACCS) algorithm, a distributed solution for interference management among small neighboring cells. A preliminary evaluation of the algorithm performance is provided considering its live execution on a software defined radio network testbed...

  9. Finite element simulation and experimental analysis of thermal distribution of optical transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, ZHANG; Lei, NIE; Kai, JIANG Chuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to optimize the heat dissipation design, the finite element simulation and temperature measurement experiment were used to research the optical transceiver temperature distribution. The results indicated that the shield cage impaired the convective heat transfer efficiency of the photoelectric conversion chip in the optical transceiver. Thus the heat dissipation of the device was weakened. The optimization method was put forward to introduce the external ducts by improving the structure design of the shield cage. The simulation showed the effectiveness of this method which could improve the heat dissipation efficiency of optical transceiver products.

  10. Hydraulic experimental investigation on spatial distribution and formation process of tsunami deposit on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Sakuraba, M.; Nojima, K.

    2017-12-01

    An important aim of the study of tsunami deposits is to estimate the characteristics of past tsunamis from the tsunami deposits found locally. Based on the tsunami characteristics estimated from tsunami deposit, it is possible to examine tsunami risk assessment in coastal areas. It is considered that tsunami deposits are formed based on the dynamic correlation between tsunami's hydraulic values, sediment particle size, topography, etc. However, it is currently not enough to evaluate the characteristics of tsunamis from tsunami deposits. This is considered to be one of the reasons that the understanding of the formation process of tsunami deposits is not sufficiently understood. In this study, we analyze the measurement results of hydraulic experiment (Yamamoto et al., 2016) and focus on the formation process and distribution of tsunami deposits. Hydraulic experiment was conducted with two-dimensional water channel with a slope. Tsunami was inputted as a bore wave flow. The moving floor section was installed as a seabed slope connecting to shoreline and grain size distribution was set some cases. The water level was measured using ultrasonic displacement gauges, and the flow velocity was measured using propeller current meters and an electromagnetic current meter. The water level and flow velocity was measured at some points. The distribution of tsunami deposit was measured from shoreline to run-up limit on the slope. Yamamoto et al. (2016) reported the measurement results on the distribution of tsunami deposit with wave height and sand grain size. Therefore, in this study, hydraulic analysis of tsunami sediment formation process was examined based on the measurement data. Time series fluctuation of hydraulic parameters such as Froude number, Shields number, Rouse number etc. was calculated to understand on the formation process of tsunami deposit. In the front part of the tsunami, the flow velocity take strong flow from shoreline to around the middle of slope. From

  11. Experimental investigation of the ion current distribution in microsecond plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystritskij, V; Grigor` ev, S; Kharlov, A; Sinebryukhov, A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    This paper is devoted to the investigations of properties of the microsecond plasma opening switch (MPOS) as an ion beam source for surface modification. Two plasma sources were investigated: flash-board and cable guns. The detailed measurements of axial and azimuthal distributions of ion current density in the switch were performed. It was found that the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the ion beam increases from the beginning to the end of MPOS. The advantages and problems of this approach are discussed. (author). 5 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Studies on the distribution of manganese (54Mn) in broilers with experimental fatty liver degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowosad, R.; Simoni, J.

    1979-01-01

    The studies were performed on 30 broilers, at the age of 6 weeks, crossbred DWC chi WR, with an experimental fatty liver degeneration caused by subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 2.5 ml per 1 kg of body weight for 2 weeks. In the second week each bird was injected subcutaneously in subpectorial region 2rCi of 54 Mn per one kg of body weight. Radioactivity of parenchymatous organs, digestive tract and its content, trachea, lungs, ovaries, bones, muscles, skin, feathers, gall, cloth, blood serum was measured on scintillograph USB - 2 cooperating with electronic computer PT - 72. After an appropriate correction the results were presented in a form of the percentage of the applied dose in one g of a specimen, multiplied by 10 2 . It was found that the level of manganese 54 was lower in the experimental birds in comparison to control ones. One exception was the content of rectum, serum and cloth. In these cases the observed differences were statistically insignificant. (author)

  13. The influence of die geometry on stress distribution by experimental and FEM simulation on electrolytic copper wiredrawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Kyo Kabayama

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of die geometry is vital in determining the surface and mechanical properties of drawn wires, and consequently, their application. In this work, annealed electrolytic copper wire (ETP, with 0.5 mm original diameter was reduced by 19% in dies with 2β = 10º and 18º and Hc = 35 and 50%. The best experimental results were then studied by the Finite Element Method to simulate residual stress distribution. The experimental results show that the friction coefficient decreases as the wire drawing speed increases, and that low 2β and Hc values bring about the most favorable wiredrawing conditions. The simulation shows a variation in the axial and radial tensions, both for the compression and traction stresses on all regions during the wire drawing process. In conclusion, the influence of the internal die geometry on the drawn wire is clarified.

  14. Experimental determination of the unattached radon daughter fraction and dust size distribution in some Canadian uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Kirk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The unattached radon daughter fraction has been experimentally determined in some Canadian uranium mines. Two experimental methods have been used, the wire screen method and a diffusion sampler based on Mercer's theory of diffusional deposition on parallel circular plates. Experiments were conducted in 'non-diesel' and 'diesel' areas of the mines, i.e. locations where mining was done with diesel machinery. Unattached fractions ranged from about 2-8 per cent for non-diesel area. For diesel areas the unattached fraction was substantially lower, less than about one per cent. The aerosol concentration in the range 0.0015 - 0.13 μm was measured with a condensation nuclei counter. Dust concentration was determined with conventional samplers. Particle size distribution in the respirable range was determined with a fine particle spectrometer in conjunction with eriometric techniques

  15. Influence of the spectral distribution of light on the characteristics of photovoltaic panel. Comparison between simulation and experimental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Bouzaki, Mohammed Moustafa; Chadel, Asma; Petit, Pierre; Sawicki, Jean-Paul; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-02-01

    We present and analyze experimental results obtained with a laboratory setup based on a hardware and smart instrumentation for the complete study of performance of PV panels using for illumination an artificial radiation source (Halogen lamps). Associated to an accurate analysis, this global experimental procedure allows the determination of effective performance under standard conditions thanks to a simulation process originally developed under Matlab software environment. The uniformity of the irradiated surface was checked by simulation of the light field. We studied the response of standard commercial photovoltaic panels under enlightenment measured by a spectrometer with different spectra for two sources, halogen lamps and sunlight. Then, we bring a special attention to the influence of the spectral distribution of light on the characteristics of photovoltaic panel, that we have performed as a function of temperature and for different illuminations with dedicated measurements and studies of the open circuit voltage and short-circuit current.

  16. Potential effect of fiddler crabs on organic matter distribution: A combined laboratory and field experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natálio, Luís F.; Pardo, Juan C. F.; Machado, Glauco B. O.; Fortuna, Monique D.; Gallo, Deborah G.; Costa, Tânia M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioturbators play a key role in estuarine environments by modifying the availability of soil elements, which in turn may affect other organisms. Despite the importance of bioturbators, few studies have combined both field and laboratory experiments to explore the effects of bioturbators on estuarine soils. Herein, we assessed the bioturbation potential of fiddler crabs Leptuca leptodactyla and Leptuca uruguayensis in laboratory and field experiments, respectively. We evaluated whether the presence of fiddler crabs resulted in vertical transport of sediment, thereby altering organic matter (OM) distribution. Under laboratory conditions, the burrowing activity by L. leptodactyla increased the OM content in sediment surface. In the long-term field experiment with areas of inclusion and exclusion of L. uruguayensis, we did not observe influence of this fiddler crab in the vertical distribution of OM. Based on our results, we suggest that small fiddler crabs, such as the species used in these experiments, are potentially capable of alter their environment by transporting sediment and OM but such effects may be masked by environmental drivers and spatial heterogeneity under natural conditions. This phenomenon may be related to the small size of these species, which affects how much sediment is transported, along with the way OM interacts with biogeochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the net effect of these burrowing organisms is likely to be the result of a complex interaction with other environmental factors. In this sense, we highlight the importance of performing simultaneous field and laboratory experiments in order to better understanding the role of burrowing animals as bioturbators.

  17. Experimental access to Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrana, Manuel; Ahmed, Samer; Deiseroth, Malte; Froehlich, Bertold; Khaneft, Dmitry; Lin, Dexu; Noll, Oliver; Valente, Roserio; Zimmermann, Iris [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Ahmadi, Heybat; Capozza, Luigi; Dbeyssi, Alaa; Morales, Cristina; Rodriguez Pineiro, David [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Prisma Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We address the feasibility of accessing proton to pion Transition Distribution Amplitudes with the future PANDA detector at the FAIR facility. Assuming a factorized cross section, feasibility studies of measuring anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -}π{sup 0} with PANDA have been performed at the center of mass energy squared s = 5 GeV{sup 2} and s = 10 GeV{sup 2}, in the kinematic region of four-momentum transfer 3.0 < q{sup 2} < 4.3 GeV{sup 2} and 5 < q{sup 2} < 9 GeV{sup 2}, respectively,with a neutral pion scattered in the forward or backward cone vertical stroke cosθ{sub π{sup 0}} vertical stroke > 0.5 in the anti pp center of mass frame. These include detailed simulations on signal reconstruction efficiency, rejection of the most severe background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}π{sup 0}, and the feasibility of the measurement using a sample of 2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The cross sections obtained with the simulations are used to test QCD factorization at the leading order by measuring scaling laws and fitting angular distributions.

  18. An Experimental Study of Two-Phase Pulse Flushing Technology in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaozhao Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of drinking water during distribution process is caused by many factors. The microorganisms and substances peeling off from the “growth-ring” make the secondary pollution in drinking water distribution systems. To reduce the secondary pollution, two-phase pulse flushing technology is introduced to quickly remove the “growth-ring”. In this study, experiment is undertaken for investigating the efficiency of the two-phase pulse flushing and finding the best setting combination. A case study is undertaken to compare the efficiencies between the two-phase pulse and the single-phase flushing. The best setting combination of the two-phase pulse flushing is at the frequency 4 s–6 s (air inflow time is 4 s and air cut off time is 6 s and the round air inflow nozzle is set at the bottom of the pipe. Two-phase pulse flushing technology can save 95% of water and 6 h 40 min flushing time.

  19. Experimental analysis of axial and radial stress distribution in soft materials used for petrochemical valve stem sealing package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripeanu, R. G.; Ispas, A.; Ispas, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents experimental results obtained by authors regarding pressure values and distribution, by using a special pressure sensitive paper, type FujiFilm and adequate hardware equipment and a soft program FPD810 Win. Was obtained the proper axial force related for different materials in order to respect the valves sealing demands. Were showed that, pressure maps obtained depends of the construction of sealing package, density of the preformed band rings and corrected sealing replacing on location in case of square braided cord used.

  20. Experimental demonstration of robust entanglement distribution over reciprocal noisy channels assisted by a counter-propagating classical reference light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Nozaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-07-06

    Embedding a quantum state in a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) formed by multiple photons is one of the promising methods for robust entanglement distribution of photonic states over collective noisy channels. In practice, however, such a scheme suffers from a low efficiency proportional to transmittance of the channel to the power of the number of photons forming the DFS. The use of a counter-propagating coherent pulse can improve the efficiency to scale linearly in the channel transmission, but it achieves only protection against phase noises. Recently, it was theoretically proposed [Phys. Rev. A 87, 052325(2013)] that the protection against bit-flip noises can also be achieved if the channel has a reciprocal property. Here we experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme to distribute polarization-entangled photon pairs against a general collective noise including the bit flip noise and the phase noise. We observed an efficient sharing rate scaling while keeping a high quality of the distributed entangled state. Furthermore, we show that the method is applicable not only to the entanglement distribution but also to the transmission of arbitrary polarization states of a single photon.

  1. Motif distributions in phase-space networks for characterizing experimental two-phase flow patterns with chaotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-07-01

    The dynamics of two-phase flows have been a challenging problem in nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. We propose a method to characterize and distinguish patterns from inclined water-oil flow experiments based on the concept of network motifs that have found great usage in network science and systems biology. In particular, we construct from measured time series phase-space complex networks and then calculate the distribution of a set of distinct network motifs. To gain insight, we first test the approach using time series from classical chaotic systems and find a universal feature: motif distributions from different chaotic systems are generally highly heterogeneous. Our main finding is that the distributions from experimental two-phase flows tend to be heterogeneous as well, suggesting the underlying chaotic nature of the flow patterns. Calculation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent provides further support for this. Motif distributions can thus be a feasible tool to understand the dynamics of realistic two-phase flow patterns.

  2. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V

    1986-01-01

    palate induced by a chemical carcinogen (4NQO). The H antigen, normally expressed on spinous cells in rats, was absent in malignant epithelium, whereas staining for the B antigen, normally expressed on basal cells, was variable. These changes are equivalent to those seen in human squamous cell carcinomas....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...... antigen in suprabasal strata equivalent to the pattern seen in human premalignant epithelium. We conclude from these findings, that the rat model is well suited to study changes in cell surface carbohydrates during chemical carcinogenesis....

  3. Experimental and calculating substantiation of reactivity balance and energy-release distribution in BN-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Surov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical work done in 2003-2010 years on substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core. 1. Transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a. (the 4-th upgrade of the BN-600 core). Transfer was made without changing the constructive of the core almost by reducing conservatism of design decisions. 2. The end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years. Need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience. 3. Development and introduction of new methods of analysis (precision method of Monte Carlo). 4. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques

  4. Photoelectron Angular Distributions of Transition Metal Dioxide Anions - a joint experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Ivan; Gunaratne, Dasitha; Harmon, Christopher; Sofo, Jorge; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of the MO2- (M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Co, Rh) clusters are presented for the first time along with theoretical calculations of their properties. We confirm previously reported non-angular PES results for the vertical detachment energies (VDE), vibrational energies and geometric structures of these clusters and further explore the effect of the 'lanthanide contraction' on the MO2- clusters by comparing the electronic spectra of 4d and 5d transition metal dioxides. Angular-resolved PES provides the angular momentum contributions to the HOMO of these clusters and we use theoretical calculations to examine the HOMO and compare to our experimental results. First-principles calculations are done using both density functional theory (DFT) and the coupled-cluster, singles, doubles and triples (CCSD(T)) methods.

  5. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  6. Stress distribution in the 16MND5 bainitic steel. Experimental analysis and polycrystalline modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesci, R.; Inal, K.; Berveiller, M.; Masson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The 16MND5 bainitic steel being a two-phase material (ferrite/cementite), the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most efficient tool to determine the stress states into the ferritic phase (sin 2 ψ method). The latter, coupled to the observations realized during tensile tests (specimen surface and facies), have permitted to establish criteria to describe the behavior and the damaging processes of the material on a crystallographic scale, in the lower part of the ductile-to-brittle transition region and at lower temperatures [-196 deg. C;-60 deg. C]. During the loading, the damage is observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope, while the internal stresses are determined by XRD: the stress states are less important in ferrite than in bainite (macroscopic stress), the difference not exceeding 150 MPa. A multi-scale polycrystalline model is developed concurrently with the experimental measurements: a Mori-Tanaka formulation is used to describe the elastoplastic behavior of a ferritic single crystal reinforced by cementite precipitates, while the transition to the polycrystal is achieved by a self-consistent approach. The developed modeling takes into account the temperature effects on the stress states in each phase and includes a cleavage criterion (critical value of the stress normal to [100] planes), which expresses the damage of the material: thus, it enables to predict the actual experimental behavior of the 16MND5 steel in relation to temperature, and to take into account the failure process which is fragile from -120 deg. C. Besides, it is also possible to calculate the strains of the diffracting planes, which can be compared to those measured by XRD: this enables to evaluate the heterogeneity of the strains for each crystallographic orientation. (authors)

  7. A regional distributed hydrological modelling approach for flash-flood understanding and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Roux, Hélène; Vannier, Olivier; Maubourguet, Marie-Madeleine; Viallet, Pierre; Boudevillain, Brice; Dartus, Denis; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods represent the most destructive natural hazard in the Mediterranean region, causing around one billion Euros worth of damage in France over the last two decades. Flash floods are associated with extreme and rare rainfall events and usually occur in ungauged river basins. Amongst them, small-ungauged catchments are recognized as the most vulnerable to storm driven flash floods. In order to limit the damages to the population, there is a need to improve our understanding and the simulation tools for these events. In order to provide information over a whole region, hydrological models applicable at this scale, and able to take into account the spatial variability of rainfall and catchment characteristics, must be proposed. This paper presents such a regional distributed approach applied to the 8-9 September 2002 extreme event which affected the Gard region in the south-east of France. In order to identify the variables and catchment characteristics which require improved knowledge, two distributed hydrological models were set up on a set of catchments, with sizes ranging from 2.5 to 99 km2. The models differ in terms of spatial discretization and process representation. They were forced using radar data with a 1 km2 spatial resolution and 5 min time step. The model parameters were specified using the available information, namely a digital terrain model and a soil data base. The latter provides information about soil texture, soil porosity and soil depths. Soil hydraulic properties were defined using pedo-transfer functions. Data from a post-flood field survey of maximum peak discharge were used to assess the quality of the simulations. A reasonable agreement between modeled and observed values was obtained. Sensitivity studies were then performed to asses the respective impact of rainfall estimation and soil variability on the simulated discharge. The analysis shows that rainfall remains the first controlling factor of flash flood dynamics and that high

  8. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. An experimental investigation of fluid flow and wall temperature distributions in an automotive headlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J.M.M.; Vogado, J.; Costa, M.; Bensler, H.; Freek, C.; Heath, D.

    2005-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall temperatures and fluid flow velocities inside an automotive headlight with venting apertures are presented. Thermocouples have been used to characterize the temperature distributions in the walls of the reflectors under transient and steady operating conditions. Quantification of the markedly three-dimensional flow field inside the headlight cavities was achieved through the use of laser-Doppler velocimetry for the latter condition only. Significant thermal stratification occurs in the headlight cavities. The regime corresponding to steady operating conditions is characterized by the development of a vortex-dominated flow. The interaction of the main vortex flow with the stream of colder fluid entering the enclosed volume through the venting aperture contributes significantly to increase the complexity of the basic flow pattern. Globally, the results have improved the understanding of the temperature loads and fluid flow phenomena inside a modern automotive headlight

  10. Experimental verification of a deep drawing tool system for adaptive blank holder pressure distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft

    2012-01-01

    In deep drawing, the strain path in the blank during the forming process can be significantly affected by application of temporal and spatial variation of the blank holder force. In this study, an active tool system capable of controlling the distribution of the blank holder force is presented...... which can be integrated into existing stacked deep drawing tools without need for modification of the press. A working system is presented consisting of a controller, designated volume displacement cavity pressure supply units and a shimming plate. It is applied to the deep drawing of a rectangular...... to the conventional shimming method using paper or metal shims between the tool plates. The tool system’s ability to influence the material flow is investigated by performing a series of deep drawing experiments. Eight different cavity pressure schemes are applied during the punch stroke and the scheme’s effects...

  11. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  12. Experimental data on heat flux distribution from a volumetrically heated pool with frozen boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, Maria; Kymaelaeinen, Olli; Tuomisto, Harri

    1999-01-01

    The COPO II experiments are confirmatory experiments and a continuation project to the earlier COPO I experiments. As in COPO 1, a molten corium pool on the lower head of a RPV is simulated by a two - dimensional slice of it in linear scale 1:2. The corium is simulated by water-zinc sulfate solution with volumetric Joule heating. The heat flux distribution on the boundaries and the temperature distribution in the pool are measured. The major new feature in COPO II is the cooling arrangement which is based on circulation of liquid nitrogen on the outside of the pool boundaries. The use of liquid nitrogen leads to formation of ice on the inside of boundaries. Two geometrically different versions of the COPO II facility have been constructed: one with a tori-spherical bottom shape, simulating the RPV of a VVER-440 reactor as COPO I, and another one with semicircular bottom simulating a western PWR such as AP600. The modified Rayleigh number in the COPO II experiments corresponds to the one in a prototypic corium pool (∼ 10 15 ). This paper reports results from the COPO II-Lo and COPO II-AP experiments with homogenous pool. Results indicate that the upward heat fluxes are in agreement with the results of the COPO I experiments. Also, as expected, the time averaged upward heat flux profile was relatively flat. On the other hand, the heat fluxes at the side and bottom boundaries of the pool were slightly higher in COPO II-Lo than in COPO I. In COPO II-AP, the average heat transfer coefficients to the curved boundary were higher than predicted by Jahn's and Mayinger's correlation, but slightly lower than in BALI experiments. (authors)

  13. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, Randall Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  14. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., −16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system. (paper)

  15. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  16. Chemical activation of molecules by metals: Experimental studies of electron distributions and bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichienberger, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    This quarter has witnessed further progress both in our experimental methods of photoelectron spectroscopy and in our understanding the fundamental relationships between ionization energies and the chemistry of transition metal species. Progress continues on the new gas phase photoelectron spectrometer that combine improved capabilities for HeI/HeII UPS, XPS, and Auger investigations of organometallic molecules. Several measurements have been accomplished this year that were not possible previously. We have published the formal relationship between measured molecular ionization energies and thermodynamic bond dissociation energies, and applied the relationships to homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules, multiple bonds, and metal-ligand bonds. Studies of C-H bond activation have continued with examination of different degrees of Si-H bond addition to metals. the electronic effects of intermolecular interactions have been observed by comparing the ionizations of metal complexes in the gas phase with the ionizations of monolayer solid organometallic films prepared in ultra-high vacuum. The orientations of the molecules have been determined by scanning tunneling microscopy. Especially interesting has been the recent application of these techniques to the characterization of the soccer-ball shaped C 60 molecule, buckminsterfullerene. Studies of the following complexes are described : Fe, Os, Nb, Mo, Rh, Re, Al, and Mn. 19 refs

  17. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.

  18. Experimental investigation on temperature distribution of foamed concrete filled steel tube column under standard fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, B.; Mohammad, S.; Lee, Y. H.; Shek, P. N.; Kadir, M. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Standard fire test was carried out on 3 hollow steel tube and 6 foamed concrete filled steel tube columns. Temperature distribution on the columns was investigated. 1500 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3 foamed concrete density at 15%, 20% and 25% load level are the parameters considered. The columns investigated were 2400 mm long, 139.7 mm outer diameter and 6 mm steel tube thickness. The result shows that foamed concrete filled steel tube columns has the highest fire resistance of 43 minutes at 15% load level and low critical temperature of 671 ºC at 25% load level using 1500 kg/m3 foamed concrete density. Fire resistance of foamed concrete filled column increases with lower foamed concrete strength. Foamed concrete can be used to provide more fire resistance to hollow steel column or to replace normal weight concrete in concrete filled columns. Since filling hollow steel with foamed concrete produce column with high fire resistance than unfilled hollow steel column. Therefore normal weight concrete can be substituted with foamed concrete in concrete filled column, it will reduces the self-weight of the structure because of its light weight at the same time providing the desired fire resistance.

  19. Experimental distribution of coolant in the IPR-R1 Triga nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Reis, Patricia A.L., E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.b, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a typical TRIGA Mark I light-water and open pool type reactor. The core has an annular configuration of six rings and is cooled by natural circulation. The core coolant channels extend from the bottom grid plate to the top grid plate. The cooling water flows through the holes in the bottom grid plate, passes through the lower unheated region of the element, flows upwards through the active region, passes through the upper unheated region, and finally leaves the channel through the differential area between a triangular spacer block on the top of the fuel element and a round hole in the grid. Direct measurement of the flow rate in a coolant channel is difficult because of the bulky size and low accuracy of flow meters. The flow rate through the channel may be determined indirectly from the heat balance across the channel using measurements of the water inlet and outlet temperatures. This paper presents the experiments performed in the IPR-R1 reactor to monitoring some thermo-hydraulic parameters in the core coolant channels, such as: the radial and axial temperature profile, temperature, velocity, mass flow rate, mass flux and Reynolds's number. Some results were compared with theoretical predictions, as it was expected the variables follow the power distribution (or neutron flux) in the core. (author)

  20. Using viral e-mails to distribute tobacco control advertisements: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert; Jalleh, Geoffrey

    2011-08-01

    The authors' objective was to conduct a trial of viral e-mail marketing as a distribution method for tobacco control advertisements. University students (n = 200) in the state of Western Australia were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 2 e-mails with hyperlinks to tobacco control advertisements ("Toilet" and "Rubbish") emphasizing the disgusting nature of smoking. Recipients followed a hyperlink to a Web page playing Toilet or Rubbish on endless loop. Viewers were encouraged to forward the e-mail to their friends and invited to complete an online survey about the advertisement. Unique downloads for each advertisement were identified by internet provider (IP) location and tallied by date and geographical location to assess subsequent dissemination beyond the initial 200 students. There were 826 unique viewings of the advertisements averaging 26.9 viewings per day for the first fortnight, followed by a lower average of 4.1 hits per day for the next 3.5 months. IP addresses identified hits from 3 other Australian states and 7 other countries. Online surveys were completed by 103 respondents (12.5% of total hits) but included few smokers (n = 9). Significantly more respondents rated Toilet as "funny" compared with Rubbish (40% vs. 11%; p e-mail sent but daily hits rapidly deteriorated over time. Entertainment appears to facilitate viral e-mails being forwarded onwards but only exceptionally compelling tobacco control materials are ever likely to become self-perpetuating.

  1. Experimental study of flow field distribution over a generic cranked double delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow fields over a generic cranked double delta wing were investigated. Pressure and velocity distributions were obtained using a Pitot tube and a hot wire anemometer. Two different leading edge shapes, namely “sharp” and “round”, were applied to the wing. The wing had two sweep angles of 55° and 30°. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit wind tunnel at velocity 20 m/s and angles of attack of 5°–20° with the step of 5°. The Reynolds number of the model was about 2 × 105 according to the root chord. A dual vortex structure was formed above the wing surface. A pressure drop occurred at the vortex core and the root mean square of the measured velocity increased at the core of the vortices, reflecting the instability of the flow in that region. The magnitude of power spectral density increased strongly in spanwise direction and had the maximum value at the vortex core. By increasing the angle of attack, the pressure drop increased and the vortices became wider; the vortices moved inboard along the wing, and away from the surface; the flow separation was initiated from the outer portion of the wing and developed to its inner part. The vortices of the wing of the sharp leading edge were stronger than those of the round one.

  2. Experimental distribution of coolant in the IPR-R1 Triga nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Reis, Patricia A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The IPR-R1 is a typical TRIGA Mark I light-water and open pool type reactor. The core has an annular configuration of six rings and is cooled by natural circulation. The core coolant channels extend from the bottom grid plate to the top grid plate. The cooling water flows through the holes in the bottom grid plate, passes through the lower unheated region of the element, flows upwards through the active region, passes through the upper unheated region, and finally leaves the channel through the differential area between a triangular spacer block on the top of the fuel element and a round hole in the grid. Direct measurement of the flow rate in a coolant channel is difficult because of the bulky size and low accuracy of flow meters. The flow rate through the channel may be determined indirectly from the heat balance across the channel using measurements of the water inlet and outlet temperatures. This paper presents the experiments performed in the IPR-R1 reactor to monitoring some thermo-hydraulic parameters in the core coolant channels, such as: the radial and axial temperature profile, temperature, velocity, mass flow rate, mass flux and Reynolds's number. Some results were compared with theoretical predictions, as it was expected the variables follow the power distribution (or neutron flux) in the core. (author)

  3. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  4. Experimental characterization and physical modelling of the dose distribution of scanned proton pencil beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, E; Scheib, S; Boehringer, T; Coray, A; Grossmann, M; Lin, S; Lomax, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the pencil beam dose model used for treatment planning at the PSI proton gantry, the only system presently applying proton therapy with a beam scanning technique. The scope of the paper is to give a general overview on the various components of the dose model, on the related measurements and on the practical parametrization of the results. The physical model estimates from first physical principles absolute dose normalized to the number of incident protons. The proton beam flux is measured in practice by plane-parallel ionization chambers (ICs) normalized to protons via Faraday-cup measurements. It is therefore possible to predict and deliver absolute dose directly from this model without other means. The dose predicted in this way agrees very well with the results obtained with ICs calibrated in a cobalt beam. Emphasis is given in this paper to the characterization of nuclear interaction effects, which play a significant role in the model and are the major source of uncertainty in the direct estimation of the absolute dose. Nuclear interactions attenuate the primary proton flux, they modify the shape of the depth-dose curve and produce a faint beam halo of secondary dose around the primary proton pencil beam in water. A very simple beam halo model has been developed and used at PSI to eliminate the systematic dependences of the dose observed as a function of the size of the target volume. We show typical results for the relative (using a CCD system) and absolute (using calibrated ICs) dosimetry, routinely applied for the verification of patient plans. With the dose model including the nuclear beam halo we can predict quite precisely the dose directly from treatment planning without renormalization measurements, independently of the dose, shape and size of the dose fields. This applies also to the complex non-homogeneous dose distributions required for the delivery of range-intensity-modulated proton therapy, a novel therapy technique

  5. Invited paper: distributed energy store railgun system experimental results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics (CEM-UT) has constructed a distributed energy store railgun facility. The facility contains a 33-in. railgun with four current feed connection points and a 142-in. railgun with connections for all ten of the capacitor bank modules with pulse forming inductors that are used to power the railguns. Each of the ten capacitor bank modules can supply up to 200 kA with a maximum energy of 60 kJ. Each capacitor bank is turned on as the projectile moves down the bore of the gun as detected by magnetic pickup coils. Designed to achieve velocities in excess of 10 kmats, the guns are accelerating 3/8-in. Lexan cubes weighing between 0.5 and 1.0 g. This system has been operated at over 500 kA for repeated shots from zero initial velocity or a single set of rails. A theoretical analysis of the DES railgun system has been made. This includes a two-dimensional current diffusion analysis which has resulted in a simple approximate formula for rail resistance. The theoretical model is a two-dimensional steady state solution. The current feed points to the rails move along the rails with the same velocity as the armature. This model is reasonably approximated by a DES railgun and allows the use of steady state solution techniques. The approximate formula for the rail resistance has been used to predict maximum allowable current levels per unit height of the rails. Current levels greater than 50% of the predicted limits have been tested in the railguns. A simple modeling technique for determining the driving inductance of a railgun is presented

  6. The distribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in experimental ischemic brain of the mongolian gerbil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ueda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    We studied the distribution of N-isopropyl-p-[I-131]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in permanent and temporary ischemic brains of mongolian gerbils. For the permanent ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was ligated under ether anesthesia. For the temporary ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was clamped by a clip and recirculated at 3 hours thereafter. After given time intervals, 1.35 MBq (50 μCi) of IMP was injected intravenously into 17 gerbils (permanent ischemic brain model), 18 gerbils (temporary ischemic brain model) which had severe neurological symptoms, and 3 normal gerbils for controls. One minute, 10 minutes, 1 hour and 6 hours after the injection, gerbils were sacrified and autoradiography of the brain was performed. The activity of IMP in various parts of the brain was calculated from each autoradiogram. In permanent ischemic brains, low perfusion areas were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere, the brain stem (5 ∼ 20 % of normal value), and in the left hemisphere (40 ∼ 60 % of normal value). In temporary ischemic brains, focal areas of increased activity were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere and the thalamus from 10 minutes to 24 hours after recirculation. The high activity disappeared rapidly at 10 minutes after the injection. It seemed that this high activity represented luxury perfusion in the region with severe tissue damage. In the left hemisphere, almost complete recovery of perfusion occurred at 1 ∼ 3 days after recirculation. These results suggested the possibility of IMP to demonstrate cerebral ischemia, luxury perfusion and diaschisis. (author)

  7. Experimental Study on Characteristics of Oil Particle Distribution in Water-Gelled Crude Oil Two-Phase Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional gathering and transportation mode of heating the produced fluid of oil wells with hot water or steam may result in excessive energy consumption. In order to perform the unheated transportation, the idea of hydraulic suspension transport of the gelled crude oil is proposed based on the actual production of Daqing Oilfield, and the experimental system is established to test characteristics of oil particle distribution which have an important effect on the hydraulic suspension transportation. In the experiment, the image of gelled crude oil particle distribution was obtained in a horizontal pipe with inner diameter of 0.053 m, and then the law of particle distribution was investigated by the theoretical model. The results showed that the gelled crude oil hydraulic suspension transport could be achieved without any chemical reagent when the gelled crude oil was transformed into particles and dispersedly suspended in water. The results also showed that the gelled oil particles of 0–4 mm in size accounted for 92% or more of all particles, and the percentage of gelled crude oil particles of a size of 4 mm gradually increased with the increasing mixed flow rate.

  8. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Temperature Distribution of Self-Lubricating Packing Rings in Reciprocating Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonuniform abrasion failure and high-temperature thermal failure of packing rings have a significant influence on compressor reliability, particularly that of oil-free compressors. In this study, a test rig was constructed to measure the dynamic temperature of packing rings under different operational conditions in an oil-free reciprocating compressor. The dynamic axial and radial temperature distributions of the packing rings were obtained using an innovative internal temperature testing device that kept the thermocouples and packing box relatively static during compressor operation. A three-dimensional heat transfer model was also developed to analyze the temperature distribution of the packing boxes, piston rod, and cylinder during such operation. Good agreement was observed between the simulation results and experimental data, which showed an average relative error of less than 2.35%. The results indicate that the pressure ratio exerts a significant effect on the axial temperature distribution and determines which packing ring reaches the maximum temperature. They also show the average temperature to rise with an increase in the rotational speed and to fall with an improvement in the external cooling conditions. Finally, the material of the packing rings was found to affect the temperature gradient from their inner to outer surface.

  9. Decentralized diagnostics based on a distributed micro-genetic algorithm for transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, P; Cimmino, P; Girone, M; La Commara, G; Maisto, D; Manna, C; Pezzetti, M

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary approach to centralized multiple-faults diagnostics is extended to distributed transducer networks monitoring large experimental systems. Given a set of anomalies detected by the transducers, each instance of the multiple-fault problem is formulated as several parallel communicating sub-tasks running on different transducers, and thus solved one-by-one on spatially separated parallel processes. A micro-genetic algorithm merges evaluation time efficiency, arising from a small-size population distributed on parallel-synchronized processors, with the effectiveness of centralized evolutionary techniques due to optimal mix of exploitation and exploration. In this way, holistic view and effectiveness advantages of evolutionary global diagnostics are combined with reliability and efficiency benefits of distributed parallel architectures. The proposed approach was validated both (i) by simulation at CERN, on a case study of a cold box for enhancing the cryogeny diagnostics of the Large Hadron Collider, and (ii) by experiments, under the framework of the industrial research project MONDIEVOB (Building Remote Monitoring and Evolutionary Diagnostics), co-funded by EU and the company Del Bo srl, Napoli, Italy.

  10. Experimental strain modal analysis for beam-like structure by using distributed fiber optics and its damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liangliang; Busca, Giorgio; Cigada, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Modal analysis is commonly considered as an effective tool to obtain the intrinsic characteristics of structures including natural frequencies, modal damping ratios, and mode shapes, which are significant indicators for monitoring the health status of engineering structures. The complex mode indicator function (CMIF) can be regarded as an effective numerical tool to perform modal analysis. In this paper, experimental strain modal analysis based on the CMIF has been introduced. Moreover, a distributed fiber-optic sensor, as a dense measuring device, has been applied to acquire strain data along a beam surface. Thanks to the dense spatial resolution of the distributed fiber optics, more detailed mode shapes could be obtained. In order to test the effectiveness of the method, a mass lump—considered as a linear damage component—has been attached to the surface of the beam, and damage detection based on strain mode shape has been carried out. The results manifest that strain modal parameters can be estimated effectively by utilizing the CMIF based on the corresponding simulations and experiments. Furthermore, damage detection based on strain mode shapes benefits from the accuracy of strain mode shape recognition and the excellent performance of the distributed fiber optics.

  11. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  12. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  13. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  14. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viuff Birgitte M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3 and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6 influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA. Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0% at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated

  15. Study on core flow distribution of the reference core design Mark-III of experimental multi-purpose VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Sadao; Arai, Taketoshi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Hirano, Mitsumasa

    1977-01-01

    Concerning the coolant flow distribution between fuel channels and other flow paths in the core, designated as Reference Core Mark-III of the Multi-purpose Experimental Very High Temperature Reactor, thermal analysis has been made of the control rods and other steel structures around the core to find the coolant flow rates (bypass flow) necessary to cool them to their safe operating temperatures. Calculations showed that adequate cooling could be achieved in the Mark-III Core by the bypass flow of 8% of the total reactor coolant flow, 4% each for the control-rod channels and for other structures. The thermal and coolant flow design bases, including the assumption of a 10% bypass flow, were thus confirmed to first approximation. (auth.)

  16. Effect of solid distribution on elastic properties of open-cell cellular solids using numerical and experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S

    2014-09-01

    Effect of solid distribution between edges and vertices of three-dimensional cellular solid with an open-cell structure was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Finite element analysis (FEA) with continuum elements and appropriate periodic boundary condition was employed to calculate the elastic properties of cellular solids using tetrakaidecahedral (Kelvin) unit cell. Relative densities between 0.01 and 0.1 and various values of solid fractions were considered. In order to validate the numerical model, three scaffolds with the relative density of 0.08, but different amounts of solid in vertices, were fabricated via 3-D printing technique. Good agreement was observed between numerical simulation and experimental results. Results of numerical simulation showed that, at low relative densities (solid fraction in vertices. By fitting a curve to the data obtained from the numerical simulation and considering the relative density and solid fraction in vertices, empirical relations were derived for Young׳s modulus and Poisson׳s ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental study for angular distribution of the hot electrons generated by femtosecond laser interaction with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, D.F.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zheng, Z.J.; Wen, T.S.; Chunyu, S.T.; Wang, Z.B.; Yang, X.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of angular distribution of hot electrons in the interaction of a 60 fs, 125 mJ, 800 nm, ∼10 17 W cm -2 laser pulse with Al targets are reported. Three obvious peaks of hot electrons emission have been observed, as there is a weak normal component of the laser electric field. These emission peaks are located in the directions of the specular reflection of the laser, the target normal, and the backreflection of the laser, respectively. In the case of the P-polarized laser pulse, which has a strong normal component of the laser electric field, the peak in the backreflection of the laser disappeared, and only two obvious peaks of hot electron emissions existed. It shows that the different directions of hot electrons emission are dominated by different absorption or acceleration mechanisms. The experimental result of the hot electrons energy spectrum at the target normal shows that the effective temperature of hot electrons is about 190 keV, which is consistent with a scaling law of the resonance absorption

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of the Temperature Distribution in a Dry Type Air Core Smoothing Reactor of HVDC Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor ultra-high voltage (UHV dry-type air-core smoothing reactors (DASR of High Voltage Direct Current systems are equipped with a rain cover and an acoustic enclosure. To study the convective heat transfer between the DASR and the surrounding air, this paper presents a coupled model of the temperature and fluid field based on the structural features and cooling manner. The resistive losses of encapsulations calculated by finite element method (FEM were used as heat sources in the thermal analysis. The steady fluid and thermal field of the 3-D reactor model were solved by the finite volume method (FVM, and the temperature distribution characteristics of the reactor were obtained. Subsequently, the axial and radial temperature distributions of encapsulation were investigated separately. Finally, an optical fiber temperature measurement scheme was used for an UHV DASR under natural convection conditions. Comparative analysis showed that the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which verifies the rationality and accuracy of the numerical calculation. These results can serve as a reference for the optimal design and maintenance of UHV DASRs.

  19. Short communication: Experimental toxocarosis in Chinese Kun Ming mice: Dose-dependent larval distribution and modulation of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangxu; Tan, Yancai; Hu, Ling; Luo, Yongfang; Zhu, Honghong; Zhou, Rongqiong

    2015-12-01

    Toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis which is mainly caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis. To identify whether there are correlations among the infectious dose, the larval migrans and immune modulation in inbred Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mice, experimental infections were carried out with a range of dosages of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 embryonated eggs (EE). Pathogenic reactions were observed in terms of physical and central nervous symptoms. Distributions of T. canis larvae in liver, lung, kidney, heart and brain organs were respectively detected by scanning tissue sections. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to identify the variations of Th2 immune response. The results showed that high inocula resulted in advanced larval emergences and arrested migrations in liver, lung, kidney and brain. However, no larvae were found in any of the histological sections of heart tissues. Higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were detected along with the increasing inoculation doses, but the heaviest inoculum (3000 EE in this study) resulted in the sharp reduction of these ILs. Although no neurological symptoms or mortalities were noticed, these results indicated dose-dependent distribution patterns and immune regulations of T. canis larvae infection in KM mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations on temperature distribution at the joint interface for copper joints using ultrasonic welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Sooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic welding is a solid-state joining process that produces joints by the application of high frequency vibratory energy in the work pieces held together under pressure without melting. Copper and its alloys are extensively used in electrical and electronic industry because of its excellent electrical and thermal properties. This paper mainly focused on temperature distribution and the influence of process parameters at the joint interface while joining copper sheets using ultrasonic welding process. Experiments are carried out using Cu sheets (0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thickness and the interface temperature is measured using Data Acquisition (DAQ System (thermocouple and thermal imager. Numerical and finite element based model for temperature distribution at the interface are developed and solved the same using Finite Difference Method (FDM and Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The results obtained from FDM and FEA model shows similar trend with experimental results and are found to be in good agreement.

  1. Experimental study of effect of magnetic field on anode temperature distribution in an ATON-type Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinwen; Li, Hong; Mao, Wei; Ding, Yongjie; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Jianzhi; Yu, Daren; Wang, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The energy deposition caused by the absorption of electrons by the anode is an important cause of power loss in a Hall thruster. The resulting anode heating is dangerous, as it can potentially reduce the thruster lifetime. In this study, by considering the ring shape of the anode of an ATON-type Hall thruster, the effects of the magnetic field strength and gradient on the anode ring temperature distribution are studied via experimental measurement. The results show that the temperature distribution is not affected by changes in the magnetic field strength and that the position of the peak temperature is essentially unchanged; however, the overall temperature does not change monotonically with the increase of the magnetic field strength and is positively correlated with the change in the discharge current. Moreover, as the magnetic field gradient increases, the position of the peak temperature gradually moves toward the channel exit and the temperature tends to decrease as a whole, regardless of the discharge current magnitude; in any case, the position of the peak temperature corresponds exactly to the intersection of the magnetic field cusp with the anode ring. Further theoretical analysis shows that the electrons, coming from the ionization region, travel along two characteristic paths to reach the anode under the guidance of the cusped magnetic field configuration. The change of the magnetic field strength or gradient changes the transfer of momentum and energy of the electrons in these two paths, which is the main reason for the changes in the temperature and distribution. This study is instructive for matching the design of the ring-shaped anode and the cusp magnetic field of an ATON-type Hall thruster.

  2. The Role of Stress-Effected Subgrain Size Distribution in Anelastic Recovery: An Experimental Study on Polycrystalline Ice-Ih

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, T. E.; Goldsby, D. L.; Cooper, R. F.; Prior, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Anelasticity, or time-dependent and recoverable strain, is the source of attenuation at seismic and sub-seismic frequencies, yet the processes governing anelastic recovery are poorly resolved. Numerous experimental studies [e.g., 1-3] have demonstrated that anelasticity occurs via diffusion-effected relaxation along grain boundaries, which leads to a significant grain size sensitivity. Similar studies, however, conducted on deformed single crystals [e.g. 4], coarse-grained metals deforming in dislocation creep [e.g., 5] and polycrystalline ice deforming via a dislocation-accommodated mechanism [6] demonstrate the same frequency dependence, consistent with the grain boundary mechanism, but with no sensitivity to grain size. We postulate that it is the deformation-effected distribution of subgrains, which possesses unique diffusive properties relative to a defect-free lattice, that dominates attenuation in these situations. To test this idea we are conducting creep and stress-drop experiments on polycrystalline ice-Ih with concurrent high-resolution microstructural analysis conducted via Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) [7] to characterize the relationship between subgrain size distribution and diffusion-effected anelasticity. Our experiments establish the subgrain size distribution in steady-state creep of fine-grained ice-1h at compressional stresses between 0.1-4 MPa, which for the grain sizes and temperatures of our experiments places the rheology squarely within the regime of grain boundary sliding that is accommodated by basal dislocation slip [8]. We then explore the dynamics of the established microstructure, which includes subgrain formation [cf. 9], via stress-drop experiments [e.g. 10]. Experiments of this type allow the characterization of microstructural 'hardness,' i.e., the viscosity of the polycrystalline solid as effected by finite strain, from which we can discern the diffusive kinetics of subgrain boundaries [11, 12]. We are currently

  3. Influence of hydraulic regimes on bacterial community structure and composition in an experimental drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R L; Boxall, J B

    2013-02-01

    Microbial biofilms formed on the inner-pipe surfaces of drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) can alter drinking water quality, particularly if they are mechanically detached from the pipe wall to the bulk water, such as due to changes in hydraulic conditions. Results are presented here from applying 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene to investigate the influence of different hydrological regimes on bacterial community structure and to study the potential mobilisation of material from the pipe walls to the network using a full scale, temperature-controlled experimental pipeline facility accurately representative of live DWDS. Analysis of pyrosequencing and water physico-chemical data showed that habitat type (water vs. biofilm) and hydraulic conditions influenced bacterial community structure and composition in our experimental DWDS. Bacterial community composition clearly differed between biofilms and bulk water samples. Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in biofilms while Alphaproteobacteria was predominant in bulk water samples. This suggests that bacteria inhabiting biofilms, predominantly species belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Zooglea and Janthinobacterium, have an enhanced ability to express extracellular polymeric substances to adhere to surfaces and to favour co-aggregation between cells than those found in the bulk water. Highest species richness and diversity were detected in 28 days old biofilms with this being accentuated at highly varied flow conditions. Flushing altered the pipe-wall bacterial community structure but did not completely remove bacteria from the pipe walls, particularly under highly varied flow conditions, suggesting that under these conditions more compact biofilms were generated. This research brings new knowledge regarding the influence of different hydraulic regimes on the composition and structure of bacterial communities within DWDS and the implication that this

  4. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  5. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chau, H. F.; Chen, Wei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2018-04-01

    In comparison to qubit-based protocols, qudit-based quantum key distribution ones generally allow two cooperative parties to share unconditionally secure keys under a higher channel noise. However, it is very hard to prepare and measure the required quantum states in qudit-based protocols in general. One exception is the recently proposed highly error tolerant qudit-based protocol known as the Chau15 (Chau 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324). Remarkably, the state preparation and measurement in this protocol can be done relatively easily since the required states are phase encoded almost like the diagonal basis states of a qubit. Here we report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of the Chau15 protocol. One highlight of our experiment is that its post-processing is based on practical one-way manner, while the original proposal in Chau (2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 062324) relies on complicated two-way post-processing, which is a great challenge in experiment. In addition, by manipulating time-bin qudit and measurement with a variable delay interferometer, our realization is extensible to qudit with high-dimensionality and confirms the experimental feasibility of the Chau15 protocol.

  7. Measurement of density distribution of a cracking catalyst in experimental riser with a sampling procedure for gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, C.C.; Melo, S.B.; Oliveira, E.F.; Simoes, F.P.M.; Santos, M.G. dos; Santos, V.A. dos

    2008-01-01

    By scanning a riser the number of the gamma ray trajectories and the beam width involve temporal, spatial and density resolutions as they are closely correlated parameters. Therefore, evaluation of parameters and their interaction quantification, certainly, are required in the imaging process. Measuring the density distribution of the catalyst from the FCC - fluid cracking catalytic process in an experimental riser in single beam tomographic system, density resolution is evaluated and correlated with spatial resolution. The beam width Δs inside riser is measured and a criterion for determining spatial resolution is proposed. Experiments are carried out to demonstrate resolution effects of three Δs values: 3.30 x 10 -3 , 6.20 x 10 -3 and 12.00 x 10 -3 m. The gamma beam profile is modeled and a sampling rate according to Nyquist criterion is analyzed. The 4.3%, 8.1% and 15.6% ratios of Δs/R to internal riser radius are correlated to counting time in the sampling procedure. Results are discussed by comparison with values from literature

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Coincidences in Poisson Distributed Pulse Trains and Spectral Distortion Caused by Pulse Pileup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Quentin

    1990-01-01

    Part one of this two-part study is concerned with the multiple coincidences in pulse trains from X-ray and gamma radiation detectors which are the cause of pulse pileup. A sequence of pulses with inter-arrival times less than tau, the resolving time of the pulse-height analysis system used to acquire spectra, is called a multiple pulse string. Such strings can be classified on the basis of the number of pulses they contain, or the number of resolving times they cover. The occurrence rates of such strings are derived from theoretical considerations. Logic circuits were devised to make experimental measurements of multiple pulse string occurrence rates in the output from a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector over a wide range of count rates. Markov process theory was used to predict state transition rates in the logic circuits, enabling the experimental data to be checked rigorously for conformity with those predicted for a Poisson distribution. No fundamental discrepancies were observed. Part two of the study is concerned with a theoretical analysis of pulse pileup and the development of a discrete correction algorithm, based on the use of a function to simulate the coincidence spectrum produced by partial sums of pulses. Monte Carlo simulations, incorporating criteria for pulse pileup inherent in the operation of modern ADC's, were used to generate pileup spectra due to coincidences between two pulses, (1st order pileup) and three pulses (2nd order pileup), for different semi-Gaussian pulse shapes. Coincidences between pulses in a single channel produced a basic probability density function spectrum which can be regarded as an impulse response for a particular pulse shape. The use of a flat spectrum (identical count rates in all channels) in the simulations, and in a parallel theoretical analysis, showed the 1st order pileup distorted the spectrum to a linear ramp with a pileup tail. The correction algorithm was successfully applied to correct entire spectra for 1st and

  9. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  10. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  11. Experimental verification by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry of the distribution dose absorbed in water for a 137Cs Amersham CDCS-M-3 source, Monte Carlo simulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso Valdez, F. R.; Alvarez Romero, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    It verifies, in a experimental way, the Monte Carlo simulation results (PENELOPE algorithm) for the water absorbed dose distribution, imparted by a 1 37 Cs - Amersham source (model CDCS-M-3). The feigned results are expressed in terms of the functions Α(r,z), g(r) and F(r,Θ) according to the recommendations of the AAPM TG 43 [es

  12. Spatial power distribution in the SR-0 experimental module of the SPHINX nuclear transmutation system - 2006 and 2007 variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypar, Vojtech; Svadlenkova, Marie; Novak, Evzen; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Bily, Tomas

    2007-11-01

    Experiments were performed with various assemblies modelling the SPHINX transmutation system with the aim to investigate the effect of materials in the SR-0 modules, i.e. LiF, NaF, graphite, on the spatial power distribution of the reaction rates of the activation detectors, axial and radial distribution of the fission products of the fuel pins located in some points of the reactor core, and photon dose distribution by using thermoluminescent dosemeters

  13. Charge state distribution of 16O from the 4He(12C,16O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengjin; Sakurai, Makoto; Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T.; Kato, Daiji; Tolstikhina, I.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In astrophysics, 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product 16 O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of 16 O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the 16 O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of 16 O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary 16 O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen created via 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction

  14. Spatial distribution of reactor radiation around the horizontal experimental hole of the RA Reactor at Vinca; Prostorna raspodela reaktorskog zracenja oko horizontalnog eksperimentalnog kanala reaktora RA u Vinci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M; Paligoric, D; Vujisic, B [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-10-15

    A survey is given of the measurement of the spatial distribution of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiations inside and around the reactor radiation beam which is carried through the experimental channel outside the reactor biological shield thus being a potential danger for the personnel in the reactor hall. The results obtained are used to determine the optimal distribution of the shielding elements around the free radiation beam. The activation method was used to determine the distribution of slow and fast neutrons. The detectors were Au{sup 197} and In {sup 115} for slow, and the S{sup 32} (n,p) P{sup 32} reaction for fast neutrons. The relative distribution of slow and fast neutrons along the beam axis in the space outside the reactor, and evaluation of the absolute value of the flux at the place where the beam comes out from the biological shield are given (author)

  15. Simulation and experimental determination of the macro-scale layer thickness distribution of electrodeposited Cu-line patterns on a wafer substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Bossche, Bart van den; Purcar, Marius

    2005-01-01

    The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process o......) approach to compute the current density distribution over the electrodes. Experimental and computed layer thickness distributions are in very good agreement.......The impact of adjacent patterned zones with different active area densities on the current density and electrodeposited layer thickness distribution over a wafer substrate is examined, both by experiment and numerical simulation. The experiments consist in running an acid copper plating process...... on the patterned wafer, and layer thickness measurements by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The simulations are based on a potential model approach taking into account electrolyte ohmic drop and electrode polarization effects, combined to a boundary element method (BEM...

  16. Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnaser, A S; Maharjan, C M; Wang, P; Litvinyuk, I V

    2006-01-01

    We studied ionization of neon and argon by intense linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses of different wavelengths (400 nm and 800 nm) and peak intensities, and by measuring momentum distributions of singly charged positive ions in the direction parallel to laser polarization. For Ne the momentum distributions exhibited a characteristic dip at zero momentum at 800 nm and a complex multipeak structure at 400 nm. Similarly, for Ar the momentum distributions evolved from a complex multipeak structure with a pronounced dip in the centre at 400 nm, to a smooth distribution characteristic of pure tunneling ionization (800 nm, high intensities). In the intermediate regime (800 nm, medium to low intensities), for both atoms we observed recoil ion momentum distributions modulated by quasi-periodic structures usually seen in the photoelectron energy spectra in a multi-photon regime (ATI spectra). Ne did show a characteristic 'dip' at low momentum, while the longitudinal momentum distribution for Ar exhibited a spike at zero momentum instead. The spectra did dramatically change at 400 nm, where both ions show the pronounced dip near zero momentum. Based on our results, we conclude that the structures observed in Ne and Ar momentum distributions reflect the specifics of atomic structure of the two targets and should not be attributed to effects of electron recollision, as was suggested earlier. Instead, as our results indicate, they are due to the effects of multi-photon resonant enhancement of strong-field ionization. (letter to the editor)

  17. Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)

  18. Information manual for the experimentation of the deployment of optical fibers on public power distribution networks; Notice d'information pour l'experimentation du deploiement de fibres optiques sur les reseaux publics d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During the French inter-ministry committee for the national development (CIADT) of July 9, 2001, the government decided to launch a feasibility study about the deployment of telecommunication optical fibers over the whole territory using the electricity transportation grid. The aim is to give access to high-speed Internet to everyone and at a reasonable cost. This manual summarizes the technical, legal and economical results of the study carried out by the working group: 1 - the actors in concern (managers of power transportation and distribution networks, country authorities, managers and users of telecommunication infrastructures, regulatory agencies, financial organizations); 2 - the telecommunication networks on power lines; 3 - the feasibility of the experimentation (relations between the different partners, conditions); 4 - the implementation of the experimentation (useful contacts, contracts); 5 - the experimentation areas. Appendixes. (J.S.)

  19. The dose distribution determination in two kinds of polyethylene materials irradiated by electron beams-an experimental method for optimizing technology of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daming

    2000-01-01

    The dose distribution in two kinds of polyethylene materials were determined by use of electron beam from 1.0-3.0 MeV electron accelerator. The effects of four different metal base-plate such as Al, Fe, Cu and Pb for dose depth distribution in materials were compared. And the boundary effects of absorbed dose were also observed. The expand uncertainty of absorbed dose measurement was 7.8%. This work is a useful experimental method for optimizing technology of radiation processing and realizing quality control of irradiation products

  20. Calculating the parameters of experimental data Gauss distribution using the least square fit method and evaluation of their accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, E.V.; Peregudov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The FITGAV program for calculation of parameters of the Gauss curve describing experimental data is considered. The calculations are based on the least square fit method. The estimations of errors in the parameter determination as a function of experimental data sample volume and their statistical significance are obtained. The curve fit using 100 points occupies less than 1 s at the SM-4 type computer

  1. Numerical and experimental study of the distribution of charged species in a flat stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, an existing ion reaction mechanism is used to compute the distribution of charged species in a at stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame stabilized on top of a McKenna burner. The ion reaction rates and charged species thermodynamic data are updated according to the most recent data. A modified version of the detailed ARAMCO 1.3 reaction mechanism is used to describe the chemistry of neutral species. Because of the important role of CH in the chemi-ionization process, its prediction is improved based on the available measured data. The ability of the ion reaction mechanism to predict the distribution of positive ions is assessed by comparing to the experimental measurements performed in our group. The calculated results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental data, even though there exist quantitative differences that need to be addressed in future work.

  2. Numerical and experimental study of the distribution of charged species in a flat stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie; Alquaity, Awad B. S.; Belhi, Memdouh; Farroq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an existing ion reaction mechanism is used to compute the distribution of charged species in a at stoichiometric premixed CH4/O2/Ar flame stabilized on top of a McKenna burner. The ion reaction rates and charged species thermodynamic data are updated according to the most recent data. A modified version of the detailed ARAMCO 1.3 reaction mechanism is used to describe the chemistry of neutral species. Because of the important role of CH in the chemi-ionization process, its prediction is improved based on the available measured data. The ability of the ion reaction mechanism to predict the distribution of positive ions is assessed by comparing to the experimental measurements performed in our group. The calculated results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental data, even though there exist quantitative differences that need to be addressed in future work.

  3. Flow distribution experimental study on the emergency core cooling system of the IEA-R1m - IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir Maximo; Baptista Filho, Benedito Dias; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of Emergency Core Cooling System designed by the IEA-R1m Reactor and the experimental results of flow distribution over the core. Several parameters were evaluated, such as: relative position of spray header to the reactor core; type and quantity of spray nozzles; spray nozzles position on spray header; and total spray flow. The main conclusions are presented. (author)

  4. Pore Size Distribution Influence on Suction Properties of Calcareous Stones in Cultural Heritage: Experimental Data and Model Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water sorptivity symbolises an important property associated with the preservation of porous construction materials. The water movement into the microstructure is responsible for deterioration of different types of materials and consequently for the indoor comfort worsening. In this context, experimental sorptivity tests are incompatible, because they require large quantities of materials in order to statistically validate the results. Owing to these reasons, the development of analytical procedure for indirect sorptivity valuation from MIP data would be highly beneficial. In this work, an Intermingled Fractal Units’ model has been proposed to evaluate sorptivity coefficient of calcareous stones, mostly used in historical buildings of Cagliari, Sardinia. The results are compared with experimental data as well as with other two models found in the literature. IFU model better fits experimental data than the other two models, and it represents an important tool for estimating service life of porous building materials.

  5. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D. [IRSN/DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dudoignon, N. [IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPAT, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E. [CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT BP no 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Bottlaender, M. [CEA/SHFJ, 4, place du General Leclerc F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  6. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D.; Dudoignon, N.; Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E.; Bottlaender, M.

    2006-01-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  7. A analytical comparison of different estimators for the density distribution of the catalyst in a experimental riser by a gammametric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Emerson Alexandre de Oliveira; Dantas Carlos C.; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Santos, Valdemir Alexandre dos

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the following questions: what will be the estimate of the r = r (x, y, z) function format? Which method would describe the density distribution function more precisely? Which is the best estimator? Also, once the ρ=ρ(x, y, z) format and the approximation technique is defined, comes the experimental arrangement and pass length configuration, which are the next problems to be solved. Finding the best parameter estimation for the ρ=ρ(x, y, z) function according to the C pass lengths and their spatial configuration. The latter is required to define the ρ=ρ(x, y, z) function resolution and the mechanical scanning movements of the arrangement. Such definitions will be implemented for an automate arrangement, by a computational program, to further development of the reconstruction of catalyst density distribution on experimental risers.. The precision evaluation was finally compared to the arrangement geometry that yields the best pass length spatial configuration. The results are shown in graphics for the two known density distributions. As a conclusion, the parameters for an automate arrangement design, are given under the required precision for the catalyst distribution reconstruction. (author)

  8. Experimental study on energy distribution of the hot electrons generated by femtosecond laser interacting with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yuqiu; Zheng Zhijian; Zhou Weimin; Wen Tianshu; Chunyu Shutai; Cai Dafeng; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu; Neijiang Teachers College, Neijiang; Jiao Chunye; Chen Hao; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu; Yang Xiangdong

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the experiment of hot electron energy distribution during the femtosecond laser-solid target interaction. The hot electrons formed an anisotropic energy distribution. In the direction of the target normal, the energy spectrum of the hot electron was a Maxwellian-like distribution with an effective temperature of 206 keV, which was due to the resonance absorption. In the direction of the specular reflection of laser, there appeared a local plateau of hot electron energy spectrum at the beginning and then it was decreased gradually, which maybe produced by several acceleration mechanisms. The effective temperature and the yield of hot electrons in the direction of the target normal is larger than those in the direction of the specular reflection of laser, which proves that the resonance absorption mechanism is more effective than others. (authors)

  9. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  10. Experimental fusion excitation functions and derived barrier distributions for heavy ion systems involving prolate and oblate target nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions spanning the entire barrier region in 1 MeV energy steps for the two systems 40 Ca + 192 Os, 194 Pt are presented. The results of fission fragment angular distribution measurements for fusion-fission of 40 Ca + 197 Au at several projectile energies within the barrier region are also presented. The fusion data is of high enough precision to allow for extraction of the distribution of fusion barriers from the second differential of the product of E and σ. Basic coupled channels calculations which are in quite good agreement with the data are shown and discussed

  11. Infiltration and Distribution of Elemental Mercury DNAPL in Water-Saturated Porous Media : Experimental and Numerical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Aniello, Andrea; Hartog, Niels; Sweijen, Thomas; Pianese, Domenico

    Liquid elemental mercury occurrence in the subsurface as dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is reported worldwide in proximity of several industrial facilities, such as chlor-alkali plants. Insight into Hg0 DNAPL infiltration behavior is lacking and, to date, there are no experimental

  12. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  13. Experimental study of the heat transfers and passive cooling potential of a ventilated plenum designed for uniform air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Lessing, Julian

    2016-01-01

    suspended ceiling to uniformly distribute the supply air to the occupied zone. This, in effect, increases the thermal mass of the room because the upper slab of the room no longer is isolated from the occupied zone. In this study, the cooling potential of a diffuse ceiling ventilation system is i...

  14. Impact of wind on the spatial distribution of rain over micro-scale topography : numerical modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.; Poesen, J.; Carmeliet, J.

    2006-01-01

    The wind-driven-rain effect refers to the redistribution of rainfall over micro-scale topography due to the existence of local perturbed wind-flow patterns. Rainfall measurements reported in the literature point to the fact that the wind-driven-rain distribution can show large variations over

  15. Experimental Study of the Effect of Si/Al Composition on the Aluminum Distribution in (Al)MCM-41

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědeček, Jiří; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    44-45, 1/3 (2001), s. 259-266 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040001; GA AV ČR IBS4040017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : (Al)MCM-41 * Al distribution * VIS spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.497, year: 2001

  16. The flux distribution from a 1.25m2 target aligned heliostat: comparison of ray tracing and experimental results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliage, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to validate SolTrace for concentrating solar investigations at CSIR by means of a test case: the comparison of the flux distribution in the focal spot of a 1.25 m2 target aligned heliostat predicted by the ray tracing...

  17. Numerical simulation of permanent magnet method: Influence of experimental conditions on accuracy of j{sub C}-distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, T., E-mail: takayama@yz.yamagata-u.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kamitani, A.; Tanaka, A. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Influence of the magnet position on the determination of the distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) thin film has been investigated numerically. For this purpose, a numerical code has been developed for analyzing the shielding current density in a HTS sample. By using the code, the permanent magnet method is reproduced. The results of computations show that, even if the center of the permanent magnet is located near the film edge, the maximum repulsive force is roughly proportional to the critical current density. This means that the distribution of the critical current density in the HTS film can be estimated from the proportionality constants determined by using the relations between the maximum repulsive force and the critical current density.

  18. Experimental study and simulation of mass distribution of the covering layer of soybean seeds coated in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, it was observed that the covering of soybean seeds with bacteria and micronutrients enhances vigorous growth of the plant thereby avoiding use of ammoniacal fertilizers. In the spouted bed covering can be done by pulverization of the coater slurry on the soybean seeds using a pneumatic atomizer. The optimum thickness of the cover allows the fundamental gaseous interchanges for germination and provides the ideal conditions for bacterium activity. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the process variables on thickness of the cover. A simulation of the mass distribution of seeds was obtained using a population balance model. Through the results obtained the operational conditions under which the coating layer distribution were determined has the greatest uniformity.

  19. Experimental study of static pressure distribution and axial pressure drop in a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez y Fernandez, E.; Carajilescov, P.

    1980-11-01

    The fuel element of a LMFBR type reactor consists of a rod bundle in a triangular array with helicoidal spacers among which the coolant flows. By utilizing a seven wire-wrapped rod bundle, coupled to an air loop, the hydrodynamic behaviour of the flow was simulated. A series of measurements was performed in order to obtain static pressure distributions in the surface of the rods and in the walls of the hexagonal duct, for different Reynolds numbers, the axial and the angular position being varied. The axial pressure drop was also measured and the friction coefficient for different Reynolds numbers was calculated. From the results obtained, the existence of zones of low pressure on the surface of the rods was observed, as well as the non-dependence of the nondimensional static pressure on the Reynolds number. Sudden variations in the distribution of the static pressure distribution were observed and they must be taken in to account in the thermal-hydraulic design, due to the possibility of occurence of cavitation bubbles in the coolant. (I.C.R.) [pt

  20. Experimental approaches for distribution and behavior of water in PEMFC under flow direction and differential pressure using neutron imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, TaeJoo; Kim, JongRok; Sim, CheulMuu; Lee, SeungWook; Kaviany, Massound; Son, SangYoung; Kim, MooHwan

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, we prepared a 3-parallel serpentine single PEMFC which has an active area of 25 cm 2 and a flow channel cross section of 1x1 mm. Distribution and transport of water in an operating PEMFC were observed by varying the flow directions (co-current and counter-current) in each channel and the differential pressures (100, 200, 300 kPa) applied between the anode and cathode channels. This investigation was performed at the neutron imaging facility at the NIST of which the collimation ratio and neutron fluence rate are 600, 7.2x10 6 n/s/cm 2 , respectively. Neutron image was continuously recorded by an amorphous silicon flat panel detector every 1 s during the operation of the fuel cell. It has been observed that the differential pressure affects the total amount of water produced while the flow direction affects the spatial distribution of water when the neutron images were analyzed for several different operating conditions. More specifically, the amount of water production in the fuel cell increased as the partial pressure increases at a given current density and the water production was more uniform for the counter current than the co-current case. It is shown that the neutron imaging technique is a powerful tool to visualize the PEMFC. The information on the water distribution and behavior at an operating PEMFC helps improve the efficiency of PEMFC.

  1. Experimental determination of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of lead and barium in soils of semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Mariana M.; Fernandes, Heloisa H.F; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Su, Jian

    2013-01-01

    To determine the concentration of heavy metals and other contaminants in soils, aimed at evaluating the environmental impact, the use of the distribution coefficient is required (Kd), defined as the relationship between the concentrations adsorbed and in solution. The objective of this study was to determine the rates for the Lead and Barium metals in soil collected in Caetite, the state of Bahia, in two different depths. The importance of determining the distribution coefficient lies in the fact that being performed using a tropical soil. For the isotherms of Kd was used batch test method by adsorption to obtain the final concentrations. The first step was to determine the best ratio soil: solution obtained after equilibration time and finally the equilibrium concentration of the contaminant. Were also calculated percentages of the metal adsorbed by the soil and the amount of solute by the adsorbent. With the values obtained in experiments and using Mathematica 8.0 software, were made graphics equilibrium concentration versus quantity adsorbed (C vs. S). It can also plot isotherms for different models of Kd: linear, Langmuir and Freundlich in order to determine which adsorption model would fit best to the measured data and thus determine the distribution coefficient of the metal in the soil analyzed. The Freundlich isotherm was better adapted to the points of the two metals in both soils

  2. Experimental and numerical study of impact of voltage fluctuate, flicker and power factor wave electric generator to local distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Nik Azran Ab; Rashid, Wan Norhisyam Abd; Hashim, Nik Mohd Zarifie; Mohamad, Najmiah Radiah; Kadmin, Ahmad Fauzan

    2017-10-01

    Electricity is the most powerful energy source in the world. Engineer and technologist combined and cooperated to invent a new low-cost technology and free carbon emission where the carbon emission issue is a major concern now due to global warming. Renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind and wave are becoming widespread to reduce the carbon emissions, on the other hand, this effort needs several novel methods, techniques and technologies compared to coal-based power. Power quality of renewable sources needs in depth research and endless study to improve renewable energy technologies. The aim of this project is to investigate the impact of renewable electric generator on its local distribution system. The power farm was designed to connect to the local distribution system and it will be investigated and analyzed to make sure that energy which is supplied to customer is clean. The MATLAB tools are used to simulate the overall analysis. At the end of the project, a summary of identifying various voltage fluctuates data sources is presented in terms of voltage flicker. A suggestion of the analysis impact of wave power generation on its local distribution is also presented for the development of wave generator farms.

  3. An experimental and theoretical model of children’s search behavior in relation to target conspicuity and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Marcos Francisco; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2010-11-01

    This work explores search trajectories of children attempting to find targets distributed on a playing field. This task, of ludic nature, was developed to test the effect of conspicuity and spatial distribution of targets on the searcher’s performance. The searcher’s path was recorded by a Global Positioning System (GPS) device attached to the child’s waist. Participants were not rewarded nor their performance rated. Variation in the conspicuity of the targets influenced search performance as expected; cryptic targets resulted in slower searches and longer, more tortuous paths. Extracting the main features of the paths showed that the children: (1) paid little attention to the spatial distribution and at least in the conspicuous condition approximately followed a nearest neighbor pattern of target collection, (2) were strongly influenced by the conspicuity of the targets. We implemented a simple statistical model for the search rules mimicking the children’s behavior at the level of individual (coarsened) steps. The model reproduced the main features of the children’s paths without the participation of memory or planning.

  4. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  5. Influence of haemodynamic disturbances caused by acceleration on distribution of 125J-albumin in eyes of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozuchowska, I.; Wojtkowiak, M.; Tajchert, J.

    1975-01-01

    Examination of radioactivity in eyes of experimental animals (50 guinea pigs) was performed in order to investigate the disturbances in the intraocular blood circulation under the influence of centripetal accelerations. After an intracordial injection of 125 J-albumin the animals were whirled, up to the moment of bradycardia pointing to a breakdown of compensatory reactions of the circulatory system. Particular groups of animals were frozen in fluid nitrogen in various time. Results showed an increase of permeability of the blood-aqueous barrier for ablumins. (author)

  6. Health impact and cost-effectiveness of a private sector bed net distribution: experimental evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Richard; Fink, Günther; Miller, John M; Earle, Duncan; Steketee, Richard W

    2013-03-18

    Relatively few programmes have attempted to actively engage the private sector in national malaria control efforts. This paper evaluates the health impact of a large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) conducted in partnership with a Zambian agribusiness, and its cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). The study was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial. A list of 81,597 cotton farmers was obtained from Dunavant, a contract farming company in Zambia's cotton sector, in December 2010. 39,963 (49%) were randomly selected to obtain one ITN each. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 438 farmers in the treatment and 458 farmers in the control group in June and July 2011. Treatment and control households were compared with respect to bed net ownership, bed net usage, self-reported fever, and self-reported confirmed malaria. Cost data was collected throughout the programme. The distribution effectively reached target beneficiaries, with approximately 95% of households in the treatment group reporting that they had received an ITN through the programme. The average increase in the fraction of household members sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the interview was 14.6 percentage points (p-value US$ per ITN to Zambia's NMCP. The results illustrate that existing private sector networks can efficiently control malaria in remote rural regions. The intra-household allocation of ITNs distributed through this channel was comparable to that of ITNs received from other sources, and the health impact remained substantial.

  7. Blade Surface Pressure Distributions in a Rocket Engine Turbine: Experimental Work With On-Blade Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flowfields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with surface-mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in three respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, two independent unsteady data acquisition systems and fundamental signal processing approaches were used. Finally, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools will contribute to future turbine programs such as those for reusable launch vehicles.

  8. Experimental validation of 3D reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with partial length rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, F. D. [Axpo Kernenergie, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96 Optima2 in the framework of Phase III of the LWR-PROTEUS experimental program at the Paul Scherrer Inst.. This paper presents comparisons of calculated, nodal reconstructed, pin-wise total-fission rate distributions with experimental results. Radial comparisons have been performed for the three sections of the assembly (96, 92 and 84 fuel pins), while three-dimensional effects have been investigated at pellet-level for the two transition regions, i.e. the tips of the short (1/3) and long (2/3) partial length rods. The test zone has been modeled using two different code systems: HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and CASMO-5/SIMULATE-5. The first is presently used for core monitoring and design at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). The second represents the most recent generation of the widely applied CASMO/SIMULATE system. For representing the PROTEUS test-zone boundaries, Partial Current Ratios (PCRs) - derived from a 3D MCNPX model of the entire reactor - have been applied to the PRESTO-2 and SIMULATE-5 models in the form of 2- and 5-group diagonal albedo matrices, respectively. The MCNPX results have also served as a reference, high-order transport solution in the calculation/experiment comparisons. It is shown that the performance of the nodal methodologies in predicting the global distribution of the total-fission rate is very satisfactory. Considering the various radial comparisons, the standard deviations of the calculated/experimental (C/E) distributions do not exceed 1.9% for any of the three methodologies - PRESTO-2, SIMULATE-5 and MCNPX. For the three-dimensional comparisons at pellet-level, the corresponding standard deviations are 2.7%, 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (authors)

  9. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Turbidity Impact on the Fluence Rate Distribution in a UV Reactor Using a Microfluorescent Silica Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkai; Li, Wentao; Wen, Dong; Qiang, Zhimin; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2017-11-21

    Turbidity is a common parameter used to assess particle concentration in water using visible light. However, the fact that particles play multiple roles (e.g., scattering, refraction, and reflection) in influencing the optical properties of aqueous suspensions complicates examinations of their effects on ultraviolet (UV) photoreactor performance. To address this issue, UV fluence rate (FR) distributions in a photoreactor containing various particle suspensions (SiO 2 , MgO, and TiO 2 ) were measured using a microfluorescent silica detector (MFSD). Reflectance of solid particles, as well as transmittance and scattering properties of the suspensions were characterized at UV, visible, and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The results of these measurements indicated that the optical properties of all three particle types were similar at visible and IR wavelengths, but obvious differences were evident in the UV range. The FR results indicated that for turbidity associated with SiO 2 and MgO suspensions, the weighted average FR (WAFR) increased relative to deionized water. These increases were attributed to low particle photon absorption and strong scattering. In contrast, the WAFR values decreased with increasing turbidity for TiO 2 suspensions because of their high particle photon absorption and low scattering potential. The findings also indicate that measurements of scattering and transmittance at UV wavelengths can be used to quantify the effects of turbidity on UV FR distributions.

  11. An Experimental Study on Axial Temperature Distribution of Combustion of Dewatered Poultry Sludge in Fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed combustor was designed and fabricated to study the combustion of dewatered poultry sludge at different operational parameters. This paper present a study on the influence of equivalent ratio, secondary to primary air ratio and the fuel feed rate on the temperature distribution along the combustor. The equivalent ratio has been changed between 0.8 to 1.4% under poultry sludge feed rate of 10 kg/h and from 0.8 to 1 under poultry sludge feed rate of 15 kg/h. The secondary to primary air ratio was varied from 0.1 to 0.5 at 0.65 m injection height and 1.25 equivalent ratio. The results showed that these factors had a significant influence on the combustion characteristics of poultry sludge. The temperature distribution along the combustor was found to be strongly dependent on the fuel feed rate and the equivalent ratio and it increased when these two factors increased. However, the secondary air ratio increased the temperature in the lower region of the combustor while no significant effect was observed at the upper region of the combustor. The results suggested that the poultry sludge can be used as a fuel with high thermal combustor efficiency.

  12. Stress Distribution in Single Dental Implant System: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Based on an In Vitro Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Chase-Diaz, Melody; Costa, Max Doria; Albarracin, Max Laurent; Paschoeto, Gabriela; Sousa, Edson Antonio Capello; Rubo, José Henrique; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the stress distribution in single implant system and to evaluate the compatibility of an in vitro model with finite element (FE) model. The in vitro model consisted of Brånemark implant; multiunit set abutment of 5 mm height; metal-ceramic screw-retained crown, and polyurethane simulating the bone. Deformations were recorded in the peri-implant region in the mesial and distal aspects, after an axial 300 N load application at the center of the occlusal aspect of the crown, using strain gauges. This in vitro model was scanned with micro CT to design a three-dimensional FE model and the strains in the peri-implant bone region were registered to check the compatibility between both models. The FE model was used to evaluate stress distribution in different parts of the system. The values obtained from the in vitro model (20-587 με) and the finite element analysis (81-588 με) showed agreement among them. The highest stresses because of axial and oblique load, respectively were 5.83 and 40 MPa for the cortical bone, 55 and 1200 MPa for the implant, and 80 and 470 MPa for the abutment screw. The FE method proved to be effective for evaluating the deformation around single implant. Oblique loads lead to higher stress concentrations.

  13. Perturbation method for experimental determination of neutron spatial distribution in the reactor cell; Metoda perturbacije za eksperimentalno odredjivanje prostorne raspodele neutrona u celiji reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takac, S M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1972-07-01

    The method is based on perturbation of the reactor cell from a few up to few tens of percent. Measurements were performed for square lattice calls of zero power reactors ANNA, NORA and RB, with metal uranium and uranium oxide fuel elements, water, heavy water and graphite moderators. Character and functional dependence of perturbations were obtained from the experimental results. Zero perturbation was determined by extrapolation thus obtaining the real physical neutron flux distribution in the reactor cell. Simple diffusion theory for partial plate cell perturbation was developed for verification of the perturbation method. The results of these calculation proved that introducing the perturbation sample in the fuel results in flattening the thermal neutron density dependent on the amplitude of the applied perturbation. Extrapolation applied for perturbed distributions was found to be justified.

  14. The distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in precipitates within a Zr alloy: A combined first-principles and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, B.F., E-mail: bfluan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, J.M.; Qiu, R.S.; Tao, B.R.; He, W.J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Q., E-mail: qingliu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-EDS) technique and first-principles calculation are jointly utilized to investigate the distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in the precipitates within Zr-1.0Cr-0.4Fe-0.4Mo-0.4Bi alloy. Based on selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results, the precipitates within the studied alloy are confirmed to be ZrCr{sub 2}-based Laves phase with FCC (C15) type structure. The STEM-EDS elemental mapping is acquired to clarify the distribution trends of alloying elements in precipitates, i.e. Fe>Mo>Bi. To better verify this distribution behavior, substitutional formation energies and equilibrium concentrations of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are calculated by first-principles. The calculated results show a good consistence with the STEM-EDS results. In addition, the site preferences of ternary alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are predicted by the calculation of transfer energies. Finally, the reasons accounting for different distribution trends and site preferences of alloying elements in ZrCr{sub 2} Laves phase are discussed in terms of density of states, which attributed to the pseudogap effect and hybridizations between atoms. - Highlights: • Clarified the distribution trends of Fe>Mo>Bi in precipitates by STEM-EDS. • Verified the experimental results by first-principles calculation. • Predicted the site preferences of alloying elements by first-principles calculation. • Hybridization and pseudogap lead to the strong distribution and site preferences.

  15. Influence of experimental distemper infection on the distribution of lead in dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.; Marshall, A.J.; McLeod, S.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of experimental canine distemper infection to mobilize body lead deposits has been studied in Beagle dogs previously subacutely intoxicated with lead carbonate. For comparative purposes dogs were included which had either received lead only or distemper only or remained undosed. It was found that in dogs predosed with lead, distemper infection resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in blood and urine; this coincided with the peak body temperatures reached on the third day post infection. It was also found that the lead content of the liver and bone of these dogs was considerably higher than that of dogs receiving lead alone; at the same time bone phosphorus showed a marked decrease while bone calcium values remained similar to undosed controls.

  16. Experimental study and numerical simulation of axial solids distribution in fluidized bed boilers; Vertikaalisten kiintoainepitoisuuksien analysointi ja simulointi kiertoleijukattilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Inst. of Heat Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The project has concentrated on the study of the parameters affecting the drag correlations by examining the behaviour of the axial density profiles and especially the steady-state regions in different flow conditions both experimentally and theoretically. The empirical data analysed in this work is collected from hot conditions in a CFB pilot scale combustor. The data consists of pressure profiles and other macroscopic measurements from different flow conditions. In the analysis of the data and in the modelling work empirical methods such as neural network modelling have been used. The results show that the drag correlations written for cold conditions can be adapted to hot conditions by taking into account the change in the terminal velocity of a single particle. (orig.)

  17. Experimental investigation of the enthalpy and mass flow distribution between subchannels in a BWR cluster geometry (PELCO-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herkenrath, H.; Hufschmidt, W.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments based on the subchannel isokinetic technique have been carried out at the JRC of the European Community at Ispra, using a purposely designed 16-rod test section, simulating in a rather accurate way a typical BWR geometry. The adopted system allows the simultaneous determination of mass flow and enthalpy, at the end of the bundle active length, in four characteristic subchannels of the 16-rod lattice. The results show some pronounced flow and enthalpy variations within the bundle, not accurately taken into account by current subchannel codes, such as COBRA-3C. In particular low values both in mass flow and enthalpy have been found in corner subchannel, in disagreement with code predictions, but confirming previous General Electric experiments carried out in a 9-rod test section. This report deals only with the experimental procedure and the results

  18. Experimental study of muonic x-ray transitions in mercury isotopes. [Fermi distribution, B(E2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Muonic x-ray spectra were measured for /sup 198/ /sup 199/ /sup 200/ /sup 201/ /sup 202/ and /sup 204/Hg. These data were interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments (Q/sub s/) of some of the 2/sup +/ nuclear states were inferred. For /sup 199/Hg the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2)'s connecting these states to the ground state were determined. For /sup 201/Hg the ground state quadrupole moment was obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data was hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts were measured and interpreted in terms of deltaR/sub k/ and are compared to electronic x-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. 41 references

  19. Comparison of experimental pulse-height distributions in germanium detectors with integrated-tiger-series-code predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, D.E.; Halbleib, J.A.; Knott, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports pulse-height distributions in two different types of Ge detectors measured for a variety of medium-energy x-ray bremsstrahlung spectra. These measurements have been compared to predictions using the integrated tiger series (ITS) Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code. In general, the authors find excellent agreement between experiments and predictions using no free parameters. These results demonstrate that the ITS codes can predict the combined bremsstrahlung production and energy deposition with good precision (within measurement uncertainties). The one region of disagreement observed occurs for low-energy (<50 keV) photons using low-energy bremsstrahlung spectra. In this case the ITS codes appear to underestimate the produced and/or absorbed radiation by almost an order of magnitude

  20. Theoretical and experimental study of the electron distribution function in the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Perret, C.; Bourg, F.; Khodja, H.; Melin, G.; Lecot, C.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are mirror machines which can deliver important fluxes of Highly Charged Ions (HCI). These performances are strongly correlated with hot electrons sustained by an RF wave. This paper presents an analysis of the EDF in an ECR source. In the first part of the paper a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck code for the Electron Distribution Function is presented: this code includes a quasilinear diffusion operator for the RF wave, a collision term and a source term due to electron impact ionization. The present status of this code is presented. In the second part of the paper experiments related to the measurement of the EDF are presented: electron density, diamagnetism, electron endloss current have been measured at the Quadrumafios ECRIS. With these results it is possible to give a precise description of the EDF. (author)

  1. TEGENA: Detailed experimental investigations of temperature and velocity distributions in rod bundle geometries with turbulent sodium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.

    1989-02-01

    Precise knowledge of the velocity and temperature distributions is necessary in fuel element design (rod bundles with longitudinal flow). The detail codes required in the fine analysis of non-uniformly cooled bundle zones are presently at the stage of development. In order to verify these computer codes, the mean fluid temperatures and the related RMS values of the temperature fluctuations were measured in a heated bundle TEGENA, containing 4 rods arranged in one row (P/D = W/D = 1.147) with sodium cooling (Pr ≅ 0.005). The temperature distribution in the structures was determined as the necessary boundary condition for the temperature profiles in the fluid. The experiments were carried out with different types of heating (uniform load and load tilting) and the flow conditions were varied in the range from 4000 ≤ Re ≤ 76.000, 20 ≤ Pe ≤ 400. The essential process of thermal development took place under uniform load within a heated bundle length of about 100 hydraulic diameters. In the main measuring plane at the end of the heated zone, after 200 hydraulic diameters, the flow can be termed largely developed thermally. There, the temperature profiles measured in the fluid exhibit pronounced maxima in the narrowest gaps of the subchannels as well as pronounced minima in the centers of the subchannels at the unheated wall. In the zones of maximum temperature gradients the temperature fluctuations attain maximum and minimum values, respectively, at the points of disappearance of the temperature gradients. In all cases of load tilting investigated the flow at the end of the heated zone had not yet developed thermally. By inspection of all thermocouples in isothermal experiments performed at regular intervals, by redundant arrangement of the mobile probe thermocouples and by demonstration of the reproducibility of results of measurement the experiments have been validated satisfactorily. (orig./GL) [de

  2. TEGENA: Detailed experimental investigations of temperature and velocity distributions in rod bundle geometries with turbulent sodium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.

    1989-12-01

    Precise knowlege of the velocity and temperature distributions is necessary in fuel element design (rod bundles with longitudinal flow). The detail codes required in the fine analysis of non-uniformly cooled bundle zones are presently at the stage of development. In order to verify these computer codes, the mean fluid temperatures and the related RMS values of the temperature fluctuations were measured in a heated bundle, TEGENA, containing four rods arranged in one row (P/D = W/D = 1.147) with sodium cooling (Pr≅0.005). The temperature distribution in the structures was determined as the necessary boundary condition for the temperature profiles in the fluid. The experiments were carried out with different types of heating (uniform load and flux tilting) and the flow conditions were varied in the ranges 4000≤Re≤76,000; 20≤Pe≤400. The essential processes of thermal development took place under uniform load within a heated bundle length of about 100 hydraulic diameters. In the main measuring plane at the end of the heated zone, after 200 hydraulic diameters, the flow can be termed largely developed thermally. There, the temperature profiles measured in the fluid exhibit pronounced maxima in the narrowest gaps of the subchannels as well as pronounced minima in the centers of the subchannels at the unheated wall. In the zones of maximum temperature gradients the temperature fluctuations attain maximum and minimum values, respectively, at the points of disappearance of the temperature gradients. In all cases of flux tilting investigated the flow at the end of the heated zone had not yet developed thermally. (orig.) [de

  3. Surface chemistry and density distribution influence on visible luminescence of silicon quantum dots: an experimental and theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Ateet; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Santana-Rodríguez, G; Ramos, Estrella; Monroy, B Marel; Santoyo Salazar, J

    2017-01-04

    The impact of the surface reconstruction of the density distribution and photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix (SiO x ) has been studied. Annealing treatments carried out on the as-deposited samples provoked the effusion of hydrogen species. Moreover, depending on the surrounding density and coalescence of QDs, they resulted in a change in the average size of the particles depending on the initial local environment. The shift in the luminescence spectra all over the visible region (blue, green and red) shows a strong dependence on the resultant change in the size and/or the passivation environment of QDs. Density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations support this fact and explain the possible electronic transitions (HOMO-LUMO gap) involved. Passivation in the presence of oxygen species lowers the band gap of Si 29 and Si 35 nanoclusters up to 1.7 eV, whereas, surface passivation in the environment of hydrogen species increases the band gap up to 4.4 eV. These results show a good agreement with the quantum confinement model described in this work and explain the shift in the luminescence all over the visible region. The results reported here offer vital insight into the mechanism of emission from silicon quantum dots which has been one of the most debated topics in the last two decades. QDs with multiple size distribution in different local environments (band gap) observed in this work could be used for the fabrication of light emission diodes (LEDs) or shift-conversion thin films in third generation efficient tandem solar cells for the maximum absorption of the solar spectrum in different wavelength regions.

  4. An experimental attenuation plate to improve the dose distribution in intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, T; Aoyama, Y; Shimozato, T; Sawaki, M; Imai, T; Ito, Y; Obata, Y; Tabushi, K

    2009-06-07

    Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) is a technique in which a single-fraction high dose is intraoperatively delivered to subclinical tumour cells using an electron beam after breast-conserving surgery. In IOERT, an attenuation plate consisting of a pair of metal disks is commonly used to protect the normal tissues posterior to the breast. However, the dose in front of the plate is affected by backscatter, resulting in an unpredictable delivered dose to the tumour cells. In this study, an experimental attenuation plate, termed a shielding plate, was designed using Monte Carlo simulation, which significantly diminished the electron beam without introducing any backscatter radiation. The plate's performance was verified by measurements. It was made of two layers, a first layer (source side) of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and a second layer of copper, which was selected from among other metals (aluminium, copper and lead) after testing for shielding capability and the range and magnitude of backscatter. The optimal thicknesses of the PMMA (0.71 cm) and copper (0.3 cm) layers were determined by changing their thicknesses during simulations. On the basis of these results, a shielding plate was prototyped and depth doses with and without the plate were measured by radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters using a conventional stationary linear accelerator and a mobile linear accelerator dedicated for IOERT. The trial shielding plate functioned as intended, indicating its applicability in clinical practice.

  5. Effect of starting microstructure upon the nucleation sites and distribution of graphite particles during a graphitising anneal of an experimental medium-carbon machining steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inam, A., E-mail: aqil.ceet@pu.edu.pk; Brydson, R., E-mail: mtlrmdb@leeds.ac.uk; Edmonds, D.V., E-mail: d.v.edmonds@leeds.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    The potential for using graphite particles as an internal lubricant during machining is considered. Graphite particles were found to form during graphitisation of experimental medium-carbon steel alloyed with Si and Al. The graphite nucleation sites were strongly influenced by the starting microstructure, whether ferrite–pearlite, bainite or martensite, as revealed by light and electron microscopy. Favourable nucleation sites in the ferrite–pearlite starting microstructure were, not unexpectedly, found to be located within pearlite colonies, no doubt due to the presence of abundant cementite as a source of carbon. In consequence, the final distribution of graphite nodules in ferrite–pearlite microstructures was less uniform than for the bainite microstructure studied. In the case of martensite, this study found a predominance of nucleation at grain boundaries, again leading to less uniform graphite dispersions. - Highlights: • Metallography of formation of graphite particles in experimental carbon steel. • Potential for using graphite in steel as an internal lubricant during machining. • Microstructure features expected to influence improved machinability studied. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite nucleation sites. • Influence of pre-anneal starting microstructure on graphite distribution. • Potential benefit is new free-cutting steel compositions without e.g. Pb alloying.

  6. Focus neutron spectra. 2nd part: calculation of a distribution function of accelerated deuterons from the experimental spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, Philippe; Millet, Francois; Vezin, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    Bernstein simplifying hypotheses are used to describe the FOCUS plasma producing nuclear reactions, by means of two populations: the accelerated deuterons described by the space-time mean value of their single velocity distribution f 1 (E(d), theta(d)); and a beam of target deuterons with a kinetic energy E(T). The neutron spectrum S(M)(P 0 ,E,theta(n)) being obtained by a time-of-flight measurement, a possible determination of the function f 1 (E(d), theta(d)) giving the same spectrum is developed. When theta(n) is not zero, the Gauss-Legendre two-step method used for the programming allows a precise computation for the infinite branches. There is no difficulty in the case where theta(n)=0,π. A discrete solution is developed from two or three different values of theta(n) and a ten energy values with 100keV steps. The minimization leads to solving a linear system by the Gauss-Seidel method [fr

  7. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the valence orbital momentum distributions and binding energy spectra of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.P.D.; Pascual, R.; Weigold, E.

    1989-05-01

    A detailed electron momentum spectrosocpy (EMS) and a manybody theoretical study of the complete valence region of N 2 was carried out. The 1500eV EMS momentum distributions show that they provide a sensitive test for orbital wavefunctions of SCF calculations, and of correlation effects. The outermost 3σ g orbital is more sharply peaked at the origin than predicted by the orbital wavefunction. The inner valence 2σ g orbital is severely split, with spectroscopic strength ranging from 34eV to over 60eV in binding energy. The results of the present extended basis 1p Green's function calculations, as well as those of several previous manybody calculations, are only in semiquantitative agreement with this. There is a 2σ u pole at 25eV with a pole strength of approximately 0.067 in agreement with the results of manybody calculations. There is significant 2σ u and or 1π u strength and little 2σ g strength in the region 26-34eV. Poles observed at 29 and 32eV, previously attributed to the 2σ g orbital, are shown to be largely 2σ u in character. The manybody calculations predict too much 2σ g strength in the region 26-34eV. 29 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs

  8. Species-abundance distribution patterns of soil fungi: contribution to the ecological understanding of their response to experimental fire in Mediterranean maquis (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persiani, Anna Maria; Maggi, Oriana

    2013-01-01

    Experimental fires, of both low and high intensity, were lit during summer 2000 and the following 2 y in the Castel Volturno Nature Reserve, southern Italy. Soil samples were collected Jul 2000-Jul 2002 to analyze the soil fungal community dynamics. Species abundance distribution patterns (geometric, logarithmic, log normal, broken-stick) were compared. We plotted datasets with information both on species richness and abundance for total, xerotolerant and heat-stimulated soil microfungi. The xerotolerant fungi conformed to a broken-stick model for both the low- and high intensity fires at 7 and 84 d after the fire; their distribution subsequently followed logarithmic models in the 2 y following the fire. The distribution of the heat-stimulated fungi changed from broken-stick to logarithmic models and eventually to a log-normal model during the post-fire recovery. Xerotolerant and, to a far greater extent, heat-stimulated soil fungi acquire an important functional role following soil water stress and/or fire disturbance; these disturbances let them occupy unsaturated habitats and become increasingly abundant over time.

  9. Designing of 14C, 3H-labeled liposomal preparations and their distribution in inner organs of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, E.I.; Kamalova, M.E.; Isakova, A.V.; Mirakhmedov, F.K.; Saatov, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Development of methods for introduction of drug liposomal forms into practice is an urgent task for medicine and radiobiology. Per oral way of administration of the medications has been unexplored properly yet. Preservation of their stability in the gastro-intestinal tract is the essential requirement to the liposomes. Literature data and our studies showed that the elevated saturation of fatty acids and viscosity of liposomal membrane bilayer increases their stability to acidic and alkaline media of the digestive system. To prepare the liposome we used 14C,H-labeled lipids isolated from tissues by means of preparative chromatography after administration of D(1-614C)glucose (specific radioactivity 100 mkCu/mM) as well as of D(1-3H)-galactose (specific radioactivity 900 mkCU/mM) to 10 rats. Organ-specific liposomes were prepared in accordance with the special method without ultrasound processing to administered them with milk per orally to rats by means of a gastric probe. Before administration of 14C,3H liposomes the animals were not fed for 16-20 hours for complete emptying of the gastrointestinal tract. Under these conditions 1-1.5 hours after administration of liposomes their maximum amount was absorbed from he intestine. We found tissue specificity of the liposome administered. If the amount of administered liposomes for each tissue to be taken for 100%, in target organs their distribution (in %) would be as follows: 0.30/0.39 in the heart, 0.54/0.06 in the skeletal muscle, 0.4/0.6 in the brain, 4.2/10.2 in the spleen, 2.9/6.1 in the pancreas, 5.1/1.2 in the kidney. In these experiments liposomes had covering of 14 C, 3 H-glycosphingolipids of the spleen. Under these conditions 3H-cAMP in the form of liposomes was administered to mice per orally to measure radioactivity (in cpm 100mg of tissue) in the organs. The values were as follows: 77±6.3 in the liver, 750±47 in the spleen, 250±19 in the kidney, 70±77 in the heart, 267±21 in the lung and 95

  10. Experimental investigations of two-phase mixture level swell and axial void fraction distribution under high pressure, low heat flux conditions in rod bundle geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.M.; White, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data is reported from a series of quasi-steady-state two-phase mixture level swell and void fraction distribution tests. Testing was performed at ORNL in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility - a large electrically heated test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those expected in a small break loss of coolant accident. Pressure was varied from 2.7 to 8.2 MPa and linear power ranged from 0.33 to 1.95 kW/m. Mixture swell was observed to vary linearly with the total volumetric vapor generation rate over the power range of primary interest in small break analysis. Void fraction data was fit by a drift-flux model and both the drift-velocity and concentration parameter were observed to decrease with increasing pressure

  11. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.

  12. Biofilm formation in an experimental water distribution system: the contamination of non-touch sensor taps and the implication for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ginny; Stevenson, David; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Parks, Simon; Ngabo, Didier; Bennett, Allan M; Walker, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    Hospital tap water is a recognised source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. U.K. guidance documents recommend measures to control/minimise the risk of P. aeruginosa in augmented care units but these are based on limited scientific evidence. An experimental water distribution system was designed to investigate colonisation of hospital tap components. P. aeruginosa was injected into 27 individual tap 'assemblies'. Taps were subsequently flushed twice daily and contamination levels monitored over two years. Tap assemblies were systematically dismantled and assessed microbiologically and the effect of removing potentially contaminated components was determined. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly recovered from the tap water at levels above the augmented care alert level. The organism was recovered from all dismantled solenoid valves with colonisation of the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) diaphragm confirmed by microscopy. Removing the solenoid valves reduced P. aeruginosa counts in the water to below detectable levels. This effect was immediate and sustained, implicating the solenoid diaphragm as the primary contamination source.

  13. Experimental validation of CASMO-4E and CASMO-5M for radial fission rate distributions in a westinghouse SVEA-96 Optima2 BWR fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, P.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Measured and calculated radial total fission rate distributions are compared for the three axial sections of a Westinghouse SVEA-96 Optima2 BWR fuel assembly, comprising 96, 92 and 84 fuel rods, respectively. The measurements were performed on a full-size fuel assembly in the PROTEUS zero-power experimental facility. The measured fission rates are compared to the results of the CASMO-4E and CASMO-5M fuel assembly codes. Detailed measured geometrical data were used in the models, and effects of the surrounding zones of the reactor were taken into account by correction factors derived from MCNPX calculations. The results of the calculations agree well with those of the experiments, with root-mean-square deviations between 1.2% and 1.5% and maximum deviations of 3-4%. The quality of the predictions by CASMO-4E and CASMO-5M is comparable. (authors)

  14. Meteorological and snow distribution data in the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Revuelto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the snow and meteorological data set available for the Izas Experimental Catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, from the 2011 to 2017 snow seasons. The experimental site is located on the southern side of the Pyrenees between 2000 and 2300 m above sea level, covering an area of 55 ha. The site is a good example of a subalpine environment in which the evolution of snow accumulation and melt are of major importance in many mountain processes. The climatic data set consists of (i continuous meteorological variables acquired from an automatic weather station (AWS, (ii detailed information on snow depth distribution collected with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, lidar technology for certain dates across the snow season (between three and six TLS surveys per snow season and (iii time-lapse images showing the evolution of the snow-covered area (SCA. The meteorological variables acquired at the AWS are precipitation, air temperature, incoming and reflected solar radiation, infrared surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric air pressure, surface temperature (snow or soil surface, and soil temperature; all were taken at 10 min intervals. Snow depth distribution was measured during 23 field campaigns using a TLS, and daily information on the SCA was also retrieved from time-lapse photography. The data set (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.848277 is valuable since it provides high-spatial-resolution information on the snow depth and snow cover, which is particularly useful when combined with meteorological variables to simulate snow energy and mass balance. This information has already been analyzed in various scientific studies on snow pack dynamics and its interaction with the local climatology or topographical characteristics. However, the database generated has great potential for understanding other environmental processes from a hydrometeorological or ecological perspective in which

  15. Experimental study of the temperature distribution in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Brazilian research reactor; Investigacao experimental da distribuicao de temperaturas no reator nuclear de pesquisa TRIGA IPR-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias

    2005-07-01

    The TRIGA-IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor has completed 44 years in operation in November 2004. Its initial nominal thermal power was 30 kW. In 1979 its power was increased to 100 kW by adding new fuel elements to the reactor. Recently some more fuel elements were added to the core increasing the power to 250 kW. The TRIGA-IPR-R1 is a pool type reactor with a natural circulation core cooling system. Although the large number of experiments had been carried out with this reactor, mainly on neutron activation analysis, there is not many data on its thermal-hydraulics processes, whether experimental or theoretical. So a number of experiments were carried out with the measurement of the temperature inside the fuel element, in the reactor core and along the reactor pool. During these experiments the reactor was set in many different power levels. These experiments are part of the CDTN/CNEN research program, and have the main objective of commissioning the TRIGA-IPR-R1 reactor for routine operation at 250 kW. This work presents the experimental and theoretical analyses to determine the temperature distribution in the reactor. A methodology for the calibration and monitoring the reactor thermal power was also developed. This methodology allowed adding others power measuring channels to the reactor by using thermal processes. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were also experimentally valued. lt was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations and with data obtained from technical literature. A data acquisition and processing system and a software were developed to help the investigation. This system allows on line monitoring and registration of the main reactor operational parameters. The experiments have given better comprehension of the reactor thermal-fluid dynamics and helped to develop numerical

  16. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-07-01

    To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. © 2014 The Authors. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Methods and Results Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Conclusions Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. Significance and Importance of the Study This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. PMID:24712449

  18. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around 192Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate 192 Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate (∼0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a 192 Ir wire source.

  19. Experimental investigation of void distribution in suppression pool over the duration of a loss of coolant accident using steam–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Ju, Peng; Sharma, Subash; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments were conducted to study void fraction distribution in SP during blowdown. • 3 Experimental phases, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase, chugging were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. • The quasi-steady phase provided less void penetration depth with oscillations. • The chugging phase was experienced at the end of experimental phase. - Abstract: Studies are underway to determine if a large amount gas discharged through the downcomer pipes in the pressure suppression chamber during the blowdown of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) can potentially be entrained into the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) suction piping of BWR. This may result in degraded ECCS pumps performance which could affect the ability to maintain or recover the water inventory level in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during a LOCA. Therefore, it is very important to understand the void behavior in the pressure suppression chamber during the blowdown period of a LOCA. To address this issue, a set of experiments is conducted using the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility. The geometry of the test apparatus is determined based on the basic geometrical scaling analysis from a prototypical BWR containment (MARK I) with a consideration of downcomer size, downcomer water submergence depth and Suppression Pool (SP) water level. Several instruments are installed in the test facility to measure the required experimental data such as the steam mass flow rate, void fraction, pressure and temperature. In the experiments, sequential flows of air, steam–air mixture and pure steam-each with the various flow rate conditions are injected from the Drywell (DW) through a downcomer pipe in the SP. Eight tests with two different downcomer sizes, various initial gas volumetric fluxes at the downcomer, and two different initial non-condensable gas

  20. Comprehensive distributed-parameters modeling and experimental validation of microcantilever-based biosensors with an application to ultrasmall biological species detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faegh, Samira; Jalili, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnological advancements have made a great contribution in developing label-free and highly sensitive biosensors. The detection of ultrasmall adsorbed masses has been enabled by such sensors which transduce molecular interaction into detectable physical quantities. More specifically, microcantilever-based biosensors have caught widespread attention for offering a label-free, highly sensitive and inexpensive platform for biodetection. Although there are a lot of studies investigating microcantilever-based sensors and their biological applications, a comprehensive mathematical modeling and experimental validation of such devices providing a closed form mathematical framework is still lacking. In almost all of the studies, a simple lumped-parameters model has been proposed. However, in order to have a precise biomechanical sensor, a comprehensive model is required being capable of describing all phenomena and dynamics of the biosensor. Therefore, in this study, an extensive distributed-parameters modeling framework is proposed for the piezoelectric microcantilever-based biosensor using different methodologies for the purpose of detecting an ultrasmall adsorbed mass over the microcantilever surface. An optimum modeling methodology is concluded and verified with the experiment. This study includes three main parts. In the first part, the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory is used to model the nonuniform piezoelectric microcantilever. Simulation results are obtained and presented. The same system is then modeled as a nonuniform rectangular plate. The simulation results are presented describing model's capability in the detection of an ultrasmall mass. Finally the last part presents the experimental validation verifying the modeling results. It was shown that plate modeling predicts the real situation with a degree of precision of 99.57% whereas modeling the system as an Euler–Bernoulli beam provides a 94.45% degree of precision. The detection of ultrasmall

  1. Is the beagle dog an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating data to humans on organ distribution patterns of U, Th, and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations and organ distribution patterns of alpha-emitting isotopes of U (238U and 234U), Th (232Th, 230Th, and 228Th), and Pu (239,240Pu) were determined for beagle dogs of our colony. The dogs were exposed to environmental levels of U and Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation to stimulate environmental exposures of the general human population. The organ distribution patterns of these radionuclides in beagles are compared to patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate organ content data from beagles to humans. The results indicated that approximately 80% of the U and Th accumulated in bone in both species. The organ content percentages of these radionuclides in soft tissues such as liver, kidney, etc. of both species were comparable. The human lung contained higher percentages of U and Th than the beagle lung, perhaps because the longer life span of humans resulted in a longer exposure time. If the U and Th content of dog lung is normalized to an exposure time of 58 y and 63 y, median ages of the U and Th study populations, respectively, the lung content for both species is comparable. The organ content of 239,240Pu in humans and beagles differed slightly. In the beagle, the liver contained more than 60%, and the skeleton contained less than 40% of the Pu body content. In humans, the liver contained approximately 37%, and the skeleton contained approximately 58% of the body content. This difference may have been due to differences in the mode of intake of Pu in each species or to differences in the chemical form of Pu. In general, the results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal from which to extrapolate data to humans with reference to the percentage of U, Th, and Pu found in the organs

  2. Experimental validation of radial reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with and without control blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.giust@axpo.c [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Axpo Kernenergie AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This paper presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates from nodal diffusion calculations to the experimental results in two configurations: one 'regular' (I-1A) and the other 'controlled' (I-2A). Both configurations consist of an array of 3 x 3 SVEA-96+ fuel assemblies moderated with light water at 20 {sup o}C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the north-west corner of the central fuel assembly. To minimise the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3 x 3 experimental configuration (test zone) was modelled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group partial current ratios (PCRs) calculated at the test zone boundary using a 3D Monte Carlo (MCNPX) model of the whole PROTEUS reactor. Sensitivity cases are analysed to show the impact of changes in the 2D lattice modelling on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. Further, the effects of variations in the test zone boundary PCRs and their behaviour in energy are investigated. For the test zone configuration without control blade, the pin-power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as the 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, larger deviations that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations are observed for the configuration with the control blade inserted. In the basic (reference) simulation cases, the calculated-to-experimental (C

  3. Spatial distribution of top soil water content in an experimental catchment of Southeast Brazil Distribuição espacial da umidade superficial do solo em uma bacia hidrográfica experimental do Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério de Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is essential to understand the hydrological cycle. It controls the surface runoff generation, water infiltration, soil evaporation and plant transpiration. This work aims to analyze the spatial distribution of top soil water content and to characterize the spatial mean and standard deviation of top soil water content over time in an experimental catchment located in the Mantiqueira Range region, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Measurements of top soil water content were carried out every 15 days, between May/2007 and May/2008. Using time-domain reflectometry (TDR equipment, 69 points were sampled in the top 0.2 m of the soil profile. Geostatistical procedures were applied in all steps of the study. First, the spatial continuity was evaluated, and the experimental semi-variogram was modeled. For the development of top soil water content maps over time a co-kriging procedure was used having the slope as a secondary variable. Rainfall regime controlled the top soil water content during the wet season. Land use was also another fundamental local factor. The spatial standard deviation had low values under dry conditions, and high values under wet conditions. Thus, more variability occurs under wet conditions.A umidade do solo é essencial para o entendimento do ciclo hidrológico, uma vez que controla a geração do escoamento superficial, infiltração de água no solo, evaporação do solo e transpiração das plantas. Este trabalho objetivou analisar os padrões espaciais da umidade superficial do solo e caracterizar a média e o desvio padrão espaciais da mesma ao longo do tempo em uma bacia hidrográfica experimental localizada na Serra da Mantiqueira, MG. As medidas da umidade superficial do solo foram conduzidas a cada 15 dias, entre Maio/2007 e Maio/2008, usando um equipamento TDR portátil, em 69 pontos amostrados na camada de 0-20 cm. Procedimentos geoestatísticos foram aplicados em todas as etapas do trabalho

  4. Experimental optimization of temperature distribution in the hot-gas duct through the installation of internals in the hot-gas plenum of a high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssen, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    The flow conditions in the hot-gas plenum and in the adjacent hot-gas ducts and hot-gas pipes for the high-temperature reactor project PNP-1000 (nuclear process heat project for 1000 MW thermal output) have been examined experimentally. The experiments were performed in a closed loop in which the flow model to be analyzed, representing a 60deg sector of the core bottom of the PNP-1000 with connecting hot-gas piping and diverting arrangements, was installed. The model scale was approx. 1:5.6. The temperature and flow velocity distribution in the hot-gas duct was registered by means of 14 dual hot-wire flowmeters. Through structural changes and/or the installation of internals into the hot-gas plenum of the core bottom offering little flow resistance coolant gas temperature differentials produced in the core could be reduced to such an extent that a degree of mixture amounting to over 80% was achieved at the entrance of the connected heat exchanger systems. Thereby the desired goal of an adequate degree of mixture of the hot gas involving an acceptable pressure loss was reached. (orig.)

  5. Influence of fuel pin bowing on the temperature distribution in fuel pin cladding tubes in case of sodium cooling; experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Tschoeke, H.; Kolodziej, M.

    1978-09-01

    The influence of rod bowing on the local temperature distribution was measured with turbulent sodium flow in the cladding tubes of a 19-rod bundle mock-up of the SNR 300 Mark Ia fuel element. Such measurements have been carried out for the first time. The results presented in this report are part 1 of the experimental evaluation not yet completed. The major results are: 1. When a rod on the first ring gets deformed towards a neighbour on the second ring with a gap reduction from the nominal value of 100 % down to 20 %, the maximum azimuthal temperature difference of the outer rod increases by about 60 %. 2. The maximum azimuthal temperature difference of a rod on the first ring increases by a factor of 2, if it is approached by a neighbour on the same ring. 3. The reduction in cross section of a subchannel by rod bowing results only locally in distinct temperature rises, i.e. in the adjacent cladding tubes. Rods of the next but one row are no more subject to noticeable changes in temperature [de

  6. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid system drop size distribution in Taylor-Couette flow and its application in the CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad, Reza; Puttinger, Stefan; Pirker, Stefan; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    Liquid-liquid systems are widely used in the several industries such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical and petroleum. Drop size distribution (DSD) plays a key role as it strongly affects the overall mass and heat transfer in the liquid-liquid systems. To understand the underlying mechanisms single drop breakup experiments have been done by several researchers in the Taylor-Couette flow; however, most of those studies concentrate on the laminar flow regime and therefore, there is no sufficient amount of data in the case of in turbulent flows. The well-defined pattern of the Taylor-Couette flow enables the possibility to investigate DSD as a function of the local fluid dynamic properties, such as shear rate, which is in contrast to more complex devices such as stirred tank reactors. This paper deals with the experimental investigation of liquid-liquid DSD in Taylor-Couette flow. From high speed camera images we found a simple correlation for the Sauter mean diameter as a function of the local shear employing image processing. It is shown that this correlation holds for different oil-in-water emulsions. Finally, this empirical correlation for the DSD is used as an input data for a CFD simulation to compute the local breakup of individual droplets in a stirred tank reactor.

  7. Experimental investigation of the enthalpy- and mass flow-distribution in 16-rod clusters with BWR-PWR-geometries and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herkenrath, H.; Hufschmidt, W.; Jung, U.; Weckermann, F.

    1981-01-01

    The enthalpy- and mass-flow-distribution at the outlet of two different 16-rod cluster test sections with uniform heating in axial and radial direction under steady state conditions has been measured for the first time by simultaneous sampling of 5 from 6 present characteristic subchannels in the bundle using the isokinetic technique and analysing the outlet quantities by a calorimetic method. The test-sections are provided with typical geometrical configurations for BWR s (70 bars; test section PELCO-S) and PWR s (160 bars; test-section EUROP). The latter has also been tested under BWR conditions (70 bars) to study the influence of geometry and pressure. The results showed the abnormal behaviour of the corner subchannel under BWR typical conditions (70 bars) which could not be found for PWR conditions (160 bars) and which is only an effect of pressure and not of geometry. The analysis of the experimental data confirms the usefullness of the subchannel sampling technique for the better understanding of the complex thermohydraulic phenomena under two-phase flow conditions in multirod bundles. Calculations of subchannel resistance coefficients for both types of spacers under one-phase flow conditions have been made with a special sub-structure method which showed a rather high local value of the corner subchannel. With the local drag coefficents the total resistance of the spacer has been evaluated and agreed well with measured values under adiabatic conditions. The measured subchannel data permit a direct valuation and examination of respective computer codes in a fundamental manner which are, however, not subject of this report

  8. Macroscopic fluorescence imaging: a novel technique to monitor retention and distribution of injected microspheres in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andreas; Rojas, Sebastian V; Baraki, Hassina; Rathert, Christian; Schecker, Natalie; Hernandez, Sara Rojas; Schwanke, Kristin; Zweigerdt, Robert; Martin, Ulrich; Saito, Shunsuke; Haverich, Axel; Kutschka, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The limited effectiveness of cardiac cell therapy has generated concern regarding its clinical relevance. Experimental studies show that cell retention and engraftment are low after injection into ischemic myocardium, which may restrict therapy effectiveness significantly. Surgical aspects and mechanical loss are suspected to be the main culprits behind this phenomenon. As current techniques of monitoring intramyocardial injections are complex and time-consuming, the aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple model to study cardiac retention and distribution following intramyocardial injections. For this purpose, our main hypothesis was that macroscopic fluorescence imaging could adequately serve as a detection method for intramyocardial injections. A total of 20 mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for myocardial infarction. Fluorescent microspheres with cellular dimensions were used as cell surrogates. Particles (5 × 10(5)) were injected into the infarcted area of explanted resting hearts (Ex vivo myocardial injetions EVMI, n = 10) and in vivo into beating hearts (In vivo myocardial injections IVMI, n = 10). Microsphere quantification was performed by fluorescence imaging of explanted organs. Measurements were repeated after a reduction to homogenate dilutions. Cardiac microsphere retention was 2.78 × 10(5) ± 0.31 × 10(5) in the EVMI group. In the IVMI group, cardiac retention of microspheres was significantly lower (0.74 × 10(5) ± 0.18 × 10(5); pfluorescence imaging revealed venous drainage through the coronary sinus, resulting in a microsphere accumulation in the left (0.90 × 10(5) ± 0.20 × 10(5)) and the right (1.07 × 10(5) ± 0.17 × 10(5)) lung. Processing to homogenates involved further particle loss (pfluorescence imaging method for biodistribution analysis which enabled the quantification of fluorescent microspheres after intramyocardial delivery using macroscopic fluorescence imaging. This new technique

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  10. Experimental study of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor at the fast critical assembly: Power distribution measurements and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, S.; Obu, M.; Hayase, T.; Ohno, A.; Nemoto, T.; Okajima, S.

    1988-01-01

    Power distributions of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor were studied by using the experiment results of fast critical assemblies XI, XII, and XIII and the results of their analyses. The power distributions were examined by the gamma-scanning method and fission rate measurements using /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U fission counters and the foil irradiation method. In addition to the measurements in the reference core, the power distributions were measured in the core with a control rod inserted and in a modified core where the shape of the internal blanket was determined by the radial boundary. The calculation was made by using JENDL-2 and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's standard calculation system for fast reactor neutronics. The power flattening trend, caused by the decrease of the fast neutron flux, was observed in the axial and radial power distributions. The effect of the radial boundary shape of the internal blanket on the power distribution was determined in the core. The thickness of the internal blanket was reduced at its radial boundary. The influence of the internal blanket was observed in the power distributions in the core with a control rod inserted. The calculation predicted the neutron spectrum harder in the internal blanket. In the radial distributions of /sup 239/Pu fission rates, the space dependency of the calculated-to-experiment values was found at the active core close to the internal blanket

  11. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Species Distribution, and an Exploration of Rhizosphere Microbes and Mycorrhizae at a Deliberately Leakimg Experimental Carbon Sequestration Field (ZERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; Apple, M. E.; Morales, S.; Zhou, X.; Holben, B.; Olson, J.; Prince, J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    One measure to reduce atmospheric CO2 is to sequester it in deep geological formations. Rapid surface detection of any CO2 leakage is crucial. CO2 leakage rapidly affects vegetation above sequestration fields. Plant responses to high CO2 are valuable tools in surface detection of leaking CO2. The Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental field for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010) from a 100m horizontal injection well, HIW, 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, VI, (6/3-6/24/2010). The vegetation includes Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), and other herbaceous plants. We collected soil and roots 1, 3 and 5 m from the VI to determine the responses of mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microbes to high CO2. Mycorrhizal fungi obtain C from root exudates, increase N and P availability, and reduce desiccation, while prokaryotic rhizosphere microbes fix atmospheric N and will be examined for abundance and expression of carbon and nitrogen cycling genes. We are quantifying mycorrhizal colonization and the proportion of spores, hyphae, and arbuscules in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in cleared and stained roots. Stomatal conductance is an important measure of CO2 uptake and water loss via transpiration. We used a porometer (5-40°C, 0-90% RH, Decagon) to measure stomatal conductivity in dandelion and orchard grass at 1, 3, and 5 m from the VI and along a transect perpendicular to the HIW. Dandelion conductance was highest close to the VI and almost consistently higher close to hot spots (circular regions with maximum CO2 and leaf dieback) at the HIW, with 23.2 mmol/m2/s proximal to the hot spot, and 10.8 mmol/m2/s distally. Average conductance in grass (50.3 mmol/m2/s) was higher than in dandelion, but grass did not have high conductance near hot spots. Stomata generally close at elevated CO2

  12. Determination of homogenization factors in the simulation in the azymuthal flux unit distribution in the control ring of a experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachic, J.

    1987-01-01

    The azimuthal neutronic flux distribution in the control ring region for a low power fast reactor is simulated using a plate and rectangular smash models for one dimensional calculations under periodic boundary conditions in the frontier. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Experimental verification of the effect of cable length on voltage distribution in stator winding of an induction motor under surge condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyegoke, B.S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of surge distribution tests performed on a stator of a 6 kV induction motor. The primary aim of these tests was to determine the wave propagation properties of the machine winding fed via cables of different lengths. Considering the measured resorts, conclusions are derived regarding the effect of cable length on the surge distribution within the stator winding of an ac motor. (orig.) 15 refs.

  14. Thermal neutron flux distribution in the ET R R-1 reactor core as experimentally measured and theoretically calculated by the code triton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, M [National center for nuclear safety and radiation control, atomic energy authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Thermal neutron flux distributions that were measured earlier at the ET-R R-1 reactor are compared with those calculated by the three dimensional diffusion code Triton. This comparison was made for the horizontal and vertical flux distributions. The horizontal thermal flux distributions considered in this comparison were along the core diagonals at two planes of different heights from core bottom, where one at a level passing through the control rod at core center and the other at a level below this control rod. In the meantime all the control rods were taken into consideration. The effect of the existence of a water cavity inside the core as well as the influence of the control rods on the thermal flux are illustrated in this work. The vertical thermal flux distributions considered in the comparison were at two positions in core namely; one along the core height the horizontal reactor power distribution along the core height and the horizontal reactor power distribution along the core diagonal as calculated by the code Triton are also given this work. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Experimental study of spallation: neutron angular distributions induced by protons (0.8.,1.2 et 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 et 1.6 GeV) beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borne, F.

    1998-01-01

    Angular distributions of spallation neutrons, produced by 0,8 to 1,6 GeV protons and 0,8 to 1,6 GeV deuterons, with two experimental and complementary techniques: the flight time measure and the use of a liquid hydrogen converter associated with a magnetic spectrometer of higher energy (2000 MeV). Experimental results obtained at Saturne (Cea) are analysed and interpreted. They allowed the determination of the neutrons production behaviour on thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th) in function of the angle emission and the atomic number of the target and to compare the variation of neutrons production, coming from protons and incident deuterons of same total energy on a Pb target. Experimental results are compared with simulation results obtained with the TIERCE code, including Bertini and Cugnon intra-nuclear cascades. (A.L.B.)

  16. Experimental analysis of considering the sound pressure distribution pattern at the ear canal entrance as an unrevealed head-related localization clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xin; QI Na; MENG Zihou

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between binaural recording and real listening,it was deduced that there were some unrevealed auditory localization clues,and the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of ear canal was probably a clue.It was proved through the listening test that the unrevealed auditory localization clues really exist with the reduction to absurdity.And the effective frequency bands of the unrevealed localization clues were induced and summed.The result of finite element based simulations showed that the pressure distribution at the entrance of ear canal was non-uniform,and the pattern was related to the direction of sound source.And it was proved that the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of the ear canal carried the sound source direction information and could be used as an unrevealed localization cluc.The frequency bands in which the sound pressure distribution patterns had significant differences between front and back sound source directions were roughly matched with the effective frequency bands of unrevealed localization clues obtained from the listening tests.To some extent,it supports the hypothesis that the sound pressure distribution pattern could be a kind of unrevealed auditory localization clues.

  17. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. III. Distribution and transference of /sup 115m/Cd in pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y; Takanaka, A; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S; Urakubo, G [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1975-08-01

    Distribution of sup(115m)Cd in pregnant rat, transference to fetus and distribution in fetal organs were investigated by means of intraveneous injection of sup(115m)CdCl/sub 2/ solution to dam at 20th day after mating, dissection at 1 hr later and measurement of radioactivities. In the pregnant rat, the thickest accumulation of radioactivity in liver, and much thicker concentration in pancreas, pituitary, kidney and adrenal than in blood were found. Besides, 24.6% of dose remained in gastrointestinal tract. The transference of sup(115m)Cd to fetus was not so remarkable. Concerning the distribution of partially transfered metal in fetus, outstanding accumulation were observed in adrenal, spleen and testis, and secondly thicker concentrations were seen in liver and bone. The distribution pattern in fetus was not similar to that of dam, and rather thicker concentrations of sup(115m)Cd were observed in fetal spleen, bone, adrenal and brain, comparing with the corresponding organs of dam. In conclusion, cadmium introduced in dam body was transfered partially to fetus through placenta and was distributed in many parts of fetal body.

  18. Effects of forest management on running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. Ex A. Eaton) distribution and abundance in the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Q. Burkhart; J.R. Rentch; T.M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Identifying habitat preferences of species of concern is fundamental to the practice of conservation, but disturbances and other environmental processes can substantially affect suitability. Trifolium stoloniferum, or running buffalo clover, is a federally endangered plant species that occurs on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia....

  19. Experimental determination of the distribution coefficient (Kd) of lead and barium in soils of semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil; Determinacao experimental do coeficiente de distribuicao (Kd) de chumbo e bario em solos da regiao semiarida do estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mariana M.; Fernandes, Heloisa H.F; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: mariana@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: heloisa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: bettinadulley@hotmail.com, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos em Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    To determine the concentration of heavy metals and other contaminants in soils, aimed at evaluating the environmental impact, the use of the distribution coefficient is required (Kd), defined as the relationship between the concentrations adsorbed and in solution. The objective of this study was to determine the rates for the Lead and Barium metals in soil collected in Caetite, the state of Bahia, in two different depths. The importance of determining the distribution coefficient lies in the fact that being performed using a tropical soil. For the isotherms of Kd was used batch test method by adsorption to obtain the final concentrations. The first step was to determine the best ratio soil: solution obtained after equilibration time and finally the equilibrium concentration of the contaminant. Were also calculated percentages of the metal adsorbed by the soil and the amount of solute by the adsorbent. With the values obtained in experiments and using Mathematica 8.0 software, were made graphics equilibrium concentration versus quantity adsorbed (C vs. S). It can also plot isotherms for different models of Kd: linear, Langmuir and Freundlich in order to determine which adsorption model would fit best to the measured data and thus determine the distribution coefficient of the metal in the soil analyzed. The Freundlich isotherm was better adapted to the points of the two metals in both soils.

  20. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  1. Detection of distribution of avian influenza H5N1 virus by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization and real-time PCR techniques in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanpood, Chanpen; Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sanguansermsri, Phanchana

    2011-03-01

    Ten specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intranasally with avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Evaluation revealed distribution of the virus in twelve organs: liver, intestine, bursa, lung, trachea, thymus, heart, pancreas, brain, spleen, kidney, and esophagus. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were developed and compared for detection of the virus from the organs. The distribution of avian influenza H5N1 in chickens varied by animal and detecting technique. The heart, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and pancreas were positive with all three techniques, while the others varied by techique. The three techniques can be used to detect avian influenza effectively, but the pros and cons of each technique need to be determined. The decision of which technique to use depends on the objective of the examination, budget, type and quality of samples, laboratory facilities and technician skills.

  2. The CTTC 5G End-to-End Experimental Platform : Integrating Heterogeneous Wireless/Optical Networks, Distributed Cloud, and IoT Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Raul; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Vilalta, Ricard; Verikoukis, Christos; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Georgiadis, Apostolos; Payaro, Miquel; Perez-Neira, Ana; Casellas, Ramon; Martinez, Ricardo; Nunez-Martinez, Jose; Requena Esteso, Manuel; Pubill, David; Font-Bach, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) will facilitate a wide variety of applications in different domains, such as smart cities, smart grids, industrial automation (Industry 4.0), smart driving, assistance of the elderly, and home automation. Billions of heterogeneous smart devices with different application requirements will be connected to the networks and will generate huge aggregated volumes of data that will be processed in distributed cloud infrastructures. On the other hand, there is also a gen...

  3. Experimental evaluation of wall Mach number distributions of the octagonal test section proposed for NASA Lewis Research Center's altitude wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Douglas E.; Burley, Richard R.; Corban, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Wall Mach number distributions were determined over a range of test-section free-stream Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.92. The test section was slotted and had a nominal porosity of 11 percent. Reentry flaps located at the test-section exit were varied from 0 (fully closed) to 9 (fully open) degrees. Flow was bled through the test-section slots by means of a plenum evacuation system (PES) and varied from 0 to 3 percent of tunnel flow. Variations in reentry flap angle or PES flow rate had little or no effect on the Mach number distributions in the first 70 percent of the test section. However, in the aft region of the test section, flap angle and PES flow rate had a major impact on the Mach number distributions. Optimum PES flow rates were nominally 2 to 2.5 percent wtih the flaps fully closed and less than 1 percent when the flaps were fully open. The standard deviation of the test-section wall Mach numbers at the optimum PES flow rates was 0.003 or less.

  4. Distribution of genes for parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide, Indian hedgehog, PTH receptor and patched in the process of experimental spondylosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Takanobu; Ariga, Kenta; Meng, Wenxiang; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tomita, Tetsuya; Myoui, Akira; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2002-07-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of spondylosis. The authors determined the extent of genetic localization of major regulators of chondrogenesis such as Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) and their receptors during the development of spondylosis in their previously established experimental mouse model. Experimental spondylosis was induced in 5-week-old ICR mice. The cervical spines were chronologically harvested, and histological sections were prepared. Messenger (m) RNA for PTHrP, Ihh, PTH receptor (PTHR; a receptor for PTHrP), patched (Ptc; a receptor for Ihh), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6, and collagen type X (COL10; a marker for mature chondrocyte) was localized in the tissue sections by performing in situ hybridization. In the early stage, mRNA for COL10, Ihh, and BMP-6 was absent; however, mRNA for PTHrP, PTHR, and Ptc was detected in the anterior margin of the cervical discs. In the late stage, evidence of COL10 mRNA began to be detected, and transcripts for Ihh, PTHrP, and BMP-6 were localized in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the bone-forming area in osteophyte. Messenger RNA for Ptc and PTHR continued to localize at this stage. In control mice, expression of these genes was absent. The localization of PTHrP, Ihh, BMP-6, and the receptors PTHR and Ptc demonstrated in the present experimental model indicates the possible involvement of molecular signaling by PTHrP (through the PTHR), Ihh (through the Ptc), and BMP-6 in the regulation of chondrocyte maturation leading to endochondral ossification in spondylosis.

  5. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...

  6. Review of experimental and natural invertebrate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens and its distribution and abundance in macroinvertebrates in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcogliese

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and natural invertebrate intermediate hosts of sealworm (Pseudoterranova decipiens as well as transmission experiments of sealworm from invertebrates to fish are reviewed and summarized. Experimental hosts include copepods, mysids, cumaceans, isopods, amphipods, decapods, annelids, and molluscs. Invertebrates collected from eastern Canada between 1989 and 1995 were checked for nematode infections by microscopic examination of dissected animals or enzymatic digestion of bulk samples. Third-stage larval sealworm were found in mysids (Neomysis americana, Mysis stenolepis from Passamaquoddy Bay, the Bras d’Or Lakes, inshore Cape Breton, Sable Island and Sable Island Bank. Infected amphipods (Amphiporeia virginiana, Americorchestia megalophthalma, Gammarus spp. were found only on Sable Island. Typical infection rates in macroinvertebrates were 1-4/1000. No sealworm infections were found in approximately 18,000 amphipods examined from Sable Island Bank, the site of the most heavily infected fishes in eastern Canada. In Wallace Lake, a brackish pond on Sable Island, infection rates were much higher in mysids than in amphipods. Estimates of rates of transmission of sealworm from invertebrates to fish were derived from infection levels in Wallace Lake and feeding experiments involving sticklebacks and invertebrate prey. It is concluded that mysids may be much more important than amphipods in transmitting sealworm to fish hosts.

  7. The influence of experimental resolution and background upon ion-induced vsub(e) approximately equal to vsub(i) electron distributions measured behind solid foils; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.C.R.; McGowan, J.W.; Meckbach, W.; Sarmiento, G.S.; Steckelmacher, W.; Lucas, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    It is stated that some confusion has developed with regard to the correct procedure necessary to compare charge exchange to the continuum (CEC) theories and experiment for ion-beam-foil collisions where the emitted electrons have velocities vsub(e) approximately equal to vsub(1) and that to make such comparisons it is necessary that (a) the instrumental resolutions in angle and absolute value of velocity be folded into the theoretical double differential cross section, and (b) if the emission of CEC electrons occurs only because of interaction with the outermost atomic layers, those electrons originating from further inside the foil be subtracted as background. It is felt that Steckelmacher et al (J. Phys. B.; 11: 2711 (1978)) did not properly account for these considerations in their comparison of theoretical and experimental results. In a reply Steckelmacher and Lucas, while agreeing that confusion has arisen in the literature, state that possible errors due to insufficiently low values in the ratio of velocity resolution to angular acceptance were overcome in their work by careful experimental design but suggest that the main area of disagreement concerns the treatment of direct ionisation background. (U.K.)

  8. Polynomial reconstruction of radial catalyst concentration distribution in an experimental type FCC riser for a low number of transversal projections in gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Silvio B.; Simoes, Francisco P.M.; Oliveira, Eric F. de; Santos, Maria das Gracas dos; Dantas, Carlos C.

    2007-01-01

    In the FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking process the Riser is an opaque cylinder, so that, in order to investigate the catalyst concentration inside, a gamma- ray based tomography is employed. Each section is submitted to a parallel beam and by means of the Beer-Lambert transmission is calculated. This tomography session is repeated from different angles, in manual tomographic experiments where the source/detector pair is rotated, producing in each direction what we called a transversal projection. In order to reconstruct the concentration of the present catalyst in a given moment some methods use successfully the inverse Radon transform through the filtered back-projection algorithm. The results are fully satisfactory for a large number of projections, widely seen as better than those produced by the algebraic methods. For a low number of projections, however, the algebraic methods become more competitive. In practice, simple experimental set-ups work with less than 10 projections, due to the time taken by the whole process. In this work, we present an investigation of polynomial reconstructions by using Bezier surfaces of arbitrary degree, adjusted to the experimental data through a least squares method. A computational algorithm was developed to implement the mathematical reconstruction for the 3D graphics presentation. (author)

  9. An analytical and experimental approach for pressure distribution analysis of a particular lobe and plain bearing performance keeping in view of all impeding varying parameters associating with fixed lubrication SAE20W40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun; Belkar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents both analytical and experimental pressure analysis approach of a typical Lobe and plain bearing for determining effective performance of the bearing. This is found to be dependent on several variables viz. angular velocity (1200-1900 rpm), load (300- 750 N) and pressure angle (0.deg.-180.deg.). This study in particular has been carried out for better rectifications and comparative prediction of lobe and plain bearing in terms of pressure distribution behavior under lubrication oil grade of SAE20W40. Influencing parameters were varied in this set up only to get optimum parametric combination considering all relevant practical issues. The experimentation was done based on significant directives of relevant literatures in these sectors. Attempt was made to compare the analytical findings with experimental results and found matched appreciably. After that attention was diverted to find the nature of pressure and load carrying capacity at various fluctuating speed and load with a fixed lubrication of SAE20W40 for appropriate decision making towards its characteristic performance. The analytical data generated by MATLAB are compared with experimental data which is generated by JBTR

  10. An analytical and experimental approach for pressure distribution analysis of a particular lobe and plain bearing performance keeping in view of all impeding varying parameters associating with fixed lubrication SAE20W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania (India); Belkar, Sanjay [Pravara Rural Engineering CollegeLoni, Rahata taluka (India)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents both analytical and experimental pressure analysis approach of a typical Lobe and plain bearing for determining effective performance of the bearing. This is found to be dependent on several variables viz. angular velocity (1200-1900 rpm), load (300- 750 N) and pressure angle (0.deg.-180.deg.). This study in particular has been carried out for better rectifications and comparative prediction of lobe and plain bearing in terms of pressure distribution behavior under lubrication oil grade of SAE20W40. Influencing parameters were varied in this set up only to get optimum parametric combination considering all relevant practical issues. The experimentation was done based on significant directives of relevant literatures in these sectors. Attempt was made to compare the analytical findings with experimental results and found matched appreciably. After that attention was diverted to find the nature of pressure and load carrying capacity at various fluctuating speed and load with a fixed lubrication of SAE20W40 for appropriate decision making towards its characteristic performance. The analytical data generated by MATLAB are compared with experimental data which is generated by JBTR.

  11. Two-phase flow patterns and size distribution of droplets in a microfluidic T-junction: Experimental observations in the squeezing regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Yassine; Daoud, Kamel; Tadrist, Lounès

    2017-04-01

    Generating micrometer sized droplets has been studied in a microfluidic system with T-junction geometry 250 μm in internal diameter and with PTFE capillary tubing. Several experiments were conducted by varying the flow rate of the dispersed phase from 2.78 ṡ10-11 m3 /s to 5.28 ṡ10-9 m3 /s and that of the continuous phase from 2.78 ṡ10-10 m3 /s to 1.94 ṡ10-9 m3 /s. The visualization of different flow regimes (drop, plug, and annular) was carried out for three configurations (not inverted in a horizontal position, inverted in a horizontal position, and inverted in a vertical position) for low capillary numbers. The model of Gauss was also chosen for a droplet size distribution in the dispersed phase, with the flow quality x varying from 0.016 to 0.44. The evolution of the drop size distribution as a function of the flow quality in the dispersed phase shows that the variation coefficient of the droplet's diameter is inversely proportional to the flow quality.

  12. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Axial Magnetic Field Distribution on Resisting the Constriction of a High-Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zongqian; Liu Zhigang; Jia Shenli; Song Xiaochuan; Wang Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the axial magnetic field (AMF) on resisting the constriction of a high-current vacuum arc is studied in this paper. Two typical AMF distributions were investigated, i.e., the traditional bell-shaped AMF, and the saddle-shaped AMF. Experiments were conducted in a detachable vacuum chamber with a rms arc current in the range of 10 kA to 25 kA. The arc column was photographed by a high-speed digital camera with an exposure time of 2 microseconds. The constriction of the vacuum arc was compared by processing the images of the arc column under the two different field configurations and numerically determining the dimensions of the arc column near the electrodes. It was also confirmed that the AMF distribution had a significant influence on its effectiveness in resisting arc constriction. Furthermore, the AMF strength near the periphery of the arc is more influential than that at the centre of the electrodes in resisting arc constriction.

  13. Experimental studies to the dose distribution from pendulum irradiation of the middle part of the ESOPHAGUS with electrons and X-rays from a 42 MeV betatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark, R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental studies of the dose distributions in the area of the middle esophagus resulting from pendulum irradiation with electrons and X-rays are reported. In these studies the energy and the arrangement of the pendulum angle were to be varied so as to generate the maximum possible dose decrease from the focal area to the healthy tissue. The electron energies used were 30 and 42 MeV, the energies of ultrahard X-rays were 42 MV. All studies carried out with the different pendulum angles indicated that electron therapy is in no way capable of meeting the existing requirements in terms of low exposures of the lung, bone marrow and skin. However, the use of ultrahard X-rays offers much better dose distribution conditions. These can be achieved only by bi-segmental pendulum irradiation under a bilateral angle of 70 0 (30 0 dorsal, 40 0 ventral). (orig./RF) [de

  14. The influence of some additives to the highly carbohydrate diet on the distribution of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Na in teeth enamel and bones of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakyrdzhiev, P.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument neutron activation analysis had been used for the investigation of diets with different salt and permanent basic composition. The diets with MgCl 2 and methylene blue additives were used. Three groups of animals Wistar, Hamster and S. Dawley with different genetic reactivity had been fed on adlibidum for 45 days. After killing the animals the teeth enamel, mandibula and tibia had been sampled and content of Al, Mg, Mn, Na and Cl 2 was determined by means of INAA. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in the rabbit system of the experimental reactor IRT-2000. Two measurements were carried out - after a cooling time of 1 min for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl 2 , Mg, and after 2 h cooling time - for Na and Mn. The precision of the analysis was between 4 and 12%

  15. Monte-Carlo simulation of OCT structural images of human skin using experimental B-scans and voxel based approach to optical properties distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. V.; Potlov, A. Yu.; Petrov, D. A.; Proskurin, S. G.

    2017-03-01

    A method of optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural images reconstruction using Monte Carlo simulations is described. Biological object is considered as a set of 3D elements that allow simulation of media, structure of which cannot be described analytically. Each voxel is characterized by its refractive index and anisotropy parameter, scattering and absorption coefficients. B-scans of the inner structure are used to reconstruct a simulated image instead of analytical representation of the boundary geometry. Henye-Greenstein scattering function, Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law and Fresnel equations are used for photon transport description. Efficiency of the described technique is checked by the comparison of the simulated and experimentally acquired A-scans.

  16. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  17. Experimental quantum key distribution at 1.3 gigabit-per-second secret-key rate over a 10 dB loss channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheshen; Chen, Changchen; Zhuang, Quntao; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables unconditionally secure communication ensured by the laws of physics, opening a promising route to security infrastructure for the coming age of quantum computers. QKD’s demonstrated secret-key rates (SKRs), however, fall far short of the gigabit-per-second rates of classical communication, hindering QKD’s widespread deployment. QKD’s low SKRs are largely due to existing single-photon-based protocols’ vulnerability to channel loss. Floodlight QKD (FL-QKD) boosts SKR by transmitting many photons per encoding, while offering security against collective attacks. Here, we report an FL-QKD experiment operating at a 1.3 Gbit s‑1 SKR over a 10 dB loss channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first QKD demonstration that achieves a gigabit-per-second-class SKR, representing a critical advance toward high-rate QKD at metropolitan-area distances.

  18. Tissue distribution of oral vitamin B12 is influenced by B12 status and B12 form: an experimental study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Linda Skibsted; Fedosov, Sergey; Juul, Christian Bredgaard

    2017-01-01

     k in/k out) in all organs except for the kidney, where the ratio decreased considerably. Twenty-four-hour accumulation of labelled Cbl showed that HOCbl > CNCbl (liver) and CNCbl > HOCbl (brain, muscle and plasma). CONCLUSIONS......PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) is the dominating Cbl form in food, whereas cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is common in vitamin pills and oral supplements. This study compares single-dose absorption and distribution of oral HO[57Co]Cbl and CN[57Co]Cbl in Cbl-deficient and normal rats. METHODS: Male......, heart, spleen, intestines, skeletal muscle, 24-h urine and faeces were collected, and the content of [57Co]Cbl was measured. Endogenous Cbl in tissues and plasma was analysed by routine methods. RESULTS: Mean endogenous plasma-Cbl was sevenfold lower in deficient vs. normal rats (190 vs. 1330 pmol/L, p...

  19. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  20. Experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Five years ago the first heavy-ion beams were accelerated at both the BNL-AGS and the CERN-SPS. This conference is the 5th anniversary in the experimental field. Currently, four experimental groups (E802/E859, E810, E814, E858) are taking data at BNL and eight groups (NA34-3, NA44, NA45, NA35, NA36, NA38, WA80/WA93, WA85) at CERN. Au and Pb beams are about to come, and a lot of activities are going on for RHIC and LHC. The purpose of this talk is to overview where we are, in particular, by looking at the past data. In this talk, the data of proton rapidity distributions are reviewed first to study nuclear transparency, then, the data of energy spectra and slopes, HBT and anti d production are discussed in connection with the evolution of the collision. Third, the data of strangeness production are described. Finally, the status of J/ψ and that of soft photons and electron pairs are briefly overviewed. (orig.)

  1. Experimental determination of the local temperature distribution in the cladding tubes of a sodium-cooled pin bundle caused by grid spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Tschoeke, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cladding tubes of reactor core elements are highly stressed structural elements. Their careful design includes the following: (a) the mathematical determination of the maximum cladding tube temperatures; (b) the determination of the maximum permissible fatigue strengths and creep strains of the materials; and (c) the safety distance between the nominal cladding tube hot spots and the permissible extreme cladding tube temperature. The maximum cladding tube temperatures occur on the top edge of the core and, due to radial power gradients, in the wrapper-wall region of a pin bundle. If grid spacers are now used for fixing the pins as in the SNR fuel elements, a careful check must be made of whether and to what degree temperature peaks in the region of the supports have an influence on the cladding tube design. Initial experimental investigations on a sodium-cooled pin bundle model of the SNR-300 fuel element were carried out to throw light on these special problems. This is reported in the following together with the results so far obtained. (U.K.)

  2. Experimental study of ion stopping power in warm dense matter: charge-state distribution measurements of ions leaving warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-01

    The determination if the ion slowing down process (or stopping power) in warm dense matter is essential especially in the frame of inertial confinement fusion. During my thesis, our interest was driven by the modification of the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter, this quantity playing a major role in ion stopping power calculation. We took advantage of the properties exhibited by ion beams produced by high intensity short pulse lasers to study during two experiments performed at ELFIE and TITAN facilities, the charge state modification of a carbon and helium ion beams emerging from an aluminum foil isochorically heated by an energetic proton beam. In the first two chapters are presented the major challenges regarding the subject from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. Here are exposed the different simulation tools used during the thesis. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the property of laser-produced ion beams in the scope of our experiments aiming at studying the stopping power. We have studied in particular ion beams generated using lower-than-solid density targets during two experiments: helium gas jet and laser-exploded target. In the last chapter are presented the set-ups and results of the two experiments on the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter. The data we measured in solid-density cold aluminum are successfully compared with the results already obtained in conventional accelerators. (author) [fr

  3. The effects of total mass of seed on distribution of lead in different tissues of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Experimentally treated by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish distribution of lead in different tissues of bean seed (seed coat, endo­sperm, embryo depending on seed mass, treated samples (seed by different concentration of Pb-acetate: 1O-5 M, 10-3M i 2x 10-2M. Depending on seed weight the samples derived in three groups: large (715g, middle (465g and small (280g. Each sample contained the same number of seeds. Concentration was determined by atomic absorber (Unicam 929. At highest Pb-acetate concentration (2x10-2M in seed with small total mass content of Pb was 1139μg/g, white in seed of 1052μg/g; in endosperm 580,6μg/g, middle 290,2μg/g and in second group 79,4μg/g. Similar pattern shows embryo but at die lower level of accumulation. On die basis of above presented results it could be concluded that concentration of Pb-acetate solution. Largest mass seed accumulate respectively less content of Pb in endosperm and embryo. Seed coat accumulated significant die larger amount of land probably embryo, in that way protects embryo. Therefore, larger bean seed are more convenient for planting in cases of potentially contamination by 1, but probably by other metals. .

  4. POSIX and Object Distributed Storage Systems Performance Comparison Studies With Real-Life Scenarios in an Experimental Data Taking Context Leveraging OpenStack Swift & Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing infrastructure has become an intensive dynamic system used for first-hand data collection and analysis resulting in a dense collection of data output. As we have transitioned to our current state, inefficient, limited storage systems have become an impediment to fast feedback to online shift crews. Motivation for a centrally accessible, scalable and redundant distributed storage system had become a necessity in this environment. OpenStack Swift Object Storage and Ceph Object Storage are two eye-opening technologies as community use and development have led to success elsewhere. In this contribution, OpenStack Swift and Ceph have been put to the test with single and parallel I/O tests, emulating real world scenarios for data processing and workflows. The Ceph file system storage, offering a POSIX compliant file system mounted similarly to an NFS share was of particular interest as it aligned with our requirements and was retained as our solution. I/O performance tests were run against the Ceph POSIX file system and have presented surprising results indicating true potential for fast I/O and reliability. STAR'S online compute farm historical use has been for job submission and first hand data analysis. The goal of reusing the online compute farm to maintain a storage cluster and job submission will be an efficient use of the current infrastructure.

  5. Modeling and experimental performance of an intermediate temperature reversible solid oxide cell for high-efficiency, distributed-scale electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Christopher H.; Gao, Zhan; Barnett, Scott A.; Braun, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical energy storage is expected to be a critical component of the future world energy system, performing load-leveling operations to enable increased penetration of renewable and distributed generation. Reversible solid oxide cells, operating sequentially between power-producing fuel cell mode and fuel-producing electrolysis mode, have the capability to provide highly efficient, scalable electricity storage. However, challenges ranging from cell performance and durability to system integration must be addressed before widespread adoption. One central challenge of the system design is establishing effective thermal management in the two distinct operating modes. This work leverages an operating strategy to use carbonaceous reactant species and operate at intermediate stack temperature (650 °C) to promote exothermic fuel-synthesis reactions that thermally self-sustain the electrolysis process. We present performance of a doped lanthanum-gallate (LSGM) electrolyte solid oxide cell that shows high efficiency in both operating modes at 650 °C. A physically based electrochemical model is calibrated to represent the cell performance and used to simulate roundtrip operation for conditions unique to these reversible systems. Design decisions related to system operation are evaluated using the cell model including current density, fuel and oxidant reactant compositions, and flow configuration. The analysis reveals tradeoffs between electrical efficiency, thermal management, energy density, and durability.

  6. s-process studies in the light of new experimental cross sections: Distribution of neutron fluences and r-process residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Beer, H.; Wisshak, K.; Clayton, D.D.; Macklin, R.L.; Ward, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A best set of neutron-capture cross sections has been evaluated for the most important s-process isotopes. With this data base, s-process studies have been carried out using the traditional model which assumes a steady neutron flux and an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations. The calculated sigmaN-curve is in excellent agreement with the empirical sigmaN-values of pure s-process nuclei. Simultaneously, good agreement is found between the difference of solar and s-process abundances and the abundances of pure r-process nuclei. We also discuss the abundance pattern of the iron group elements where our s-process results complement the abundances obtained from explosive nuclear burning. The results obtained from the traditional s-process model such as seed abundances, mean neutron irradiations, or neutron densities are compared to recent stellar model calculations which assume the He-burning shells of red giant stars as the site for the s-process. (orig.) [de

  7. Experimental search for second-class currents. Beta-ray angular distributions from aligned nuclei /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K; Minamisono, T; Nojiri, Y; Masuda, Y [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

    1978-01-01

    The ..beta..-energy dependent angular distributions, W(theta) asymptoticaly equals 1 +- P(1 + ..cap alpha../sub +-/E)P/sub 1/(cos theta) + A..cap alpha../sub +-/EP/sub 2/(cos theta), from the aligned nuclei /sup 12/B and /sup 12/N have been measured. Positive A/sup +/ and negative A/sup -/ alignments were successively produced, by use of NMR, after every other production period of polarized nuclei through nuclear reactions; A/sup +/ - A/sup -/ asymptoticaly equals 0.26 for /sup 12/B and /sup +/A/sup +/ - A/sup - +/ asymptoticaly equals 0.55 for /sup 12/N with p asymptoticaly equals 0. The results are ..cap alpha../sub -/(/sup 12/B) = 0.02/sub 5/ +- 0.03/sub 4/%/MeV, /sup +/..cap alpha../sub +/(/sup 12/N)/sup +/ = 0.27/sub 7/ +- 0.05/sub 2/%/MeV, and ..cap alpha../sub -/ - ..cap alpha../sub +/ = 0.30/sub 2/ +- 0.06/sub 2/%/MeV assuming ..cap alpha../sub +/<0. In comparison with available data for CVC test in the mass-12 triad and theoretical predictions, the present ..cap alpha../sub -/ - ..cap alpha../sub +/ value is consistent within 20% level with predictions of the CVC theory and with absence of second-class induced-tensor currents.

  8. Experimental physics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yang Su; Oh, Byeong Seong

    2010-05-01

    This book introduces measurement and error, statistics of experimental data, population, sample variable, distribution function, propagation of error, mean and measurement of error, adjusting to rectilinear equation, common sense of error, experiment method, and record and statement. It also explains importance of error of estimation, systematic error, random error, treatment of single variable, significant figure, deviation, mean value, median, mode, sample mean, sample standard deviation, binomial distribution, gauss distribution, and method of least squares.

  9. Distribution of haemic neoplasia of soft-shelled clams in Prince Edward Island: an examination of anthropogenic factors and effects of experimental fungicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, D R; MacCallum, G S; McGladdery, S E; Davidson, J

    2016-05-01

    Haemic neoplasia was first considered a disease of concern for soft-shell clams in Prince Edward Island (PEI) when it was diagnosed as the cause of mass mortalities in 1999. The aetiology of the disease remains elusive, but has been associated with environmental degradation. In this study, a 2-year (2001-2002) geographic and seasonal survey was conducted for haemic neoplasia, using histology, in soft-shell clams from PEI. In addition, using geographic information system, the association between anthropogenic factors in the watersheds at sites affected by haemic neoplasia and the prevalence of the disease was investigated. Finally, histopathological changes were assessed in soft-shell clams experimentally exposed to four concentrations of chlorothalonil for 27 days. Haemic neoplasia could not be induced at any concentration of chlorothalonil. Clams exposed to a concentration of 1000 μg L(-1) of the fungicide, however, exhibited an LC50 of 17 days. Although this information provides additional toxicity information (LC50) for soft-shell clams, further experiments are required to assess longer term exposure to the fungicide. The highest prevalences of haemic neoplasia in PEI were found in North River and Miscouche (28.3-50.9% and 33.0-77.8%, respectively). No clear seasonal patterns were found. There was a correlation between haemic neoplasia prevalence and watersheds with a high percentage of potato acreage and forest coverage (P = 0.026 and P = 0.045, respectively), suggesting a link between anthropogenic activity and the prevalence of the disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the phase relation in the Fe-S-Si system with implications for the distribution of S and Si in a partially solidified core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Fei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary cooling leads to solidification of any initially molten metallic core. Some terrestrial cores (e.g. Mercury) are formed and differentiated under relatively reduced conditions, and they are thought to be composed of Fe-S-Si. However, there are limited understanding of the phase relations in the Fe-S-Si system at high pressure and temperature. In this study, we conducted high-pressure experiments to investigate the phase relations in the Fe-S-Si system up to 25 GPa. Experimental results show that the liquidus and solidus in this study are slightly lower than those in the Fe-S binary system for the same S concentration in liquid at same pressure. The Fe3S, which is supposed to be the stable sub-solidus S-bearing phase in the Fe-S binary system above 17 GPa, is not observed in the Fe-S-Si system at 21 GPa. Almost all S prefers to partition into liquid, while the distribution of Si between solid and liquid depends on experimental P and T conditions. We obtained the partition coefficient log(KDSi) by fitting the experimental data as a function of P, T and S concentration in liquid. At a constant pressure, the log(KDSi) linearly decreases with 1/T(K). With increase of pressure, the slopes of linear correlation between log(KDSi) and 1/T(K) decreases, indicating that more Si partitions into solid at higher pressure. In order to interpolate and extrapolate the phase relations over a wide pressure and temperature range, we established a comprehensive thermodynamic model in the Fe-S-Si system. The results will be used to constrain the distribution of S and Si between solid inner core and liquid outer core for a range of planet sizes. A Si-rich solid inner core and a S-rich liquid outer core are suggested for an iron-rich core.

  11. Experimental study of the spatial distribution of the velocity field of sedimenting particles: mean velocity, pseudo-turbulent fluctuations, intrinsic convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Michel, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work follows previous experiments from Nicolai et al. (95), Peysson and Guazzelli (98) and Segre et al. (97), which consisted in measures of the velocity of particles sedimenting in a liquid at low particular Reynolds numbers. Our goal, introduced in the first part with a bibliographic study, is to determinate the particles velocity fluctuations properties. The fluctuations are indeed of the same order as the mean velocity. We are proceeding with PIV Eulerian measures. The method is described in the second part. Its originality comes from measures obtained in a thin laser light sheet, from one side to the other of the cells, with a square section: the measures are therefore spatially localised. Four sets of cells and three sets of particles were used, giving access to ratios 'cell width over particle radius' ranging from about 50 up to 800. In the third part, we present the results concerning the velocity fluctuations structure and their spatial distribution. The intrinsic convection between to parallel vertical walls is also studied. The velocity fluctuations are organised in eddy structures. Their size (measured with correlation length) is independent of the volume fraction, contradicting the results of Segre et al. (97). The results concerning the velocity fluctuations spatial profiles - from one side to the other of the cell - confirm those published by Peysson and Guazzelli (98) in the case of stronger dilution. The evolution of the spatial mean velocity fluctuations confirms the results obtained by Segre et al. (97). The intrinsic convection is also observed in the case of strong dilutions. (author)

  12. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  13. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  14. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  15. Assessment of re-distribution and efficacy of stem cell transplantation in different heart status after acute myocardial infarction by MRI: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Minjie; Zhao Shihua; Song Peng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of MRI for assessment of re-distribution of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected intramyocardially in main organs (heart, liver, spleen and kidney) under different heart status (beating or arresting) in a porcine model. Methods: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the male swine and labeled with iron oxide during culture. Acute myocardial infarction was created in female swine, one week later, the survivors were randomly divided into 4 groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass was set up to arrest the heart, and then labeled cells (1 × 10 8 ) were intramyocardially injected into the border of the infracted myocardium in group 1 (n=6). The same volume of cells was grafted into the beating heart in group 2 (n=6). In group 3 and 4, saline was injected into either the arresting or beating myocardium. Three days later, re-distribution of stem cells and cardiac function were assessed by T 2 * WI and cine MRI, respectively. All animals were sacrificed for histology and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of sex-determining region on Y-chromosome (SRY) investigation. The ANOVA and t test was used for statistics. Results: The left ventricular end- diastolic volume (LVEDV) before transplantation for group 1-4 were: (56.8±5.3), (54.8±6.8), (57.4±4.3) and (56.8±2.8) ml, and after transplantation for group 1-4 were: (65.2±5.2), (63.2± 3.7), (60.2±4.7) and (62.2±4.4) ml. The left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) before transplantation for group 1-4 were : (33.5±7.6), (32.3±5.3), (33.5±3.6) and (32.7±4.6) ml, and after transplantation for group 1-4 were: (37.3±5.6), (36.3±6.9), (34.3±5.4) and (36.3± 8.1) ml. The left ventricular EF values (LVEF) before transplantation for group 1-4 were: (42.3± 7.2)%, (41.7±6.8)%, (41.8±8.6)% and (42.7±7.7)%, and after transplantation for group 1- 4 were: (44.5±8.7)%, (43.1±7.4)%, (42.8±5.6)% and (43.3±8.4)%. The myocardial infarction

  16. A MECHANISM FOR HYSTERESIS IN BLACK HOLE BINARY STATE TRANSITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    We suggest that the hysteretic cycle of black hole state transitions arises from two established properties of accretion disks: the increase in turbulent stress in disks threaded by a net magnetic field and the ability of thick (but not thin) disks to advect such a field radially. During quiescence, magnetic field loops are generated by the magnetorotational instability at the interface between the inner hot flow and outer thin disk. Vertical flux is advected into and accumulates stochastically within the inner flow, where it stimulates the turbulence so that α ∼ 1. The transition to a geometrically thin inner disk occurs when L ∼ α 2 L Edd ∼ L Edd , and the first ''thin'' disk to form is itself moderately thick, strongly magnetized, and able to advect field inward. These properties favor episodic jet production. As the accretion rate declines magnetic flux escapes, α decreases to α ∼ 0.01-0.1, and a hot inner flow is not re-established until L << L Edd . We discuss possible observational consequences of our scenario

  17. Heterogeneity and subjectivity in binary-state opinion formation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Long; Luo, Zhongjie; Zhu, Yueying

    2013-01-01

    In society, there is heterogeneous interaction and randomness in human decision making. In order to unfold the roles and the competition of the two factors mentioned above in opinion formation, we propose a toy model, which follows a majority rule with a Fermi function, on scale-free networks with degree exponent γ. The heterogeneous interaction is related to the connectivity of a person with the interactive parameter β, and the randomness of human decision making is quantified by the interaction noise T. We find that a system with heterogeneity of network topology and interaction shows robustness perturbed by the interaction noise T according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Then, when T → 0, the homogeneous interaction (β ≃ 0) has a powerful implication for the emergence of a consensus state. Furthermore, the emergence of the two extreme values shows the competition of the heterogeneity of interaction and the subjectivity of human decision making in opinion formation. Our present work provides some perspective on and tools for understanding the diversity of opinion in our society. (paper)

  18. Experimental and numerical investigations on the temperature distribution in PVD AlTiN coated and uncoated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateesh Kumar, Ch; Patel, Saroj Kumar; Das, Anshuman

    2018-03-01

    Temperature generation in cutting tools is one of the major causes of tool failure especially during hard machining where machining forces are quite high resulting in elevated temperatures. Thus, the present work investigates the temperature generation during hard machining of AISI 52100 steel (62 HRC hardness) with uncoated and PVD AlTiN coated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools. The experiments were performed on a heavy duty lathe machine with both coated and uncoated cutting tools under dry cutting environment. The temperature of the cutting zone was measured using an infrared thermometer and a finite element model has been adopted to predict the temperature distribution in cutting tools during machining for comparative assessment with the measured temperature. The experimental and numerical results revealed a significant reduction of cutting zone temperature during machining with PVD AlTiN coated cutting tools when compared to uncoated cutting tools during each experimental run. The main reason for decrease in temperature for AlTiN coated tools is the lower coefficient of friction offered by the coating material which allows the free flow of the chips on the rake surface when compared with uncoated cutting tools. Further, the superior wear behaviour of AlTiN coating resulted in reduction of cutting temperature.

  19. Distributed SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Valachis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sean; Gough, David W.; Nicholson, David; Greenway, Phil

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we have developed techniques for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building based on the augmented state Kalman filter. Here we report the results of experiments conducted over multiple vehicles each equipped with a laser range finder for sensing the external environment, and a laser tracking system to provide highly accurate ground truth. The goal is simultaneously to build a map of an unknown environment and to use that map to navigate a vehicle that otherwise would have no way of knowing its location, and to distribute this process over several vehicles. We have constructed an on-line, distributed implementation to demonstrate the principle. In this paper we describe the system architecture, the nature of the experimental set up, and the results obtained. These are compared with the estimated ground truth. We show that distributed SLAM has a clear advantage in the sense that it offers a potential super-linear speed-up over single vehicle SLAM. In particular, we explore the time taken to achieve a given quality of map, and consider the repeatability and accuracy of the method. Finally, we discuss some practical implementation issues.

  20. Contribution to the experimental study of wave particle interactions in a plasma having a two-population electronic distribution function; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'interaction ondes-particules dans un plasma presentant une fonction de distribution electronique a deux populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The aim of this work is the experimental study of the interaction between electrostatic waves and electrons in a plasma characterized by a so called 'bump in tail' distribution function. To study experimentally the mechanism of this interaction it is necessary to measure precisely the electron distribution and its evolution in space or in time. This was performed with an electrostatic separation probe which was designed especially. We measured also the evolution in space and time of the noise spectrum. We studied this mechanism in two different regimes of our discharge: - In the first case the distribution function is very close to that describing the interaction of a semi-infinite plasma with a cold beam injected at its edge. We showed that the instability resulting from this interaction is convective and that the growth of the waves results in a very important modification of the distribution function. The ionization due to the electric field related to the waves is also important. This modification is similar to that described by the quasi linear theory. The mechanism described by this theory remains then qualitatively valid in a strongly non linear case. - In the second case the conditions necessary for the quasi linear theory to be valid are satisfactorily fulfilled. It is then possible to measure, simultaneously, and precisely, the evolution of the distribution function and of the noise spectrum. From these measurements one can deduce the mechanism of the energy exchange between waves and particles and show that it is in good agreement with that described by the quasi linear theory. (author) [French] On presente ici l'etude experimentale detaillee du mecanisme de l'echange d'energie entre les oscillations e la frequence plasma des electrons et des electrons energetiques dans un plasma presentant une fonction de distribution du type a 'double bosse'. Pour realiser cette etude on a mis au point, une 'sonde a separation electrostatique' qui permet de mesurer

  1. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  2. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  4. Experimental guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes a model experimental design to study the effects of pesticides on particular ecosystem. It takes maize as a model crop and an alternative crop while studying the adverse effects on untargeted arthropods, residues in the soil and other plants. 5 refs, 7 figs

  5. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  6. Neutronic evolution of SENA reactor during the first and second cycles. Comparison between the experimental power distributions obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE and the theoretical power values computed with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, Chantal

    1976-03-01

    The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr

  7. Distributed Analysis in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Fanfani, Alessandra; Sanches, Jose Afonso; Andreeva, Julia; Bagliesi, Giusepppe; Bauerdick, Lothar; Belforte, Stefano; Bittencourt Sampaio, Patricia; Bloom, Ken; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Brew, Chris; Calloni, Marco; Cesini, Daniele; Cinquilli, Mattia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Dong, Liang; Dongiovanni, Danilo; Donvito, Giacinto; Dykstra, David; Edelmann, Erik; Egeland, Ricky; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, Dave; Fanzago, Federica; Farina, Fabio; Feichtinger, Derek; Fisk, Ian; Flix, Josep; Grandi, Claudio; Guo, Yuyi; Happonen, Kalle; Hernandez, Jose M; Huang, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kejing; Karavakis, Edward; Kasemann, Matthias; Kavka, Carlos; Khan, Akram; Kim, Bockjoo; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Kress, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter; Kurca, Tibor; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Letts, James; Linden, Tomas; Lueking, Lee; Maes, Joris; Magini, Nicolo; Maier, Gerhild; McBride, Patricia; Metson, Simon; Miccio, Vincenzo; Padhi, Sanjay; Pi, Haifeng; Riahi, Hassen; Riley, Daniel; Rossman, Paul; Saiz, Pablo; Sartirana, Andrea; Sciaba, Andrea; Sekhri, Vijay; Spiga, Daniele; Tuura, Lassi; Vaandering, Eric; Vanelderen, Lukas; Van Mulders, Petra; Vedaee, Aresh; Villella, Ilaria; Wicklund, Eric; Wildish, Tony; Wissing, Christoph; Wurthwein, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment expects to manage several Pbytes of data each year during the LHC programme, distributing them over many computing sites around the world and enabling data access at those centers for analysis. CMS has identified the distributed sites as the primary location for physics analysis to support a wide community with thousands potential users. This represents an unprecedented experimental challenge in terms of the scale of distributed computing resources and number of user. An overview of the computing architecture, the software tools and the distributed infrastructure is reported. Summaries of the experience in establishing efficient and scalable operations to get prepared for CMS distributed analysis are presented, followed by the user experience in their current analysis activities.

  8. Experimental insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  9. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  10. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  11. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is

  12. Experimental study of the pion-xenon nucleus collisions with-out particle production at 3.5 GeV/c momentum: physical meaning of the proton multiplicity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugal'ski, Z.; Pawlak, T.; Pluta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution of multiplicities of protons emitted in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c was studied in such events in which incident pion is totally absorbed within the target nucleus without produced particles. The distribution is symmetrical relatively to the proton multiplicity nsub(p)=7.4+-0.3. It is exactly described by binoamial formula, without any fitting, on the basis of an information about the size of the target nucleus and nucleon density distribution in it

  13. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  14. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-08-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site wave exposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.

  15. Experimental site and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, C. C. [SINTEF Applied Cemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Design and site selection criteria for the Svalbard oil spill experiments are described. All three experimental sites have coarse and mixed sediment beaches of sand and pebble; within each site waveexposure is very similar; along-shore and across-shore sediment characteristics are also relatively homogeneous. Tidal range is in the order of 0.6 m at neaps, and 1.8 m at springs. All three sites are open to wave action and are ice-free during the experimental period of mid-July to mid-October. Study plots at each site were selected for different treatments from within the continuous stretch of oiled shoreline, with oiled buffer zones between plots and at either end of the oiled zone. Treatments included mixing (tilling), sediment relocation (surf washing) and bioremediation (nutrient enrichment). Measurements and observations were carried out during the summers of 1997 and 1998. The characteristics measured were: wave and wind conditions; beach topography and elevation; sediment grain size distribution; mineral fines size distribution and mineral composition; background hydrocarbons; concentration of oil within experimental plots and the rate of oil loss over time; depth of oil penetration and thickness of the oiled sediment layer; oil concentration and toxicity of near-shore benthic sediments; mineral composition of suspended particulate material captured in sub-tidal sediment traps; and oil-fines interaction in near-shore water samples. 1 fig.

  16. Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

  17. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  18. Poisson distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The random variable X taking values 0,1,2,…,x,… with probabilities pλ(x) = e−λλx/x!, where λ∈R0+ is called a Poisson variable, and its distribution a Poisson distribution, with parameter λ. The Poisson distribution with parameter λ can be obtained as the limit, as n → ∞ and p → 0 in such a way that

  19. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  20. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  1. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  2. Dyadic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, B I

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of pointwise dyadic derivative dyadic distributions are introduced as continuous linear functionals on the linear space D d (R + ) of infinitely differentiable functions compactly supported by the positive half-axis R + together with all dyadic derivatives. The completeness of the space D' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions is established. It is shown that a locally integrable function on R + generates a dyadic distribution. In addition, the space S d (R + ) of infinitely dyadically differentiable functions on R + rapidly decreasing in the neighbourhood of +∞ is defined. The space S' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions of slow growth is introduced as the space of continuous linear functionals on S d (R + ). The completeness of the space S' d (R + ) is established; it is proved that each integrable function on R + with polynomial growth at +∞ generates a dyadic distribution of slow growth. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  3. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  4. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  5. Aid Distribution and Cooperation in Unequal Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exelle, D' B.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study aid distribution and cooperation in a field lab in rural Nicaragua. In the first stage of the experimental game, participants contribute to a collective effort that determines the amount of aid given to the group, which is distributed among the players in a second stage. We

  6. Mass and charge distributions of amyloid fibers involved in neurodegenerative diseases: mapping heterogeneity and polymorphism† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04542e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansieri, Jonathan; Halim, Mohammad A.; Vendrely, Charlotte; Dumoulin, Mireille; Legrand, François; Sallanon, Marcelle Moulin; Chierici, Sabine; Denti, Simona; Dagany, Xavier; Dugourd, Philippe; Marquette, Christel

    2018-01-01

    Heterogeneity and polymorphism are generic features of amyloid fibers with some important effects on the related disease development. We report here the characterization, by charge detection mass spectrometry, of amyloid fibers made of three polypeptides involved in neurodegenerative diseases: Aβ1–42 peptide, tau and α-synuclein. Beside the mass of individual fibers, this technique enables to characterize the heterogeneity and the polymorphism of the population. In the case of Aβ1–42 peptide and tau protein, several coexisting species could be distinguished and characterized. In the case of α-synuclein, we show how the polymorphism affects the mass and charge distributions. PMID:29732065

  7. Distributed creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly...... used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...

  8. Experimental investigation of gas flow rate and electric field effect on refractive index and electron density distribution of cold atmospheric pressure-plasma by optical method, Moiré deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzadeh, Mohammad; Jamal, Fatemeh; Shariat, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, cold atmospheric-pressure (CAP) helium plasma jets are widely used in material processing devices in various industries. Researchers often use indirect and spectrometric methods for measuring the plasma parameters which are very expensive. In this paper, for the first time, characterization of CAP, i.e., finding its parameters such as refractive index and electron density distribution, was carried out using an optical method, Moiré deflectometry. This method is a wave front analysis technique based on geometric optics. The advantages of this method are simplicity, high accuracy, and low cost along with the non-contact, non-destructive, and direct measurement of CAP parameters. This method demonstrates that as the helium gas flow rate decreases, the refractive index increases. Also, we must note that the refractive index is larger in the gas flow consisting of different flow rates of plasma comparing with the gas flow without the plasma.

  9. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Albers, B. [National Research Center for Environmental and Health (Georgia); Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment (Germany)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs,{sup 90}Sr, {sup 239},{sup 240}{sub Pu}) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  10. General characterisation of study area and definition of experimental protocols. WP 1 in the project 'Effect of industrial pollution on the distribution dynamics of radionuclides in boreal understorey ecosystems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Albers, B.; Bergman, R.

    1999-08-01

    The research project EPORA (Effects of Industrial Pollution on the Distribution Dynamics of Radionuclides in Boreal Understorey Ecosystems) is part of the EU Nuclear Fission Safety Programme 1994 - 1998. The main purpose of EPORA is to study the influence of strong chemical pollution on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 , 240 Pu ) in a northern boreal ecosystem and subsequently to assess the significance of the findings to the radiation exposure of the population in such areas. The present report is a documentation of the selection of study areas based on the assessment of available information on pollution in the Kola Peninsula and Northern Fennoscandia and of sampling and analysing methods. (orig.)

  11. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  12. Potential distribution of a nonuniformly charged ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwamoto, Y.; Aoki, J.; Soga, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient formula is obtained for fast calculation of the three-dimensional potential distribution associated with a spatially varying charge-density distribution by reconstructing it as a superposed set of nested spheroidal shells. It is useful for experimental analyses of near-equilibrium states of non-neutral plasmas and for quick evaluation of the gravity field associated with stellar mass distributions

  13. Experimental evaluation of blockage ratio and plenum evacuation system flow effects on pressure distribution for bodies of revolution in 0.1 scale model test section of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard R.; Harrington, Douglas E.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the slotted test section of the 0.1-scale model of the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel to evaluate wall interference effects at tunnel Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.95 on bodies of revolution with blockage rates of 0.43, 3, 6, and 12 percent. The amount of flow that had to be removed from the plenum chamber (which surrounded the slotted test section) by the plenum evacuation system (PES) to eliminate wall interference effects was determined. The effectiveness of tunnel reentry flaps in removing flow from the plenum chamber was examined. The 0.43-percent blockage model was the only one free of wall interference effects with no PES flow. Surface pressures on the forward part of the other models were greater than interference-free results and were not influenced by PES flow. Interference-free results were achieved on the aft part of the 3- and 6-percent blockage models with the proper amount of PES flow. The required PES flow was substantially reduced by opening the reentry flaps.

  14. Experimental Study on Short Circuit Phenomena in Air Switch of Distribution Line due to Sparkover between Different Poles on Which One Surge Arrester of the Three Ones is Omitted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Satoshi; Asakawa, Akira; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Honda, Hideki; Horikoshi, Kazuhiro

    In this study, we experimentally examined the possibility of the internal short circuit of an air switch due to the sparkover between different poles under the condition that no surge arrester exists in neighboring poles and one of three surge arresters is omitted at the pole with an air switch. Experiments at Shiobara Testing Yard and Akagi Testing Center of CRIEPI clarified the following. Fault current may flow via the grounding point of a pole with an air switch and that of the next pole on a different phase from grounded phase of the pole with an air switch. If the low-voltage wire, overhead ground wire or communication wire forms a short circuit between them, ultimately the air switch may burn out. Moreover Fault current continues even if the length of the short-circuit between different poles is increased. Although the increase of the short-circuit length results in the increase of wire impedance, the amount of increase is still small compared with source impedance.

  15. Cross section and panti p invariant mass distribution of the reaction γp → panti pp at 4.74-6.55 GeV, an experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenkamp, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper gives a report of a photoproduction experiment of proton-antiproton pairs on hydrogen in the elastic reaction γp → panti pp which was performed at the Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron in Hamburg. The results of our measurements do not show substantial energy dependence in the energy range in our experiment. We obtain an integrated cross section of 79.6 +- 6 nbarn for the investigated reaction. Data accumulations could be observed in the invariant mass distribution of the proton antiproton pairs at 1940 MeV/c 2 and 2020 MeV/c 2 . The signal at 2020 MeV/c 2 has a statistical significance of 3.5 standard deviations and is in agreement with a resonance of the panti p-system reported in earlier experiments, a Breit-Wigner fit to the data yielded for mass msub(o) and width GAMMAsub(o) of this signal m 0 = 2.023 +- .005 GeV/c 2 GAMMA 0 = 27 +- 12 MeV/c 2 . (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Anal submucosal injection: a new route for drug administration in pelvic malignancies. Part I. Experimental study of misonidazole distribution in serum and tissues, with special reference to urinary bladder. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, A.; el-Merzabani, M.M.; el-Aaser, A.A.; el-Desouky, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The anal and oral administration routes were compared in 30 rats to study the distribution of misonidazole, a radiation sensitizer, in the serum and tissues with special reference to the urinary bladder. 14C-labelled misonidazole was administered in a dose of 0.2 ml water/100 gm body weight containing 1 mu Ci misonidazole. The dose was given orally by stomach tube in 15 rats, and was injected in the submucosa of the anal canal in another 15. Animals were then killed after 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes or after 24 hours. Organs were dissected, and radioactivity was determined in each by the internal standard method. The study has shown that the highest drug concentration in the bladder tissue relative to the serum was achieved with the anal submucosal route. Its level was eight and five times that of the serum 15 and 30 minutes after administration, respectively, in contrast to the oral route in which the drug concentration was one-quarter and equal to the serum level at the same time intervals. The anal route would thus provide the adequate channel required for misonidazole to promote radiation responsiveness in bladder carcinoma

  17. Distributed propulsion.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Robin; Rosvall, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    En prestandaanalys utfördes på en SAAB 2000 som referensobjekt. Olika metoder för att driva flygplan på ett miljövänligare sätt utvärderades tillsammans med distributed propulsion. Efter undersökningar valdes elmotorer tillsammans med Zink-luft batterier för att driva SAAB 2000 med distributed propulsion. En prestandaanalys utfördes på detta plan på samma sätt som för den ursprungliga SAAB 2000. Resultaten jämfördes och slutsatsen blev att räckvidden var för kort för att konfigurationen skull...

  18. Quasihomogeneous distributions

    CERN Document Server

    von Grudzinski, O

    1991-01-01

    This is a systematic exposition of the basics of the theory of quasihomogeneous (in particular, homogeneous) functions and distributions (generalized functions). A major theme is the method of taking quasihomogeneous averages. It serves as the central tool for the study of the solvability of quasihomogeneous multiplication equations and of quasihomogeneous partial differential equations with constant coefficients. Necessary and sufficient conditions for solvability are given. Several examples are treated in detail, among them the heat and the Schrödinger equation. The final chapter is devoted to quasihomogeneous wave front sets and their application to the description of singularities of quasihomogeneous distributions, in particular to quasihomogeneous fundamental solutions of the heat and of the Schrödinger equation.

  19. Superclusters and hadronic multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Carruthers, P.

    1986-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution is expressed in terms of supercluster production in hadronic processes at high energy. This process creates unstable clusters at intermediate stages and hadrons in final stage. It includes Poisson-transform distributions (with the partially coherent distribution as a special case) and is very flexible for phenomenological analyses. The associated Koba, Nielson, and Olesen limit and the behavior of cumulant moments are analyzed in detail for finite and/or infinite cluster size and particle size per cluster. In general, a supercluster distribution does not need to be equivalent to a negative binomial distribution to fit experimental data well. Furthermore, the requirement of such equivalence leads to many solutions, in which the average size of the cluster is not logarithmic: e.g., it may show a power behavior instead. Superclustering is defined as a two-or multi-stage process underlying observed global multiplicity distributions. At the first stage of the production process, individual clusters are produced according to a given statistical law. For example, the clustering distribution may be described by partially coherent (oreven sub-Poissonian distribution models. At the second stage, the clusters are considered as the sources of particle production. The corresponding distribution may then be as general as the clustering distribution just mentioned. 8 refs

  20. Enabling distributed petascale science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Bharathi, Shishir; Bresnahan, John

    2007-01-01

    Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science

  1. Expression and distribution of connexin 32 in rat liver with experimentally induced fibrosis Expressão e distribuição da conexina 32 em fígados de ratos com fibrose induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro dos S. Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The connexin 32 (Cx32 is a protein that forms the channels that promote the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC in the liver, allowing the diffusion of small molecules through cytosol from cell-to-cell. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a disruption of normal tissue architeture by cellular lesions, and may alter the GJIC. This work aimed to study the expression and distribution of Cx32 in liver fibrosis induced by the oral administration of dimethylnitrosamine in female Wistar rats. The necropsy of the rats was carried out after five weeks of drug administration. They presented a hepatic fibrosis state. Sections from livers with fibrosis and from control livers were submitted to immunohistochemical, Real Time-PCR and Western-Blot analysis to Cx32. In fibrotic livers the Cxs were diffusely scattered in the cytoplasm, contrasting with the control livers, where the Cx32 formed junction plaques at the cell membrane. Also it was found a decrease in the gene expression of Cx32 without reduction in the protein quantity when compared with controls. These results suggest that there the mechanism of intercellular communication between hepatocytes was reduced by the fibrotic process, which may predispose to the occurrence of a neoplastic process, taken in account that connexins are considered tumor suppressing genes.A conexina 32 (Cx32 é uma proteína que constitui os canais que promovem as comunicações intercelulares via junções comunicantes (CIJC no fígado, permitindo difusão de pequenas moléculas citoplasmáticas de uma célula à outra. A fibrose hepática caracteriza-se pela alteração da arquitetura normal do fígado e podem alterar as CIJCs. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição de Cx32 na fibrose hepática. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a expressão e distribuição da Cx32 em fígados com fibrose induzida pela administração oral de dimetilnitrosamina em fêmeas de ratos Wistar. A

  2. Distributional Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Beare, Brendan K.

    2009-01-01

    Suppose that X and Y are random variables. We define a replicating function to be a function f such that f(X) and Y have the same distribution. In general, the set of replicating functions for a given pair of random variables may be infinite. Suppose we have some objective function, or cost function, defined over the set of replicating functions, and we seek to estimate the replicating function with the lowest cost. We develop an approach to estimating the cheapest replicating function that i...

  3. Mail distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the mail distribution and collection times will be modified for the following buildings: 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 69, 40, 70, 101, 102, 109, 118, 152, 153, 154, 155, 166, 167, 169, 171, 174, 261, 354, 358, 576, 579 and 580. Complementary Information on the new times will be posted on the entry doors and left in the mail boxes of each building. TS/FM Group

  4. Distribution switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Stan

    2004-01-01

    Switchgear plays a fundamental role within the power supply industry. It is required to isolate faulty equipment, divide large networks into sections for repair purposes, reconfigure networks in order to restore power supplies and control other equipment.This book begins with the general principles of the Switchgear function and leads on to discuss topics such as interruption techniques, fault level calculations, switching transients and electrical insulation; making this an invaluable reference source. Solutions to practical problems associated with Distribution Switchgear are also included.

  5. BENSC. Experimental reports 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1994. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  6. BENSC experimental reports 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Michaelsen, R.

    1994-05-01

    This volume contains the guest groups' experimental reports describing experimental work carried out on the Berlin Scattering Center in 1993. These experimental reports are intended as interim summaries. (HP)

  7. Building flexible, distributed collaboration tools using type-based publish/subscribe - The Distributed Knight case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2004-01-01

    Distributed collaboration is becoming increasingly impor tant also in software development. Combined with an in creasing interest in experimental and agile approaches to software development, this poses challenges to tool sup port for software development. Specifically, tool support is needed...... for flexible, distributed collaboration. We intro duce the Distributed Knight tool that provides flexible and lightweight support for distributed collaboration in object oriented modelling. The Distributed Knight implementa tion builds crucially on the type-based publish/subscribe distributed communication...... paradigm, which provides an effective and natural abstraction for developing distributed collaboration tools....

  8. Using IMPRINT to Guide Experimental Design with Simulated Task Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    USING IMPRINT TO GUIDE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF SIMULATED TASK ENVIRONMENTS THESIS Gregory...ENG-MS-15-J-052 USING IMPRINT TO GUIDE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN WITH SIMULATED TASK ENVIRONMENTS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department...Civilian, USAF June 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-J-052 USING IMPRINT

  9. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies and...

  10. Architectural Principles and Experimentation of Distributed High Performance Virtual Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of virtualization and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), the broader scientific computing community is considering the use of clouds for their scientific computing needs. This is due to the relative scalability, ease of use, advanced user environment customization abilities, and the many novel computing paradigms available for…

  11. On the seagull effect in semi-inclusive distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, W.

    1978-01-01

    Taking into account that pions contain two constituents, the semi-inclusive distributions are derived by information theory. From these distributions the psub(L)psub(T) correlations are especially calculated, the results are compared with experimental data

  12. Integrated load distribution and production planning in series-parallel multi-state systems with failure rate depending on load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Yalaoui, Farouk

    2012-01-01

    A production system containing a set of machines (also called components) arranged according to a series-parallel configuration is addressed. A set of products must be produced in lots on this production system during a specified finite planning horizon. This paper presents a method for integrating load distribution decisions, and tactical production planning considering the costs of capacity change and the costs of unused capacity. The objective is to minimize the sum of capacity change costs, unused capacity costs, setup costs, holding costs, backorder costs, and production costs. The main constraints consist in satisfying the demand for all products over the entire horizon, and in not exceeding available repair resource. The production series-parallel system is modeled as a multi-state system with binary-state components. The proposed model takes into account the dependence of machines' failure rates on their load. Universal generating function technique can be used in the optimization algorithm for evaluating the expected system production rate in each period. We show how the formulated problem can be solved by comparing the results of several multi-product lot-sizing problems with capacity associated costs. The importance of integrating load distribution decisions and production planning is illustrated through numerical examples.

  13. Quantum key distribution on Hannover Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, AG Quanteninformation (Germany); Haendchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman [Albert Einstein Institut, Quantum Interferometry (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We report on the progress of the implementation of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution on Hannover campus using squeezed gaussian states (continuous variables). This poster focuses on the theoretical aspects of the project. Experimental data has been compared with the theoretical simulation of the experimental setup. We especially discuss effects of the homodyne detection and postprocessing in use on the measurement outcome.

  14. Aerosol distribution measurements by laser - Doppler - spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldassari, J.

    1977-01-01

    Laser-Doppler-Spectroscopy is used to study particle size distribution, especially sodium aerosols, in the presence of uncondensable gases. Theoretical basis are given, and an experimental technique is described. First theoretical results show reasonably good agreement with experimental data available; this method seems to be a promising one. (author)

  15. Handbook of distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, In Gyu

    1992-01-01

    This book tells of business strategy and distribution innovation, purpose of intelligent distribution, intelligent supply distribution, intelligent production distribution, intelligent sale distribution software for intelligence and future and distribution. It also introduces component technology keeping intelligent distribution such as bar cord, OCR, packing, and intelligent auto-warehouse, system technology, and cases in America, Japan and other countries.

  16. Top quark distributions in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We present kinematical distributions for top quark pairs produced at the Tevatron \\ppbar\\ Collider, as predicted within Next-to-Leading-Order QCD. We consider single and double-inclusive distributions, and compare our results to those obtained with the shower Monte Carlo HERWIG. We discuss the implications of our findings for experimental issues such as the measurement of the top quark mass.

  17. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  18. Sub-barrier fusion: An experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains a review of the current status of the experimental study of heavy-ion fusion at sub-barrier energies. Emphasis is placed on the comparison of the experimentally observed quantities with theoretical expectations. Results of measurements of the spin distributions of the composite systems formed following fusion are critically examined with a view to understanding the large discrepancies between theory and experiment which exist for some systems. 20 refs., 14 figs

  19. Experimental study of the pile EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The results of two months' experiments, carried out at low power following the first divergence (4. July 1957) are presented. These experiments dealt with the following points: comparison of experimental and calculated values of the critical size; effects due to the introduction of absorbing materials into the principal experimental facilities, flux distribution measurements especially in these facilities, calibration of safety, control and compensating rods, determination of the average life of the neutrons. (author) [fr

  20. Experimental research on air propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, William F

    1918-01-01

    The purposes of the experimental investigation on the performance of air propellers described in this report are as follows: (1) the development of a series of design factors and coefficients drawn from model forms distributed with some regularity over the field of air-propeller design and intended to furnish a basis of check with similar work done in other aerodynamic laboratories, and as a point of departure for the further study of special or individual types and forms; (2) the establishment of a series of experimental values derived from models and intended for later use as a basis for comparison with similar results drawn from certain selected full-sized forms and tested in free flight.

  1. Antiquark distributions in pion and nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelian, G.G.; Boreskov, K.G.; Kaidalov, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Relation between the antiquark distributions in pion and nucleon, based on the π-exchange hypothesis, is derived. The antiquark distributions in proton are calculated with the data on the valence antiquark distribution in pion as input. Results of the calculation agree with the experimental data. The role of the peripheral mechanism in formulation of the initial conditions for the chromodynamical evolution equations is discussed

  2. Experimental program at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.

    1974-01-01

    The experimental program at Fermilab is briefly surveyed: accelerators and experimental areas, current experiments such as elastic scattering of π +- , K +- , p +- , on proton and deuteron total cross sections, neutrino physics, high transverse momentum [fr

  3. A method for experimental modal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  4. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  5. A complementary switching mechanism for organic memory devices to regulate the conductance of binary states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Giriraj; Dagar, Parveen; Sahu, Satyajit

    2016-06-01

    We have fabricated an organic non-volatile memory device wherein the ON/OFF current ratio has been controlled by varying the concentration of a small organic molecule, 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ), in an insulating matrix of a polymer Poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP). A maximum ON-OFF ratio of 106 is obtained when the concentration of DDQ is half or 10 wt. % of PVP. In this process, the switching direction for the devices has also been altered, indicating the disparity in conduction mechanism. Conduction due to metal filament formation through the active material and the voltage dependent conformational change of the organic molecule seem to be the motivation behind the gradual change in the switching direction.

  6. Neutrino interactions - an experimental survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.

    1980-07-01

    Current studies on neutrino interactions are surveyed and important results are summarised. The charged current studies have been refined to understand the nucleonic structure. Together with e-d and ..mu..-p deep inelastic scattering data, these studies establish a scale breaking in these scatterings. This breaking has been attributed to the 1st order correction of QCD and the quantitative checks seem to agree with the theory rather well. Data from a diverging set of experiments have been used to study the coupling constant in neutral current interaction. The coupling constants agree reasonably well with the SU(2)xU(1) model due to Weinberg and Salam. Parity violating effect in e-d scattering has been experimentally demonstrated. There is some evidence of ..mu..-e universality in neutral current interaction. The hadronic distribution has been studied in the frame work of Quark Parton model. The fragmentation functions seem to agree fairly well with the theoritical expectation. However one finds the effect of first order QCD corrections to be important in the transverse momentum distributions. Experimental data are presented in tables.

  7. Fusion barrier distributions - What have we learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study of nuclear fusion received a strong impetus from the realisation that an experimental fusion barrier distribution could be determined from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Experimental data for different reactions have shown in the fusion barrier distributions clear signatures of a range of nuclear excitations, for example the effects of static quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, single- and double-phonon states, transfer of nucleons, and high-lying excited states. The improved understanding of fusion barrier distributions allows more reliable prediction of fusion angular momentum distributions, which aids interpretation of fission probabilities and fission anisotropies, and understanding of the population of super-deformed bands for nuclear structure studies. Studies of the relationship between the fusion barrier distribution and the extra-push energy should improve our understanding of the mechanism of the extra-push effect, and may help to predict new ways of forming very heavy or super-heavy nuclei

  8. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  9. Experimental heavy quarkonium physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugge, L.

    1986-08-01

    Following some brief arguments on why heavy quarkonium spectroscopy is an important field of particle physics, some points on experimental techniques are discussed. Parts of the basic quarkonium phenomenology, including discussions of various items related to potensial models, are then presented. An up-to-date presentation is given of the state-of-the-art of experimental charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy below open flavour threshold, including the confrontation of experimental results to representative theoretical predictions

  10. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    At the experimental halls workshop, discussions were held on: (1) open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) the needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) the hall for the lepton detector; and (4) the hall for the hadron spectrometer. The value of different possibilities for the future experimental program was explored. A number of suggestions emerged which will be used as the design of the experimental halls progresses

  11. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  12. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  13. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  14. EL-2 reactor: Thermal neutron flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, A.; Genthon, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    The flux distribution of thermal neutrons in EL-2 reactor is studied. The reactor core and lattices are described as well as the experimental reactor facilities, in particular, the experimental channels and special facilities. The measurement shows that the thermal neutron flux increases in the central channel when enriched uranium is used in place of natural uranium. However the thermal neutron flux is not perturbed in the other reactor channels by the fuel modification. The macroscopic flux distribution is measured according the radial positioning of fuel rods. The longitudinal neutron flux distribution in a fuel rod is also measured and shows no difference between enriched and natural uranium fuel rods. In addition, measurements of the flux distribution have been effectuated for rods containing other material as steel or aluminium. The neutron flux distribution is also studied in all the experimental channels as well as in the thermal column. The determination of the distribution of the thermal neutron flux in all experimental facilities, the thermal column and the fuel channels has been made with a heavy water level of 1825 mm and is given for an operating power of 1000 kW. (M.P.)

  15. A multi-state model for the reliability assessment of a distributed generation system via universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Fu; Zio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The current and future developments of electric power systems are pushing the boundaries of reliability assessment to consider distribution networks with renewable generators. Given the stochastic features of these elements, most modeling approaches rely on Monte Carlo simulation. The computational costs associated to the simulation approach force to treating mostly small-sized systems, i.e. with a limited number of lumped components of a given renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working or failed. In this paper, we propose an analytical multi-state modeling approach for the reliability assessment of distributed generation (DG). The approach allows looking to a number of diverse energy generation technologies distributed on the system. Multiple states are used to describe the randomness in the generation units, due to the stochastic nature of the generation sources and of the mechanical degradation/failure behavior of the generation systems. The universal generating function (UGF) technique is used for the individual component multi-state modeling. A multiplication-type composition operator is introduced to combine the UGFs for the mechanical degradation and renewable generation source states into the UGF of the renewable generator power output. The overall multi-state DG system UGF is then constructed and classical reliability indices (e.g. loss of load expectation (LOLE), expected energy not supplied (EENS)) are computed from the DG system generation and load UGFs. An application of the model is shown on a DG system adapted from the IEEE 34 nodes distribution test feeder.

  16. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  17. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  18. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  19. An exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the probabilistic evaluation of product life on the example of the exponential distribution. The exponential distribution is special one-parametric case of the weibull distribution.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  1. Probability distribution relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Abdelkader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interesting to show the most famous distributions and their relations to the other distributions in collected diagrams. Four diagrams are sketched as networks. The first one is concerned to the continuous distributions and their relations. The second one presents the discrete distributions. The third diagram is depicted the famous limiting distributions. Finally, the Balakrishnan skew-normal density and its relationship with the other distributions are shown in the fourth diagram.

  2. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  3. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  4. Ansiedade experimental humana Human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Graeff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A ansiedade experimental no ser humano constitui-se em ponte entre os modelos animais e os ensaios clínicos. OBJETIVO: Este artigo focaliza métodos químicos e psicológicos utilizados para provocar ansiedade experimental em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão seletiva da literatura. RESULTADOS: Os desafios farmacológicos têm sido usados principalmente para induzir ataques de pânico em pacientes com transtorno de pânico, os quais são mais sensíveis a eles que indivíduos normais ou pacientes portadores de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. Uma das mais importantes contribuições deste método é a de ter mostrado que os agentes panicogênicos mais seletivos, como o lactato ou a inalação de CO2, não ativam o eixo hormonal do estresse. Entre os métodos psicológicos, destacam-se o condicionamento de respostas elétricas da condutância da pele, cujo perfil farmacológico se aproxima daquele do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, e o teste da simulação do falar em público, cuja farmacologia é semelhante à do transtorno de pânico. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados salientam a diferença entre a neurobiologia da ansiedade e a do pânico.BACKGROUND: Human experimental anxiety methods bridge the gap between animal models and clinical assays. OBJECTIVE: This article is focused on chemical and psychological procedures used to generate experimental anxiety in human beings. METHODS: A selective review of the literature has been carried out. RESULTS: Pharmacological challenges have been mainly used to induce panic attacks in panic disorder patients, who are more susceptible than normal individuals or patients with other psychiatric disorders. One of the most important contributions of this method is to have shown that the most selective panicogenic agents, such as lactate or CO2 inhalation, do not activate the hormonal stress axis. Among the psychological methods stand the conditioning of the electrical skin conductance

  5. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  6. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  7. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    On May 26 and 27, 1976, approximately 50 people met for an informal workshop on plans for experimental halls for ISABELLE. Plans as they exist in the May 1976 version of the ISABELLE proposal were presented. Discussions were held on the following four general topics by separate working groups: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti pp, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer. The planning for experimental halls at PEP, the hall for the lepton detector, the hadron spectrometer, and open areas are discussed

  8. Reactor power distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoizumi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To grasp the margin for the limit value of the power distribution peaking factor inside the reactor under operation by using the reactor power distribution monitor. Constitution: The monitor is composed of the 'constant' file, (to store in-reactor power distributions obtained from analysis), TIP and thermocouple, lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus, axial output distribution synthesizer and peaking factor synthesizer. The lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus is used to make calibration by comparing the power distribution obtained from the thermocouples to the power distribution obtained from the TIP, and then to provide the power distribution lateral peaking factors. The axial output distribution synthesizer provides the power distribution axial peaking factors in accordance with the signals from the out-pile neutron flux detector. These axial and lateral power peaking factors are synthesized with high precision in the three-dimensional format and can be monitored at any time. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  10. The UA9 experimental layout

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Carnera, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Lombardi, A.; Lytovchenko, O.; Tonezzer, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Bulgakov, M.K.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M.; Zorba, O.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.; Wienands, U.

    2011-01-01

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Roman pots are installed in the path of the deflected particles and are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  11. Spatial distributions of Cu polycrystal sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgaryan, V.K.; Semenov, A.A.; Shkarban, I.I.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the experimental determination of the Cu atoms spatial distribution, sputtered from the polycrystalline copper target, irradiated by the Xe + ions with the energy of 300 eV, are presented. The spatial distributions of the sputtered particles, calculated through the quasistable-dynamic model of the cascade modeling (CAMO) are presented also for the case of the polycrystalline copper irradiation by the Ar + and Xe + ions with the energy of 300-1000 eV [ru

  12. An introduction to the Generalized Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Garcon

    2002-01-01

    The concepts of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) are reviewed in an introductory and phenomenological fashion. These distributions provide a rich and unifying picture of the nucleon structure. Their physical meaning is discussed. The GPD are in principle measurable through exclusive deeply virtual production of photons (DVCS) or of mesons (DVMP). Experiments are starting to test the validity of these concepts. First results are discussed and new experimental projects presented, with an emphasis on this program at Jefferson Lab

  13. Summary of experimental talks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1999-01-01

    This final talk of the meeting briefly discussed a number of experimental topics that the author found particularly interesting in the area of High Energy Physics. It also includes some critical comments about the future direction of their discipline

  14. Nuclear test experimental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research

  15. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  16. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  17. Experimental Research in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Mauro Hernandez; Kenny Basso; Marcelo Moll Brandão

    2014-01-01

    Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010), using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR) have been publishing articles based on expe...

  18. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  19. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  20. BENSC. Experimental reports 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschbaum, Y.; Gast, H.; Michaelsen, R.

    1996-06-01

    The present volume contains a collection of BENSC Experimental Reports. The reports present an overview on the experimental work carried out on BENSC in 1995. About 70 percent of the beam time is available to external users. A qualitative step is the start of user operation of the new advanced Time-of-Flight Spectrometer V3 (NEAT). The increase of SANS project for the Double Crystal Diffractometer V12 is noticed. The current list of instruments and instrument responsibles is given. (DG)

  1. On bivariate geometric distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayakumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of bivariate geometric distribution using univariate and bivariate geometric compounding are obtained. Autoregressive models with marginals as bivariate geometric distribution are developed. Various bivariate geometric distributions analogous to important bivariate exponential distributions like, Marshall-Olkin’s bivariate exponential, Downton’s bivariate exponential and Hawkes’ bivariate exponential are presented.

  2. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental ...

  3. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  4. Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, Sean P.; Marozas, John A.; Kelly, John H.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Donaldson, William R.; Jaanimagi, Paul A.; Keck, Robert L.; Kessler, Terrance J.; Meyerhofer, David D.; Seka, Wolf

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of smoothing rates for smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) of high-power, solid-state laser beams used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research are reported. Smoothing rates were obtained from the intensity distributions of equivalent target plane images for laser pulses of varying duration. Simulations of the experimental data with the known properties of the phase plates and the frequency modulators are in good agreement with the experimental data. These results inspire confidence in extrapolating to higher bandwidths and other SSD configurations that may be suitable for ICF experiments and ultimately for direct-drive laser-fusion ignition. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  5. Distributed Data Management and Distributed File Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girone, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The LHC program has been successful in part due to the globally distributed computing resources used for collecting, serving, processing, and analyzing the large LHC datasets. The introduction of distributed computing early in the LHC program spawned the development of new technologies and techniques to synchronize information and data between physically separated computing centers. Two of the most challenges services are the distributed file systems and the distributed data management systems. In this paper I will discuss how we have evolved from local site services to more globally independent services in the areas of distributed file systems and data management and how these capabilities may continue to evolve into the future. I will address the design choices, the motivations, and the future evolution of the computing systems used for High Energy Physics.

  6. Experimental tests of proton spin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1989-01-01

    We have developed models for the spin-weighted quark and gluon distribution in a longitudinally polarized proton. The model parameters are determined from current algebra sum rules and polarized deep-inelastic scattering data. A number of different scenarios are presented for the fraction of spin carried the constituent parton distributions. A possible long-range experimental program is suggested for measuring various hard scattering processes using polarized lepton and proton beams. With the knowledge gained from these experiments, we can begin to understand the parton contributions to the proton spin. 28 refs., 5 figs

  7. Collective states in 230Th: experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Levon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The excitation spectra in the deformed nucleus 230Th were studied by means of the (p, t reaction, using the Q3D spectrograph facility at the Munich Tandem accelerator. The angular distributions of tritons are measured for about 200 excitations seen in the triton spectra up to 3.3 MeV. Firm 0+ assignments are made for 16 excited states by comparison of experimental angular distributions with the calculated ones using the CHUCK3 code and relatively firm - for 4 states. Assignments up to spin 6+ are made for other states. Analysis of the obtained data will be presented in forthcoming paper.

  8. Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution

  9. Reexamination of shell model tests of the Porter-Thomas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent shell model calculations have yielded width amplitude distributions which have apparently not agreed with the Porter-Thomas distribution. This result conflicts with the present experimental evidence. A reanalysis of these calculations suggests that, although correct, they do not imply that the Porter-Thomas distribution will fail to describe the width distributions observed experimentally. The conditions for validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution are discussed

  10. Determination of size distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshome, A.; Spartakove, A.

    1987-05-01

    The theory of a method is outlined which gives the size distribution function (SDF) of a polydispersed system of non-interacting colloidal and microscopic spherical particles, having sizes in the range 0-10 -5 cm., from a gedanken experimental scheme. It is assumed that the SDF is differentiable and the result is obtained for rotational frequency in the order of 10 3 (sec) -1 . The method may be used independently, but is particularly useful in conjunction with an alternate method described in a preceding paper. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  11. Workshop on momentum distributions: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    This has been an extraordinary Workshop touching many branches of physics. The Workshop has treated momentum distributions in fluid and solid condensed matter, in nuclei, and in electronic systems. Both theoretical and experimental concepts and methods have been considered in all these branches. A variety of specific illustrations and applications in physical systems have been presented. One finds that some common unifying themes emerge. One finds, also, that some examples are available to illustrate where one branch is more mature than others and to contrast where expectations for future progress may be most encouraged. 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. Incorporating Skew into RMS Surface Roughness Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip.

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment of RMS surface roughness data is the application of a Gaussian probability distribution. This handling of surface roughness ignores the skew present in the surface and overestimates the most probable RMS of the surface, the mode. Using experimental data we confirm the Gaussian distribution overestimates the mode and application of an asymmetric distribution provides a better fit. Implementing the proposed asymmetric distribution into the optical manufacturing process would reduce the polishing time required to meet surface roughness specifications.

  13. Etude numérique et expérimentale des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques. Influence et comportement de l'aération de l'huile Numerical and Experimental Study of Valvetrains Equipped with Hydraulic Lash Adjusters. Influence and Behaviour of Oil Aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un code numérique de simulation des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques a été développé. Le code est basé sur trois sous-modèles couplés : mécanique, hydraulique et physique. Le premier étudie la distribution comme un assemblage masses ressorts, le deuxième étudie le poussoir comme un organe hydraulique à part entière et le dernier permet d'étudier l'aération de l'huile et en particulier les phénomènes de dissolution. Une validation expérimentale a été menée sur un banc culasse alimenté par une huile mélangée à de l'air en proportions mesurées. L'instrumentation permettait de mesurer l'accélération de la tête de soupape, son déplacement au voisinage du siège et la force entre poussoir et soupape. Cette validation a montré que la simulation reflétait bien la réalité, notamment en ce qui concerne les effets de l'aération. A model of valvetrain equipped with a direct acting hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA is presented. As it is the cause of many problems, a possible aeration is taken into account. The main model is made of three submodels:1. The first one is a mechanical one with masses, springs and dampers and needs the cam laws and the pressure of the chamber of the HLA as data. 2. The second submodel is an hydraulic one. It studies the HLA chamber through the check valve flows, the leakage flow and the mechanical strains on the chamber oil. This submodel gives the chamber pressure to the first submodel. 3. The third submodel is a physical one and evaluates the instantaneous amount of air present in the chamber oil. It takes into account the arrival of new bubbles through the check valve and the mass exchanges (diffusion, dissolution between the bubbles and the oil bulk. This amount of air has a direct influence on the chamber pressure calculation made in the second submodel. Experimental validation of the model was conducted on an engine head. This engine head was feeded by an oil circuit in which

  14. Ioffe-time distributions instead of parton momentum distributions in description of deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.; Gornicki, P.; Mankiewicz, L.

    1994-10-01

    We argue that parton distributions in coordinate space provide a more natural object for nonperturbative methods compared to the usual momentum distributions in which the physics of different longitudinal distances is being mixed. To illustrate the advantages of the coordinate space formulation, we calculate the coordinate space distributions for valence quarks in the proton using the QCD sum rule approach. A remarkable agreement is found between the calcuulated and the experimentally measured u-quark distribution up to distances of order ∝2 fm in the proton rest frame. The standard calculation completely fails, however, for valence d quarks; the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Angular distributions of target black fragments in nucleus–nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fuhu; Abd Allah, N.N.; Zhang, Donghai; Duan, Maiying

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of space, azimuthal, and projected angular distributions of target black fragments produced in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna energy) are reported. A multi-source ideal gas model is suggested to describe the experimental angular distributions. The Monte Carlo calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  16. Ice condenser experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannberg, L.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Owczarski, P.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental plan is being developed to validate the computer code ICEDF. The code was developed to estimate the extent of aerosol retention in the ice compartments of pressurized water reactor ice condenser containment systems during severe accidents. The development of the experimental plan began with review of available information on the conditions under which the code will be applied. Computer-generated estimates of thermohydraulic and aerosol conditions entering the ice condenser were evaluated and along with other information, used to generate design criteria. The design criteria have been used for preliminary test assembly design and for generation of statistical test designs. Consideration of the phenomena to be evaluated in the testing program, as well as equipment and measurement limitations, have led to changes in the design criteria and to subsequent changes in the test assembly design and statistical test design. The overall strategy in developing the experimental plan includes iterative generation and evaluation of candidate test designs using computer codes for statistical test design and ICEDF for estimation of experimental results. Estimates of experimental variability made prior to actual testing will be verified by replicate testing at preselected design points

  17. Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

    2008-08-01

    We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.

  18. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  19. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    light bending in 1919 by Eddington and others) to show that TDRs are used by scientists to resolve data conflicts. I argue that the rationality of the practices which employ TDRs can be saved if the independent support of the theories driving TDRs is construed in a particular way.......The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental...... practices are efficient in guarding against any epistemological threat posed by theory-ladenness. In this paper I show that one can generate a thesis of theory-ladenness for experimental practices from an influential New Experimentalist account. The notion I introduce for this purpose is the concept...

  20. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  1. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  2. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions......-of-sample analyses show that the relative accuracy of the state variables in predicting future returns varies across the distribution. A portfolio study shows that an investor with power utility can obtain economic gains by applying the empirical return distribution in portfolio decisions instead of imposing...

  3. Hadronic production of lepton pairs (experimental)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucrot, J.

    1980-12-01

    Hadonic production of lepton pairs has become a good testground of Q.C.D. The large effects predicted in cross sections and in Psub(T) distributions are seen and may be one of the good indirect proofs of the existence of gluons. Detailed experimental results are available, and clearly it is necessary that higher order Q.C.D. corrections should be estimated

  4. Price Manipulation in an Experimental Asset Market

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga Helena; Vorsatz Marc

    2006-01-01

    We analyze in the laboratory whether an uninformed trader is able to manipulate the price of a financial asset. To do so, we compare the results of two different experimental treatments. In the Benchmark Treatment, twelve subjects trade a common value asset that takes either a high or a low value. Information is distributed asymmetrically, only three outof twelve subjects know the actual value of the asset. The Manipulation Treatment is identical to the Benchmark Treatment apart from the fact...

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  7. Surface physics : experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    In this report, discussion is confined to some important ultra high vacuum surface techniques such as ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the low energy electron diffraction (LEED). An attempt is made to cover the basic principles and the experimental details of XPS and AES. Selected examples illustrating the potentialities of the above techniques to solve the important basic as well as applied problems relating to surfaces are presented. Salient features of the available commercial machines in which UPS, AES and LEED are combined to facilitate surface examination sequentially or simultaneously under identical experimental conditions are indicated. (auth.)

  8. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  9. Neuronal variability during handwriting: lognormal distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I Rupasov

    Full Text Available We examined time-dependent statistical properties of electromyographic (EMG signals recorded from intrinsic hand muscles during handwriting. Our analysis showed that trial-to-trial neuronal variability of EMG signals is well described by the lognormal distribution clearly distinguished from the Gaussian (normal distribution. This finding indicates that EMG formation cannot be described by a conventional model where the signal is normally distributed because it is composed by summation of many random sources. We found that the variability of temporal parameters of handwriting--handwriting duration and response time--is also well described by a lognormal distribution. Although, the exact mechanism of lognormal statistics remains an open question, the results obtained should significantly impact experimental research, theoretical modeling and bioengineering applications of motor networks. In particular, our results suggest that accounting for lognormal distribution of EMGs can improve biomimetic systems that strive to reproduce EMG signals in artificial actuators.

  10. Texture mapping in a distributed environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolae, Goga; Racovita, Zoea; Telea, Alexandru

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for texture mapping in a distributed environment. A parallelization method based on the master-slave model is described. The purpose of this work is to lower the image generation time in the complex 3D scenes synthesis process. The experimental results concerning the

  11. Quark distribution distortion in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1984-10-01

    Further consequences of sea-quark pairing are studied by looking at the underlying collective phenomena. We are led to variations of the quark distribution of single protons due to nuclear binding. A new prediction, subject to experimental verification, is discussed. (author)

  12. Maximum Likelihood Learning of Conditional MTE Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a procedure for inducing conditional densities within the mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTE) framework. We analyse possible conditional MTE specifications and propose a model selection scheme, based on the BIC score, for partitioning the domain of the conditioning variables....... Finally, experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the learning procedure as well as the expressive power of the conditional MTE distribution....

  13. Heat transfer and temperature distribution in fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Stevanovic, M.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes methods and procedures for determining the integral, mean and effective heat conductivity and temperature distribution in fuel, with the experimental solutions for measuring these parameters. A procedure for measuring the integral conductivity by measuring the power generated in the fuel is given [sr

  14. Experimental study on secondary electron emission characteristics of Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Yudong; Wang, Pengcheng; Liu, Weibin; Pei, Guoxi; Zeng, Lei; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2018-02-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) of a surface is the origin of the multipacting effect which could seriously deteriorate beam quality and even perturb the normal operation of particle accelerators. Experimental measurements on secondary electron yield (SEY) for different materials and coatings have been developed in many accelerator laboratories. In fact, the SEY is just one parameter of secondary electron emission characteristics which include spatial and energy distribution of emitted electrons. A novel experimental apparatus was set up in China Spallation Neutron Source, and an innovative method was applied to obtain the whole characteristics of SEE. Taking Cu as the sample, secondary electron yield, its dependence on beam injection angle, and the spatial and energy distribution of secondary electrons were achieved with this measurement device. The method for spatial distribution measurement was first proposed and verified experimentally. This contribution also tries to give all the experimental results a reasonable theoretical analysis and explanation.

  15. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  16. Distributed multiscale computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale models combine knowledge, data, and hypotheses from different scales. Simulating a multiscale model often requires extensive computation. This thesis evaluates distributing these computations, an approach termed distributed multiscale computing (DMC). First, the process of multiscale

  17. Experimental development of power reactor intelligent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Garcia, H.E.; Lee, K.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The US nuclear utility industry initiated an ambitious program to modernize the control systems at a minimum of ten existing nuclear power plants by the year 2000. That program addresses urgent needs to replace obsolete instrumentation and analog controls with highly reliable state-of-the-art computer-based digital systems. Large increases in functionality that could theoretically be achieved in a distributed digital control system are not an initial priority in the industry program but could be logically considered in later phases. This paper discusses the initial development of an experimental sequence for developing, testing, and verifying intelligent fault-accommodating control for commercial nuclear power plant application. The sequence includes an ultra-safe university research reactor (TRIGA) and a passively safe experimental power plant (Experimental Breeder Reactor 2)

  18. Experimental equipment, ch. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomstra, F.; Hoogenboom, A.M.; Prins, C.M.; Strasters, B.A.; Vermeer, A.; Wit, P. de; Zwol, N.A. van.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental equipment in use at Utrecht university is discussed. Attention is paid to the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the 4MV and 1MV accelerators. The detection systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy are reviewed with emphasis on the compton-suppression spectrometer. The data-handling system used for experiments with the tandem is also briefly discussed

  19. Experimental status QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Slepchenko, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of experimental status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been carried out. A short introduction into QCD is given. QCD sum rules are considered. Jets in e + e - annihilation and inclusive processes of lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering are considered. Effect of QCD corrections to perturbation theory on quark count is analyzed

  20. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  1. Myofibroblasts in experimental hydronephrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamond, J R; van Goor, H; Ding, G; Engelmyer, E

    Interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of longterm ureteral obstruction. One pathological arm of the fibrotic reaction in diverse tissue loci and experimental models is the retraction of granulation tissue. The role of the myofibroblast in granulation tissue contraction and fibrocontractive

  2. Experimental atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental atomic physics program within the physics division is carried out by two groups, whose reports are given in this section. Work of the accelerator atomic physics group is centered around the 6.5-MV EN tandem accelerator; consequently, most of its research is concerned with atomic processes occurring to, or initiated by, few MeV/amu heavy ions. Other activities of this group include higher energy experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), studies of electron and positron channeling radiation, and collaborative experiments at other institutions. The second experimental group concerns itself with lower energy atomic collision physics in support of the Fusion Energy Program. During the past year, the new Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source has been completed and some of the first data from this facility is presented. In addition to these two activities in experimental atomic physics, other chapters of this report describe progress in theoretical atomic physics, experimental plasma diagnostic development, and atomic data center compilation activities

  3. Experimental halls workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    A brief discussion is given of: (1) pros and cons of open areas as compared with enclosed halls; (2) experimental hall needs of ep, anti p p, and other options; (3) hall for the lepton detector; and, (4) hall for the hadron spectrometer

  4. Orphee reactor experimental equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Experimental equipment around the ORPHEE reactor is presented. The neutron source; and the spectrometers and sample environment (inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering, elastic scattering, spread scattering, small angle scattering) are described. An experiment proposal and reports guide is supplied [fr

  5. Pentaquarks. An experimental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, D.

    2005-01-01

    Since the recent observation of a pentaquark (Θ + = qqqqq-bar) state (see Nakano et al. (LEPS Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett.91 (2003) 012002-1) several positive and negative experimental results have emerged. These results are overviewed, with a trial to find common features among them. (author)

  6. The ''ATOS'' experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dorovskij, A.P.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Khlopkin, A.N.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains a brief description of the ATOS experimental device at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, USSR, which has been designed in accordance with the merged beam principle to investigate collisions between heavy atomic particles and multiply-charged ions of impurity elements - following the programme of the Joint IFRC/INDC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion

  7. Shielding in experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.; Tarnopolsky, G.; Thorndike, A.; White, S.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of shielding necessary to protect experimental detectors from various sources of background radiation is discussed. As illustrated an experiment has line of sight to sources extending approx. 90 m upstream from the intersection point. Packing a significant fraction of this space with shielding blocks would in general be unacceptable because primary access to the ring tunnel is from the experimental halls. (1) From basic machine design considerations and the inherent necessity to protect superconducting magnets it is expected that experimental areas in general will be cleaner than at any existing accelerator. (2) Even so, it will likely be necessary to have some shielding blocks available to protect experimental apparatus, and it may well be necessary to have a large amount of shielding available in the WAH. (3) Scraping will likely have some influence on all halls, and retractable apparatus may sometimes be necessary. (4) If access to any tunnel is needed to replace a magnet, one has 96 h (4 days) available to move shielding away to permit access without additional downtime. This (the amount of shielding one can shuffle about in 96 h) is a reasonable upper limit to shielding necessary in a hall

  8. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K., E-mail: s.k.turitsyn@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Babin, Sergey A. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, Dmitry V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim [Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Podivilov, Evgenii V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova str., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS, 1 Ac. Koptug. ave., 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-10

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  9. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors–random distributed feedback fibre laser–was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (∼0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the

  10. Perturbed angular correlations and distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaryunas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The present index comprises original works and review papers on the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and distributions (PAD). The articles published in the Soviet and foreign journals as well as the materials of conferences, monographs and collections published in the USSR and abroad, the preprints produced by various institutes and abstracts of disertations are included from 1948 up to 1973. The whole material compiled in this index is divided into three parts. Part one is a bibliographic index. All papers in this part are divided into three sections. Section one comprises the papers devoted to the theoretical works on PAC, review papers, monographs, materials of conferences. Section two deals with the works of methodical character where correlation spectrometers as well as the treatment of experimental data are described. In section three experimental works with concrete nuclei are compiled. Part two gives the characteristic of works performed with concrete nuclei. This part is presented in the form of the table in which the works are systematized according to the chemical elements and isotopes. The table shows the characteristics of the nuclear levels used in the investigations by PAC as well as brief characteristics of experiments and results obtained. Part three - appendix contains alphabetic index of the authors, the list of the used editions with the abbreviations of the titles of these editions. The lists indicating the dynamic of the quantity of works on PAC and the distribution according to the literature sources are also given

  11. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  12. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  13. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  14. Leadership for Distributed Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij, J.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an

  15. Radiation chemistry of polymer degradation processes: molecular weight distribution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    The molecular weight distributions of poly(methyl methacrylate) irradiated at 15 and 25 MeV with electron beams were investigated. The experimental values for the effect of chain scissions on the dispersivity agreed well with theoretical predictions

  16. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  17. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...

  18. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  19. Optimal experimental design with R

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Dieter; Verdooren, L R; Gebhardt, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Experimental design is often overlooked in the literature of applied and mathematical statistics: statistics is taught and understood as merely a collection of methods for analyzing data. Consequently, experimenters seldom think about optimal design, including prerequisites such as the necessary sample size needed for a precise answer for an experimental question. Providing a concise introduction to experimental design theory, Optimal Experimental Design with R: Introduces the philosophy of experimental design Provides an easy process for constructing experimental designs and calculating necessary sample size using R programs Teaches by example using a custom made R program package: OPDOE Consisting of detailed, data-rich examples, this book introduces experimenters to the philosophy of experimentation, experimental design, and data collection. It gives researchers and statisticians guidance in the construction of optimum experimental designs using R programs, including sample size calculations, hypothesis te...

  20. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...