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Sample records for distress thermometer intervention

  1. The distress thermometer in survivors of gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette L.; Hansen, Merete K.; Hansson, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Unrecognised psychological distress among cancer survivors may be identified using short screening tools. We validated the accuracy of the distress thermometer (DT) to detect psychological distress on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among early stage gynaecological cancer...... survivors and whether the women’s DT and HADS scores were associated with the need of an individualised supportive intervention. Methods: One hundred sixty-five gynaecological cancer survivors answered DT and HADS before randomisation in a trial testing a nurse-led, person-centred intervention using...... supportive conversations. The number of conversations was decided in the woman-nurse dyad based on the woman’s perceived need. Nurses were unaware of the women’s DT and HADS scores. We validated DT’s accuracy for screening using HADS as gold standard and receiver operating characteristic curves. Associations...

  2. Development and psychometric testing of a new tool for detecting moral distress: the Moral Distress Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Weaver, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting. Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools. Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress. These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Accuracy of the Danish version of the 'distress thermometer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Short screening instruments have been suggested to improve the detection of psychological symptoms. We examined the accuracy of the Danish version of the 'Distress Thermometer'. Methods: Between October 2008 and October 2009, 426 women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer who were...... operated at the Breast Surgery Clinic of the Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, were eligible for this study. Of these, 357 participated (84%) and 333 completed a questionnaire. The distress thermometer was evaluated against the 'hospital anxiety and depression scale' (HADS). We also examined the women's wish...

  4. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening

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    Chiou YJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jie Chiou,1 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Liang-Jen Wang,2 Shau-Hsuan Li,3 Chun-Yi Lee,1 Ming-Kung Wu,1 Chien-Chih Chen,1 Yi-Shan Wu,1 Yu Lee1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3Department of Hematology-Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. Patients and methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Results: Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1% were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43, and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58 were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3% with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%, followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%, depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%. Conclusion: Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not

  5. Use of the distress thermometer to evaluate symptoms, outcome and satisfaction in a specialist psycho-oncology service.

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    Blenkiron, Paul; Brooks, Alexander; Dearden, Richard; McVey, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends the use of structured tools to improve holistic care for patients with cancer. The Distress Thermometer and Problem Checklist (DT) is commonly used for screening in physical health settings. However, it has not been integrated into the clinical pathway within specialist psycho-oncology services. We used the DT to examine the broad clinical effectiveness of psycho-oncology intervention and to ascertain factors from the DT linked to an improved outcome. We also evaluated patients' satisfaction with their care. We asked 111 adult outpatients referred to York Psycho-Oncology Service to complete the DT at their first appointment. Individuals offered a period of psycho-oncology care re-rated their emotional distress, problems and service satisfaction on the DT at discharge. Median distress scores decreased significantly (from 6 to 4, Wilcoxon's z = -4.83, P psycho-oncology care. It may also provide evidence to support the effectiveness of specialist psycho-oncology interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Distress Thermometer and its validity: a first psychometric study in Indonesian women with breast cancer.

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    Aulia Iskandarsyah

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. METHODS: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Indonesia completed a standard socio-demographic form, the DT and the Problem List, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses identified an area under the curve = 0.81 when compared to the HADS cutoff score of 15. A cutoff score of 5 on the DT had the best sensitivity (0.81 and specificity (0.64. Patients who scored above this cutoff reported more problems in the practical, family, emotional, spiritual/religious and physical domains (30 out of 36 problems, p-value<0.05 than patients below the cutoff score. Patients at advanced stages of cancer experienced more emotional and physical problems. Patient's distress level was negatively correlated with overall quality of life, general health and all quality of life domains. CONCLUSIONS: The DT was found to be a valid tool for screening distress in Indonesian breast cancer patients. We recommend using a cutoff score of 5 in this population.

  7. The Distress Thermometer assessed in women at risk of developing hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, S; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Bannink, M; Tan, M B M; Oldenmenger, W H; Seynaeve, C; van der Rijt, C C D

    2009-10-01

    The Distress Thermometer (DT) is a promising instrument to get insight into distress experienced by cancer patients. At our Family Cancer Clinic the DT, including an adapted problem list, was completed by 100 women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (mean age 45.2 years; SD: 10.5). Additionally, the women filled in either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as psychological component (n=48) or the somatic subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 as somatic component (n=50) to identify associations with the DT-score. Further, the women filled in an evaluation form. The median score on the DT was 2 (range: 0-9). With regression analysis adjusted for age, the contribution of mood and somatic complaints, respectively, was investigated. The standardized regression coefficient for anxiety was 0.32 (ns), for depression 0.14 (ns) and for the somatic subscale 0.49 (pdepression was 16%, and for somatic complaints 24%. The differences between the coefficients were not significant. Evaluation forms were returned by 73 women. In 50% of the cases, the physician had discussed the DT/problem list, which was appreciated by the majority of these women (80%). Sixty-two percent of the women would recommend the use of the DT for other patients. The use of the DT/problem list seems promising for the current population, and was appreciated by the majority of the women. As mood and somatic complaints did not differ significantly in explaining the experienced distress, other candidate factors need to be examined.

  8. Screening young adult cancer survivors for distress with the Distress Thermometer: Comparisons with a structured clinical diagnostic interview.

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    Recklitis, Christopher J; Blackmon, Jaime E; Chang, Grace

    2016-01-15

    The validity of the Distress Thermometer (DT) as a screen for psychological distress in young adult cancer survivors was assessed by comparing it with the results of a psychiatric diagnostic interview, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (SCID), to evaluate the accuracy of the DT and identify optimal cutoff scores for this population. A total of 247 survivors aged 18 to 40 years completed the DT and SCID. Based on the SCID, participants were classified as having: 1) ≥ 1 SCID diagnoses; 2) significant symptoms, but no SCID diagnosis; or 3) no significant SCID symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined the sensitivity and specificity of all possible DT cutoff scores for detecting survivors with a SCID diagnosis, and subsequently for survivors with significant SCID symptoms or a SCID diagnosis. The recommended DT cutoff score of ≥5 failed to identify 31.81% of survivors with a SCID diagnosis (sensitivity of 68.18% and specificity of 78.33%), and 32.81% of survivors with either significant SCID symptoms or a SCID diagnosis. No alternative DT cutoff score met the criteria for acceptable sensitivity (≥85%) and specificity (≥75%). The DT does not reliably identify young adult cancer survivors with psychiatric problems identified by a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview. Therefore, the DT should not be used as a stand-alone psychological screen in this population. Cancer 2016;122:296-303. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Acceptability of the Distress Thermometer and Problem List to community-based telephone cancer helpline operators, and to cancer patients and carers

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    Sargeant Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer can be a distressing experience for cancer patients and carers, impacting on psychological, social, physical and spiritual functioning. However, health professionals often fail to detect distress in their patients due to time constraints and a lack of experience. Also, with the focus on the patient, carer needs are often overlooked. This study investigated the acceptability of brief distress screening with the Distress Thermometer (DT and Problem List (PL to operators of a community-based telephone helpline, as well as to cancer patients and carers calling the service. Methods Operators (n = 18 monitored usage of the DT and PL with callers (cancer patients/carers, >18 years, and English-speaking from September-December 2006 (n = 666. The DT is a single item, 11-point scale to rate level of distress. The associated PL identifies the cause of distress. Results The DT and PL were used on 90% of eligible callers, most providing valid responses. Benefits included having an objective, structured and consistent means for distress screening and triage to supportive care services. Reported challenges included apparent inappropriateness of the tools due to the nature of the call or level of caller distress, the DT numeric scale, and the level of operator training. Conclusions We observed positive outcomes to using the DT and PL, although operators reported some challenges. Overcoming these challenges may improve distress screening particularly by less experienced clinicians, and further development of the PL items and DT scale may assist with administration. The DT and PL allow clinicians to direct/prioritise interventions or referrals, although ongoing training and support is critical in distress screening.

  10. Accuracy of the Distress Thermometer for home care patients with palliative care needs in Germany.

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    Wüller, Johannes; Küttner, Stefanie; Foldenauer, Ann Christina; Rolke, Roman; Pastrana, Tania

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the accuracy of the German version of the Distress Thermometer (DT) compared with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with palliative care needs living at home. Ours was a 15-month cross-sectional study beginning in September of 2013 in Germany with consecutive patients cared for by a palliative home care service. The survey was implemented during the initial visit by a home care team. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age, mentally or physically unable to complete the assessment questionnaires as judged by their healthcare worker, or unable to understand the German language. During the first encounter, the DT and HADS were applied, and sociodemographic and medical data were collected. A total of 89 persons completed both the HADS and DT questionnaires (response rate = 59.7%; mean age = 67 years; female = 55.1%; married = 65.2%; living home with relatives = 73.0%; oncological condition = 92.1%; Karnofsky Performance Scale [KPS] score: 0-40 = 30.3%, 50-70 = 57.3%, >80 = 6.7%). The mean DT score was 6.3 (±2.3), with 84.3% of participants scoring above the DT cutoff (≥4). The mean HADStotal score was 17.9 (±7.8), where 64% of participants had a total HADS score (HADStotal) ≥15, 51.7% reported anxiety (HADSanxiety ≥ 8), and 73% reported depression (HADSdepression ≥ 8). Using the HADS as a gold standard, a DT cutoff score ≥5 was optimal for identifying severe distress in patients with palliative care needs, with a sensitivity of 93.0%, a specificity of 34.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73.3%, and likelihood ratios LR+ = 1.42 (home with palliative care needs in order to offer adequate support.

  11. Patients' and clinicians' experiences of holistic needs assessment using a cancer distress thermometer and problem list: A qualitative study.

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    Biddle, Lucy; Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Harris, Susan; Campbell, Rona; Brennan, James; Hollingworth, William

    2016-08-01

    Psychosocial needs assessment is recommended for patients undergoing cancer treatment, but trials of effectiveness of assessment tools provide mixed results. This qualitative study aimed to understand how such tools are experienced by patients and clinicians in order to optimise use in the future. Qualitative interviews were used in a mixed-methods sequential design following a randomised controlled trial of needs assessment using the Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT&PL), and explored patients' and clinicians' evaluations of the needs assessment process. Benefits of needs assessment using the DT&PL included the potential to detect hidden distress, allow opportunity for distress to be discussed, and to deliver outcomes to address problems. However, effectiveness and patient willingness to report all forms of distress could be hindered by: clinicians feeling ill-equipped to deal with 'non-physical' distress and patients questioning their appropriateness to do so; time constraints; insufficient support services and referral guidelines; inappropriate timing; and lack of follow-up. The benefits of a holistic needs assessment cannot be realised without matching time and frequency of administration to the dynamic nature of distress during cancer, and making changes to the context of delivery - for instance, providing protected time, increasing referral options and clinician training. Significant investment is needed to optimise potential benefits for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of psychological distress among Asian adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer patients using the distress thermometer: a prospective, longitudinal study.

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    Chan, Alexandre; Poon, Eileen; Goh, Wei Lin; Gan, Yanxiang; Tan, Chia Jie; Yeo, Kelvin; Chua, Annabelle; Chee, Magdalene; Law, Yi Chye; Somasundaram, Nagavalli; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Ng, Quan Sing; Tham, Chee Kian; Toh, Chee Keong; Lim, Soon Thye; Tao, Miriam; Tang, Tiffany; Quek, Richard; Farid, Mohamad

    2018-04-11

    Since few studies have investigated whether the Distress Thermometer (DT) in Asian adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (between 15 and 39 years), we investigated the appropriateness of the DT as a screening tool for psychological symptom burden in these AYA patients and to evaluate AYA patients' distress across a trajectory of three time points longitudinally over a 6-month period. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Recruited Asian AYA patients were diagnosed with lymphomas, sarcomas, primary brain malignancies, or germ cell tumors. Patients completed the DT, PedsQL Generic Core Scales, and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15. Approximately half of the patients experienced clinically significant DT distress (distress score ≥ 4) early in their cancer journey with 43.1% patients presenting with distress at time of diagnosis and 47.7% patients 1 month after diagnosis. Among AYA patients > 24 years old, worry (68.3%), insurance/financial issues (61%), treatment decisions (43.9%), work/school issues (41.5%), nervousness (41.5%), and sadness (41.5%) were the top five identified problems. On the other hand, the top five identified problems among AYA ≤ 24 years were worry (54.2%), nervousness (41.7%), bathing/dressing problems (37.5%), work/school issues (33.3%), and fatigue (33.3%). DT scores were significantly associated with certain psychological symptom burden items such as worry (p psychological distress in AYA cancer patients with clinically significant distress being identified in the early phases of the cancer journey.

  13. Distress screening using distress thermometer in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and evaluation of causal factors predicting occurrence of distress

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    Shirley Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Distress is commonly seen in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Causal factors of distress are multifactorial; which encompasses physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential factors with complex interrelationship among the factors. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy were included in the study. Patients were screened for pain scores, distress scores, physical and psychological symptoms, and spiritual and emotional distress. Results: Significant increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and on completion of radiotherapy treatment (all P′s < 0.001 compared to pretreatment. Those who had chemotherapy (CT along with radiation had significantly greater pain score (t = 5.54, P = 0.03 and distress score (t = 3.9, P = 0.05 at 2 weeks into radiotherapy compared to those who did not receive CT. There was significantly higher grade of skin toxicity in those with spiritual distress (Somers′ d = 0.36, P = 0.02 and higher grade of mucositis in those with existential distress (d = 0.34, P = 0.02 at 4 weeks into radiotherapy. Conclusion: Positive correlation between distress score and pain score and occurrence of physical symptoms. Increasing trend seen for pain score, distress score, and total number of symptoms during 2 nd week, 4 th week, and completion of radiotherapy treatment compared to pretreatment. Increase in distress score in those with existential and spiritual distress.

  14. Validation of malayalam version of national comprehensive cancer network distress thermometer and its feasibility in oncology patients

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    M S Biji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN distress thermometer (DT in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. Aims: (1 To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2 To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. Settings and Design: This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for analysis. Results: Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  15. Validation of Malayalam Version of National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and its Feasibility in Oncology Patients.

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    Biji, M S; Dessai, Sampada; Sindhu, N; Aravind, Sithara; Satheesan, B

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer (DT) in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. (1) To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2) To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.) was used for analysis. Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  16. Stability and Repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised (ESAS-r with Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

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    Tatsiana Leclair

    Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support

  17. Toward interventions to address moral distress: navigating structure and agency.

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    Musto, Lynn C; Rodney, Patricia A; Vanderheide, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    The concept of moral distress has been the subject of nursing research for the past 30 years. Recently, there has been a call to move from developing an understanding of the concept to developing interventions to help ameliorate the experience. At the same time, the use of the term moral distress has been critiqued for a lack of clarity about the concepts that underpin the experience. Some researchers suggest that a closer examination of how socio-political structures influence healthcare delivery will move moral distress from being seen as located in the individual to an experience that is also located in broader healthcare structures. Informed by new thinking in relational ethics, we draw on research findings from neuroscience and attachment literature to examine the reciprocal relationship between structures and agents and frame the experience of moral distress. We posit moral distress as a form of relational trauma and subsequently point to the need to better understand how nurses as moral agents are influenced by-and influence-the complex socio-political structures they inhabit. In so doing, we identify this reciprocity as a framework for interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Psychological distress and intervention in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostaric, M.; Sprah, L.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Common side effects of treatment with radiation therapy (RT) often cause psychophysical distress in cancer patients. Anxiety, adjustment disorders and depression (which are according to many studies experienced in about half of the oncological population) might originate some serious psychiatric forms of mood disorders and can even culminate in suicide, if not treated appropriately. There are some groups of cancer patients who are especially vulnerable and among them are cancer patients undergoing RT - they should receive special attention from medical staff. The purpose of this review is to present a variety of psychosocial interventions and illustrate some methods that are (or could be) used in psycho-oncology practice. Conclusions. A large body of literature suggests that the first intervention step should be effective screening for patients in distress. In regard to these proposals the development of (computerized) screening programmes is the first measure that ought to be taken. Moreover, further systematical research of traditional, non-traditional and complementary intervention strategies in cancer patients in distress would be necessary in order to provide reliable empirical results about the effectiveness of different approaches. (author)

  19. Thermometers: Understand the Options

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    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures.

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    Jay, Susan M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  1. In-Home Intervention with Families in Distress: Changing Places to Promote Change

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    Waisbrod, Nirit; Buchbinder, Eli; Possick, Chaya

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the benefits of in-home family therapy with severely distressed families through the analysis of four cases that demonstrate the creative use of this intervention with families whose children were placed in a full-time day care facility. Although the efficacy of home intervention with distressed families has been documented,…

  2. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

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    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  3. Effects of listening to music on pain intensity and pain distress after surgery: an intervention.

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    Vaajoki, Anne; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of music listening on pain intensity and pain distress on the first and second postoperative days in abdominal surgery patients and the long-term effects of music on the third postoperative day. Music has been found to relieve pain intensity in surgery patients. There are only a few studies on music intervention in abdominal surgery. Music intervention studies assessing multidimensional pain such as pain intensity and pain distress are also scarce. Prospective clinical study with two parallel groups. Patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery (n = 168) were divided into either a music group (n = 83) or a control group (n = 85). Patients assessed pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest, during deep breathing and in shifting position once in the evening of the operation day and on the first and second postoperative days in the morning, at noon and in the evening. On the third postoperative day, the patients assessed their pain intensity and pain distress only once. In the music group, the patients' pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest, during deep breathing and in shifting position were significantly lower on the second postoperative day compared with control group of patients. On the third postoperative day, when long-term effects of music on pain intensity and pain distress were assessed, there were no significant differences between music and control groups. This study demonstrates that the use of music alleviates pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest, during deep breathing and in shifting position after abdominal surgery on the second postoperative day. Music intervention is safe, inexpensive and easily used to improve the healing environment for abdominal surgery patients. Music intervention should be offered as an adjunct alternative to pharmacological pain relief after abdominal surgery in nursing practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Ion thermometers - nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, J.; Jakes, D.

    The principle is briefly described of ion thermometers and the effects are reported of radiation on the ion crystal properties. The results show that ion thermometers are applicable for in-core measurements. (J.P.)

  5. Randomized Trial of a Social Networking Intervention for Cancer-Related Distress.

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    Owen, Jason E; O'Carroll Bantum, Erin; Pagano, Ian S; Stanton, Annette

    2017-10-01

    Web and mobile technologies appear to hold promise for delivering evidence-informed and evidence-based intervention to cancer survivors and others living with trauma and other psychological concerns. Health-space.net was developed as a comprehensive online social networking and coping skills training program for cancer survivors living with distress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week social networking intervention on distress, depression, anxiety, vigor, and fatigue in cancer survivors reporting high levels of cancer-related distress. We recruited 347 participants from a local cancer registry and internet, and all were randomized to either a 12-week waiting list control group or to immediate access to the intervention. Intervention participants received secure access to the study website, which provided extensive social networking capabilities and coping skills training exercises facilitated by a professional facilitator. Across time, the prevalence of clinically significant depression symptoms declined from 67 to 34 % in both conditions. The health-space.net intervention had greater declines in fatigue than the waitlist control group, but the intervention did not improve outcomes for depression, trauma-related anxiety symptoms, or overall mood disturbance. For those with more severe levels of anxiety at baseline, greater engagement with the intervention was associated with higher levels of symptom reduction over time. The intervention resulted in small but significant effects on fatigue but not other primary or secondary outcomes. Results suggest that this social networking intervention may be most effective for those who have distress that is not associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms or very poor overall psychological functioning. The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database ( ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01976949).

  6. Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Rape and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…

  7. Galileo Chain Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…

  8. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...

  9. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Christensen, Søren; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer...... were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—Short Form......), and negative (37-item Profile of Moods State) and positive mood (Passive Positive Mood Scale) were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Choice of writing topic (cancer versus other), alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and social constraints (Social Constraints Scale) were...

  10. Cancer surgeons' distress and well-being, II: modifiable factors and the potential for organizational interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca S; Baser, Ray; Li, Yuelin; Scardino, Peter T; Brown, Arthur E; Kissane, David W

    2011-05-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the prevalence of burnout among surgical oncologists at a comprehensive cancer center was 42% and psychiatric morbidity 27%, and high quality of life (QOL) was absent for 54% of surgeons. Here we examine modifiable workplace factors and other stressors associated with burnout, psychiatric morbidity, and low QOL, together with interest in interventions to reduce distress and improve wellness. Study-specific questions important for morale, QOL, and stressors associated with burnout were included in an anonymous Internet-based survey distributed to the surgical faculty at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Among the 72 surgeons who responded (response rate of 73%), surgeons identified high stress from medical lawsuits, pressure to succeed in research, financial worries, negative attitudes to gender, and ability to cope with patients' suffering and death. Workplace features requiring greatest change were the reimbursement system, administrative support, and schedule. Work-life balance and relationship issues with spouse or partner caused high stress. Strongest correlations with distress were a desire to change communication with patients and the tension between the time devoted to work versus time available to be with family. Surgeons' preferences for interventions favored a fitness program, nutrition consultation, and increased socialization with colleagues, with less interest in interventions conventionally used to address psychological distress. Several opportunities to intervene at the organizational level permit efforts to reduce burnout and improve QOL.

  11. Diabetes distress: understanding the hidden struggles of living with diabetes and exploring intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Emma; Lockhart, Sam; Davies, Mark; Lindsay, John R; Dempster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes distress is a rational emotional response to the threat of a life-changing illness. Distinct from depression, it is conceptually rooted in the demands of diabetes management and is a product of emotional adjustment. Diabetes distress has been found to be significantly associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the likelihood of an individual adopting self-care behaviours. The lack of perceived support from family, friends and healthcare professionals significantly contributes to elevated diabetes distress, and this issue tends to be overlooked when designing interventions. Pioneering large-scale research, DAWN2, gives voices to the families of those with diabetes and reaffirms the need to consider psychosocial factors in routine diabetes care. Structured diabetes education programmes are the most widely used in helping individuals cope with diabetes, but they tend not to include the psychological or interpersonal aspects of diabetes management in their curricula. The need for health practitioners, irrespective of background, to demonstrate an understanding of diabetes distress and to actively engage in discussion with individuals struggling to cope with diabetes is emphasised. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, G.; Hourtoulle, F.

    1983-01-01

    The search for a detecting element capable of permanently measuring localised nuclear output which would also be robust straightforward and reliable led EDF to begin development work on a new type of detector in 1976: the gamma thermometer (THG). After briefly summarising the history of the project this article goes on to describe the principle and structure of the equipment used in EDF's PWR reactors. As a result of the extensive test programme carried out it has been possible to qualify analytical and calibration methods together with the thermal and nuclear models. In conclusion, the development prospects and future of such a detecting device are outlined [fr

  13. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.

  14. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  15. A longitudinal examination of dyadic distress patterns following a skills intervention for carers of adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Laura; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Tchanturia, Kate; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Family interventions in anorexia nervosa (AN) have been developed to ameliorate maladaptive patterns of patient-carer interaction that can play a role in illness maintenance. The primary aim of this study is to examine the inter-relationship between baseline and post-treatment distress in dyads of carers and patients with AN to examine the interdependence between carers and patients. The secondary aim is to examine whether a carer skills intervention [Experienced Carer Helping Others (ECHO)] impacts on this inter-relationship. Dyads consisting of treatment-seeking adolescents with AN and their primary carer (n = 149; mostly mothers) were randomised to receive a carer skills intervention (ECHO) in addition to treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU alone, as part of a larger clinical trial. Carers and patients completed a standardised measure of psychological distress (The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) at baseline and 12 months post-treatment. The Actor Partner Interdependence Model was used to examine longitudinal changes in interdependence by treatment group. As expected, post-treatment levels of distress were related to baseline levels in both groups (actor effects). Moreover, carer distress at 12 months was related to patient distress at baseline for the TAU (partner effects), but not for the ECHO group. Finally, carers' distress change was not a significant predictor of patients' body mass index (BMI) change in the two treatment conditions. These findings are limited to predominantly mother-offspring dyads and may not generalise to other relationships. The ECHO intervention which is designed to teach carers skills in illness management and emotion regulation may be an effective addition to TAU for ameliorating interdependence of distress in patients and their primary carers over time.

  16. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  17. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-05-01

    Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  18. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  19. A rational-emotive stress management intervention for reducing job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, Samuel C.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Onuigbo, Liziana N.; Aye, Eucharia N.; Akaneme, Immaculata N.; Oboegbulem, Angie I.; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa O.; Nwobi, Anthonia U.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O.; Ezegbe, Bernedeth N.; Ede, Moses O.; Orji, Chibueze T.; Onuoha, Joseph C.; Onu, Eucharia U.; Okeke, Francisca; Agu, Patricia; Omeje, Joachim C.; Omeke, Faith; Ugwu, Romanus; Arumede, Florence; Eneh, Annastasia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Job-related burnout and distress are adverse stress responses which affect individuals in their occupational environment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of a rational-emotive stress management program on job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers in Nigeria. Methods: A pretest–posttest randomized control group design was used. The participants in the study were 54 special education teachers. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Participants were allocated to either the treatment group (n = 28 [59.1%]) or the waitlist control group (n = 26 [48.1%]), respectively. A rational-emotive stress management manual was used to deliver the intervention. We statistically analyzed the data collected at three-time points with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: At baseline, the job-related burnout symptoms and distress scores of participants were high. However, an intention-to-treat analysis showed that the rational-emotive stress management intervention program was efficacious in reducing the levels of job-related burnout symptoms and dysfunctional distress among participants assigned to the treatment group, compared to a waitlisted group at post-treatment and follow-up meetings. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of a rational-emotive stress management intervention in reducing the level of job-related burnout and distress in a sample of special education teachers in Nigeria. Occupational health counsellors and other clinicians with sufficient knowledge of rational-emotive behavior therapy framework are urged to employ this approach in assisting other employees in managing job burnout symptoms, and distress. PMID:29703004

  20. Psychological interventions for diabetes-related distress in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke C; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Scholten, Rob Jpm; Rutten, Guy Ehm

    2017-09-27

    Many adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience a psychosocial burden and mental health problems associated with the disease. Diabetes-related distress (DRD) has distinct effects on self-care behaviours and disease control. Improving DRD in adults with T2DM could enhance psychological well-being, health-related quality of life, self-care abilities and disease control, also reducing depressive symptoms. To assess the effects of psychological interventions for diabetes-related distress in adults with T2DM. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, BASE, WHO ICTRP Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of the last search was December 2014 for BASE and 21 September 2016 for all other databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of psychological interventions for DRD in adults (18 years and older) with T2DM. We included trials if they compared different psychological interventions or compared a psychological intervention with usual care. Primary outcomes were DRD, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were self-efficacy, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, diabetes-related complications, all-cause mortality and socioeconomic effects. Two review authors independently identified publications for inclusion and extracted data. We classified interventions according to their focus on emotion, cognition or emotion-cognition. We performed random-effects meta-analyses to compute overall estimates. We identified 30 RCTs with 9177 participants. Sixteen trials were parallel two-arm RCTs, and seven were three-arm parallel trials. There were also seven cluster-randomised trials: two had four arms, and the remaining five had two arms. The median duration of the intervention was six months (range 1 week to 24 months), and the median follow-up period was 12 months (range 0 to 12 months). The trials included a wide spectrum of interventions and were both

  1. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  2. Community Water Improvement, Household Water Insecurity, and Women’s Psychological Distress: An Intervention and Control Study in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, E. G. J.; Ambelu, A.; Caruso, B. A.; Tesfaye, Y.; Freeman, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1) whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2) whether water interventions affect women’s psychological distress, and (3) the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality. Methods and Findings Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women’s psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline); 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI’s -3.15, -0.84). We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women’s psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p insecurity scale, and establish our approach to measuring water insecurity as a plausible means of evaluating

  3. Healing Touch as a Supportive Intervention for Adult Acute Leukemia Patients: A Pilot Investigation of Effects on Distress and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Holder, Paige; Miller, Christina; Jesse, Michelle T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Goals were to determine the feasibility of conducting a study of Healing Touch (HT) for acute leukemia patients and to obtain preliminary data on its effectiveness. Methods Forty hospitalized leukemia patients completed a brief survey of HT knowledge/experience. A prospective cohort (N=12) was invited to participate in an HT intervention (9 30-minute sessions over 3 weeks); they completed measures of distress, symptoms, and sleep (at weeks 1 and 5), and completed single item ratings of fatigue, nausea, distress, and pain immediately pre-post selected HT sessions. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze change in pre-post session ratings and distress, symptom, and sleep measures. Results Among survey respondents, 8% had used HT in the past, and 71% were interested in using HT. In the prospective cohort, there were significant pre-post session improvements in fatigue and nausea (but not in distress and pain). There were no significant changes between weeks 1 and 5 in distress, symptoms, or sleep. Ratings and qualitative feedback on HT were positive, focused mainly on feeling relaxed following HT sessions. Conclusions It is feasible to recruit patients hospitalized for acute leukemia to a study of HT. Preliminary data on short-term improvements in symptoms indicate these are promising outcomes for future study. PMID:19087765

  4. Psychological distress among women with newly diagnosed breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte; Bistrup, Pernille Envold; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Psychological distress is common in the cancer continuum. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of distress and to investigate the related problems and the characteristics of women with breast cancer who experienced psychological distress at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We...... thermometer' to measure psychological distress and the accompanying 'problem list' to identify related problems. Logistic regression models with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the associations between psychological distress, age, social support and domains on the problem list. RESULTS......: With a cut-off of 3 on the distress thermometer, 77% of women with breast cancer reported distress, whereas when the cut-off was 7, 43% were distressed. The mean distress score was 5.4 (SD, 3.1). The most frequently reported problems were worry (77%) and nervousness (71%). Distress was significantly...

  5. Calibration of Cryogenic Thermometers for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, Ch; Vauthier, N; Thermeau, JP

    2008-01-01

    6000 cryogenic temperature sensors of resistive type covering the range from room temperature down to 1.6 K are installed on the LHC machine. In order to meet the stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets, each single sensor needs to be calibrated individually. In the framework of a special contribution, IPN (Institut de Physique Nucléaire) in Orsay, France built and operated a calibration facility with a throughput of 80 thermometers per week. After reception from the manufacturer, the thermometer is first assembled onto a support specific to the measurement environment, and then thermally cycled ten times and calibrated at least once from 1.6 to 300 K. The procedure for each of these interventions includes various measurements and the acquired data is recorded in an ORACLE®-database. Furthermore random calibrations on some samples are executed at CERN to crosscheck the coherence between the approximation data obtained by both IPN and CERN. In the range of 1.5 K to 30 K...

  6. Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthey, Stephen; Kavanagh, David J; Howie, Pauline; Barnett, Bryanne; Charles, Margaret

    2004-04-01

    control conditions. There were no main or interaction effects by 6 months postpartum. The beneficial effect at 6 weeks was related to partners of these women being more aware of how the mother was feeling, and with women reporting greater satisfaction with the sharing of home and baby tasks. There were no significant main or interaction effects for men at either time point, other than men with low self-esteem reporting poorer adjustment. This brief and inexpensive intervention was effective in reducing postpartum distress in some first-time mothers at 6 weeks postpartum. The effectiveness of this intervention was related to an increased level of awareness in the men as to how their partners were experiencing the early postpartum weeks. That the effect was only evident for women who, antenatally, reported being low in self-esteem, is an important advance in our knowledge of the effectiveness of such prevention programs. No previous studies have investigated the differential effectiveness of such programs depending upon the woman's level of self-esteem, and this finding indicates that future work should measure this variable. These findings should be understood in the context that the population sampled were those attending preparation for parenthood classes, and thus different interventions will be needed for couples who do not attend such classes. This brief psychosocial intervention can be readily applied to antenatal classes routinely conducted in hospitals or the community.

  7. Ion thermometers in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakesh, D.; Kott, J.; Strnad, M.

    1980-01-01

    The width of the temperature discontinuity and the thermometric stability of the sensors are constant up to very high flux values. The immediate influence of irradiation is reduced to a decrease in the hysteresis of the conduction curve at the phase transition. When the readings of the ion thermometers are compared with the reading of Chromel-Alumel thermocouples, it is observed that the temperature difference amounts to approximately 7/degree/C in the case of thermocouples placed at the sensor socket; the temperature difference decreases to 2/degree/C in the case of the thermocouple junction situated between the electrodes. The good results obtained in the testing of the ion thermometers in nuclear reactors lead to the conclusion that these temperature sensors are promising for checking thermocouples in the core of nuclear power stations

  8. Interventions for intrauterine resuscitation in suspected fetal distress during term labor : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Runnard Heimel, P.J.; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M.B.; Oei, G.

    IMPORTANCE: Intrauterine resuscitation techniques during term labor are commonly used in daily clinical practice. Evidence, however, to support the beneficial effect of intrauterine resuscitation techniques on fetal distress during labor is limited and sometimes contradictory. In contrast, some of

  9. The Effects of a Hatha Yoga Intervention on Facets of Distress Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina, J.L.; Hopkins, L.B.; Powers, M.B.; Baird, S.O.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with low distress tolerance (DT) experience negative emotion as particularly threatening and are highly motivated to reduce or avoid such affective experiences. Consequently, these individuals have difficulty regulating emotions and tend to engage in maladaptive strategies, such as

  10. Intraoperative body temperature control: esophageal thermometer versus infrared tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Vanessa de Brito; Nascimento, Ariane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0.2ºC. The operating room temperature remained between 19 and 21ºC. The study included 51 patients, mostly men (51%), white (80.4%). All patients were kept warm by a forced-air heating system, for an average of 264.14 minutes (SD = 87.7). The two temperature measurements showed no different behavior over time (p = 0.2205), however, tympanic measurements were consistently 1.24°C lower (ptemperatura realizadas por meio de um termômetro timpânico por infravermelho e por um termômetro esofágico, durante o período intraoperatório. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal, de medidas repetidas, incluindo sujeitos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica eletiva do sistema digestório, com duração da anestesia de, no mínimo, 1 hora. As medidas de temperatura eram realizadas, ao mesmo tempo, por meio de um termômetro esofágico calibrado e por termômetro timpânico por infravermelho calibrado, com precisão de leitura em laboratório de ±0,2ºC. A temperatura da sala operatória permaneceu entre 19 e 21ºC. Foram incluídos 51 pacientes, em sua maioria homens (51%), brancos (80,4%). Todos os pacientes foram aquecidos com o sistema de ar forçado aquecido, em média por 264,14 minutos (DP = 87,7). As duas medidas de temperatura não tiveram comportamento diferente ao longo do tempo (p = 0,2205), mas a medida timpânica foi consistentemente menor em 1,24°C (p temperaturas mais

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  12. Can we respond mindfully to distressing voices? A systematic review of evidence for engagement, acceptability, effectiveness and mechanisms of change for mindfulness-based interventions for people distressed by hearing voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara eStrauss

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adapted mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs could be of benefit for people distressed by hearing voices. This paper presents a systematic review of studies exploring this possibility and we ask five questions: (1 Is trait mindfulness associated with reduced distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices? (2 Are MBIs feasible for people distressed by hearing voices? (3 Are MBIs acceptable and safe for people distressed by hearing voices? (4 Are MBIs effective at reducing distress and disturbance in people distressed by hearing voices? (5 If effective, what are the mechanisms of change through which MBIs for distressing voices work?Fifteen studies were identified through a systematic search (n=479. In relation to the five review questions: (1 data from cross-sectional studies showed an association between trait mindfulness and distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices; (2 evidence from qualitative studies suggested that people distressed by hearing voices could engage meaningfully in mindfulness practice; (3 MBIs were seen as acceptable and safe; (4 there were no adequately powered RCTs allowing conclusions about effectiveness to be drawn; and (5 it was not possible to draw on robust empirical data to comment on potential mechanisms of change although findings from the qualitative studies identified three potential change processes; (i reorientation of attention; (ii decentring; and (iii acceptance of voices. This review provided evidence that MBIs are engaging, acceptable and safe. Evidence for effectiveness in reducing distress and disturbance is lacking however. We call for funding for adequately powered RCTs that will allow questions of effectiveness, maintenance of effects, mechanisms of change and moderators of outcome to be definitively addressed.

  13. Profile and predictors of global distress: can the DT guide nursing practice in prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi-Jam, Kerryann; Gough, Karla; Schofield, Penelope; Aranda, Sanchia

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the ability of the distress thermometer to accurately identify patients with higher symptoms, unmet needs and psychological morbidity. Baseline data collected as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating a nurse-led supportive care intervention for men with prostate cancer commencing radiotherapy at a specialist cancer hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Measures assessed global distress (DT), anxious and depressive symptomatology (HADS), prostate-cancer specific quality of life (EPIC-26), unmet supportive care needs (SCNS-SF34R) and cancer treatment-related concerns (CATS). Following descriptive and correlational analysis, hierarchical multiple regression was employed to examine the contribution of variable sets to explaining variance in DT scores. Less than 20% of men reported DT scores of 4 or higher, indicating overall low distress. The DT accurately identified almost all men reporting HADS score indicative of anxious or depressive symptomatology, suggesting it accurately identifies psychological morbidity. Importantly, the DT identified a further group of distressed men, not identified by HADS, whose distress related to unmet needs and prostate cancer-specific issues, indicating the DT is superior in identifying other forms of distress. While the hierarchical multiple regression confirmed anxious and depressive symptomatology as the best predictor of distress score, many other scales are also good predictors of DT scores, supporting the argument that distress is multi-determined. Nurses can be confident that the DT accurately identifies patients with psychological morbidity and importantly identifies other patients with distress who may require intervention. A distress score of 4 or higher identified participants with higher physical symptomatology, higher unmet needs, more concerns about treatment and poorer quality of life. The low prevalence of distress reaching cut off scores suggests nurses would not be overwhelmed by the outcomes

  14. Preoperative psychological distress, coping and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Zengzeng; Wang, Weili

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative psychological distress and its relationship with coping style and quality of life in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer. Being newly diagnosed with cancer can be a source of psychological distress. Understanding the preoperative psychological distress may contribute to the development of appropriate interventions. This is a descriptive correlational survey study. The study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Anhui province, China. A total of 165 patients with gastric cancer completed a battery of self-report questionnaires including the Distress Thermometer, the revised Chinese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire-Stomach 22 and the Cancer Coping Modes Questionnaire. The prevalence of clinically significant preoperative psychological distress was 76·97% in this group. Statistically significant correlations were identified between the distress score and stomach pain, eating restrictions and anxiety subscale. Positive associations were found between the distress scores and four subdimensions of coping (avoidance and suppression, resignation, fantasy and catharsis), whereas a negative association was found between the distress scores and one subdimension of coping (Confrontation). There were also significant differences in the quality of life and coping style of patients who had different psychological distress statuses. These findings indicate a relatively high prevalence of preoperative psychological distress among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Patients with clinically psychological distress were more likely to have poor quality of life and to demonstrate negative coping styles. Nursing professionals need to carefully assess the psychological status of patients with gastric cancer. Tailored interventions can be administered to help these patients appropriately cope with the disease and to enhance their quality of life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Very high temperature ultrasonic thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorzik, E.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic thermometer comprises an electric pulse transducer head, a pulse transmission line, a notched sensor wire attached to and extending along the axis of said transmission line and a sheath enclosing the transmission line and the sensor wire, a portion of the interior face of the sheath being covered by a stuffing material along at least the length of the notched part of the sensor wire, such that contact between the sensor wire and the stuffing material does not substantially give rise to reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the point of contact. (author)

  16. Psychosocial Distress of Patients with Psoriasis: Protocol for an Assessment of Care Needs and the Development of a Supportive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis Maria; Dirmaier, Jörg; Augustin, Matthias; Dwinger, Sarah; Christalle, Eva; Härter, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2018-02-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is often associated with a number of somatic and mental comorbidity. Patients with psoriasis show an increased risk of depression and (social) anxiety. The aims of this study are 1) to explore the psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis and to assess their care needs; and 2) to develop a supportive intervention based on the prior results. A multi-stage design with four phases combining quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used and conducted in two centers. 1) A scoping review and focus groups will be used to design a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial distress and care needs of the patients. 2) The questionnaire developed in phase 1 will be used in a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of psychosocial distress and supportive care needs in 400 patients with psoriasis. 3) A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to identify psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for patients with psoriasis and to describe their effectiveness. 4) Based on the results of the phases 2 and 3 a manualized supportive intervention will be developed and the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention will be assessed. Currently, phase 1 of the project has been completed and the recruitment for phase 2 has been started. The systematic review and meta-analysis of phase 3 are conducted simultaneously to phase 2 and results are expected soon. Phase 4 has not been started yet. The expected results of this study will show the extent of psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis in Germany and supplement previous research with findings about the supportive care needs of this patient group. Moreover, the developed intervention will help to address the psychosocial support needs of patients with psoriasis. Research shows that psychosocial support is strongly needed. ©Jördis Maria Zill, Jörg Dirmaier, Matthias Augustin, Sarah Dwinger, Eva Christalle, Martin Härter, Ulrich Mrowietz

  17. An attempt to prevent psychological distress induced by magnetic resonance imaging. Effectiveness of psychological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Tatsuo; Nakai, Takashi; Murakami, Masaya; Kitamura, Noboru; Nishino, Naoki.

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent psychological distress, such as discomfort, anxiety and fear, during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the following psychological measures were conducted: (1) improving psychological support to the patient by MRI technicians; (2) providing sufficient information to the patient about MRI imager and the purpose of MRI examination; (3) reassuring the patient by telling him or her that he or she can stop MRI examination at any time; (4) modifying the environment (such as music, paintings, and plants) for relaxation. The effectiveness of these psychological support items was evaluated in all MRI patients. The questionnaire was filled out by 143 patients (mean age, 49.4 years) before MRI and by 105 patients (mean age, 48.4 years) after MRI. Psychological distress during MRI was significantly reduced from 64.3% to 50.5% after the implementation of psychological measures. This was noticeable in female patients aged 60 years or older and patients undergoing MRI for the first time. The reported incidence of distress tended to decrease. The reported complaints of long examination time and palpitation during MRI were significantly reduced. These results indicated that the psychological measures (particularly, the shortening of MRI examination time) are useful in reducing psychological distress during MRI. (N.K.)

  18. Psychological interventions for diabetes-related distress in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke C; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Scholten, Rob Jpm; Rutten, Guy Ehm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience a psychosocial burden and mental health problems associated with the disease. Diabetes-related distress (DRD) has distinct effects on self-care behaviours and disease control. Improving DRD in adults with T2DM could enhance

  19. The influence of diabetes distress on digital interventions for diabetes management in vulnerable people with type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study of patient perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sophie Mathiesen

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Vulnerable people with T2DM are unprepared for digital interventions for disease management. Experiencing diabetes distress may be an intermediate mechanism leading to nonadherence to digital interventions and the preference for human interaction in vulnerable people with T2DM. Future interventions could include a designated caregiver and an allocated buddy to provide support and assist uptake of digital interventions for diabetes management.

  20. Women with breast cancer: self-reported distress in early survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joanne; Crosthwaite, Kara; Stout, Robin; Jones, Rachel N; Holloman, Christopher; Shapiro, Charles; Andersen, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    To identify and compare levels of distress and sources of problems among patients with breast cancer in early survivorship. Descriptive, cross-sectional. A National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. 100 breast cancer survivors were selected to represent four time points in the cancer trajectory. Distress was self-reported using the Distress Thermometer and its 38-item problem list. Analysis of variance and chi-square analyses were performed as appropriate. Distress scores, problem reports, and time groups. Participants scored in range of the cutoff of more than 4 (range = 4.1-5.1) from treatment through three months post-treatment. At six months post-treatment, distress levels were significantly lower. Significant differences were found between groups on the total problem list score (p = 0.007) and emotional (p = 0.01) and physical subscale scores (p = 0.003). Comparison of groups at different points in the cancer trajectory found similar elevated levels from diagnosis through three months. Distress remained elevated in early survivorship but significantly decreased at six months post-treatment. Interventions to reduce or prevent distress may improve outcomes in early survivorship.

  1. Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and positive psychological intervention (PPI) on female offenders with psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Vivian W M; Chan, Calais K Y

    2018-04-01

    Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone. We recruited 40 women in a special Hong Kong prison unit for female offenders with psychological distress. Half of them received eight sessions of CBT followed by eight sessions of PPI; the other half received the same interventions in the reverse order. We recruited another 35 women who received only 'treatment as usual' (TAU) in the same unit. We used various clinical scales to assess the women's psychological distress or well-being before and after the interventions or at similar time points for the comparison women. All intervention group women showed a significant reduction in psychological distress and enhancement in psychological well-being after each intervention alone compared to the TAU women. There were no significant differences between CBT and PPI in this respect. Receiving both treatments, however, did yield significantly more improvement than either intervention alone in reducing depressive thoughts and enhancing global judgement of life satisfaction, self-perceived strengths and hopeful thinking style. Our findings provide preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of psychological interventions with psychologically distressed women in prison. It would be important now to conduct a full, randomised trial to determine optimal length and combinations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults After Cancer Treatment: Effects on Quality of Life, Emotional Distress, and Cognitive Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Gucht, Katleen; Takano, Keisuke; Labarque, Veerle; Vandenabeele, Karen; Nolf, Nathalie; Kuylen, Sanne; Cosyns, Veerle; Van Broeck, Nady; Kuppens, Peter; Raes, Filip

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult cancer (AYAC) survivors show an elevated risk of distress. Targeted psychosocial interventions for this distinct population are needed. This study examined the potential efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to alleviate emotional distress and improve quality of life (QoL) in AYAC survivors. Participants were 16 AYAC survivors, aged 14-24, who had completed acute medical treatment. A two-baseline (8 and 1 week before the intervention), post- (1 week after the intervention) and 3 months follow-up within-subjects design was used. Each participant completed two baseline assessments, followed by an 8-week MBI. The primary outcome variables were emotional distress and QoL. Secondary outcomes were cognitive vulnerability factors and mindfulness skills. Multilevel modeling showed (1) a significant reduction in emotional distress and improvement in QoL at 3 months of follow-up, (2) a significant reduction in negative attitudes toward self (i.e., a cognitive vulnerability factor), and (3) a significant improvement in mindfulness skills. MBI is a promising approach that is used to treat emotional distress and to improve QoL in AYAC survivors. Further research using randomized controlled trials is needed to generalize these findings. Trial registration information: www.trialregister.nl ; NTR4358.

  3. Cryogenic Thermometer Calibration Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, C; Thermeau, J P

    1998-01-01

    A cryogenic thermometer calibration facility has been designed and is being commissioned in preparation for the very stringent requirements on the temperature control of the LHC superconducting magnets. The temperature is traceable in the 1.5 to 30 K range to standards maintained in a national metrological laboratory by using a set of Rhodium-Iron temperature sensors of metrological quality. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating simultaneously 60 industrial cryogenic thermometers in the 1.5 K to 300 K temperature range, a thermometer being a device that includes both a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept. The thermometers can be calibrated in good and degraded vacuum or immersed in the surrounding fluid and at different Joule self-heating conditions that match those imposed by signal conditioners used in large cryogenic machinery. The calibration facility can be operated in an automatic mode and all the control and safety routines are handled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)...

  4. Thermal Conductivity and Liquid Crystal Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes using stock liquid crystal postcards as inexpensive classroom thermometers. Also suggests using these postcards as a good visual temperature indicator for classroom demonstrations such as temperature gradients. One such activity is provided. (MVL)

  5. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  6. Silicon photonic thermometer operating on multiple polarizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively.......A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively....

  7. Maternally Administered Interventions for Preterm Infants in the NICU: Effects on Maternal Psychological Distress and Mother-Infant Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Levy, Janet A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies have examined the effects of interventions focused on preterm infants, few studies have examined the effects on maternal distress (anxiety, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress) or parenting. This study examined the effects of the auditory-tactile-visual-vestibular (ATVV) intervention and kangaroo care (KC) on maternal distress and the mother-infant relationship compared to an attention control group. 240 mothers from four hospitals were randomly assigned to the three groups. Maternal characteristics in the three groups were similar: 64.1% of ATVV mothers, 64.2% of KC mothers, and 76.5% of control mothers were African American; maternal age averaged 26.3 years for ATVV mothers, 28.1 for KC mothers, and 26.6 for control mothers; and years of education averaged 13.6 for ATVV and KC mothers, and 13.1 for control mothers. Mothers only differed on parity: 68.4% of ATVV and 54.7% of KC mothers were first-time mothers as compared to 43.6% of control mothers. Their infants had a similar mean gestational ages (27.0 weeks for ATVV, 27.2 for KC, and 27.4 for control) and mean birthweights (993 grams for ATVV, 1022 for KC, and 1023 for control). Mothers completed questionnaires during hospitalization, and at 2, 6 and 12 months corrected age on demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, state anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress, worry about child health, and child vulnerability (only at 12 months). At 2 and 6 months, 45-minute videotapes of mother-infant interactions were made, and the HOME Inventory was scored. Behaviors coded from the videotapes and a HOME subscale were combined into five interactive dimensions: maternal positive involvement and developmental stimulation and child social behaviors, developmental maturity, and irritability. Intervention effects were examined using general linear mixed models controlling for parity and recruitment site. The groups did not differ on any maternal

  8. Beating the blues after Cancer: randomised controlled trial of a tele-based psychological intervention for high distress patients and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Sandy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a major life stress such that approximately 35% of patients experience persistent clinically significant distress and carers often experience even higher distress than patients. This paper presents the design of a two arm randomised controlled trial with patients and carers who have elevated psychological distress comparing minimal contact self management vs. an individualised tele-based cognitive behavioural intervention. Methods/design 140 patients and 140 carers per condition (560 participants in total will been recruited after being identified as high distress through caller screening at two community-based cancer helplines and randomised to 1 a single 30-minute telephone support and education session with a nurse counsellor with self management materials 2 a tele-based psychologist delivered five session individualised cognitive behavioural intervention. Session components will include stress reduction, problem-solving, cognitive challenging and enhancing relationship support and will be delivered weekly. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after recruitment. Outcome measures include: anxiety and depression, cancer specific distress, unmet psychological supportive care needs, positive adjustment, overall Quality of life. Discussion The study will provide recommendations about the efficacy and potential economic value of minimal contact self management vs. tele-based psychologist delivered cognitive behavioural intervention to facilitate better psychosocial adjustment and mental health for people with cancer and their carers. Trial Registration ACTRN12609000301268.

  9. A guided self-help intervention targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients: motivation to start, experiences and perceived outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Anne-Marie H; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Melissant, Heleen C; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of a randomized clinical trial showed that a guided self-help intervention (based on problem-solving therapy) targeting psychological distress among head and neck cancer and lung cancer patients is effective. This study qualitatively explored motivation to start, experiences with and perceived outcomes of this intervention. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 16 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed individually by two coders and coded into key issues and themes. Patients participated in the intervention for intrinsic (e.g. to help oneself) and for extrinsic reasons (e.g. being asked by a care professional or to help improve health care). Participants indicated positive and negative experiences with the intervention. Several participants appreciated participating as being a pleasant way to work on oneself, while others described participating as too confrontational. Some expressed their disappointment as they felt the intervention had brought them nothing or indicated that they felt worse temporarily, but most participants perceived positive outcomes of the intervention (e.g. feeling less distressed and having learned what matters in life). Cancer patients have various reasons to start a guided self-help intervention. Participants appreciated the guided self-help as intervention to address psychological distress, but there were also concerns. Most participants reported the intervention to be beneficial. The results suggest the need to identify patients who might benefit most from guided self-help targeting psychological distress and that interventions should be further tailored to individual cancer patients' requirements.

  10. Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce sickness absence in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, E.P.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Terluin, B.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an activating intervention designed to reduce sick leave duration in patients with emotional distress or minor mental disorders. METHOD: In a 1.5-year randomized controlled trial, 194 patients with minor mental disorders

  11. Does age at the time of elective cardiac surgery or catheter intervention in children influence the longitudinal development of psychological distress and styles of coping of parents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, Elisabeth M.; Versluis-den Bieman, Herma J.; Witsenburg, Maarten; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Hess, John; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the influence of age at a cardiac procedure of children, who underwent elective cardiac surgery or interventional cardiac catheterisation for treatment of congenital cardiac defects between 3 months and 7 years of age, on the longitudinal development of psychological distress and styles of

  12. The effect of physical activity on psychological distress, cortisol and obesity: results of the Farming Fit intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; Kremer, Peter; Torres, Susan; McCoombe, Scott; Lewandowski, Paul

    2013-10-28

    Rural and regional Australians have a higher likelihood of mental illness throughout their lifetime than people living in major cities, although the underlying reasons are not yet well defined. Additionally, rural populations experience more lifestyle associated co-morbidities including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community. Chronic stress is known to overstimulate the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and cortisol secretion which are associated with abdominal adiposity. Increasing physical activity may normalise cortisol secretion and thereby positively impact both physical and mental health. This paper assesses the effects of increasing physical activity on obesity, health behaviors and mental health in Victorian farming men and women. Farming Fit was a six month quasi-experimental (convenience sample) longitudinal design control-intervention study. Overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) farm men (n = 43) and women (n = 29) were recruited with demographic, health behaviors, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemistry data collected at baseline and at a six months. Salivary cortisol and depression anxiety stress scale results were collected at baseline, three and six months. The intervention group (n = 37) received a personalized exercise program and regular phone coaching to promote physical activity. The intervention group showed significant reductions in body weight and waist circumference. Results indicated that following the six month exercise program, the intervention group were 2.64 ± 0.65 kg lighter (p physical activity altered measures of obesity in farm men and women but did not affect mental health measures or cortisol secretion levels. ACTRN12610000827033.

  13. Design of a Toolbox of RNA Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shaunak; Apurva, Divyansh; Satija, Rohit; Siegal, Dan; Murray, Richard M

    2017-08-18

    Biomolecular temperature sensors can be used for efficient control of large-volume bioreactors, for spatiotemporal imaging and control of gene expression, and to engineer robustness to temperature in biomolecular circuit design. Although RNA-based sensors, called "thermometers", have been investigated in both natural and synthetic contexts, an important challenge is to design diverse responses to temperature differing in sensitivity and threshold. We address this issue by constructing a library of RNA thermometers based on thermodynamic computations and experimentally measuring their activities in cell-free biomolecular "breadboards". Using free energies of the minimum free energy structures as well as melt profile computations, we estimated that a diverse set of temperature responses were possible. We experimentally found a wide range of responses to temperature in the range 29-37 °C with fold-changes varying over 3-fold around the starting thermometer. The sensitivities of these responses ranged over 10-fold around the starting thermometer. We correlated these measurements with computational expectations, finding that although there was no strong correlation for the individual thermometers, overall trends of diversity, fold-changes, and sensitivities were similar. These results present a toolbox of RNA-based circuit elements with diverse temperature responses.

  14. A rational-emotive stress management intervention for reducing job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers: An effect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, Samuel C; Eseadi, Chiedu; Onuigbo, Liziana N; Aye, Eucharia N; Akaneme, Immaculata N; Oboegbulem, Angie I; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa O; Nwobi, Anthonia U; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O; Ezegbe, Bernedeth N; Ede, Moses O; Orji, Chibueze T; Onuoha, Joseph C; Onu, Eucharia A; Okeke, Francisca; Agu, Patricia; Omeje, Joachim C; Omeke, Faith; Ugwu, Romanus; Arumede, Florence; Eneh, Annastasia

    2018-04-01

    Job-related burnout and distress are adverse stress responses which affect individuals in their occupational environment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of a rational-emotive stress management program on job burnout and dysfunctional distress among special education teachers in Nigeria. A pretest-posttest randomized control group design was used. The participants in the study were 54 special education teachers. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Participants were allocated to either the treatment group (n = 28 [59.1%]) or the waitlist control group (n = 26 [48.1%]), respectively. A rational-emotive stress management manual was used to deliver the intervention. We statistically analyzed the data collected at three-time points with repeated-measures analysis of variance. At baseline, the job-related burnout symptoms and distress scores of participants were high. However, an intention-to-treat analysis showed that the rational-emotive stress management intervention program was efficacious in reducing the levels of job-related burnout symptoms and dysfunctional distress among participants assigned to the treatment group, compared to a waitlisted group at post-treatment and follow-up meetings. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of a rational-emotive stress management intervention in reducing the level of job-related burnout and distress in a sample of special education teachers in Nigeria. Occupational health counsellors and other clinicians with sufficient knowledge of rational-emotive behavior therapy framework are urged to employ this approach in assisting other employees in managing job burnout symptoms, and distress.

  15. Distress and quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of a web-based stepped care intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijgens Peter C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (i.e. depression and anxiety is a strong predictor of functional status and other aspects of quality of life in autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy. Treatment of psychological distress is hypothesized to result in improvement of functional status and other aspects of quality of life. The aim is to evaluate the outcome of stepped care for psychological distress on functional status and other aspects of quality of life in patients with hematological malignancy treated with autologous stem cell transplantation. Methods/Design The study is designed as a randomized clinical trial with 2 treatment arms: a stepped care intervention program versus care as usual. Patients are randomized immediately pre transplant. Stepped care and care as usual are initiated after a 6 weeks buffer period. Outcome is evaluated at 13, 30, and 42 weeks post transplant. In the experimental group, the first step includes an Internet-based self-help program. If psychological distress persists after the self-help intervention, the second step of the program is executed, i.e. a diagnostic evaluation and a standardized interview, yielding a problem analysis. Based on this information, a contract is made with the patient and treatment is provided consisting of individual face-to-face counseling, medication, or referral to other services. Care as usual comprises an interview with the patient, on ad hoc basis; emotional support and advice, on ad hoc basis; if urgent problems emerge, the patient is referred to other services. Primary outcome variables are psychological distress and functional status. Data are analyzed according to the intention to treat-principle. Discussion This study has several innovative characteristics. First, the outcome of the intervention for psychological distress in patients with hematological malignancy treated with autologous stem cell transplantation is evaluated in a randomized

  16. Impact of a Child Life and Music Therapy Procedural Support Intervention on Parental Perception of Their Child's Distress During Intravenous Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gabriela S; OʼConnor, Todd; Carey, Jessa; Vella, Adam; Paul, Audrey; Rode, Diane; Weinberg, Alan

    2017-02-21

    Child life specialists and music therapists have a unique and integral role in providing psychosocial care to pediatric patients and families. These professionals are trained to provide clinical interventions that support coping and adjustment and reduce the risk of psychological trauma related to hospital visits and health care encounters. The researchers devised a multimodal approach using a combined child life and music therapy intervention to address procedure-related distress in patients receiving intravenous (IV) placement in the pediatric emergency department. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this collaborative intervention by evaluating parental perception of their child's distress. This study was a prospective analysis investigating the impact of a child life and music therapy intervention on children aged 4 to 11 years old receiving an IV placement in the pediatric emergency department. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing scores between a 4-question pretest and subsequent 4-question posttest that asked the child's parent to evaluate how they anticipated their child would respond to the procedure, and then to evaluate how they perceived their child to have responded after the procedure. Qualitative data were collected in the form of open-ended comments, which were accommodated at the end of the posttest. Data were analyzed by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method for testing repeated ordinal responses and the PROC GENMOD procedure in the SAS system software. A total of 41 participants were enrolled in this study. Results of the statistical analysis revealed significant differences between all pre- and posttest scores (P music therapy intervention. Improvement was demonstrated across all 4 questions, suggesting that the child life and music therapy intervention supported healthy, adaptive coping and helped to minimize distress experienced by patients during IV placement. These results underscore the importance and potential clinical

  17. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Di Blasio; Sarah Miragoli; Elena Camisasca; Angela Maria Di Vita; Rosalia Pizzo; Laura Pipitone

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thou...

  18. Assessment of diabetic distress and disease related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Isfahan: A way to tailor an effective intervention planning in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Azar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes distress and its related factors among type 2 diabetic patients to better tailor intervention planning in Isfahan-Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. Study population was patients with type 2 diabetes referring to Omolbanin, an outpatient diabetic center in Isfahan. 140 diabetic patients met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patient’s diabetes distress was measured by DDS. A 17-item self-report diabetes distress scale was used with subscales reflecting 5 domains: 1 Emotional burden (5 items, 2 Physician distress (4 items, 3 Regimen distress (5 items and 4 Interpersonal distress (3 items. The responses to each item were rated between 1 and 6 (1 = not a problem, 2 = a slight problem, 3 = a moderate problem, 4 = somewhat serious problem, 5 = a serious problem, 6 = a very serious problem. The minimum and the maximum of score in the scale were 17 and 114 respectively. Collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5. Results Mean age of participants were 53.23 years (SD = 7.82. 54.3% was female, 97.1% was married, and 57.1% had education lower than diploma. The average score of total diabetes distress was 2.96 ± 0.83. The average score of each domain was (3.40 ± 1.18, (2.57 ± 0.88, (2.97 ± 0.90, (2.76 ± 0.91 respectively. ‘Emotional Burden’ was considered as the most important domain in measuring diabetes distress. Total diabetes distress had significant association with age (p = 0.02, duration of diabetes (plc (r = 0.63, p Conclusion It seems some keywords have a main role in diabetes distress such as emotional support, communication with patient and physician, self-efficacy and social support. All of these points are achievable through empowerment approach in diabetes care plan.

  19. Betrayal trauma: relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, Jennifer J; Klest, Bridget; Allard, Carolyn B

    2005-01-01

    In the current study we sought, first, to distinguish associations with health arising from types of trauma as indicated by betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1996, 2001), and, second, to investigate the impact of disclosing a trauma history in survey form and/or writing essays about betrayal traumas. We recruited 99 community adults reporting at least 12 months of chronic medical illness or pain, 80 of whom completed all four sessions of this six-month longitudinal intervention study. Participants were randomly assigned to write about betrayal traumas or neutral events, and they were randomly assigned to complete an extensive trauma survey or a long personality inventory, producing four groups of participants. All 99 participants were assessed at their initial visit for trauma history using the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS) and physical and mental symptoms. The BBTS assesses exposure to both traumas high in betrayal (such as abuse by a close other) and traumas low in betrayal but high in life-threat (such as an automobile accident). Exposure to traumas with high betrayal was significantly correlated with number of physical illness, anxiety, dissociation, and depression symptoms. Amount of exposure to other types of traumas (low betrayal traumas) did not predict symptoms over and above exposure to betrayal trauma. While neither the survey manipulation nor the writing intervention led to main effects on change in symptoms over time, there were interactions between betrayal trauma history and condition such that participants with many betrayal traumas fared better in the control conditions while participants with fewer betrayal traumas had better outcomes if they were placed in the trauma writing and/or survey conditions. We discuss ongoing and future research aimed at evaluating the role of increased structure in writing assignments as beneficial for those with severe histories of betrayal trauma.

  20. Depression and insomnia as mediators of the relationship between distress and quality of life in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyeong Min; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Noh, Jae Sung; Chun, Mison; Hyun, So Yeon; Kang, Dae Ryong; Oh, Min Jung; Kim, Nam Hee

    2017-08-01

    Distress in cancer patients leads to poorer quality of life (QOL) and negatively impacts survival. For efficient management of a patient's disease course, the interrelationships among distress, depression, insomnia, and QOL must be understood. This study aimed to investigate whether depression and insomnia mediate the relationship between distress and QOL in cancer patients. Cancer patients referred to a specialized psycho-oncology clinic (n=208) participated in this study. Distress, depression, insomnia, and QOL were measured with the following questionnaires: Distress Thermometer, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were performed to analyze the mediating effects of depression and insomnia on the relationship between distress and QOL. Distress exerted nearly equal direct (ß=-0.291, p=0.002) and indirect (mediated by depression and insomnia) (ß=-0.299, p=0.003) negative effects on QOL. Depression exhibited the largest direct negative effect on QOL. The indirect effects of distress on QOL through depression alone, through insomnia alone, and through an insomnia to depression pathway were all significant (ß=-0.122, p=0.011; ß=-0.102, p=0.002; and ß=-0.075, pDepression and insomnia, both individually and as part of an interrelated pathway, partially mediate the relationship between distress and QOL. Appropriate interventions to alleviate insomnia and depression may mitigate the negative impacts of distress on QOL in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  2. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Intervention to Relieve Pain and Distress During Medical Procedures: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Paola; Barone, Daniela; Gallo, Luigi; Chirico, Andrea; De Pietro, Giuseppe; Antonio, Giordano

    2018-02-26

    This review aims to provide a framework for evaluating the utility of virtual reality (VR) as a distraction intervention to alleviate pain and distress during medical procedures. We firstly describe the theoretical bases underlying the VR analgesic and anxiolytic effects and define the main factors contributing to its efficacy, which largely emerged from studies on healthy volunteers. Then, we provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical trials using VR distraction during different medical procedures, such as burn injury treatments, chemotherapy, surgery, dental treatment, and other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A broad literature search was performed using as main terms "virtual reality", "distraction" and "pain". No date limit was applied and all the retrieved studies on immersive VR distraction during medical procedures were selected. VR has proven to be effective in reducing procedural pain, as almost invariably observed even in patients subjected to extremely painful procedures, such as patients with burn injuries undergoing wound care and physical therapy. Moreover, VR seemed to decrease cancer-related symptoms in different settings, including during chemotherapy. Only mild and infrequent side effects were observed. Despite these promising results, future long-term randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and evaluating not only self-report measures but also physiological variables are needed. Further studies are also required both to establish predictive factors to select patients who can benefit from VR distraction and to design hardware/software systems tailored to the specific needs of different patients and able to provide the greatest distraction at the lowest cost.

  3. Process for constructing a gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbet, M.J.P.; Cohen, B.S.; Robillard, M.

    1982-01-01

    A process is described for constructing a gamma thermometer having a substance absorbing the radiation and a set of thermocouples for measuring the local power in a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor. A claim is particularly made for the preparation of the tube containing it and for its filling with an inert gas [fr

  4. Impact of a participatory intervention with women's groups on psychological distress among mothers in rural Bangladesh: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Clarke

    Full Text Available Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women's health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women's groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women's and children's health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011.We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8 compared to control (5.3, 1.2, the difference was not significant (β 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08.Despite promising results in India, participatory women's groups focused on women's and children's health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh.

  5. Screening for psychological distress in adult primary brain tumor patients and caregivers: considerations for cancer care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa eTrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study aimed to assess psychological distress (PD as scored by the Distress Thermometer (DT in adult primary brain tumor (PBT patients and caregivers in a clinic setting, and ascertain if any high risk sub-groups for PD exist. Material and MethodsFrom May 2012 to August 2013, n=96 patients and n=32 caregivers (CG underwent DT screening at diagnosis, and a differing cohort of n=12 patients and n=14 caregivers at first recurrence. Groups were described by diagnosis (high grade, low grade and benign, and English versus non-English speaking. Those with DT score≥4 met caseness criteria for referral to psycho-oncology services. One-way ANOVA tests were conducted to test for between group differences where appropriate.ResultsAt diagnosis and first recurrence, 37.5% and 75.0% (respectively of patients had DT scores above the cut-off for distress. At diagnosis, 78.1% of caregivers met caseness criteria for distress. All caregivers at recurrence met distress criterion. Patients with high grade glioma had significantly higher scores than those with a benign tumor. For patients at diagnosis, non-English speaking participants did not report significantly higher DT scores than English speaking participants.DiscussionPsychological distress is particularly elevated in caregivers, and in patients with high grade glioma at diagnosis. Effective PD screening, triage and referral by skilled care coordinators is vital to enable timely needs assessment, psychological support and effective intervention.

  6. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Paola; Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Pizzo, Rosalia; Pipitone, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58) were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1). In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either "Making Sense condition" (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth) or "Control-Neutral condition" (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms) and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2). A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3) to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  7. Emotional Distress Following Childbirth: An Intervention to Buffer Depressive and PTSD Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Blasio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Childbirth for some women is a negative experience associated with depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. The preventive actions focusing on helping mothers to cope with negative emotions experienced after childbirth are strongly recommended. It is also recommended both to intervene early and on all women to avoid the risk that these symptoms can worsen in the months after childbirth. The intervention described in the current study is focalized on the elaboration of post-partum negative thoughts and emotion through a writing task, with the purpose to help new mothers to reflect, understand, evaluate and, thus, reformulate the stressful situation with new beliefs and emotions. 176 women aged from 19 to 43 years (M = 31.55, SD = 4.58 were assessed for depression and PTSD in the prenatal phase (T1. In about 96 hours after childbirth they were randomly assigned to either “Making Sense condition” (MS: in which they wrote about the thoughts and emotions connected with delivery and childbirth or “Control-Neutral condition” (NC: in which they wrote about the daily events in behavioural terms and then reassessed for depression and PTSD (T2. A follow up was conducted 3 months later (T3 to verify depression and posttraumatic symptoms. The results showed that depressive symptoms decreased both at 96 hours and at 3 months as a result of making-sense task. Regarding the posttraumatic symptoms the positive effect emerged at three months and not at 96 hours after birth.

  8. Exposure to a patient-centered, Web-based intervention for managing cancer symptom and quality of life issues: impact on symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Blonquist, Traci M; Patel, Rupa A; Halpenny, Barbara; McReynolds, Justin

    2015-06-03

    Effective eHealth interventions can benefit a large number of patients with content intended to support self-care and management of both chronic and acute conditions. Even though usage statistics are easily logged in most eHealth interventions, usage or exposure has rarely been reported in trials, let alone studied in relationship to effectiveness. The intent of the study was to evaluate use of a fully automated, Web-based program, the Electronic Self Report Assessment-Cancer (ESRA-C), and how delivery and total use of the intervention may have affected cancer symptom distress. Patients at two cancer centers used ESRA-C to self-report symptom and quality of life (SxQOL) issues during therapy. Participants were randomized to ESRA-C assessment only (control) or the ESRA-C intervention delivered via the Internet to patients' homes or to a tablet at the clinic. The intervention enabled participants to self-monitor SxQOL and receive self-care education and customized coaching on how to report concerns to clinicians. Overall and voluntary intervention use were defined as having ≥2 exposures, and one non-prompted exposure to the intervention, respectively. Factors associated with intervention use were explored with Fisher's exact test. Propensity score matching was used to select a sample of control participants similar to intervention participants who used the intervention. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare change in Symptom Distress Scale (SDS-15) scores from pre-treatment to end-of-study by groups in the matched sample. Radiation oncology participants used the intervention, overall and voluntarily, more than medical oncology and transplant participants. Participants who were working and had more than a high school education voluntarily used the intervention more. The SDS-15 score was reduced by an estimated 1.53 points (P=.01) in the intervention group users compared to the matched control group. The intended effects of a Web-based, patient

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Early Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by acute-onset dyspnea, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration, low pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, and an arterial oxygen tension/ inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mmHg. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, whether complicated by circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, and hypotension or not, was reported as an etiologic factor in the development of ARDS in the prethrombolytic era. In the thrombolytic era, two cases of AMI complicated with ARDS have been reported. ARDS in these two patients resulted from anaphylactic reaction to the thrombolytic agent and not from the hemodynamic consequences of AMI. Development of ARDS during the AMI period has not been reported after early successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Herein, we report a 61-year-old male patient with persistent chest pain who was diagnosed with Killip II anterior ST-segment elevation AMI. He was treated successfully with primary PCI 2.5 hours after the onset of chest pain. Unfortunately, on the third hospital day, acuteonset dyspnea (respiratory rate, 33 beats/min, fever (38.5°C, leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 18,360/μL, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration were noted. ARDS was diagnosed from the low PCWP (8 mmHg and a PaO2/FiO2 of less than 200 mmHg (160 mmHg. No usual causes of ARDS such as infection, aspiration, trauma, shock, or drug reactions were noted. We assumed that, in this particular patient, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome frequently induced by AMI might have caused this episode of ARDS. This may imply that AMI itself is a possible etiology of ARDS.

  10. A systematic mixed-methods review of interventions, outcomes and experiences for midwives and student midwives in work-related psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaro, Sally; Clyne, Wendy; Fulton, Emily A

    2017-07-01

    within challenging work environments, midwives and student midwives can experience both organisational and occupational sources of work-related psychological distress. As the wellbeing of healthcare staff directly correlates with the quality of maternity care, this distress must be met with adequate support provision. As such, the identification and appraisal of interventions designed to support midwives and student midwives in work-related psychological distress will be important in the pursuit of excellence in maternity care. to identify interventions designed to support midwives and/or student midwives in work-related psychological distress, and explore any outcomes and experiences associated with their use. Data sources; study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions This systematic mixed-methods review examined 6 articles which identified interventions designed to support midwives and/or student midwives in work-related psychological distress, and reports both the outcomes and experiences associated with their use. All relevant papers published internationally from the year 2000 to 2016, which evaluated and identified targeted interventions were included. the reporting of this review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The quality of each study has been appraised using a scoring system designed for appraising mixed-methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods primary studies in mixed reviews. Bias has been assessed using an assessment of methodological rigor tool. Whilst taking a segregated systematic mixed-methods review approach, findings have been synthesised narratively. this review identified mindfulness interventions, work-based resilience workshops partnered with a mentoring programme and the provision of clinical supervision, each reported to provide a variety of both personal and professional positive outcomes and experiences

  11. Effects of Art Therapy on Distress Levels of Adults with Cancer: A Proxy Pretest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinzak, Leara

    2016-01-01

    This study identified decreased distress after art therapy in a proxy pretest study with a convenience sample of 73 patients being treated for cancer. Art therapy outcomes from 4 settings (oncology unit, infusion clinic, individual sessions, and open studio) were measured via the self-report Distress Thermometer, which was collected as part of an…

  12. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  13. The influence of diabetes distress on digital interventions for diabetes management in vulnerable people with type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study of patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Anne Sophie; Thomsen, Thordis; Jensen, Tonny; Schiøtz, Charlotte; Langberg, Henning; Egerod, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Digital interventions for improving diabetes management in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are used universally. Digital interventions are defined as any intervention accessed and taking input from people with T2DM in the form of a web-based or mobile phone-based app to improve diabetes self-management. However, the current confidence in digital interventions threatens to augment social inequalities in health, also known as the "digital divide". To counteract dissemination of the digital divide, we aimed to assess the potential of a tailored digital intervention for improving diabetes management in vulnerable people with T2DM. A qualitative design using semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore the perspectives of 12 vulnerable people with T2DM. Interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Vulnerability was defined by the presence of one or more comorbidities, one or more lifestyle risk factors, poor diabetes management, low educational level and low health literacy. The main themes identified were: "Dealing with diabetes distress" characterized by psychological avoidance mechanisms; "Suffering informational confusion" dealing with inconsistent information; "Experiencing digital alienation" dealing with loss of freedom when technology invades the private sphere; and "Missing the human touch" preferring human interaction over digital contact. Vulnerable people with T2DM are unprepared for digital interventions for disease management. Experiencing diabetes distress may be an intermediate mechanism leading to nonadherence to digital interventions and the preference for human interaction in vulnerable people with T2DM. Future interventions could include a designated caregiver and an allocated buddy to provide support and assist uptake of digital interventions for diabetes management.

  14. Perceived distress and its association with depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chong Guan; Mohamed, Salina; Kaur, Kiran; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer patients often experience a high level of distress. Psychological distress is a broad construct encompass both depression and anxiety. Previous studies in examining which of these psychological symptoms (either anxiety or depression) were more significantly associated with the distress level in breast cancer patients is lacking. This study aims to compare the level of depression and anxiety between patients with different level of distress. The correlation between the changes in distress level with depression or anxiety over 12 months was also examined. Methods This study is from the MyBCC cohort study. Two hundred and twenty one female breast cancer patients were included into the study. They were assessed at the time of diagnosis, 6 months and 12 month using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and distress thermometer. The information on age, ethnicity, treatment types and staging of cancer were collected. Results 50.2%, 51.6% and 40.3% of patients had perceived high level of distress at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after diagnosis. Those with high perceived level of distress had significant higher anxiety scores even after adjusted for the underlying depressive scores (Adjusted OR at baseline = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13–1.44; adjusted OR at 6 months = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11–1.45; adjusted OR at 12 months = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.29–1.76). There were no significant differences in the depressive scores between the subjects with either low or high distress level. There was reduction in perceived level of distress, anxiety and depression scores at 12 months after the diagnosis. The decrease of distress was positively correlated with the reduction of anxiety scores but not the changes of depressive scores (r’ = 0.25). Conclusion Anxiety is a more significant psychological state that contributed to the feeling of distress in breast cancer as compared with depression. Levels of anxiety at diagnosis in this study would justify screening for

  15. Perceived distress and its association with depression and anxiety in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Guan Ng

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients often experience a high level of distress. Psychological distress is a broad construct encompass both depression and anxiety. Previous studies in examining which of these psychological symptoms (either anxiety or depression were more significantly associated with the distress level in breast cancer patients is lacking. This study aims to compare the level of depression and anxiety between patients with different level of distress. The correlation between the changes in distress level with depression or anxiety over 12 months was also examined.This study is from the MyBCC cohort study. Two hundred and twenty one female breast cancer patients were included into the study. They were assessed at the time of diagnosis, 6 months and 12 month using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and distress thermometer. The information on age, ethnicity, treatment types and staging of cancer were collected.50.2%, 51.6% and 40.3% of patients had perceived high level of distress at baseline, 6 months and 1 year after diagnosis. Those with high perceived level of distress had significant higher anxiety scores even after adjusted for the underlying depressive scores (Adjusted OR at baseline = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44; adjusted OR at 6 months = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11-1.45; adjusted OR at 12 months = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.29-1.76. There were no significant differences in the depressive scores between the subjects with either low or high distress level. There was reduction in perceived level of distress, anxiety and depression scores at 12 months after the diagnosis. The decrease of distress was positively correlated with the reduction of anxiety scores but not the changes of depressive scores (r' = 0.25.Anxiety is a more significant psychological state that contributed to the feeling of distress in breast cancer as compared with depression. Levels of anxiety at diagnosis in this study would justify screening for anxiety, early identification and

  16. Effectiveness of psycho-educational interventions with telecommunication technologies on emotional distress and quality of life of adult cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártolo, Ana; Pacheco, Emelda; Rodrigues, Fabiana; Pereira, Anabela; Monteiro, Sara; Santos, Isabel M

    2017-12-07

    To provide a comprehensive review of psycho-educational interventions using telecommunication technologies developed for adult cancer patients, assessing their effectiveness in reducing emotional distress and improving quality of life (QoL). A narrative approach was used for extraction and synthesis of the data. Relevant studies were identified through the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection (through EBSCOhost), and CENTRAL. Eight studies involving 1016 participants met inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies included (n = 6) used a randomized design and were published between 2007 and 2016. Interventions used a variety of delivery resources, such as telephone, e-mail and websites, but all were aiming to respond to information needs and develop stress control skills. A trend toward reducing distress and improving QoL was found, but estimated effect sizes were typically small (d educational interventions presented the highest between-group effects on these outcomes during survival, but were limited by sample size. The efficacy of interventions using distance approaches in the cancer setting is still not well-established. Further research should be conducted through well-designed studies with more interactive features that minimize the lack of face-to-face interaction. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals working in the field of oncology should invest in the development of psycho-educational interventions responding the patients' educational needs and promoting their stress control skills. Programs using telecommunications technologies may reduce disparities in service delivery within this setting, minimizing geographic and socio-economic barriers to engagement in the interventions. With the current technological development, it is possible to perform more interactive interventions that stimulate therapist-patient interactions. However, available protocols in

  17. An integrated intervention to reduce intimate partner violence and psychological distress with refugees in low-resource settings: study protocol for the Nguvu cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Greene, M Claire; Likindikoki, Samuel; Misinzo, Lusia; Ventevogel, Peter; Bonz, Ann G; Bass, Judith K; Mbwambo, Jessie K K

    2017-05-18

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health and human rights concern globally, including for refugee women in low-resource settings. Little is known about effective interventions for this population. IPV and psychological distress have a bi-directional relationship, indicating the potential benefit of a structured psychological component as part of efforts to reduce IPV for women currently in violent relationships. This protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating an 8-session integrated psychological and advocacy intervention (Nguvu) with female adult survivors of past-year IPV displaying moderate to severe psychological distress. Outcomes are reductions in: recurrence of IPV; symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress (primary); and functional impairment (secondary). Hypothesized mediators of the intervention are improvements in social support, coping skills and support seeking. We will recruit 400 participants from existing women's support groups operating within villages in Nyarugusu refugee camp, Tanzania. Women's groups will be randomized to receive the intervention (Nguvu and usual care) or usual care alone. All eligible women will complete a baseline assessment (week 0) followed by a post-treatment (week 9) and a 3-month post-treatment assessment (week 20). The efficacy of the intervention will be determined by between-group differences in the longitudinal trajectories of primary outcomes evaluated using mixed-effects models. Study procedures have been approved by Institutional Review Boards in the United States and Tanzania. This trial will provide evidence on the efficacy of a novel integrated group intervention aimed at secondary prevention of IPV that includes a structured psychological component to address psychological distress. The psychological and advocacy components of the proposed intervention have been shown to be efficacious for their respective outcomes when delivered in

  18. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna L; Moss-Morris, Rona; Game, David; Carroll, Amy; McCrone, Paul; Hotopf, Matthew; Yardley, Lucy; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-04-12

    Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced services. This study examines the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of online CBT with (intervention arm) and without (control arm) therapist support to improve psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Patients will be screened for depression and anxiety while attending for their haemodialysis treatments. We aim to recruit 60 adult patients undergoing haemodialysis who meet criteria for mild to moderately severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. Patients will be randomised individually (using a 1:1 computerised sequence ratio) to either online CBT with therapist telephone support (intervention arm), or online CBT with no therapist (control arm). Outcomes include feasibility and acceptability descriptive data on rates of recruitment, randomisation, retention and treatment adherence. Self-report outcomes include measures of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7), quality of life (Euro-QoL), service use (client service receipt inventory) and illness cognitions (brief illness perception questionnaire). A qualitative process evaluation will also be conducted. The statistician will be blinded to treatment allocation. A National Health Service (NHS) research ethics committee approved the study. Data from this study will provide essential information for the design and testing of further interventions to ameliorate distress in patients undergoing dialysis

  19. A Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Distress After Prostate Cancer Treatment: Development and Feasibility of the Getting Down to Coping Program in Two Different Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle-Hearne, Jane; Barnett, Deborah; Hicks, James; Simpson, Mhairi; White, Isabel; Faithfull, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Distress after prostate cancer treatment is a substantial burden for up to one-third of men diagnosed. Physical and emotional symptoms and health service use can intensify, yet men are reticent to accept support. To provide accessible support that can be cost effectively integrated into care pathways, we developed a unique, Web-based, self-guided, cognitive-behavior program incorporating filmed and interactive peer support. To assess feasibility of the intervention among men experiencing distress after prostate cancer treatment. Demand, acceptability, change in distress and self-efficacy, and challenges for implementation in clinical practice were measured. A pre-post, within-participant comparison, mixed-methods research design was followed. Phase I and II were conducted in primary care psychological service and secondary care cancer service, respectively. Men received clinician-generated postal invitations: phase I, 432 men diagnosed Web-based. Men with mild and moderate distress were enrolled. Web-based assessment included demographic, disease, treatment characteristics; distress (General Health Questionnaire-28); depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9); anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7); self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy for Symptom Control Inventory); satisfaction (author-generated, Likert-type questionnaire). Uptake and adherence were assessed with reference to the persuasive systems design model. Telephone interviews explored participant experience (phase II, n=10); interviews with health care professionals (n=3) explored implementation issues. A total of 135 men consented (phase I, 61/432, 14.1%; phase II, 74/606, 12.2%); from 96 eligible men screened for distress, 32% (30/96) entered the intervention (phase I, n=10; phase II, n=20). Twenty-four completed the Web-based program and assessments (phase I, n=8; phase II, n=16). Adherence for phase I and II was module completion rate 63% (mean 2.5, SD 1.9) versus 92% (mean 3.7, SD 1.0); rate of

  20. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  1. The constitution of the heat density of a gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantouche, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper's aim is to present the nuclear transfer function of the signal of the γ thermometer used in a PWR reactor. The nuclear transfer function between the linear nuclear power and the γ thermometer heat density has been established. The corresponding computation code has been built up. The results concerning the environment behaviour of the γ thermometer, the heat density axial and radial repartitions, the control rods and the grids' influences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. What should be prioritised in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress? An exploratory Delphi Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Pezaro

    2015-09-01

    This study outlines how consensus in the development of an online intervention designed to support midwives in work-related psychological distress may be achieved. Study outcomes will steer the design and development of an intervention, and highlight the most salient themes and elements to be included within an online intervention to support midwives. Midwives are entitled to psychological support, yet this is an area in which a paucity of knowledge in relation to their needs resides. This early research is the first of its kind to highlight the needs of midwives. Its’ vision is to develop an evidence based solution to improve the health and well-being of midwives, as they, in turn, care for our mothers and babies.

  3. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors - results from a nationwide randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Johansen, M B; Christensen, S; Valdimarsdottir, H; Zakowski, S; Jensen, A B; Bovbjerg, D H; Zachariae, R

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form), and negative (37-item Profile of Moods State) and positive mood (Passive Positive Mood Scale) were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Choice of writing topic (cancer versus other), alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and social constraints (Social Constraints Scale) were included as possible moderators. Significant (ppsychological symptoms were seen in both groups (pwriting topic moderated effects on IES, with women writing about other themes showing greater reductions in cancer-related avoidance than women writing about their cancer. Fewer depressive symptoms and higher levels of positive mood were seen 3 months post-intervention in women writing about their cancer when compared with the control group. Difficulties describing feelings and externally oriented thinking (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) moderated effects on positive mood and IES-total, while no moderating effects were found of social constraints. In concordance with the majority of previous results with cancer patients, no main effects of EWI were found for cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood. Moderator analyses suggested that choice of writing topic and ability to process emotional experiences should be studied further. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Standalone Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Using a Mobile Phone App on Psychological Distress and Alcohol Consumption Among Japanese Workers: Pilot Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Suganuma, Shinichiro; Ueda, Mami; Mearns, Jack; Shimoyama, Haruhiko

    2018-03-22

    Research that investigates standalone effects of a mobile phone-based cognitive behavioral therapy without any human contact for reducing both psychological distress and risky drinking has been advancing; however, the number of studies is still limited. A mobile phone app called Self Record that facilitates cognitive restructuring through self-monitoring of daily thoughts and activities was developed in Japan. This study conducted a nonrandomized controlled pilot trial of the Self Record app to investigate standalone effects of the intervention on psychological distress and alcohol consumption among Japanese workers. Additionally, we examined moderating effects of negative mood regulation expectancies, which are beliefs about one's ability to control one's negative mood. A quasi-experimental design with a 1-month follow-up was conducted online in Japan from February 2016 to March 2016. A research marketing company recruited participants. The selection criteria were being a Japanese full-time worker (age 20-59 years), experiencing mild to moderate psychological distress, and having some interest in self-record apps. Assignment to group was based on participants' willingness to use the app in the study. All participants completed outcome measures of negative mood regulation expectancies, positive well-being, general distress, depression, anxiety, and typical/most weekly alcohol consumption. From the recruitment, 15.65% (1083/6921) of participants met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 51.43% (557/1083) enrolled in the study: 54.9% (306/557) in the intervention group and 45.1% (251/557) in the control group. At the 1-month follow-up, 15.3% (85/557) of participants had dropped out. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that participants in the intervention group reported increased typical drinking (η2=.009) and heavy drinking (η2=.001). Adherence to using the app was low; 64.8% (199/306) of participants in the intervention group discontinued using the app on the first

  5. The role of psychological flexibility in a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for psychological distress in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Spinhoven, Philip

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the role of psychological flexibility, as a risk factor and as a process of change, in a self-help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Participants were randomized to the self-help programme with e-mail support (n=250), or to a waiting list control group (n=126). All participants completed measures before and after the intervention to assess depression, anxiety and psychological flexibility. Participants in the experimental condition also completed these measures during the intervention (after three and six weeks) and at a three-month follow-up. With multilevel modelling, it was shown that the effects of the intervention on psychological distress were stronger for participants with higher levels of psychological flexibility. Furthermore, our study showed that improved psychological flexibility mediated the effects of the ACT intervention. With a cross-lagged panel design, it was shown that especially improvements in psychological flexibility in the last three sessions of the intervention were important for further reductions in anxiety. To conclude, our study showed the importance of targeting psychological flexibility during an ACT intervention for a reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A gas thermometer for vapor pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    The pressure of an inert gas over the range 400 1000 K was measured on a tensimetric unit with a quartz membrane pressure gauge of enhanced sensitivity. It was shown that a reactor with a membrane null gauge could be used as a gas thermometer. The experimental confidence pressure and temperature intervals were 0.07 torr and 0.1 K at a significance level of 0.05. A Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple was calibrated; the results were approximated by a polynomial of degree five. The error in temperature calculations was 0.25 K.

  7. Influence of Thermal Cycling on Cryogenic Thermometers

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, C; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Suraci, A; Togny, F; Vauthier, N

    1999-01-01

    The stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), impose that the cryogenic temperature sensors meet compelling demands such as long-term stability, radiation hardness, readout accuracy better than 5 mK at 1.8 K and compatibility with industrial control equipment. This paper presents the results concerning long-term stability of resistance temperature sensors submitted to cryogenic thermal cycles. For this task a simple test facility has been designed, constructed and put into operation for cycling simultaneously 115 cryogenic thermometers between 300 K and 4.2 K. A thermal cycle is set to last 71/4 hours: 3 hours for either cooling down or warming up the sensors and 1 respectively 1/4 hour at steady temperature conditions at each end of the temperature cycle. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) drives automatically this operation by reading 2 thermometers and actuating on 3 valves and 1 heater. The first thermal cycle was accomplished in a...

  8. The Effects of Self-Book© Art Therapy on Cancer-Related Distress in Female Cancer Patients during Active Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Donna; Vita, Maureen; Gerber, Nancy; Gracely, Edward J; Bradt, Joke

    2018-05-10

    National attention on patients' cancer-related emotional distress produced a need for evidence-based, psychosocial interventions in oncology care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Self-Book© art therapy for emotional distress and psychological well-being of female oncology patients during active oncology treatment. Sixty consenting women with cancer were randomly assigned to either a six-session Self-Book© art therapy program or standard care. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was employed. Data were collected using the Distress Thermometer (DT), Perceived Emotional Distress Inventory (PEDI), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Brief Psychological Well-being test, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp). Measurements were obtained at baseline, week 3, week 6, and 1-to-2 months post-intervention. Forty participants were included in the final analysis. No significant differences between groups were found for the primary outcome measures: emotional distress and psychological well-being. Greater improvements in Self-Book© art therapy participants' spiritual well-being were found compared to the standard care control participants (p = 0.02). Although no statistically significant differences were present between the groups for the primary outcomes, several positive trends were noted. Thirty percent of Self-Book© art therapy participants reported post-intervention emotional distress scores that were below the abnormal range for emotional distress, compared with only 5% of standard care control participants, suggesting that Self-Book© art therapy may have clinical value. Further studies are recommended to better understand the therapeutic mechanisms of Self-Book© art therapy for enhancing psychological well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Self-Help Web-Based Intervention Targeting Young Cancer Patients With Sexual Problems and Fertility Distress in Collaboration With Patient Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wiklander, Maria; Obol, Claire Micaux; Lampic, Claudia; Eriksson, Lars E; Pelters, Britta; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-04-12

    number of exercises and pointed out texts and pictures needing revision (eg, experienced as normative or stereotypical) to increase the persuasiveness of the program. The system quality was improved by PRPs' feedback on design, technical malfunctions, and navigation on the website. Based on feedback about availability of professional support (technical problems and program content), the organization for support was clarified, which increased service quality. The PRPs also influenced the research project on an overall level by suggesting modifications of inclusion criteria for the RCT and by questioning the implementation plan. With suggestions and continuous feedback from PRPs, it was possible to develop a Web-based intervention with persuasive design, believed to be relevant and attractive for young persons with cancer who have sexual problems or fertility distress. In the next step, the intervention will be tested in a feasibility study, followed by an RCT to test the intervention's effectiveness in reducing sexual problems and fertility distress. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 36621459; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN36621459 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6gFX40F6T).

  11. A participatory workplace intervention for employees with distress and lost time: a feasibility evaluation within a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, van W.; Oostrom, van S.H.; Terluin, B.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Anema, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about feasibility and acceptability of return to work (RTW) interventions for mental health problems. RTW for mental health problems is more complicated than for musculoskeletal problems due to stigmatization at the workplace. A participatory workplace intervention was

  12. The influence of diabetes distress on digital interventions for diabetes management in vulnerable people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Anne Sophie; Thomsen, Thordis; Jensen, Tonny

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital interventions for improving diabetes management in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are used universally. Digital interventions are defined as any intervention accessed and taking input from people with T2DM in the form of a web-based or mobile phone-based app to improve diabetes...... self-management. However, the current confidence in digital interventions threatens to augment social inequalities in health, also known as the "digital divide". To counteract dissemination of the digital divide, we aimed to assess the potential of a tailored digital intervention for improving diabetes...... management in vulnerable people with T2DM. METHODS: A qualitative design using semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore the perspectives of 12 vulnerable people with T2DM. Interviews were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Vulnerability was defined by the presence of one or more comorbidities...

  13. Internet-based interventions for cancer-related distress: exploring the experiences of those whose needs are not met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Amanda; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Owen, Jason E

    2014-04-01

    Low levels of engagement in Internet-based interventions are common. Understanding users' experiences with these interventions is a key to improving efficacy. Although qualitative methods are well-suited for this purpose, few qualitative studies have been conducted in this area. In the present study, we assessed experiences with an Internet-based intervention among cancer survivors who made minimal use of the intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 cancer survivors who were minimally engaged (i.e., spent around 1 h total on website) with the online intervention, health-space.net. The intervention was a 12-week, facilitated support group with social and informational components. Interviews were analyzed using an interpretive descriptive design. Three broad categories, consisting of 18 specific themes, were identified from the interviews, which included connecting with similar others, individual expectations, and problems with the site (Κ = 0.88). The 'similar others' category reflected the significance of interacting with relatable survivors (i.e., same cancer type), the 'individual expectations' category reflected the significance of participants' expectations about using online interventions (i.e., personally relevant information), and the 'problems with the site' category reflected the significance of study procedures (i.e., website structure). The data indicate that minimally engaged participants have high variability regarding their needs and preferences for Internet-based interventions. Using qualitative methodologies to identify and incorporate these needs into the next generation of interventions has the potential to increase engagement and outcomes. The current study provides a foundation for future research to characterize survivors' needs and offer suggestions for better meeting these needs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Diabetes-Related Distress, Quality of Life, and Metabolic Control Among Persons with Diabetes: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusch, Leah M; O'Brien, William H

    2018-04-04

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have improved psychological outcomes for multiple chronic health conditions, including diabetes. A meta-analytic review of the literature was conducted on all located studies (n = 14) investigating MBIs that targeted diabetes-related distress (DRD) and diabetes-related outcomes among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. PsychInfo, PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for MBIs that were designed to improve DRD and other secondary outcomes, including quality of life and measures of metabolic control. A meta-analysis of these outcomes uncovered small-to-moderate effect sizes for intervention studies measuring pretreatment to posttreatment changes in DRD and metabolic control among treatment group participants. However, the pretreatment to follow-up comparisons for DRD and metabolic control were small and unreliable. For control groups, all pre-treatment to post-treatment and pre-treatment to follow-up comparisons were unreliable for all outcomes. A moderate effect size for treatment-control comparisons was found for intervention studies measuring quality of life outcomes at posttreatment, but not at follow-up comparisons. All other effect sizes for treatment-control comparisons were unreliable. Limitations and implications for MBIs among individuals with diabetes are discussed.

  15. Effect of a Multicomponent Behavioral Intervention in Adults Impaired by Psychological Distress in a Conflict-Affected Area of Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atif; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Awan, Naila Riaz; Bryant, Richard A; Dawson, Katie S; Khan, Muhammad Firaz; Azeemi, Mian Mukhtar-Ul-Haq; Akhtar, Parveen; Nazir, Huma; Chiumento, Anna; Sijbrandij, Marit; Wang, Duolao; Farooq, Saeed; van Ommeren, Mark

    2016-12-27

    The mental health consequences of conflict and violence are wide-ranging and pervasive. Scalable interventions to address a range of mental health problems are needed. To test the effectiveness of a multicomponent behavioral intervention delivered by lay health workers to adults with psychological distress in primary care settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 1, 2014, through January 28, 2016, in 3 primary care centers in Peshawar, Pakistan, that included 346 adult primary care attendees with high levels of both psychological distress and functional impairment according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Lay health workers administered 5 weekly 90-minute individual sessions that included empirically supported strategies of problem solving, behavioral activation, strengthening social support, and stress management. The control was enhanced usual care. Primary outcomes, anxiety and depression symptoms, were independently measured at 3 months with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondary outcomes were posttraumatic stress symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5), functional impairment (WHODAS 2.0), progress on problems for which the person sought help (Psychological Outcome Profiles), and symptoms of depressive disorder (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Among 346 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.0 [11.8] years; 78.9% women), 172 were randomly assigned to the intervention and 174 to enhanced usual care; among them, 146 and 160 completed the study, respectively. At baseline, the intervention and control groups had similar mean (SD) HADS scores on symptoms of anxiety (14.16 [3.17] vs 13.64 [3.20]; adjusted mean difference [AMD], 0.52; 95% CI, -0.22 to 1.27) and depression (12.67 [3.27] vs 12.49 [3.34]; AMD, 0.17, 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.89). After 3 months of treatment, the intervention group had significantly lower

  16. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THERMOMETER-WELL ASSEMBLIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    parameter models of the thermometric system were constructed and gave acceptable agreement with the experimental results. These models can be used to predict the dynamic behavior of any similar thermometer system. (Author)

  17. Development of a Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Distress in Caregivers of Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplants: Formative Evaluation With Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensak, Nicole Amoyal; Joshi, Tanisha; Simoneau, Teresa; Kilbourn, Kristin; Carr, Alaina; Kutner, Jean; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2017-06-22

    Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need. We used an established approach for development of a mhealth intervention, completing the first two research and evaluation steps: Step One: Formative Research (eg, expert and stakeholder review from patients, caregivers, and palliative care experts) and Step Two: Pretesting (eg, Focus Groups and Individual Interviews with caregivers of patients with autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT). Step one included feedback elicited for a mock-up version of Pep-Pal session one from caregiver, patients and clinician stakeholders from a multidisciplinary palliative care team (N=9 caregivers and patient stakeholders and N=20 palliative care experts). Step two included two focus groups (N=6 caregivers) and individual interviews (N=9 caregivers) regarding Pep-Pal's look and feel, content, acceptability, and potential usability/feasibility. Focus groups and individual interviews were audio-recorded. In addition, individual interviews were transcribed, and applied thematic analysis was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding to inform the development and refinement of the mobilized caregiver stress management intervention, Pep-Pal (PsychoEducation and skills for Patient caregivers). Overall, results were favorable. Pep-Pal was deemed acceptable for caregivers of patients receiving an auto-HSCT. The refined Pep-Pal program consisted of 9 sessions (Introduction to Stress, Stress and the

  18. Investigation of the integrated effects of irradiating platinum resistance thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverov, V.A.; Revyakin, Yu.L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of nuclear energy imposes increased demands on the reliability and quality of the information obtained from primary transducers which monitor the basic parameters of current reactor devices. One of these parameters is the temperature of different modules. This is mainly measured by thermoelectric transducers. Resistance thermometers now being adopted into measurement practice. These provide an initial accuracy of better than plus or minus 273 degrees C and also a normalized systematic error component caused by the action of the temperature. However, a systematic error component resulting from the action of the reactor radiation remains undetermined, and this greatly hinders the extensive use of resistance thermometers in reactor devices. Investigations were made using platinum resistance thermometers of different constructions designs. Irradiation took place in sealed ampules. Each of these contained three thermometers. The fluence achieved was varied by placing the ampules at different heights relative to the central plane of the active zone of the reactor. The irradiation temperature was determined by calculation, taking into account the radiative energy release where the irradiation occurred and the helium gap between the thermometer casing and the walls of an SM-2 reactor channel. Following irradiation in the reactor, the resistance thermometers were calibrated in a special thermometric device providing the minimum contact resistance, uniform heating of the samples, and stabilization of the temperature regime

  19. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  20. Flexible guided self-determination intervention for younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes, decreased HbA1c and psychosocial distress in women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report results from an 18-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of a flexible guided self-determination (GSD) intervention on glycaemic control and psychosocial distress in younger adults with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Between January 2010 and...

  1. Effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention on psychological distress among women with a history of gender-based violence in urban Kenya: A randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    2017-08-01

    analysis was intention to treat and included 53 women in PM+ (25% and 49 women in EUC (23% lost to follow-up. The difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3 months on the GHQ-12 was 3.33 (95% CI 1.86-4.79, P = 0.001 in favour of PM+. In terms of secondary outcomes, for WHODAS the difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3-month follow-up was 1.96 (95% CI 0.21-3.71, P = 0.03, for PCL it was 3.95 (95% CI 0.06-7.83, P = 0.05, and for PSYCHLOPS it was 2.15 (95% CI 0.98-3.32, P = 0.001, all in favour of PM+. These estimated differences correspond to moderate effect sizes in favour of PM+ for GHQ-12 score (0.57, 95% CI 0.32-0.83 and PSYCHLOPS (0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.03, and small effect sizes for WHODAS (0.26, 95% CI 0.02-0.50 and PCL (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.41. Twelve adverse events were reported, all of which were suicidal risks detected during screening. No adverse events were attributable to the interventions or the trial. Limitations of the study include no long-term follow-up, reliance on self-report rather than structured interview data, and lack of an attention control condition.Among a community sample of women in urban Kenya with a history of GBV, a brief, lay-administered behavioural intervention, compared with EUC, resulted in moderate reductions in psychological distress at 3-month follow-up.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614001291673.

  2. Alleviation of Psychological Distress and the Improvement of Quality of Life in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Adaptation of a Short-Term Psychotherapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Caspar Franz Oberstadt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is inevitably fatal. To be diagnosed with a terminal illness such as ALS deeply affects one’s personal existence and goes along with significant changes regarding the physical, emotional, and social domains of the patients’ life. ALS patients have to face a rapidly debilitating physical decline which restrains mobility and impairs all activities of daily living. This progressive loss of autonomy may lead to a sense of hopelessness and loss of quality of life, which in turn may even result in thoughts about physician-assisted suicide. Here, we would like to propose a psychotherapeutic manualized, individual, semi-structured intervention to relieve distress and promote psychological well-being in ALS patients. This short-term intervention was originally developed for advanced cancer patients. “Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully (CALM” focuses on the four dimensions: (i symptom management and communication with healthcare providers, (ii changes in self and relations with close others, (iii spirituality, sense of meaning and purpose and (iv thinking of the future, hope, and mortality. We suggest to supplement the concept by two additional dimensions which take into account specific issues of ALS patients: (v communication skills, and (vi emotional expression and control. This therapeutic concept named “ManagIng Burden in ALS and Living Meaningfully (mi-BALM” may be a further treatment option to help improving quality of life of ALS patients.

  3. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources. - Highlights: • An inexpensive coating for an optical fiber thermometer sensing tip is tested. • Inverse heat transfer methods are used to estimate the sensing tip temperature. • An FTIR spectrometer is used as the detector to test the optical fiber thermometer using various heat sources.

  4. Adiabatic surface thermometer for improved production braze quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittbenner, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    An adiabatic surface thermometer was developed to control automatically the critical temperature-time cycle of a production vacuum-brazing process. Investigations revealed that optimum braze-joint strength required precise control of the brazing temperature. Spot-welded thermocouples could not be used because the spot welds cause surface damage. This thermometer touches the surface and uses a differential thermocouple and heater to measure surface temperature without heat flow, thereby eliminating large errors caused by conduction losses common to conventional spring-loaded thermocouples. Temperatures in air or vacuum are measured to 800 0 C with errors less than 5 0 C. This thermometer has minimized the rejection of production parts, resulting in a cost saving to the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration

  5. The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

  6. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  7. Ultrafast Paper Thermometers Based on a Green Sensing Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinglei; Jia, Hanyu; He, Yonglin; Liao, Shenglong; Wang, Yapei

    2017-03-24

    With the use of an ionic liquid as the ultrathermosensitive fluid, a paper thermometer is successfully developed with intrinsic ability of ultrafast response and high stability upon temperature change. The fluidic nature allows the ionic liquid to be easily deposited on paper by pen writing or inkjet printing, affording great promise for large-scale fabrication of low-cost paper sensors. Owing to the advantages of nonvolatilization, excellent continuity and deformability, the thermosensitive ink trapped within the cellulose fibers of paper matrix has no leakage or evaporation at open states, ensuring the excellent stability and repeatability of thermal sensing against arbitrary bending and folding operation. By shortening the heat exchange distance between ionic liquid and samples, it takes only 8 s for the thermometer to reach an electrical equilibrium at a given temperature. Moreover, the paper thermometer can be applied to remotely monitor temperature change with the combination of a wireless communication technology.

  8. Distress and quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of a web-based stepped care intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamse, A.M.J.; van Meijel, B.; Visser, O.; van Oppen, P.C.; Boenink, A.D.; Eeltink, C.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Huijgens, P.C.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress (i.e. depression and anxiety) is a strong predictor of functional status and other aspects of quality of life in autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy. Treatment of psychological distress is hypothesized to result in improvement of

  9. Distress and quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of a web-based stepped care intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamse, A.M.J.; Meijel, van B.; Visser, O.; Oppen, van P.C.; Boenink, A.D.; Eeltink, C.M.; Cuijpers, P.; Huijgens, P.C.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological distress (i.e. depression and anxiety) is a strong predictor of functional status and other aspects of quality of life in autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy. Treatment of psychological distress is hypothesized to result in improvement of

  10. Distinguishing Between Spiritual Distress, General Distress, Spiritual Well-Being, and Spiritual Pain Among Cancer Patients During Oncology Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Meged-Book, Tehilah; Mashiach, Tanya; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2017-07-01

    Spiritual distress is present in approximately 25% of oncology patients. We examined the extent to which this measure is identical to a variety of other measures, such as spiritual well-being, spiritual injury, spiritual pain, and general distress. Structured interview of oncology outpatients over 12 months, approached nonselectively. The presence or absence of spiritual distress was compared against spiritual pain and two spiritual well-being tools: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being 12-Item Scale (FACIT-Sp-12) and the Spiritual Injury Scale (SIS). We also examined whether a general distress visual analogue scale sufficed to identify spiritual distress. Other questions concerned demographic and clinical data. Of 416 patients approached, 202 completed the interview, of whom 23% reported spiritual distress. All measures showed significant correlation (receiver operating characteristic, area under the curve: SIS 0.79; distress thermometer [DT] 0.68; FACIT-Sp-12 0.67), yet none were identical with spiritual distress (sensitivity/specificity: SIS 64%/79%; spiritual pain 72%/76%; DT 41%/76%; FACIT-Sp-12 57%/72%). Of the FACIT-Sp-12 subscales, only peace correlated with spiritual distress. A significant predictor of spiritual distress was patients' self-evaluation of grave clinical condition (odds ratio 3.3; 95% CI 1.1-9.5). Multivariable analysis of individual measure items suggests an alternative three-parameter model for spiritual distress: not feeling peaceful, feeling unable to accept that this is happening, and perceived severity of one's illness. The DT is not sufficient to identify spiritual distress. The peace subscale of FACIT-Sp-12 is a better match than the measure as a whole. The SIS is the best match for spiritual distress, although an imperfect one. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of body temperature by use of auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A Michelle; Mann, F A; Preziosi, Diane E; Meadows, Richard L; Wagner-Mann, Colette C

    2002-08-01

    To compare measurements of body temperature obtained with auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa. Prospective study. 100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50 without clinical evidence of otitis externa. Dogs were evaluated for the presence of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following ear examination. There was a high correlation between auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis externa both prior to and after ear manipulation. Significant differences were not detected in temperature measurements among dogs with different degrees of otitis externa. Auricular temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate measurements of body temperature, compared with rectal temperature measurements. Temperature measurements are reliable before and after examination of the ear canal.

  12. A low-temperature (4-300K) constant volume gas thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300K may be obtained. The principle is outlined, then the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are briefly described; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and a table shows the values obtained [fr

  13. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients

  14. A Non-Mercury Thermometer Alternative for Use in Older Melting Point Apparatuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongley, Lois K.; Kern, Clayton S.; Woods, Barry W.

    2008-01-01

    The State of Maine seeks to eliminate most mercury use. This includes removing mercury thermometers from secondary schools and discouraging Hg use in other educational institutions. Alternatives to mercury thermometers in chemical laboratory work include non-mercury thermometers, temperature probes, and thermocouples. In organic chemistry mercury…

  15. Cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Bucci, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Buehler, M.; Cooper, S.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Forster, G.; Gabutti, A.; Hoehne, J.; Igalson, J.; Kellner, E.; Loidl, M.; Meier, O.; Nagel, U.; Proebst, F.; Rulofs, A.; Schanda, U.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Stolovich, A.; Zerle, L.

    1996-01-01

    A tungsten superconducting phase transition thermometer on a 32 g sapphire crystal has given an energy resolution of 100 eV (FWHM) for 1.5 keV X-rays, increasing to 440 eV at 14 keV. A possibility to obtain similar resolution in much larger crystals by using Al films as phonon collectors is presented. (orig.)

  16. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrometers and... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used are graduated to read the proof of aqueous alcoholic solutions at 60 degrees...

  17. SQUID-based noise thermometer for sub-Millikelvin refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Marco; Beyer, Joern; Klemm, Monique [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Alivaliollahi, Sassan; Barthelmess, Henry [Magnicon GmbH, Barkhausenweg 11, 22339 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic field fluctuation thermometer (MFFT) is a high-accuracy SQUID-based noise thermometer suitable for sub-Kelvin thermometry. A highly sensitive low-Tc SQUID magnetometer detects inductively the magnetic field fluctuation above a metal surface. The fluctuations are generated by the thermal activated noise currents inside the metal body that is thermally anchored to the temperature stage to be measured. The spectral shape is independent of temperature as the electrical conductivity is constant and the geometry is fixed. The magnetic noise power spectral amplitudes at any frequencies are directly proportional to temperature. Hence, only one reference measurement at a known temperature is required for calibration. A complete MFFT thermometer system for the temperature range of ca. 4 K down to <10 mK is commercially available. We have now developed an integrated MFFT with an extended range of operation down to <1 mK. For this purpose the sensitivity of the SQUID sensor has been increased, the metal body geometry modified and the magnetic shielding of the MFFT module improved. These modifications make it possible to obtain a thermometer noise temperature of <10 μK. We discuss the rationale for our MFFT configuration and present numerical simulations and experimental results.

  18. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, T.; Cornish, K.; Rinehart, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed. PMID:25922765

  19. Improving distress in dialysis (iDiD): a feasibility two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial of an online cognitive behavioural therapy intervention with and without therapist-led telephone support for psychological distress in patients undergoing haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, JL; Moss-Morris, R; Game, D; Carroll, A; McCrone, P; Hotopf, M; Yardley, L; Chilcot, J

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with poorer health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is recommended in UK clinical guidelines for the management of depression in people with long-term conditions. Access to skilled therapists competent in managing the competing mental and physical health demands of ESKD is limited. Online CBT treatments tailored to the needs of the ESKD population offers a pragmatic solution for under-resourced ...

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in emotionally distressed individuals referred for a depression prevention intervention: relationship to problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Validation of Calculations in a Digital Thermometer Firmware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagelj, V.; Miklavec, A.; Bojkovski, J.

    2014-04-01

    State-of-the-art digital thermometers are arguably remarkable measurement instruments, measuring outputs from resistance thermometers and/or thermocouples. Not only that they can readily achieve measuring accuracies in the parts-per-million range, but they also incorporate sophisticated algorithms for the transformation calculation of the measured resistance or voltage to temperature. These algorithms often include high-order polynomials, exponentials and logarithms, and must be performed using both standard coefficients and particular calibration coefficients. The numerical accuracy of these calculations and the associated uncertainty component must be much better than the accuracy of the raw measurement in order to be negligible in the total measurement uncertainty. In order for the end-user to gain confidence in these calculations as well as to conform to formal requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and other standards, a way of validation of these numerical procedures performed in the firmware of the instrument is required. A software architecture which allows a simple validation of internal measuring instrument calculations is suggested. The digital thermometer should be able to expose all its internal calculation functions to the communication interface, so the end-user can compare the results of the internal measuring instrument calculation with reference results. The method can be regarded as a variation of the black-box software validation. Validation results on a thermometer prototype with implemented validation ability show that the calculation error of basic arithmetic operations is within the expected rounding error. For conversion functions, the calculation error is at least ten times smaller than the thermometer effective resolution for the particular probe type.

  2. The gamma thermometer as a measuring instrument of the nuclear power of a LWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantouche, C.

    1984-07-01

    After a presentation of the gamma thermometer and its environment, this thesis deals with the calibration of a gamma thermometer or determination of the thermal transfer ratio of the signal. Then, the acquisition systems for signals obtained from gamma thermometers installed in PWR nuclear power plants are presented. One deals also with the nuclear transfer function establishment and deconvolution. Then, one deals with the reconstruction of the axial power of an assembly provided with a gamma thermometer. Qualitative and quantitative studies of measurements obtained from this gamma thermometer are finally presented. 64 refs [fr

  3. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  4. Effect of on-chip filter on Coulomb blockade thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschier, L; Penttilä, J S; Gunnarsson, D; Prunnila, M; Meschke, M; Savin, A

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb Blockade Thermometer (CBT) is a primary thermometer based on electric conductance of normal tunnel junction arrays. One limitation for CBT use at the lowest temperatures has been due to environmental noise heating. To improve on this limitation, we have done measurements on CBT sensors fabricated with different on-chip filtering structures in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The CBT sensors were produced with a wafer scale tunnel junction process. We present how the different on-chip filtering schemes affect the limiting saturation temperatures and show that CBT sensors with proper on-chip filtering work at temperatures below 20 mK and are tolerant to noisy environment.

  5. Investigations on perturbations of microwave dielectric resonator thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Guangming; Fernicola, V; Lu, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of antenna probe length, antenna-dielectric distance, cavity filling and humidity on microwave resonator thermometer with respect to Q , spurious mode depression, coupling strength, accuracy, shock resistance or sensitivity were carried out in order to improve the dielectric resonator thermometer performance. Significant improvement of Q and depression of spurious mode coupling were obtained when the antenna length was reduced. It also turns out that the Q and spurious mode coupling strength vary with the distance between dielectric and antenna pin, as well under appropriate antenna length. Filling the cavity with nitrogen increases coupling strength but decrease frequency-temperature sensitivity compared to a vacuum-pumped cavity. Besides, preliminary results on the microwave resonator sensitivity to air humidity were obtained. (technical note)

  6. Thermo-Chromium: A Contactless Optical Molecular Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Sven; Scholz, Norman; Behnke, Thomas; Resch-Genger, Ute; Heinze, Katja

    2017-09-07

    The unparalleled excited-state potential-energy landscape of the chromium(III)-based dye [1] 3+ ([Cr(ddpd) 2 ] 3+ ; ddpd=N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dipyridin-2-yl-pyridin-2,6-diamine) enables a strong dual emission in the near infrared region. The temperature dependence of this dual emission allows the use of [1] 3+ as an unprecedented molecular ratiometric thermometer in the 210-373 K temperature range in organic and in aqueous media. Incorporation of [1] 3+ in biocompatible nanocarriers, such as 100 nm-sized polystyrene nanoparticles and solutol micelles, provides nanodimensional thermometers operating under physiological conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Model for cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proebst, F.; Frank, M.; Cooper, S.; Colling, P.; Dummer, D.; Ferger, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    1994-09-01

    We present data on a detector composed of an 18 g Si crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer which could be operated over a wide temperature range. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) has been obtained for 60 keV photons. The signals consist of two components: A fast one and a slow one, with decay times of 1.5 ms and 30-60 ms, respectively. In this paper we present a simple model which takes thermal and non-thermal phonon processes into account and provides a description of the observed temperature dependence of the pulse shape. The fast component, which completely dominates the signal at low temperatures, is due to high-frequency non-thermal phonons being absorbed in the thermometer. Thermalization of these phonons then leads to a temperature rise of the absorber, which causes the slow thermal component. At the highest operating temperatures (T∼80 mK) the amplitude of the slow component is roughly as expected from the heat capacity of the absorber. The strong suppression of the slow component at low temperatures is explained mostly as a consequence of the weak thermal coupling between electrons and phonons in the thermometer at low temperatures. (orig.)

  9. Radiation Requirements and Testing of Cryogenic Thermometers for the Ilc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T.; Filippov, Yu. P.; Filippova, E. Yu.; Mokhov, N. V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A. L.; Korenev, S. A.; Theilacker, J. C.; Trenikhina, J.; Vaziri, K.

    2008-03-01

    Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox® and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results.

  10. Radiation requirements and testing of cryogenic thermometers for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.; Filippov, Yu.P.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A.L.; Korenev, S.A.; Theilacker, J.C.; Trenikhina, J.; Vaziri, K.

    2007-01-01

    Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox(reg s ign) and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results

  11. Translating 'distress' and screening for emotional distress in multicultural cancer patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Gagin, Roni; Cinamon, Tali; Stein, Tamar; Moscovitz, Marian; Kuten, Abraham

    2012-05-01

    The adaptability of the distress thermometer (DT) to multicultural groups has rarely been assessed. To assess DT adaptability to the Israeli population as a multicultural society. Participants were 496 cancer patients. They were recruited for 3 days a week in 2009-2010 (97% response rate). Participants completed the DT, a problem list, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of DT scores yielded area under the curve (AUC) of 0.63 as against HADS and of 0.78 as against BSI-18. ROC analysis revealed that the optimal cutoff score was ≥ 3. It yielded sensitivity and specificity of 0.74 and 0.65, as against the HADS, and 0.64 and 0.64, as against the BSI-18. The Jewish participants reported higher distress than the Arab participants, and the ROC properties were markedly higher for the Jewish subgroup alone. The adapted DT was moderately efficient for detecting emotional distress in cancer patients in Israel. Cultural aspects related to distress should be taken into account for administration of the DT in multicultural societies.

  12. The impact of an informational self-management intervention on the association between control and illness uncertainty before and psychological distress after radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiegelis, HE; Hagedoorn, M; Sanderman, R; Bennenbroek, FTC; Buunk, BP; Van den Bergh, ACM; Botke, G; Ranchor, AV

    Many studies have reported that cancer patients who show difficulties maintaining perceptions of control report more psychological distress than patients who are hi.-her in control. Besides perceptions of control, feelings of illness uncertainty have also been regarded as a predictor of

  13. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C

    2017-06-01

    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  14. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  15. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  16. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Leveraging iPads to introduce meditation and reduce distress among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a promising approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millegan, Jeffrey; Manschot, Bernard; Dispenzieri, Monica; Marks, Benjamin; Edwards, Ayesha; Raulston, Vanessa; Khatiwoda, Yojana; Narro, Marlo

    2015-12-01

    Distress is common among cancer patients. Regular meditation practice has the potential to mitigate this distress and improve quality of life for this population. Introducing meditation to cancer patients can be particularly challenging given the demands on patients' time from treatment and normal life events. This internal process improvement study examined the potential benefit of utilizing iPads during chemotherapy sessions to introduce meditation and reduce distress. Patients undergoing chemotherapy infusion were offered iPads with various meditation videos and audio files during the session. Levels of distress were measured using the distress thermometer at the beginning of chemotherapy and at the conclusion of chemotherapy. Seventy-three patients accepted the meditation iPads during the chemotherapy session. Among those who accepted the iPads, average distress dropped 46% by the end of the session (p meditation as a stress management tool for people with cancer.

  18. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10 −3 at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively

  19. Gamma thermometer allowing absolute and differential temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottin, P.; Schley, R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma thermometer comprises an external envelope containing a cylindrical rod with a central bore and, thick and thin parts defining insulating chambers, at least one thermocouple set in the said central bore; the thermocouple has three junctions connected to one of their end parts by a junction at the level of a thin part, while one at least of the wires comprises two elements made of different materials connected by a junction at the level of a thick part. The present invention applies more particularly for detecting level of the coolant in a nuclear reactor [fr

  20. Idioms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Geetha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2017-08-01

    The presentations of psychosocial distress and cultural conflicts are often bodily symptoms, especially in traditional societies and village backgrounds. These might not meet the criteria of the current psychiatric diagnostic systems. Sociocultural milieu contributes to the unique presentations of the stress in the form of idioms of distress. The latter are alternative modes of expressing distress and indicate manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning. Health professionals often consider these as hysterical, functional or having functional overlays, and abnormal illness behaviors. Management of idioms of distress would need cultural competence and sensitivity. This article highlights the common idioms of distress in India with specific focus on bodily symptoms.

  1. Optical Fiber Thermometer Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal Bin; Mohd. Noor, Uzer

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating has generated much interest in use as sensors to measure strain, temperature, and other physical parameters. It also the most common component used to develop this sensor with the advantages of simple, intrinsic sensing elements, electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, compact size and potentially low cost [6]. This paper reports the design of an optical fiber thermometer based on fiber Bragg gratings. The system was developed for detecting temperature and strain by monitoring the shift of Bragg wavelength. The shifting of Bragg wavelength is used to indicate the temperature and strain due to the change in the surrounding temperature and strain. When the temperature and strain reach the exact wavelength level of the system, the temperature and strain value will display on the Arduino liquid crystal display (LCD). The optical fiber will provide the broadband light source and after passing the FBG the Bragg wavelength into the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The system is based on FBG as a physical quantity sensor. The temperatures measured is taken from the water bath and that of the strain is provided by amount of slotted mass used. The outcome of this project is to characterize the Bragg wavelength shifting from the fiber Bragg grating output. As the conclusion, this project provides an efficient optical fiber thermometer in measuring temperature and strain in order to replace the use of conventional electrical instruments.

  2. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstrating the Temperature Dependence of Density via Construction of a Galilean Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Marie A.; Padgett, Lea W.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the construction of a Galilean thermometer out of common chemistry glassware is described. Students in a first-semester physical chemistry (thermodynamics) class can construct the Galilean thermometer as an investigation of the thermal expansivity of liquids and the temperature dependence of density. This is an excellent first…

  4. The Infrared Thermometer in School Science: Teaching Physics with Modern Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girwidz, Raimund; Ireson, Gren

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermometers measure temperature from a distance, using the infrared radiation emitted by all objects. These so-called non-contact thermometers make a wide variety of temperature measurement and monitoring activities accessible to school-age students. Portable hand-held sensors also enable new or simplified investigations to be carried…

  5. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer... entire quantity. The hydrometers should be kept clean and free of any oily substance. Immediately before...

  6. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, J.A.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  8. Trajectories of distress, anxiety, and depression among women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of psychological wellbeing over time among women who have been treated for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify distinct patterns of distress, anxiety, and depression in such women. METHODS: We invited 426 consecutive women with newly...... diagnosed primary breast cancer to participate in this study, and 323 (76%) provided information on distress ('distress thermometer') and on symptoms of anxiety and depression ('hospital anxiety and depression scale'). Semiparametric group-based mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories...... of distress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms assessed the week before surgery and four and eight months later. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in the distinct groups. RESULTS: Although no sub-group of women with chronic severe anxiety or depressive symptoms...

  9. Low-temperature thermometry. Use of a gas thermometer as a calibration standard between 4 and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1978-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300 K may be obtained. After some words about low temperature thermometry, the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are described briefly; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and the article ends with a table showing the values obtained [fr

  10. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  11. Predictors of Psychological Distress Trajectories in the First Year After a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Park, RN, Ph.D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Psychological distress is a significant and ongoing problem for breast cancer. These mental health problems are often neglected as they are not always properly understood. This study was performed to explore the trajectory of psychological distress over 1 year since breast cancer surgery and to identify the associated factors for the trajectory. Methods: One hundred seventeen women who underwent surgery for breast cancer completed the psychological distress thermometer and problem lists from after surgery to 12 months after surgery. Information on their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was also obtained. Group-based trajectory modeling was performed to identify the distinct trajectories of psychological distress. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of psychological distress trajectories. Results: A two-group linear trajectory model was optimal for modeling psychological distress (Bayesian information criterion = −777.41. Group-based trajectory modeling identified consistently high-distress (19.4% and low-decreasing distress (80.6% trajectories. Old age, depression, nervousness, and pain were significant predictors of consistently high-distress trajectory. Conclusion: Our results indicate that distinct trajectory groups can be used as a screening tool to identify patients who may be at an increased risk of psychological distress over time. Screening for psychological distress during disease diagnosis is important and necessary to identify patients who are at an increased risk of elevated distress or at risk of experiencing psychological distress over time. Keywords: anxiety, breast neoplasms, depression, pain, psychological stress

  12. The effects of a multi-component dyadic intervention on the psychological distress of family caregivers providing care to people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prick, A.J.C.; de Lange, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Pot, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Earlier research showed that multi-component dyadic interventions - including a combination of intervention strategies and addressing both the person with dementia and caregiver - have a beneficial impact on the mental and physical health of people with dementia and their family

  13. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  14. Designing a TAC thermometer from a VHTR graphite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James A., E-mail: James.Smith@INL.gov; Kotter, Dale, E-mail: James.Smith@INL.gov [Fuel Performance and Design, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Garrett, Steven L.; Ali, Randall A. [Graduate Program in Acoustics, Penn State University, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. Very High Temperature Reactors are pushing the in core temperatures even higher. A unique sensing approach will be discussed to address the necessary high temperature measurements. Thermoacoustic thermometry exploits high temperatures and uses materials that are immune to the effects of ionizing radiation to create a temperature sensor that is self-powered and wireless. In addition, the form-factor for the Thermoacoustic Thermometer (TACT) can be designed to be integrated within common in-pile structures. There are no physical moving parts required for TACT and the sensor is self-powered, as it uses the nuclear fuel for its heat source. TACT data will be presented from a laboratory prototype mimicking the design necessary for a VHTR graphite structure.

  15. Performance of Magnetic Penetration Thermometers for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. C.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Hsieh, W. T.; Kelly, D. P.; Porst, J. P.; Sadleir, J. E.; Seidel, G. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The ideal X-ray camera for astrophysics would have more than a million pixels and provide an energy resolution of better than leV FWHM for energies up to 10 keY. We have microfabricated and characterized thin-film magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) that show great promise towards meeting these capabilities. MPTs operate in similar fashion to metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), except that a superconducting sensor takes the place of a paramagnetic sensor and it is the temperature dependence of the superconductor's diamagnetic response that provides the temperature sensitivity. We present a description of the design and performance of our prototype thin-film MPTs with MoAu bilayer sensors, which have demonstrated an energy resolution of approx 2 eV FWHM at 1.5 keY and 4.3 eV FWHM at 5.9 keY.

  16. Radiation stability of low-temperature resistance thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Petrusenko, Yu.T.; Sleptsov, A.N.; Logvinenko, S.P.; Mikhina, G.F.; Rossoshanskij, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low temperature (∼ 5 and 11 K) irradiation with E=30 MeV electrons and the subsequent annealing at 180 and 300 K on gauge dependences R(T) of resistance thermometers (RT) on the basis of p-GaAs, Ni and In is investigated. For GaAs-RT the dependence of electroresistance R(4.2 K) on the irradiation fluence is shown to be non monotonic. The annealing at 180 and 300 K does not restore GaAs-RT thermometric characteristics but it leads to their further degradation. The annealing of Ni and In irradiated RT's at T>180 K leads to total restoring of their electrophysical properties. 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Subharmonic frequency locking in the resistive Josephson thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Veldhuizen, M.; Fowler, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Phase-locked oscillatory solutions are examined as a basis for the dc impedance of the resistive superconducting quantum-interference device Josephson thermometer. The calculations are based on the resistively shunted junction model in the limit 2πL/sub s/I/sub c//Phi 0 > or =1, where L/sub s/ is the loop inductance and I/sub c/ is the junction critical current, and for a junction resistance large compared with the external shunt resistance. An algorithm for representing frequency entrainment in (kappa,ω) space (drive amplitude, frequency) leads to zones with rotation number p/q having the form of leaf-shaped regions joined and overlapping at their tips. High-resonance zones are very thin and locally similar. No chaotic behavior has been observed. The model can simulate the ''rising'' curves of dc impedance as a function of drive amplitude

  18. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well for JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Tomita, Naoki

    1997-05-01

    Sodium leak accident of MONJU was caused high cycles fatigue damage of thermometer well by flow-induced vibration. It was due to the symmetric vortex shedding which was occurred rear flow of thermometer well. So, Thermometer wells installed in primary and secondary heat transport systems of JOYO were evaluated of flow-induced vibration. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well was done checking of flow-induced vibration base on authorized design report for JOYO, evaluation of summary flow-induced vibration by natural frequency of thermometer well in sodium as cantilever models, and evaluation based on small velocity rule of ASME Code Section III Appendix N-1300. By this result, thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) were not satisfied requirement to avoid flow-induced vibration by small velocity rule. Therefore, Detailed vibration characteristic analysis, water flow-induced vibration test, dumping test and evaluation of structural integrity were carried out. These results, vibration amplitude of well on the tip was 0.13 mm (vibration non-dimensional amplitude of 0.015) and peak stress of 2.9 kg/mm 2 is occurred. Thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) which occurred peak stress by flow vibration was confirmed enough to satisfy 5.3 kg/mm 2 of design fatigue limit. (author)

  19. Semiconductor resistance thermometer for the temperature range 300-0.3 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'eva, K.N.; Zarubin, L.I.; Nemish, I.Yu.; Vorobkalo, F.M.; Boldarev, S.T.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1979-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of semiconductor resistor thermometers for the temperature range from 300 to 0.3 K and from 77 to 0.3 K are given. Temperature dependence of thermometer resistances in the 300-1.3 K range was measured in cryostats with pumping-out of N 2 , H 2 and 4 He. For measurements below 1.3 K use was made of a 3 H- 4 He dissolving cryostat. The accuracy of measuring temperatures in the 1.3-0.3 K range is not below +-0.003 K, the error in determining thermometer resistances does not exceed 1%. The analysis of obtained thermometric characteristics of several series of semiconductor resistance thermometers showed that observed insignificant spread of resistances of thermometers in one series and identity of characteristics allows them to be used without preliminary calibration for relatively coarse measurements in the range from 3O0 to 0.3 K. Besides, it has been found that in the 4.2-0.3 K range the thermometric characteristics represent a straight line in the lgR-Tsup(-n) coordinates, where R is the thermometer resistance, T is the temperature and n=0.5. Thus, the thermometers of the same series can be calibrated only in 2 or 3 reference point measurements

  20. Distress, problems and supportive care needs of patients treated with auto- or allo-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braamse, A M J; van Meijel, B; Visser, O; Huijgens, P C; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2014-02-01

    Hematological malignancies and treatment with hematopoietic SCT are known to affect patients' quality of life. The problem profile and care needs of this patient group need clarification, however. This study aimed to assess distress, problems and care needs after allo- or auto-SCT, and to identify risk factors for distress, problems or care needs. In this cross-sectional study, patients treated with allo-SCT or auto-SCT for hematological malignancies completed the Distress Thermometer and Problem List. Three patient groups were created: 0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5.5 years after transplantation. After allo-SCT, distress and the number of problems tended to be lower with longer follow-up. After auto-SCT, distress was highest at 1-2.5 year(s). Patients mainly reported physical problems, followed by cognitive-emotional and practical problems. A minority reported care needs. Risk factors for distress as well as problems after allo-SCT included younger age, shorter time after transplantation and GVHD. A risk factor for distress as well as problems after auto-SCT was the presence of comorbid diseases. Up to 5 years after auto-SCT or allo-SCT, patients continue to experience distress and problems. Judged by prevalence, physical problems are first priority in supportive care, followed by cognitive-emotional and practical problems.

  1. Breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy: Distress, depressive symptoms and unmet needs of psychosocial support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luutonen, Sinikka; Vahlberg, Tero; Eloranta, Sini; Hyvaeri, Heidi; Salminen, Eeva

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can cause considerable psychological consequences, which may remain unrecognized and untreated. In this study, the prevalence of depressive symptoms and distress, and unmet needs for psychosocial support were assessed among breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy. Material and methods: Out of 389 consecutive patients, 276 responded and comprised the final study group. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Distress was measured with the Distress Thermometer. Hospital records of the patients were examined for additional information. Results: Nearly one third of patients (32.1%) displayed depressive symptoms, and more than a quarter of patients (28.4%) experienced distress. Younger age (p = 0.001) and negative hormone receptor status (p = 0.008) were independent factors associated with distress. One quarter of the patients expressed an unmet need for psychosocial support, which was independently associated with depressive symptoms and/or distress (p = 0.001) and younger age (p = 0.006). Conclusions: During radiotherapy for breast cancer, the staff should have awareness of the higher risk of depression and distress in their patients and should consider screening tools to recognise distress and depressive symptoms. Special attention should be paid to younger patients.

  2. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  3. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ; F. M. MEGAHED

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω) from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the...

  4. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  5. The role of psychological flexibility in a self-help acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for psychological distress in a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Spinhoven, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of psychological flexibility, as a risk factor and as a process of change, in a self-help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention for adults with mild to moderate depression and anxiety. Participants were randomized to the self-help programme with e-mail

  6. Cause elucidation of sodium leakage incident at `Monju` reactor. Vibration of thermometer due to fluid force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Koji; Wada, Yusaku; Morishita, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of summarized results of investigation and analysis on fracture of thermometer which is direct reason of sodium leakage incident at the second main cooling system of fast breeder reactor `Monju`. Various surveys such as on various damage factors, on flowing power vibrational features containing flowing power vibrational test of thermometer, on evaluation of high cycle fatigue due to flowing power vibration and details on propagation of and fracture due to fatigue crack, on why only said thermometer damaged, and so forth were executed. As results of these examinations, a decision was arrived that high cycle fatigue due to vibration formed by fluid force (fluid force vibration) was a direct cause of the thermometer damage. (G.K.)

  7. Cryogenic thermometer calibration system using a helium cooling loop and a temperature controller [for LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chanzy, E; Thermeau, J P; Bühler, S; Joly, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Balle, C

    1998-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay and CERN are designing in close collaboration a fully automated cryogenic thermometer calibration facility which will calibrate in 3 years 10,000 cryogenic thermometers required for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. A reduced-scale model of the calibration facility has been developed, which enables the calibration of ten thermometers by comparison with two rhodium-iron standard thermometers in the 1.8 K to 300 K temperature range under vacuum conditions. The particular design, based on a helium cooling loop and an electrical temperature controller, gives good dynamic performances. This paper describes the experimental set-up and the data acquisition system. Results of experimental runs are also presented along with the estimated global accuracy for the calibration. (3 refs).

  8. The cultural expression of spiritual distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Meged-Book, Tehilah; Mashiach, Tanya; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2018-03-30

    Although spiritual distress is present across cultures, the ways in which patients experience it vary between cultures. Our goal was to examine the cultural expression and key indicators of spiritual distress in Israel. We conducted a structured interview of 202 oncology outpatients in a cross-sectional study. Self-diagnosis of spiritual distress, which is a demonstrated gold standard for identifying its presence, was compared with the Facit-Sp-12 and a number of other items (from the Spiritual Injury Scale and newly developed Israeli items) hypothesized as Israeli cultural expressions of spiritual distress, demographic and medical data, and patient desire to receive spiritual care. Significant variation was found between Israeli cultural expression of spiritual distress and that found in studies from other countries. Key expressions of spiritual distress in this study included lack of inner peace, grief, and an inability to accept what is happening. Items related to faith were not significant, and loss of meaning showed mixed results. Patients requesting spiritual care were more likely to be in spiritual distress. No demographic or medical data correlated with spiritual distress. Specially designed interventions to reduce spiritual distress should address the expressions of the distress specific to that culture. Studies of the efficacy of spiritual care can examine the extent of spiritual distress in general or of its specific cultural expressions.

  9. Evaluation of the Use of Optical Fiber Thermometers for Thermal Control of the Quench Module Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Farmer, Jeffrey T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Issues regarding the use of optical fiber thermometers to control heater settings in a microgravity vacuum furnace are addressed. It is desirable to use these probes in environments such as the International Space Station, because they can be operated without re-calibration for extended periods. However, the analysis presented in this paper shows that temperature readings obtained using optical fiber thermometers can be corrupted by emissions from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures.

  10. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jason E; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires, and both samples were compared to a population-based sample of cancer survivors (n = 5,150). The Internet sample was younger, better educated, more likely to be female, had longer time since diagnosis, and had more advanced stage of disease (p's sample was over-represented by men and those with prostate or other cancer types (p's sample also exhibited lower quality of life and social support and greater mood disturbance (p's convenience and systematic samples differ has important implications for external validity and potential for dissemination of Internet-based interventions.

  11. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, G.; Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  12. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G. [Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@gnf.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verda, Carretera Veracruz-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  13. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Gang-Qin; Leong, Weng-Hang; Zeng, Hualing; Feng, Xi; Li, Si-Hong; Dolde, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Cui, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Sen; Li, Quan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14 MHz /K , nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu1 -xNix MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11 mK /√{Hz } under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu1 -xNix MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  14. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP, in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14  MHz/K, nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11  mK/sqrt[Hz] under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  15. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  16. Os distúrbios fonoarticulatórios na síndrome de Down e a intervenção precoce The inarticulateness distress in Down syndrome and early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Fernandes Barata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a criança com Síndrome de Down apresenta um atraso na aquisição e desenvolvimento dos aspectos fonoarticulatórios, atraso este, que tem sido atribuído a características físicas e ambientais que influenciam negativamente no processo de desenvolvimento. Caracterizar os aspectos fonoarticulatórios dos sujeitos com Síndrome de Down pode proporcionar uma melhor compreensão das alterações abordadas na reabilitação em suas diversas modalidades e contribuir na evolução terapêutica. Por esta razão decidiu-se focar com maior profundidade em um dos aspectos mais importantes da comunicação, a fonoarticulação. OBJETIVO: caracterizar as alterações fonoarticulatórias encontradas em indivíduos portadores da Síndrome de Down, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica, enfocando a importância da intervenção precoce frente a tais circunstâncias. CONCLUSÃO: a falta de estimulação e o encaminhamento tardio irão interferir no desenvolvimento fonoarticulatório, assim, por meio da intervenção precoce, será possível a obtenção de melhores resultados, fazendo com que grandes problemas tornem-se alterações mínimas.BACKGROUND: children with Down's Syndrome show a retard in language acquisition and develop inarticulateness distress. This delay has been attributed to the physical and environmental characteristics that have a negative impact on the development process. Characterizing articulation aspects of subjects with Down Syndrome may provide a better understanding of the changes addressed in rehabilitation in their different ways and contribute to the development therapy. For this reason, we decided to focus in greater depth in one of the most important communication aspects, the articulation. PURPOSE: characterize the inarticulateness distress found in subjects with Down Syndrome by means of a literature review, focusing on the importance of early intervention before such circumstances. CONCLUSION: lack of stimulation or

  17. A web-based intervention to support self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect on self-efficacy, self-care and diabetes distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine H; Parsons, Janet A; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lebovic, Gerald; Hall, Susan; Newton, David; Shah, Baiju R; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Laupacis, Andreas; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-12-14

    Management of diabetes mellitus is complex and involves controlling multiple risk factors that may lead to complications. Given that patients provide most of their own diabetes care, patient self-management training is an important strategy for improving quality of care. Web-based interventions have the potential to bridge gaps in diabetes self-care and self-management. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a web-based patient self-management intervention on psychological (self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care) and clinical (blood pressure, cholesterol, glycemic control, weight) outcomes. For this cohort study we used repeated-measures modelling and qualitative individual interviews. We invited patients with type 2 diabetes to use a self-management website and asked them to complete questionnaires assessing self-efficacy (primary outcome) every three weeks for nine months before and nine months after they received access to the website. We collected clinical outcomes at three-month intervals over the same period. We conducted in-depth interviews at study conclusion to explore acceptability, strengths and weaknesses, and mediators of use of the website. We analyzed the data using a qualitative descriptive approach and inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-one participants (mean age 57.2 years, standard deviation 12) were included in the analysis. The self-efficacy score did not improve significantly more than expected after nine months (absolute change 0.12; 95% confidence interval -0.028, 0.263; p = 0.11), nor did clinical outcomes. Website usage was limited (average 0.7 logins/month). Analysis of the interviews (n = 21) revealed four themes: 1) mediators of website use; 2) patterns of website use, including role of the blog in driving site traffic; 3) feedback on website; and 4) potential mechanisms for website effect. A self-management website for patients with type 2 diabetes did not improve self-efficacy. Website use was limited

  18. Symptom distress in older adults following cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Janet H; Egleston, Brian L; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Symptom distress remains a significant health problem among older adults with cancer following surgery. Understanding factors influencing older adults' symptom distress may lead to early identification and interventions, decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with symptom distress following surgery among 326 community-residing patients 65 years or older with a diagnosis of thoracic, digestive, gynecologic, and genitourinary cancers. This secondary analysis used combined subsets of data from 5 nurse-directed intervention clinical trials targeting patients after surgery at academic cancer centers in northwest and northeastern United States. Symptom distress was assessed by the Symptom Distress Scale at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. A multivariable analysis, using generalized estimating equations, showed that symptom distress was significantly less at 3 and 6 months (3 months: P psychological, treatment, and function covariates. Thoracic cancer, comorbidities, worse mental health, and decreased function were, on average, associated with increased symptom distress (all P cancer, comorbidities, mental health, and function may influence older adults' symptom distress following cancer surgery. Older adults generally experience decreasing symptom distress after thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cancer surgery. Symptom management over time for those with thoracic cancer, comorbidities, those with worse mental health, those with decreased function, and those 75 years or older may prevent morbidity and improve outcomes of older adults following surgery.

  19. A Challenge to Improve High-Temperature Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-05-01

    High-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs) are used to interpolate the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90), especially for temperatures between the aluminum and the silver points. For this, long-term stability of the HTSPRT is essential. CHINO R800-3L type SPRT, which has a nominal resistance at the triple point of water (TPW) around 0.25 Ω , is the one developed earlier for the interpolation of the ITS-90 at this temperature range. Further development to this previous model has been carried out for the purpose of improving the thermal stability. The improvement was focused on reducing the effect coming from the difference in thermal expansion between platinum wire and the quartz frame on which the platinum wire is installed. New HTSPRTs were made by CHINO Corporation. Some series of tests were carried out at CHINO and at NMIJ. Initial tests after the HTSPRT fabrication were done at CHINO, where thermal cycles between 500°C and 980°C were applied to the HTSPRTs to see change in the resistances at the TPW (R_{TPW}) and at the gallium point (R_{Ga}). Repeated resistance measurements at the silver point (R_{Ag}) were performed after completing the thermal cycling test. Before and after every measurement at silver point, R_{TPW} was measured, while before and after every two silver point realization R_{Ga} were measured. After completing this test, the HTSPRTs were transported to NMIJ, where the same repeated measurements at the silver point were done at NMIJ. These were then repeated at CHINO and at NMIJ upon repeated transportation among the institutes, to evaluate some effect due to transportation. This paper reports the details of the above-mentioned tests, the results and the analysis.

  20. Patient-reported distress and survival among patients receiving definitive radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacob Habboush, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: PRD before or during RT is a prognostic factor associated with decreased survival. Distress screening guidelines and interventions should be implemented for patients receiving definitive RT.

  1. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the relative resistance W(Ga at the melting point of gallium. The thermometers showed a correlation between the drift note and the values of W(Ga. It was found also that the HTSPRT which has a sensor with strip shaped support and low nominal resistance is more stable than the HTSPRT which has a sensor in the form of a coil wound on silica cross. The 0.25 Ω thermometer has better stability @ 7x10-6 0C (at TPW after 40 hour. Factors affecting the stability and accuracy of HTSPRT also will be discussed.

  2. Assessment of distress and quality of life of cancer patients over the course of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Decat Bergerot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the prevalence of distress and quality of life of cancer patients over the course of chemotherapy. Methodology. Longitudinal prospective study addressing 200 patients. The Distress Thermometer (DT and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-General (FACT-G, as indicators of distress and quality of life, were applied at three points in time during chemotherapy: the first day (T1, half way through the treatment (T2, and last day of medication (T3. Results. The average age was 56.8 years old, and 70% were women while the most frequent types of cancer included breast (30% and hematological (22% cancers. The number of patients with a high level of distress statistically decreased over time (T1=41.5%, T2=8.0% and T3=2.5%; consequently, quality of life scores improved (T1=85.6%, T2=90.4% and T3=92.0%. Patients with moderate to severe distress experienced worse quality of life. Distress, type of cancer and disease stage significantly impacted quality of life. Conclusion. There was a reduction in the time of impact from the side effects of chemotherapy in the patients as a consequence of adapting to the diagnosis and treatment. Continuous assessment of the needs of patients is essential to ensuring integral and humanized care, contributing to improved oncological nursing.

  3. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  4. MEMS Tunneling Micro Thermometer Based onTip Deflection of Bimetallic Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrand K. Nezhadian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM technology promises to significantly reduce the size, weight and cost of a variety of sensor systems. In this article has been described a highly sensitive novel type of thermometer based on deflection of a “bimetallic” microbeam. The proposed thermometer converts the thermal changes of a cantilevered bimetallic beam of submillimeter size into an electrical signal through tunneling-current modulation. The governing thermo-mechanical equation of a bimetallic cantilever beam has been derived and solved analytically. The obtained results show that the proposed tunneling micro thermometer is very sensitive to temperature changes due to exponential increasing of tunneling current but because of small gap between metallic electrodes, measurable range of temperature changes is small.

  5. Psychological distress and in vitro fertilization outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Lauri A; Gregorich, Steven E; Katz, Patricia K; Millstein, Susan G; Nachtigall, Robert D; Bleil, Maria E; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether psychological distress predicts IVF treatment outcome as well as whether IVF treatment outcome predicts subsequent psychological distress. Prospective cohort study over an 18-month period. Five community and academic fertility practices. Two hundred two women who initiated their first IVF cycle. Women completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline and at 4, 10, and 18 months' follow-up. IVF cycle outcome and psychological distress. In a binary logistic model including covariates (woman's age, ethnicity, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, and time interval), pretreatment depression and anxiety were not significant predictors of the outcome of the first IVF cycle. In linear regression models including covariates (woman's age, income, education, parity, duration of infertility, assessment point, time since last treatment cycle, and pre-IVF depression or anxiety), experiencing failed IVF was associated with higher post-IVF depression and anxiety. IVF failure predicts subsequent psychological distress, but pre-IVF psychological distress does not predict IVF failure. Instead of focusing efforts on psychological interventions specifically aimed at improving the chance of pregnancy, these findings suggest that attention be paid to helping patients prepare for and cope with treatment and treatment failure. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding psychological distress among pediatric cancer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gina E; Warner, Echo L; Morreall, Deborah K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Kinney, Anita Y; Fluchel, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined distress in caregivers of pediatric cancer patients. We evaluated the association of socioeconomic, demographic, and patient clinical factors on caregivers' self-reported psychological distress associated with having a child with cancer. N = 366 pediatric cancer caregivers completed a self-administered questionnaire from July 2010 to July 2012. The Impact of Event Scale (IES), along with two subscales "intrusion" and "avoidance" measured caregiver cancer-specific distress, with higher scores indicating greater distress. Multivariable linear regression models were used to calculate coefficients (β) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of IES by socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors. Average caregiver IES score was 31.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, range 0-75). Mean intrusion score was 18.1 (SD 9.8, range 0-35) and avoidance score was 12.8 (SD 9.0, range 0-40). Caregivers with household incomes psychological distress for caregivers of pediatric oncology patients. These findings underscore the importance of developing and testing interventions aimed at evaluating and addressing the psychosocial needs for high-risk caregivers in addition to those of patients.

  7. Construction and test of a superconducting phase-transition thermometer for bolometric cryodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, H.J.

    1990-10-01

    In the framework of a project for the study of bolometric cryodetectors for the detection of heavy ions a superconducting phase-transition thermometer for the detection of heavy ions was constructed and tested with α particles. The thermometer consists of a 10 nm thick aluminium film, which was evaporated on a sapphire absorber with a typical magnitude of 2.5x2.5 x 0.33 mm 3 . By the method of photolithography the aluminium film was structured in form of a meander. By this at the working point of the thermometer resistances of up to 60 kΩ resulted, so that the signal acquisition was possible with usual readout electronics. Several of these thermometers were constructed, characterized in their properties, and tested. For the study of the detector properties of the thermometers in characterization measurements the width of the phase transitions dT ≅ 2 mK, the temperature dependence of the resistance to dR/dT ≅ 10MΩ/K, the thermal conductivity of the thermal coupling to the cooling bath, and the heat capacity of the bolometers to C ≅ 2 nJ/K were determined.The best energy resolution, which was reached with one of the superconducting phase-transition thermometers, amounts to 50 keV for 5.5 MeV α particles, which corresponds to a relative resolution of 0,9%. By this in the order of magnitude the quality of semiconductor detectors was reached. The best temperature resolution amounts to about 1 μK. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Towards a practical Johnson noise thermometer for long-term measurements in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenen, Adam; Pearce, Jonathan [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW, (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, David; Bramley, Paul [Metrosol Limited, Plum Park Estate, Watling Street, Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, NN12 6LQ, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The impact of mechanical and chemical changes in conventional sensors such as thermocouples and resistance thermometers can be avoided by instead using temperature sensors based on fundamental thermometry. A prime example of this is Johnson noise thermometry, which is based on measurement of the fluctuations in the voltage of a resistor arising from thermal motion of charge carriers - i.e. the 'Johnson noise'. A Johnson noise thermometer never needs calibration and is insensitive to the condition of the sensor material. It is therefore ideally suited to long-term temperature measurements in harsh environments, such as nuclear reactor coolant circuits, in-pile measurements, nuclear waste management and storage, and severe accident monitoring. There have been a number of previous attempts to develop a Johnson noise thermometer for the nuclear industry, but none have reached commercial exploitation because of technical problems in practical implementation. The main challenge is to extract the tiny Johnson noise signal from ambient electrical noise influences, both from the internal amplification electronics, and from external electrical noise sources. Recent advances in electronics technology and digital signal processing techniques have opened up new possibilities for developing a viable, practical Johnson noise thermometer. We describe a project funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (now Innovate UK) 'Developing the nuclear supply chain' call, currently underway, to develop a practical Johnson noise thermometer that makes use of innovative electronics for ultralow noise amplification and signal processing. The new electronics technology has the potential to help overcome the problems encountered with previous attempts at constructing a practical Johnson noise thermometer. An outline of the new developments is presented, together with an overview of the current status of the project. (authors)

  9. Towards a practical Johnson noise thermometer for long-term measurements in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenen, Adam; Pearce, Jonathan; Cruickshank, David; Bramley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mechanical and chemical changes in conventional sensors such as thermocouples and resistance thermometers can be avoided by instead using temperature sensors based on fundamental thermometry. A prime example of this is Johnson noise thermometry, which is based on measurement of the fluctuations in the voltage of a resistor arising from thermal motion of charge carriers - i.e. the 'Johnson noise'. A Johnson noise thermometer never needs calibration and is insensitive to the condition of the sensor material. It is therefore ideally suited to long-term temperature measurements in harsh environments, such as nuclear reactor coolant circuits, in-pile measurements, nuclear waste management and storage, and severe accident monitoring. There have been a number of previous attempts to develop a Johnson noise thermometer for the nuclear industry, but none have reached commercial exploitation because of technical problems in practical implementation. The main challenge is to extract the tiny Johnson noise signal from ambient electrical noise influences, both from the internal amplification electronics, and from external electrical noise sources. Recent advances in electronics technology and digital signal processing techniques have opened up new possibilities for developing a viable, practical Johnson noise thermometer. We describe a project funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (now Innovate UK) 'Developing the nuclear supply chain' call, currently underway, to develop a practical Johnson noise thermometer that makes use of innovative electronics for ultralow noise amplification and signal processing. The new electronics technology has the potential to help overcome the problems encountered with previous attempts at constructing a practical Johnson noise thermometer. An outline of the new developments is presented, together with an overview of the current status of the project. (authors)

  10. Accuracy of peripheral thermometers for estimating temperature: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Daniel J; Gaudet, Jonathan E; Laupland, Kevin B; Mrklas, Kelly J; Roberts, Derek J; Stelfox, Henry Thomas

    2015-11-17

    Body temperature is commonly used to screen patients for infectious diseases, establish diagnoses, monitor therapy, and guide management decisions. To determine the accuracy of peripheral thermometers for estimating core body temperature in adults and children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL Plus from inception to July 2015. Prospective studies comparing the accuracy of peripheral (tympanic membrane, temporal artery, axillary, or oral) thermometers with central (pulmonary artery catheter, urinary bladder, esophageal, or rectal) thermometers. 2 reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes and assessed the quality of individual studies. 75 studies (8682 patients) were included. Most studies were at high or unclear risk of patient selection bias (74%) or index test bias (67%). Compared with central thermometers, peripheral thermometers had pooled 95% limits of agreement (random-effects meta-analysis) outside the predefined clinically acceptable range (± 0.5 °C), especially among patients with fever (-1.44 °C to 1.46 °C for adults; -1.49 °C to 0.43 °C for children) and hypothermia (-2.07 °C to 1.90 °C for adults; no data for children). For detection of fever (bivariate random-effects meta-analysis), sensitivity was low (64% [95% CI, 55% to 72%]; I2 = 95.7%; P temperature measurement techniques are limited. Pooled data are associated with interstudy heterogeneity that is not fully explained by stratified and metaregression analyses. Peripheral thermometers do not have clinically acceptable accuracy and should not be used when accurate measurement of body temperature will influence clinical decisions. None.

  11. Low-energy X-ray detection in cryogenic detectors with tungsten thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Bucci, C.; Cooper, S.; Ferger, P.; Frank, M.; Nagel, U.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-08-01

    In the course of our development of calorimetric particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers, we have succeeded in depositing epitaxial α-tungsten films on sapphire which have critical temperatures T c near 15 mK. To our knowledge this is the first time that the T c of bulk tungsten has been observed in thin films. Such films used as thermometers are very sensitive and provide good energy resolution: with 4 g and 32 g sapphire crystals energy resolutions of better than 100eV (FWHM) for 1.5 KeV X-rays have been achieved. (orig.)

  12. The free electron gas primary thermometer using an ordinary bipolar junction transistor approaches ppm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the free electron gas primary thermometer based on a bipolar junction transistor is able to provide the temperature with an accuracy of a few parts per million. Its simple functioning principle exploits the behavior of the collector current when properly biased to extract the temperature. Using general purpose silicon transistors at the water triple point (273.16 K) and gallium melting point (302.9146), an accuracy of a few parts per million has been reached, constituting the simplest and the easiest to operate primary thermometer, that might be considered even for the redefinition of Kelvin.

  13. Infrared Thermometer: an accurate tool for temperature measurement during renal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scala Marchini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate infrared thermometer (IRT accuracy compared to standard digital thermometer in measuring kidney temperature during arterial clamping with and without renal cooling. Materials and Methods 20 pigs weighting 20Kg underwent selective right renal arterial clamping, 10 with (Group 1 - Cold Ischemia with ice slush and 10 without renal cooling (Group 2 - Warm Ischemia. Arterial clamping was performed without venous clamping. Renal temperature was serially measured following clamping of the main renal artery with the IRT and a digital contact thermometer (DT: immediate after clamping (T0, after 2 (T2, 5 (T5 and 10 minutes (T10. Temperature values were expressed in mean, standard deviation and range for each thermometer. We used the T student test to compare means and considered p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. Results In Group 1, mean DT surface temperature decrease was 12.6 ± 4.1°C (5-19°C while deep DT temperature decrease was 15.8 ± 1.5°C (15-18°C. For the IRT, mean temperature decrease was 9.1 ± 3.8°C (3-14°C. There was no statistically significant difference between thermometers. In Group 2, surface temperature decrease for DT was 2.7 ± 1.8°C (0-4°C and mean deep temperature decrease was 0.5 ± 1.0°C (0-3°C. For IRT, mean temperature decrease was 3.1 ± 1.9°C (0-6°C. No statistically significant difference between thermometers was found at any time point. conclusions IRT proved to be an accurate non-invasive precise device for renal temperature monitoring during kidney surgery. External ice slush cooling confirmed to be fast and effective at cooling the pig model. IRT = Infrared thermometer DT = Digital contact thermometer D:S = Distance-to-spot ratio

  14. Study on the KM capacitor base thermometers in the 42-273 K range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzganov, V.S.; Mats'ko, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of the KM-5a-HZ0 monolithic capacitors in the 42-273 K temperature range are studied. Capacitors capacitance - temperature relation is considered in details. The data reproducibility after 5, 23, 34, 50, 51 and 57 days is studied, the accuracy of temperature measurements by the given thermometers is determined. Recommendations on selection of cpacitors, suitable for application as thermometer, are given. These capacitors permit temperature measurement in the 42-225 K range with the error of ± 0.5 K, and above 225 K the error is ± 1K. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. In-situ calibration of nuclear-plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Methods for in situ calibration of reactor plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise measurements were tested in the laboratory and in two operating reactors: Diablo Canyon and Sequoyah. The Johnson noise methods provide an absolute measurement of the thermometer temperature and can be compared with the dc calibration of the thermometers to confirm their calibration without removing the thermometers from the plant coolant loops. Inaccuracies of less than 0.1% were obtained with these methods for ideal situations where the noise measuring equipment could be connected directly to the installed thermometer terminals. For measurements made at the ends of long extension cables, inaccuracies were 0.5 to 1.0%, at best. Extension cables must be optimized and well characterized electrically to achieve such accuracies. Other factors that affect the accuracy of these methods were evaluated

  16. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridib Debnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

  17. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Survey and analysis for impact factors of psychological distress in HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shouxue; Tan, Yanping; Lu, Bingyan; Cheng, Yuqing; Nong, Yanli

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group. The positive detection rate of psychological distress in the HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy was 69.1%, and the highest frequency of PL was the emotional problems. The positive detection rate of anxiety was 60.8%, the positive detection rate of depression was 54.1%, and the discrimination score was 113.16 ± 19.21. Spearman relevant analysis showed that psychological distress score was positively correlated with anxiety, depression and discrimination score (p HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy have higher incidence of psychological distress, and the psychological distress is not inferior to cancer patients. The influencing factors are mainly related to the infection and pregnancy characteristics, and have nothing to do with the general social demographic characteristics. The DT can be used as a screening tool to quickly identify psychological distress of the group.

  19. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  20. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  1. The effectiveness of bibliotherapy in alleviating tinnitus-related distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Noble, William; Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot

    2010-03-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of bibliotherapy in assisting individuals experiencing distress related to tinnitus. One hundred sixty-two tinnitus sufferers from Australia participated in a study designed to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behaviorally based self-help book in reducing distress. To maximize the ecological validity of the findings, we excluded no individuals interested in treatment for tinnitus-related distress. The experimental condition lost 35% of participants at postassessment, compared to 10% in the control group. In an analysis of participants who completed postintervention assessment, those assigned to the intervention condition, who received a tinnitus self-help book, showed significantly less tinnitus-related distress and general distress 2 months later compared to those assigned to the waiting list control condition. The intervention group's reduction in tinnitus-related distress and general distress from preintervention to postintervention 2 months later was significant, and these participants maintained a significant reduction in distress on follow-up 4 months after they received the tinnitus self-help book. A long-term follow-up of all participants, who at that time had received the book at least a year previously, showed a significant reduction in tinnitus distress. Although these group differences and pre-post changes were significant, effect sizes were small. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant effect for between-groups analyses, but did show a significant effect for the 1-year follow-up pre-post analysis. Information on the effectiveness of using a self-help book, without therapist assistance, in alleviating distress is important, as bibliotherapy can provide inexpensive treatment that is not bound by time or place. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D administration on mood and distress in acutely hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Xing Jian; Robitaille, Line; Eintracht, Shaun; MacNamara, Elizabeth; Hoffer, L John

    2013-09-01

    Hypovitaminosis C and D are highly prevalent in acute-care hospitals. Malnutrition with regard to these vitamins has been linked to mood disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. The objective was to determine whether vitamin C or D supplementation improves mood state or reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. A randomized, double-blind, active-control clinical trial compared the effects of vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) with those of high-dose vitamin D (5000 IU/d) on mood (Profile of Mood States) and psychological distress (Distress Thermometer). Vitamin C provided for a mean of 8.2 d increased plasma vitamin C concentrations to normal (P vitamin D provided for a mean of 8.1 d increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations (P vitamin C group were greater than those in the vitamin D group (P = 0.045 for mood; P = 0.009 for distress). Short-term therapy with vitamin C improves mood and reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. No conclusion is possible regarding the effects of vitamin D because the dose and duration of therapy were insufficient to raise 25(OH)D concentrations into the normal range. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01630720.

  3. Consequences of Split Shift Work in Indian Traffic Police Personnel: Daytime Sleepiness, Stressors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Soni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to measure the daily routine preference, daytime sleepiness, and psychological distress experiences, because of split shift system job in a sample in traffic police personnel of Raipur city, India. To measure such parameters we used the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (OPSQ, General Health Questionnaire and the Distress. To evaluate differences between age, body mass index, period of service length and drug / alcohol use for all the subjects (traffic police personnel the t-test and chi-square test were used. Total Hundred male traffic police personnel participated and out of which most of them were found to belong in the evening active category. This study also indicates increased prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and (EDS high level of psychological distress as measured by the GHQ-12 among few police workers. Moreover, a number of participants reported significant distress levels, when measured with distress thermometer. In nutshell, the study sample suggests adaptive coping strategies of traffic police personnel working in split shift system profession can be attributed to their evening (E-type circadian preferences.

  4. Ultrasensitive thermometer for atmospheric pressure operation based on a micromechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Pini, V.; Tamayo, J.

    2014-01-01

    For highly integrated systems for bio and chemical analysis a precise and integrated measurement of temperature is of fundamental importance. We have developed an ultrasensitive thermometer based on a micromechanical resonator for operation in air. The high quality factor and the strong temperatu...

  5. Method for determining the outlet temperature of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, S.; Kalya, Z.; Hamvas, I.

    1987-09-01

    The paper outlines a method for the evaluation of the outlet temperatures of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors. The process is based on interpolation of directly measured assembly temperatures. A quantitative comparison of the errors of described algorithm to those of standard plant-computer interpolation rutine is also presented. (author)

  6. Time-Lapse and Slow-Motion Tracking of Temperature Changes: Response Time of a Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure…

  7. Dissociation Pathways of Benzylpyridinium "Thermometer" Ions Depend on the Activation Regime: An IRMPD Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsa, D.; Gabelica, V.; Rosu, F.; Oomens, J.; De Pauw, E.

    2014-01-01

    The dissociation of benzylpyridinium "thermometer" ions is widely used to calibrate the internal energy of ions produced in mass spectrometry. The fragmentation mechanism is usually believed to yield a benzylium cation, although recent studies suggest the possibility of a rearrangement leading to

  8. Correction of the dynamic response of the ''Gamma thermometers'' using a digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Lobert, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The ''gamma thermometer'' is a sensor used to measure on line the local power inside a PWR nuclear reactor. During transients, this sensor based on thermal exchanges, obes not give a fast response. This paper describes a microprocessor device that allows using a digital filtering technique, a correction of the dynamic response [fr

  9. Measurement time and statistics for a noise thermometer with a synthetic-noise reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.; Labenski, J. R.; Nam, S. W.; Qu, J. F.; Rogalla, H.; Tew, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes methods for reducing the statistical uncertainty in measurements made by noise thermometers using digital cross-correlators and, in particular, for thermometers using pseudo-random noise for the reference signal. First, a discrete-frequency expression for the correlation bandwidth for conventional noise thermometers is derived. It is shown how an alternative frequency-domain computation can be used to eliminate the spectral response of the correlator and increase the correlation bandwidth. The corresponding expressions for the uncertainty in the measurement of pseudo-random noise in the presence of uncorrelated thermal noise are then derived. The measurement uncertainty in this case is less than that for true thermal-noise measurements. For pseudo-random sources generating a frequency comb, an additional small reduction in uncertainty is possible, but at the cost of increasing the thermometer's sensitivity to non-linearity errors. A procedure is described for allocating integration times to further reduce the total uncertainty in temperature measurements. Finally, an important systematic error arising from the calculation of ratios of statistical variables is described.

  10. A High-Resolution Thermometer for the Range 0.75-1.0 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J.; Nash, A.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a new high-resolution thermometer (HRT) for use near the tricritical point in 3He-4He mixtures. It is based on an existing HRT design that uses a DC-SQUID to detect the magnetization of a paramagnetic sensing element.

  11. A Phase-Locked Loop Continuous Wave Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Weller, F. W.; Busings, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A continuous wake sonic anemometer-thermometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vertical velocity and temperature. The phase angle fluctuations are detected by means of a monolithic integrated phase-locked loop, the latter feature providing for inexpensive and accurate...

  12. Semi-transparent gold film as simultaneous surface heater and resistance thermometer for nucleate boiling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker, E.; Merte, H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large (22 x 25 mm) semi-transparent thin film of gold, approximately 400 A in thickness, is deposited on a glass substrate for simultaneous use as a heat source and resistance thermometer. Construction techniques and calibration procedures are described, and a sample application to a transient boiling process is included with simultaneous high speed photographs taken through the thin film from beneath

  13. Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III; Chambers, Lin H.; Brooks, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study affirms that the temperature (Tz) indicated by an inexpensive ($20 to $60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky provides an approximate indication of the total column water vapor (precipitable water or PW). PW was measured by a MICROTOPS II sun photometer. The coefficient of correlation (r2) of the PW and Tz was 0.90, and the rms difference was 3.2 mm. A comparison of the Tz data with the PW provided by a GPS site 31 km NNE yielded an r2 of 0.79, and an rms difference of 5.8 mm. An expanded study compared Tz from eight IR thermometers with PW at various times during the day and night from 17 May to 18 October 2010, mainly at the Texas site and 10 days at Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO). The best results of this comparison were provided by two IR thermometers models that yielded an r2 of 0.96 and an rms difference with the PW of 2.7 mm. The results of both the ongoing 2-year study and the 5-month instrument comparison show that IR thermometers can measure PW with an accuracy (rms difference/mean PW) approaching 10%, the accuracy typically ascribed to sun photometers.

  14. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  15. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  16. Distress about mating rivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, DM; Shackelford, TK; Choe, J; Buunk, BP; Dijkstra, P

    This research tested the evolutionary psychological hypothesis that men and women would be most distressed about threats from rivals who surpass them on sex-linked components of mate value. Six predictions were tested in samples from three cultures, the United States (N = 208), the Netherlands (N =

  17. The career distress scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creed, Peter; Hood, Michelle; Praskova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    distress items for model fit, item bias, location dependency, dimensionality, reliability, suitability of response options, and construct validity. Three of the 12 items examined were removed from consideration as they did not fit the Rasch model or were not invariant across groups. The remaining 9 items...

  18. Girls in Distress in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Yosepha

    The typical girl in distress in Israel comes from a Jewish family of oriental origin. Her distress is partially due to the strains of immigrating to Israel from, in most cases, North Africa. Authority models in distressed girls' families feature either the role of the father as the commanding familial authority figure; the mother as the dominant…

  19. System effectiveness of detection, brief intervention and refer to treatment for the people with post-traumatic emotional distress by MERS: a case report of community-based proactive intervention in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Soon-Young; Ko, Hye-Sun; Lee, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Korea has experienced diverse kind of disasters these days. Among them the 2015 middle eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak imposed great psychological stress on almost all Korean citizens. Following the MERS outbreak, government is reviewing overall infectious disease management system and prioritizing the establishment of mental health service systems for infectious disease. This study makes suggestions for implementing disaster-related mental health service systems by analyzing the example of Gyeonggi Province, which proactively intervened with residents' psychological problems caused by the large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease. Mental health service system for MERS victims had the following two parts: a mental health service for people who had been placed in quarantine and a service provided to families of patients who had died or recovered patients. The government of Gyeonggi province, public health centers, regional and local Community Mental Health Centers and the National Center for Crisis Mental Health Management participated in this service system. Among 1221 Gyeonggi people placed in quarantine and who experienced psychological and emotional difficulties, 350 required continuing services; 124 of this group received continuing services. That is, 35 % of people who required psychological intervention received contact from service providers and received the required services. This study reflects a proactive monitoring system for thousands of people placed under quarantine for the first time in Korea. It is significant that the service utilization rate by a proactive manner, that is the professionals administering it actively approached and contacted people with problems rather than passively providing information was much higher than other general mental health situation in Korea. The core value of public mental health services is adequate public accessibility; it is therefore essential for governments to strengthen their professional

  20. Identifying Psychosocial Distress and Stressors Using Distress-screening Instruments in Patients With Localized and Advanced Penile Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, Désirée Louise; Protzel, Chris; Hakenberg, Oliver W

    2017-10-01

    We examined the effects of treatment on the psychological well-being of patients with localized or advanced penile cancer using screening questionnaires to determine the consecutive need for psychosocial care. Penile cancer is a rare, but highly aggressive, malignancy. The psychological stress of patients with penile cancer arises from the cancer diagnosis per se and the corresponding consequences of treatment. In addition, cancer-specific distress results (eg, fear of metastasis, progression, relapse, death). Studies of the psychosocial stress of penile cancer patients are rare. We undertook a prospective analysis of the data from patients with penile cancer who had undergone surgery or chemotherapy from August 2014 to October 2016 at our department. Patients were evaluated using standardized questionnaires for stress screening and the identification for the need for psychosocial care (National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and Hornheider screening instrument) and by assessing the actual use of psychosocial support. The average stress level was 4.5. Of all the patients, 42.5% showed increased care needs at the time of the survey. Younger patients, patients undergoing chemotherapy, and patients with recurrence were significantly more integrated with the psychosocial care systems. Finally, 67% of all patients received inpatient psychosocial care. Owing to the potentially mutilating surgery, patients with penile cancer experience increased psychological stress and, consequently, have an increased need for psychosocial care. Therefore, the emotional stress of these patients should be recognized and support based on interdisciplinary collaboration offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  3. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.I. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  4. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  5. Distress among young adult cancer survivors: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M

    2013-09-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.

  6. Brief Distress Screening in Clinical Practice: Does it Help to Effectively Allocate Psycho-Oncological Support to Female Cancer Inpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelink, Kerstin; Höhn, Henrik; Hasmüller, Stephan; Gallwas, Julia; Härtl, Kristin; Würstlein, Rachel; Köhm, Janna

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of distress screening in cancer inpatient settings has rarely been investigated. This study evaluated a brief distress screening of inpatients in a breast cancer centre and a gynaecological cancer centre. Hospitalised patients with breast or gynaecological cancers were screened with the Distress Thermometer. Patients who scored above the cut-off, were referred by the medical staff, or self-referred were offered bedside psycho-oncological counselling. Of 125 patients, 68 (54.4%) received an offer of counselling, and 62 patients (49.6%) accepted. Most of the counselling was induced by distress screening. Only 4 (3.2%) patients self-referred to the counselling service. Of the counselled patients, 65.8% stated that they had substantially benefited from psycho-oncological support; only 5.6% of the non-counselled patients indicated that they might have benefited from psycho-oncological support. Almost all patients who will accept and benefit from psycho-oncological counselling can be identified if distress screening is used in conjunction with referrals by physicians and nurses. Distress screening is a worthwhile component in a framework of psycho-oncological support in a cancer inpatient setting. It paves the way to counselling for cancer inpatients who need it and are willing to accept it but hesitate to self-refer to psycho-oncological services.

  7. A Fluorescent Thermometer Based on a Pyrene-Labeled Thermoresponsive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S. Schubert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers that undergo a solubility transition by variation of the temperature are important materials for the development of ‘smart’ materials. In this contribution we exploit the solubility phase transition of poly(methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate, which is accompanied by a transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, for the development of a fluorescent thermometer. To translate the polymer phase transition into a fluorescent response, the polymer was functionalized with pyrene resulting in a change of the emission based on the microenvironment. This approach led to a soluble polymeric fluorescent thermometer with a temperature range from 11 °C to 21 °C. The polymer phase transition that occurs during sensing is studied in detail by dynamic light scattering.

  8. In situ calibration of nuclear plant resistance thermometers using Johnson noise. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Roberts, M.J.; Shepard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Methods have been demonstrated in operating nuclear plants for the in situ calibration of resistance thermometers with agreement between measured noise temperatures and dc calibration temperatures well within these required by the plant. A comparison of the results of Johnson noise power testing results and uncertainties, the requirements for accuracy, and PRT calibration tolerances is shown. The methods use Johnson noise measurements and provide an absolute calibration independent of the prior dc calibration. The methods include techniques for characterization of the installed extension cables and the quantitative determination of induced EMI and its effect on the calibration. The techniques are applicable to ordinary 4-wire platinum resistance thermometers operating over their entire design temperature range and to extension cables of about 100 ft length. Careful attention needs to be paid to the choice or cables, location of terminal boxes, and grounding and shielding practices in the plant installation to achieve comparable results

  9. Psychological distress in health sciences college students and its relationship with academic engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liébana-Presa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychological distress and its relationship with academic engagement (absorption, dedication and vigor, sex and degree among students from four public universities. Method: A non-experimental,comparative correlational, quantitative investigation without intervention. Study population: 1840 nursing and physical therapy students. The data collection tool used was a questionnaire. Results: A 32.2% prevalence of psychological distress was found in the subjects; a correlation between vigor and psychological distress was found for all of the subjects and also for women. High absorption and dedication scores and low psychological distress scores predicted higher vigor scores. Conclusion: The risk of psychological distress is high, especially for women. Women seem to have a higher level of psychological distress than men. Vigor, energy and mental resilience positively influence psychological distress and can be a vehicle for better results during the learning and studying process.

  10. Barriers to health-care and psychological distress among mothers living with HIV in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.

  11. Perceived need for psychosocial support depending on emotional distress and mental comorbidity in men and women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Hermann; Weis, Joachim; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Szalai, Carina; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    Although elevated levels of distress are supposed to constitute a need for psychosocial support, the relation between elevated distress and need for support does not appear to be straightforward. We aimed to determine cancer patients' perceived need for psychosocial support, and examine the relation of need to both self-reported emotional distress and the interview-based diagnosis of a mental disorder. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51% women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of need for psychosocial support. We measured distress with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Thermometer (DT) and depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). In a subsample, we evaluated the presence of a mental disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). 32.1% (95%-CI 30.6 to 33.6) of patients perceived a need for psychosocial support. Younger age, female sex, and higher education were associated with more needs, being married and living with a partner with fewer needs, respectively. While up to 51.2% of patients with elevated distress levels reported a need for psychosocial support, up to 26.1% of those without elevated distress levels perceived such a need. Results were similar across distress assessment methods. Our findings emphasize that the occurrence of mental distress is one important but not an exclusive factor among different motives to report the need for psychosocial support. We should thus consider multifaceted perspectives, facilitators and barriers when planning and implementing patient-centered psychosocial care services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  13. Meaning of life, representation of death, and their association with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Ines; Sansonetto, Giulia; Ronconi, Lucia; Rodelli, Maddalena; Baracco, Gloria; Grassi, Luigi

    2017-08-09

    This paper presents a two-phase cross-sectional study aimed at examining the possible mitigating role of perceived meaning of life and representation of death on psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. The first phase involved 219 healthy participants, while the second encompassed 30 cancer patients. Each participant completed the Personal Meaning Profile (PMP), the Testoni Death Representation Scale (TDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Distress Thermometer (DT). The primary analyses comprised (1) correlation analyses between the overall scores of each of the instruments and (2) path analysis to assess the indirect effect of the PMP on DT score through anxiety and depression as determined by the HADS. The path analysis showed that the PMP was inversely correlated with depression and anxiety, which, in turn, mediated the effect on distress. Inverse correlations were found between several dimensions of the PMP, the DT, and the HADS-Anxiety and HADS-Depression subscales, in both healthy participants and cancer patients. Religious orientation (faith in God) was related to a stronger sense of meaning in life and the ontological representation of death as a passage, rather than annihilation. Our findings support the hypothesis that participants who represent death as a passage and have a strong perception of the meaning of life tend to report lower levels of distress, anxiety, and depression. We recommend that perceived meaning of life and representation of death be more specifically examined in the cancer and palliative care settings.

  14. Reef coral δ18O thermometer in Hainan island waters, south China sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuexian; Peng Zicheng; Wang Zhaorong; Huo Weiguo; Tan Jun; Nie Baofu; Chen Tegu; Zhong Jinliang

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-long (1981-1998) study was conducted in Hainan Island waters (22 degree 22'N, 110 degree 39'E) to determine the relationship between δ 18 O in skeletal aragonite carbonate and sea surface temperature (SST) in porites lutea of reef-building corals. δ 18 O values in skeletal aragonite carbonate were measured by means of mass spectrometry. Coral samples grew at 5 m depth at Longwan Bay. Monthly measurements of the SST from 1960 to 1998 were taken at Qinglan Bay adjacent to the place of the collected samples. The thermometer shows that SST = -4.16 δ 18 O PDB + 4.9 (r = 0.80) and dδ 18 O/dT = -0.24 per mil/degree C. The δ 18 O thermometer is strongly influenced by the rainfall and runoff. Using the thermometer, the SST in the past hundred years with monthly resolution will be reconstructed and the climatic change in the northern area of South China Sea will be hind cast

  15. Thermodynamics and historical relevance of a jetting thermometer made of Chinese zisha ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vincent; Attinger, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a thermometer made of zisha ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who “urinates” shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance is said to indicate that the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermodynamic model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. Predicted jetting distances, jet durations, and temperatures agree very well with infrared and optical measurements. Specifically, the study confirms that jetting distances are sensitive enough to measure water temperature in the context of tea brewing. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. The study ends by considering the possibility that ceramic jetting artifacts like the pee-pee boy might have been the first thermometers known to mankind, before Galileo Galilei’s thermoscope.

  16. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  17. Psychological distress among homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1989-05-01

    Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of mental illness among the homeless. As part of a community-based survey of 529 homeless adults, we developed and tested a model to increase our understanding of the factors related to their psychological distress. Using a previously validated and reliable scale of perceived psychological distress, we found that homeless adults were more likely to report psychological distress than the general population (80% vs. 49%). Distress levels were not associated with most demographic or homeless characteristics or general appearance. However, distress was related to unemployment, greater cigarette and alcohol use, worse physical health, fewer social supports, and perceived barriers to obtaining needed medical care. Since mental, physical, and social health are strongly related among homeless adults, alleviating distress among them may be most effectively done by implementing a broad-based health services package coupled with employment programs provided in an accessible service delivery setting.

  18. Nurse middle manager ethical dilemmas and moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Freda D; Wagner, Nurit; Toren, Orly

    2015-02-01

    Nurse managers are placed in a unique position within the healthcare system where they greatly impact upon the nursing work environment. Ethical dilemmas and moral distress have been reported for staff nurses but not for nurse middle managers. To describe ethical dilemmas and moral distress among nurse middle managers arising from situations of ethical conflict. The Ethical Dilemmas in Nursing-Middle Manager Questionnaire and a personal characteristics questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of middle managers from four hospitals in Israel. Middle managers report low to moderate levels of frequency and intensity of ethical dilemmas and moral distress. Highest scores were for administrative dilemmas. Middle managers experience lower levels of ethical dilemmas and moral distress than staff nurses, which are irrespective of their personal characteristics. Interventions should be developed, studied, and then incorporated into institutional frameworks in order to improve this situation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  20. Predicting parental distress among children newly diagnosed with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachel K; Ashford, Jason M; Scott, Sarah M; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Bradley, Julie A; Merchant, Thomas E; Conklin, Heather M

    2018-06-22

    Childhood brain tumor diagnoses are stressful for families. Children diagnosed with craniopharyngioma (Cp) present with particularly challenging medical and cognitive problems due to tumor location and associated biophysiologic comorbidities. This study examined parental distress in a sample of families of patients with Cp treated with proton beam therapy to identify factors for targeting psychological intervention. Prior to (n = 96) and 1 year after (n = 73) proton therapy, parents of children diagnosed with Cp (9.81 ± 4.42 years at baseline; 49% male) completed a self-report measure of distress, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Children completed cognitive assessment measures at baseline; medical variables were extracted from the study database. At baseline, t-tests revealed parents reported higher levels of distress than normative expectations on Anxiety, Depression, Global Severity, and Positive Symptom Distress BSI scales (P < 0.05). Linear mixed effects models revealed parent report measures of child executive dysfunction and behavioral issues were more predictive of parental distress than patients' cognitive performance or medical status (P < 0.05). Models also revealed a significant reduction only in Anxiety over time (t = -2.19, P < 0.05). Extensive hypothalamic involvement at baseline predicted this reduction (P < 0.05). Parents experience significant distress before their child begins adjuvant therapy for Cp, though parental distress appears largely unrelated to medical complications and more related to parent perceptions of child cognitive difficulties (vs. child performance). Importantly, this may be explained by a negative parent reporting style among distressed parents. Knowledge of socio-emotional functioning in parents related to patient characteristics is important for optimization of psychological intervention. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diffusion of a Distress Management Guideline into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Susan S; Beck, Susan L; Dudley, William N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore system and clinician-related barriers, and predictors for the adoption of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Management Guideline (DMG) into oncology outpatient practice. This descriptive, correlational study surveyed a national sample of oncology nurses working in an outpatient setting who completed the survey electronically or by mail. Study respondents (n = 409) were predominantly certified nurses (84%) yet largely unfamiliar with the DMG; 17% of respondents were using the DMG. Time, staff uncertainties and ambiguous accountability were the largest barriers to not assessing distress. Compared with those not using any assessment tool, those using the DMG were more comfortable discussing distress, worked as an oncology nurse longer, scored colleagues higher on valuing distress screening and had more organizational processes in place to support evidence-based practices. Significant predictors of DMG use included higher familiarity with the DMG (OR 3.81, p DMG, which are amenable to interventions. DMG adoption may be augmented by interventions, which increase familiarity with the guideline. Additionally, adoption of the DMG may improve through explicit articulation of the responsibilities oncology team members have in cancer-related distress screening and management. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions and their impact on patient care outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  3. 47 CFR 80.314 - Distress communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... radiotelephone distress call consists of: (1) The distress signal MAYDAY spoken three times; (2) The words THIS IS; (3) The call sign (or name, if no call sign assigned) of the mobile station in distress, spoken...

  4. Measurement of body temperature in 300 dogs with a novel noncontact infrared thermometer on the cornea in comparison to a standard rectal digital thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Hannah; Neiger, Reto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of obtaining body temperatures in dogs with a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) on the cornea compared with a rectal digital thermometer (RDT). Prospective single center study. University teaching hospital. Three hundred dogs presented with low, normal, or high body temperatures. Three body temperature readings were measured by an RDT and by an NCIT on the cornea of the left eye by 2 investigators (experienced and inexperienced). Results obtained by the 2 methods were compared. Median body temperature measured by the experienced investigator with the RDT and the NCIT were 38.3°C (range 35.5°C-41.1°C; 95% CI: 38.2-38.4°C) and 37.7°C (35.9°C-40.1°C; 95% CI: 37.7°C-37.9°C), respectively. Measurement of RDT as well as of NCIT correlated well between both investigators (rRDT = 0.94; rNCIT = 0.82; respectively, P temperature correlated poorly (r = 0.43; P temperature >39.0°C) showed an area under the curve of 0.76. Mean discomfort score was significantly lower using NCIT compared to RDT measurement (P temperatures obtained by RDT and NCIT. The corneal NCIT measurement tends to underrecognize hypothermic and hyperthermic conditions. Although the use of the NCIT yields faster results and is significantly more comfortable for the dog than the RDT measurement, it cannot be recommended in dogs at this time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. Refinement of the distress management problem list as the basis for a holistic therapeutic conversation among UK patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James; Gingell, Polly; Brant, Heather; Hollingworth, William

    2012-12-01

    Originally devised in the USA, the Distress Thermometer is being deployed in many cancer settings in the UK. It is commonly used with a Problem List (PL), which has never been validated with a UK population. This study aimed to refine the PL items based upon the concerns of a sample of UK patients attending a regional cancer centre. Existing versions of the PL were scrutinised by a focus group comprising five ex-patients, six health care staff and two academics. This group considered the intelligibility, ambiguity and redundancy of items, sometimes making alternative suggestions or pooling items. The resulting 46 candidate items were sent to 735 patients with mixed cancer, asking them to endorse items that had been 'a source of concern or distress' during their recently finished treatment. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between the prevalence of problems and patient characteristics. In this study, 395 (53%) people responded. 'Fatigue, exhaustion or extreme tiredness' (70%), 'worry, fear or anxiety' (45%) and 'sleep problems' (38%) were the most frequently endorsed items. Items not appearing on the original PL were commonly endorsed such as 'memory or concentration' (30%) and 'loneliness or isolation' (15%), suggesting that they should be routinely included in the Distress Thermometer Problem List. The current study offers a more comprehensive PL, on the basis of actual patients' concerns, using words that are understood by UK patients. The reluctance of some patients to volunteer their concerns suggests that screening for distress should be undertaken within the context of a structured conversation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  7. The ethics of distress: toward a framework for determining the ethical acceptability of distressing health promotion advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Whiting, Demian

    2014-04-01

    Distressing health promotion advertising involves the elicitation of negative emotion to increase the likelihood that health messages will stimulate audience members to adopt healthier behaviors. Irrespective of its effectiveness, distressing advertising risks harming audience members who do not consent to the intervention and are unable to withdraw from it. Further, the use of these approaches may increase the potential for unfairness or stigmatization toward those targeted, or be considered unacceptable by some sections of the public. We acknowledge and discuss these concerns, but, using the public health ethics literature as a guide, argue that distressing advertising can be ethically defensible if conditions of effectiveness, proportionality necessity, least infringement, and public accountability are satisfied. We do not take a broad view as to whether distressing advertising is ethical or unethical, because we see the evidence for both the effectiveness of distressing approaches and their potential to generate iatrogenic effects to be inconclusive. However, we believe it possible to use the current evidence base to make informed estimates of the likely consequences of specific message presentations. Messages can be pre-tested and monitored to identify and deal with potential problems. We discuss how advertisers can approach the problems of deciding on the appropriate intensity of ethical review, and evaluating prospective distressing advertising campaigns against the conditions outlined. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. A calorimetric particle detector using an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Dummer, D.; Cooper, S.; Igalson, J.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a calorimetric particles detector consisting of an 18.3 g silicon crystal and an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer. The cryogenic calorimeter and the associated apparatus are described in detail. The pulses from irradiation with an α-particle source have a large unexpected overshoot in addition to the component expected from a naive thermal model. The pulse height spectrum displays an energy resolution of 1 percent FWHM at 6 MeV and good linearity. The noise, electrothermal feedback, and position dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Germanium thermometers in the temperature range .1000K to 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity characteristics of two germanium thermometers that proved to be convenient sensors in the temperature range from .100 0 K to 4.2 0 K, are described. Their resistances change from about 8 x 10 5 ohms at .100 0 K to about 100 ohms at 4.2 0 K. The calibration curves were fitted to natural spline functions of order 3 in the whole range of temperatures. These functions give less than half millidegree standard dispersion against 15 millidegree standard dispersion when usual polynomial interpolations are used. It is discussed what spline functions are, and compare the goodness of spline interpolation with polynomial methods [pt

  10. Determination of response time of resistance thermometers by in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.; Soares, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistance thermometers. The test consists in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step perurbation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that time constant determined by this method is within 15 percent of the true value. (Author) [pt

  11. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2011-04-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably.

  12. A monocrystal of 59Co as a nuclear orientation thermometer in neutron experiments with oriented targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, U.; Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring temperatures in the millikelvin region is described based on the 'deformation effect' on fast neutron transmission through an aligned 59 Co monocrystal, employing a 252 Cf pill as the neutron source. A statistical accuracy of a few percent in a few minutes is obtainable with a heat input of some tens of pW. The apparatus is suitable in neutron experiments with oriented targets when the gamma-ray background hinders the use of gamma-ray anisotropy thermometers. In these and similar cases, in which the temperature must be held constant for long periods, the large heat capacity of the cobalt sample is not a drawback. (orig.)

  13. Review of a Parent's Influence on Pediatric Procedural Distress and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erin A; De Young, Alexandra; Kimble, Roy; Kenardy, Justin

    2018-06-01

    Understanding how parents influence their child's medical procedures can inform future work to reduce pediatric procedural distress and improve recovery outcomes. Following a pediatric injury or illness diagnosis, the associated medical procedures can be potentially traumatic events that are often painful and distressing and can lead to the child experiencing long-term physical and psychological problems. Children under 6 years old are particularly at risk of illness or injury, yet their pain-related distress during medical procedures is often difficult to manage because of their young developmental level. Parents can also experience ongoing psychological distress following a child's injury or illness diagnosis. The parent and parenting behavior is one of many risk factors for increased pediatric procedural distress. The impact of parents on pediatric procedural distress is an important yet not well-understood phenomenon. There is some evidence to indicate parents influence their child through their own psychological distress and through parenting behavior. This paper has three purposes: (1) review current empirical research on parent-related risk factors for distressing pediatric medical procedures, and longer-term recovery outcomes; (2) consider and develop existing theories to present a new model for understanding the parent-child distress relationship during medical procedures; and (3) review and make recommendations regarding current assessment tools and developing parenting behavior interventions for reducing pediatric procedural distress.

  14. Prevalence and occupational predictors of psychological distress in the offshore petroleum industry: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Tvedt, Sturle Danielsen; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of psychological distress and stressors in the work environment as prospective predictors of distress, among employees in the offshore petroleum industry. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were employed to examine longitudinal relationships between stressors and distress in a randomly drawn sample of 741 employees from the Norwegian petroleum offshore industry. Time lag between baseline and follow-up was 6 months. Work environment stressors included safety factors, leadership, and job characteristics. The prevalence of psychological distress was 9 % at baseline and 8 % at follow-up. All investigated work environment factors correlated with subsequent distress. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, caseness of distress was predicted by baseline distress, near miss accidents, risk perception, poor safety climate, tyrannical leadership, laissez-faire leadership, job demands, and workplace bullying. After adjustment for baseline distress, control variables, and other predictors, laissez-faire leadership (OR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.54) and exposure to bullying (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI: 1.07-2.10) emerged as the most robust predictors of subsequent distress. The findings show that the prevalence of psychological distress is lower among offshore employees than in the general population. Although offshore workers operate in a physically challenging context, their mental health is mainly influenced by stressors in the psychosocial work environment. This highlights the importance of developing and implementing psychosocial safety interventions within the offshore industry.

  15. Risk Perception and Psychological Distress in Genetic Counselling for Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, G; De Luca, R; Dorangricchia, P; Lo Coco, G; Guarnaccia, C; Fanale, D; Calò, V; Russo, A

    2017-10-01

    Oncological Genetic Counselling (CGO) allows the identification of a genetic component that increases the risk of developing a cancer. Individuals' psychological reactions are influenced by both the content of the received information and the subjective perception of their own risk of becoming ill or being a carrier of a genetic mutation. This study included 120 participants who underwent genetic counselling for breast and/or ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between their cancer risk perception and the genetic risk during CGO before receiving genetic test results, considering the influence of some psychological variables, in particular distress, anxiety and depression. Participants completed the following tools during a psychological interview: a socio-demographic form, Cancer Risk Perception (CRP) and Genetic Risk Perception (GRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Distress Thermometer (DT). The data seem to confirm our hypothesis. Positive and significant correlations were found between the observed variables. Moreover, genetic risk perception determined an increase in depressive symptomatology and cancer risk perception led to an increase in anxious symptomatology, specifically in participants during cancer treatment. The present results suggest the importance of assessing genetic and cancer risk perception in individuals who undergo CGO, to identify those who are at risk of a decrease in psychological well-being and of developing greater psychological distress.

  16. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  17. Preliminary Results on New Prototypes of Precision Rh-0.5at%Fe Resistance Thermometers of Chinese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, F.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipinski, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Qiu, Ping; Zhang, Jin Tao; Lin, Peng; Li, Xing Wei

    2008-02-01

    Given the practical impossibility of obtaining new precision Rh-0.5at%Fe resistance thermometers in recent years, the possible re-starting of the production of such thermometers in Yunnan (China) was explored by Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM). Ten prototypes of the new production were made available in early 2006. The paper reports the preliminary data from the testing performed to date on these prototypes at National Institute of Metrology (NIM) and Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych (INTiBS). Although a problem with the alloy composition was detected, the reproducibility results on thermal cycling are very encouraging. Resistance-temperature ( R- T) characteristics below 30 K, though not identical with those of similar thermometers formerly available from Tinsley and VNIIFTRI, are still suitable for accurate metrology.

  18. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  19. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  1. Noise thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Brixy, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs.

  2. Kitchen Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or in bird) 165 Eggs and Egg Dishes Eggs Cook until yolk and white are firm Egg dishes 160 Leftovers and Casseroles 165 *These temperatures are recommended for consumer cooking. They are not intended for processing, institutional, or ...

  3. Ionic thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, M.

    1975-01-01

    An original method of temperature measurement based on conductivity changes near the phase transition point of ionic compounds and suitable for the range from 200 to 700 0 C according to the thermometric compound used, is given. By choosing between two approaches it is posible to evaluate either a discrete value of temperature or continuous measurement in a range to about 50 0 C below the phase transition point of thermometric compounds. The extreme nonlinearity of conductivity of the chosen group of ionic crystals used as well as the technical applications developed in the laboratories have not previously been published. The aim of the research is the application of this measuring method for temperature indication in nuclear reactors. Preliminary tests in radiation fields in an experimental reactor are yielding a real hope in this direction. (author)

  4. Noise thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Brixy, H.; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs

  5. Web-Based Distress Management for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; Denollet, Johan; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    distress post-ICD implantation. The WEB-based distress management program for ICD patients (WEBCARE) was developed to mitigate anxiety and depression and enhance health-related quality of life in ICD patients. This study investigates the 6- and 12-months outcomes. METHOD: A total of 289 consecutive ICD...... care as usual. RESULTS: Current findings show no significant difference on anxiety, depression or quality of life between the WEBCARE and Usual Care group at 6- and 12-months postimplantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this clinical trial of a Web-based behavioral intervention for ICD patients, the Web...

  6. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  7. Development of a superconducting transition edge thermometer for calorimetric detection of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J; Boehmer, W; Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany) Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-10-01

    A low temperature bolometer for the calorimetric detection of heavy ions was constructed and tested. An aluminium thin-film microstrip, patterned in a meander-line structure by photolithographic techniques, serves as superconducting transition edge thermometer on a sapphire absorber. A transition width {delta}T of the thermometer of the order of some mK, and a resistance of up to R{sub c} = 60 k{Omega} at the working point (T{sub c} {approx equal} 1.5 K) is achieved. In tests with {alpha}-particles signals of typically 1 V pulseheight after the preamplifier and decaytimes around hundred {mu}s were observed. For 5.5 MeV {alpha}-particles the measured energy resolution is {Delta}E = 50 keV, corresponding to a temperature resolution of about 1 {mu}K. First measurements were performed with {sup 20}Ne ions (E = 116 MeV). The dependence of the pulseheight and the FWHM on the working point were investigated and qualitatively explained. The best energy resolution was {Delta}E = 2.6 MeV; most probably the present limitations are determined by the temperature stabilization. (orig.).

  8. Use of infrared thermometer technique in irrigation scheduling of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm TEKELİOĞLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to assess crop water stress index (CWSI and to determine irrigation schedule of pomegranate using infrared thermometer technique. Treatments with three replications were irrigated every three and six days intervals, as much as 0.50 (S1, 0.75 (S2, 1.00 (S3, and 1.25 (S4 of Class A pan evaporation. Additionally, an unirrigated plot was also formed. The equations obtained for non-water stress baseline is Tc-Ta=0.645VPD-4.338. The equation of full water stressed upper baseline obtained from data taken from branches of pomegranate plant cut in different days is given by Tc-Ta= 0.0489VPD+2.8734. According to the results obtained, it is concluded that infrared thermometer can be used for irrigation scheduling of the pomegranate plants in Antalya conditions. When using this technique in Antalya conditions, it is suggested to keep the seasonal mean CWSI value approximately 0.12 and the index value of 0.40 can be used to start the irrigation. Additionally, it is suggested that the amount of irrigation can be determined as much as the amount of evaporation measured until the index value reaches 0.40.

  9. Bilateral comparison for determining the dynamic characteristic values of contact thermometers in fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In applicable standards and sets of rules (VDI/VDE, 2014; DIN, 2010, 2017, recommendations are made concerning the types of experiments for determining the dynamic parameters in fluids (flowing water and flowing air under well-defined conditions. In the data sheets of the thermometer manufacturers, quite different specifications can be found, such as time percentage values or time constants. Only a few thermometer manufacturers specify the medium and flow conditions under which these parameters have been determined. Above all, it is not common practice to indicate a measurement uncertainty for the dynamic parameters found. In Augustin et al. (2017, a first model for the indication of the measurement uncertainty of dynamic parameters in flowing air was presented.The present paper describes the results of a bilateral comparison made for the first time for determining dynamic parameters in the laboratories of the JUMO GmbH & Co. KG Fulda company and at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the TU Ilmenau. In doing so, two type-N thermocouples with different diameters were investigated in experimental facilities with flowing water and flowing air. Subsequently, the dynamic parameters found were compared with each other. The differences revealed mainly resulted from plant-specific parameters.

  10. Modified ultrafast thermometer UFT-M and temperature measurements during Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kumala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A modified UFT-M version of the ultrafast airborne thermometer UFT, aimed at in-cloud temperature measurements, was designed for the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST field campaign. Improvements in its construction resulted in the sensor's increased reliability, which provided valuable measurements in 15 of the 17 flights. Oversampling the data allowed for the effective correction of the artefacts resulting from the interference with electromagnetic transmissions from on-board avionic systems and the thermal noise resulting from the sensor construction. The UFT-M records, when averaged to the 1.4 and 55 m resolutions, compared to the similar records of a thermometer in a Rosemount housing, indicate that the housing distorts even low-resolution airborne temperature measurements. Data collected with the UFT-M during the course of POST characterise the thermal structure of stratocumulus and capping inversion with the maximum resolution of ~1 cm. In this paper, examples of UFT-M records are presented and discussed.

  11. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates...

  12. Moral distress in undergraduate nursing students: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Loredana; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Bianchi, Monica; Bressan, Valentina; Carnevale, Franco

    2016-08-01

    Nurses and nursing students appear vulnerable to moral distress when faced with ethical dilemmas or decision-making in clinical practice. As a result, they may experience professional dissatisfaction and their relationships with patients, families, and colleagues may be compromised. The impact of moral distress may manifest as anger, feelings of guilt and frustration, a desire to give up the profession, loss of self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. The purpose of this review was to describe how dilemmas and environmental, relational, and organizational factors contribute to moral distress in undergraduate student nurses during their clinical experience and professional education. The research design was a systematic literature review. The search produced a total of 157 articles published between 2004 and 2014. These were screened with the assessment sheet designed by Hawker and colleagues. Four articles matched the search criteria (one quantitative study and three qualitative), and these were separately read and analyzed by the researchers. The process of review and analysis of the data was supervised by a colleague experienced in moral distress who provided an independent quality check. Since this was a systematic review, no ethical approval was required. From the analysis, it emerged that inequalities and healthcare disparities, the relationship with the mentor, and students' individual characteristics can all impact negatively on the decisions taken and the nursing care provided, generating moral distress. All these factors condition both the clinical experience and learning process, in addition to the professional development and the possible care choices of future nurses. Few studies dealt with moral distress in the setting of nurse education, and there is a knowledge gap related to this phenomenon. The results of this review underline the need for further research regarding interventions that can minimize moral distress in undergraduate nursing students.

  13. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    There is minimal research exploring moral distress and its relationship to ethical climate among nurses working in acute care settings. Objectives of the study were to explore moral distress, moral residue, and perception of ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center and develop interventions to address study findings. A mixed-methods design was used. Two versions of Corley and colleagues' Moral Distress Scale, adult and pediatric/neonatal, were used in addition to Olson's Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. Participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. This article reports the results for those nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. The sample (N = 225) was predominantly female (80%); half held a bachelor of science in nursing or higher, were aged 30 to 49 years, and staff nurses (77.3%). The mean item score for moral distress intensity ranged from 3.79 (SD, 2.21) to 2.14 (SD, 2.42) with mean item score frequency ranging from 2.86 (SD, 1.88) to 0.23 (SD, 0.93). The mean score for total Hospital Ethical Climate Survey was 94.39 (SD, 18.3) ranging from 23 to 130. Qualitative comments described bullying, lateral violence, and retribution. Inadequate staffing and perceived incompetent coworkers were the most distressing items. Almost 22% left a previous position because of moral distress and perceived the current climate to be less ethical compared with other participants. Findings may potentially impact nurse retention and recruitment and negatively affect the quality and safety of patient care. Interventions developed focus on the individual nurse, including ethics education and coping skills, intraprofessional/interprofessional approaches, and administrative/policy strategies.

  14. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  15. Diabetes Distress Among Persons With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Craft, Cheryl

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between diabetes distress and a range of psychological health behaviors and concerns among persons with type 1 diabetes for the benefit of enhancing early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. Methods Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 268; 57.1% female, 91.0% white, 76.8% satisfaction with life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, perfectionism, body image satisfaction, dietary restraint and eating, and shape and weight concerns. Each subscale score was compared within age groups (depression scores and eating, and shape and weight concerns than those with low or moderate distress. For patients satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy and higher on dietary restraint and several areas of perfectionism than those with low or moderate distress. Conclusions Individuals with type 1 diabetes who have high diabetes distress also report higher A1C values and poorer psychological health concerns. A brief diabetes distress questionnaire can help to identify those who need additional screening, education and support, and treatment for overall health and well-being.

  16. A framework for understanding moral distress among palliative care clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Cynda H; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Halifax, Joan S

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care clinicians confront suffering as they care for people living with life-limiting conditions. When the degree of suffering becomes unjustified, moral distress can ensue. Promising work from neuroscience and social psychology has yet to be applied to clinical practice. Our objective was to expand a social psychology model focusing on empathy and compassion in response to suffering to include an ethical dimension and to examine how the interrelationships of its proposed components can assist clinicians in understanding their responses to morally distressing situations. In the clinical context, responses to distressing events are thought to include four dimensions: empathy (emotional attunement), perspective taking (cognitive attunement), memory (personal experience), and moral sensitivity (ethical attunement). These dynamically intertwined dimensions create the preconditions for how clinicians respond to a triggering event instigated by an ethical conflict or dilemma. We postulate that if the four dimensions are highly aligned, the intensity and valence of emotional arousal will influence ethical appraisal and discernment by engaging a robust view of the ethical issues, conflicts, and possible solutions and cultivating compassionate action and resilience. In contrast, if they are not, ethical appraisal and discernment will be deficient, creating emotional disregulation and potentially leading to personal and moral distress, self-focused behaviors, unregulated moral outrage, burnout, and secondary stress. The adaptation and expansion of a conceptual framework offers a promising approach to designing interventions that help clinicians mitigate the detrimental consequences of unregulated moral distress and to build the resilience necessary to sustain themselves in clinical service.

  17. Distress among women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 results: 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Suzanne C; Rini, Christine; Goldsmith, Rachel E; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Cohen, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Marc D

    2009-10-01

    Few data are available regarding the long-term psychological impact of uninformative BRCA1/2 test results. This study examines change in distress from pretesting to 12-months post-disclosure, with medical, family history, and psychological variables, such as pretesting perceived risk of carrying a deleterious mutation prior to testing and primary and secondary appraisals, as predictors. Two hundred and nine women with uninformative BRCA1/2 test results completed questionnaires at pretesting and 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-disclosure, including measures of anxiety and depression, cancer-specific and genetic testing distress. We used a mixed models approach to predict change in post-disclosure distress. Distress declined from pretesting to 1-month post-disclosure, but remained stable thereafter. Primary appraisals predicted all types of distress at 1-month post-disclosure. Primary and secondary appraisals predicted genetic testing distress at 1-month as well as change over time. Receiving a variant of uncertain clinical significance and entering testing with a high expectation for carrying a deleterious mutation predicted genetic testing distress that persisted through the year after testing. As a whole, women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 test results are a resilient group. For some women, distress experienced in the month after testing does not dissipate. Variables, such as heightened pretesting perceived risk and cognitive appraisals, predict greater likelihood for sustained distress in this group and could be amenable to intervention.

  18. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  19. Dual-sensing porphyrin-containing copolymer nanosensor as full-spectrum colorimeter and ultra-sensitive thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Yuan, Jinying; Kang, Yan; Cai, Zhinan; Zhou, Lilin; Yin, Yingwu

    2010-04-28

    A porphyrin-containing copolymer has dual-sensing in response to metal ions and temperature as a novel nanosensor. Triggered by ions, the sensor exhibits full-color tunable behavior as a cationic detector and colorimeter. Responding to temperature, the sensor displays an "isothermal" thermochromic point as an ultra-sensitive thermometer.

  20. Tympanic ear thermometer assessment of body temperature among patients with cognitive disturbances. An acceptable and ethically desirable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadal, Lena; Fog, Lisbet; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of a possible relation between body temperature measurements by the current generation of tympanic ear and rectal thermometers. In Denmark, a national guideline recommends the rectal measurement. Subsequently, the rectal thermometers and tympanic ear devices are the most frequently used and first choice in Danish hospital wards. Cognitive changes constitute challenges with cooperating in rectal temperature assessments. With regard to diagnosing, ethics, safety and the patients' dignity, the tympanic ear thermometer might comprise a desirable alternative to rectal noninvasive measurement of body temperature during in-hospital-based neurorehabilitation. A prospective, descriptive cohort study. Consecutive inclusion of 27 patients. Linear regression models were used to analyse 284 simultaneous temperature measurements. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and the study was completed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration 2008. About 284 simultaneous rectal and ear temperature measurements on 27 patients were analysed. The patient-wise variability of measured temperatures was significantly higher for the ear measurements. Patient-wise linear regressions for the 25 patients with at least three pairs of simultaneous ear and rectal temperature measurements showed large interpatient variability of the association. A linear relationship between the rectal body temperature assessment and the temperature assessment employing the tympanic thermometer is weak. Both measuring methods reflect variance in temperature, but ear measurements showed larger variation. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. I have no peace of mind-psychosocial distress expressed by rural women living with HIV in India as part of a mobile health intervention-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Parameshwaran, Soumya; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Varghese, Meiya; Liberti, Lauren; Duggal, Mona; Singh, Pushpendra; Jeon, Sangchoon; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2018-03-17

    This qualitative study assessed psychosocial concerns that rural women with HIV who had multiple psychosocial vulnerabilities were able to express and communicate during a mobile phone intervention delivered by nurses. The study is part of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an mHealth self-care intervention by nurses for women living with HIV in rural India. For the trial, 60 women were randomised to receive the mHealth intervention. All calls were recorded and call logs were maintained. Call logs of 59 women based on 1186 calls were scanned for psychosocial themes. Audio recordings of 400 calls rich in content were then transcribed and translated for analysis. Themes and subthemes were identified by two independent raters. Majority of the women had low literacy and more than half were widowed. Clinical depression was found in 18.6%. Of the 1186 call logs analysed, 932 calls had a record of at least one psychosocial concern and 493 calls recorded two psychosocial concerns. Some of the major themes that women discussed with nurses included worries about their own and their children's future; loneliness; stigma; inadvertent disclosure; death and dying; abandonment by partner; financial difficulties; body image; poor social support; emotions such as sadness, guilt, and anger; and need for social services. Almost all expressed appreciation for the intervention. Findings indicate the usefulness of mHealth-based self-care interventions delivered by nurses in hard to reach women in low- and middle-income countries, especially those with multiple psychosocial vulnerabilities.

  2. Management of Psychosocial Distress by Oncologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Anna C.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Kornblith, Alice; Greer, Joseph; Greenberg, Donna B.; Temel, Jennifer; Schapira, Lidia; Pirl, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the nature of psychosocial care delivered by oncologists. The goal of this study was to survey oncologists about their management of psychosocial distress, referencing the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Methods A random sample of 1,000 oncologists were sent an e-mail requesting their participation in an online survey; nonrespondents were sent the survey through postal mail. Regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of care. Results Forty-six percent (448 of 965) of oncologists responded. Practice locations included: community (63%), cancer center (25%), and hospital (7%). Respondents estimated that over one-third of their patients (mean± SD=38%±22%) experience psychosocial distress warranting intervention, although only 225 of 447 (50%) indicated having mental health services affiliated with their practice. Nearly half (212 of 447, 47%) reported only initiating a referral for psychosocial services, and 214 of 447 (48%) reported both making a referral and starting psychiatric medications, mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Conclusions Most oncologists delivered some level of psychosocial care, although only half had affiliated mental health services. PMID:19648204

  3. Determination of mean molecular weights in organic reactor coolants. III. Differential cryoscopy with thermoelectric thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerro, E.; Carreira, M.

    1968-01-01

    The solubility problems raised by some components of the polymeric residue of irradiated polyphenolic coolants, which make it necessary to operate with very small samples, have been solved by means of a differential cryoscopic technique using a thermoelectric thermometer (thermal) as sensitive element. The method is based on the direct measurement of the difference between the freezing points of the investigated solution and of a reference solution whose concentration may be changed at will. The change of Δ V (mV) versus c(molal) is linear, the equivalent point being determined either analytically or graphically depending on the required accuracy. The method has been tested by measurements on pure polyphenyls, using diphenyl ether as solvent. It has been also applied to the main prospective coolants for the DON reactor. Working with 10 2 molal solutions the accuracy is better than ± 2 per cent. (Author) 2 refs

  4. Development of a platinum resistance thermometer on the silicon substrate for phase change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qingjun; Chen, Ya-Chi; Tsai, Chialun; DeNatale, Jeffrey F

    2012-01-01

    Resistance temperature detectors are commonly used measurement sensors in heat transfer studies. In many resistance temperature detectors, the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) is chemically stable, has a wide temperature measurement range and possesses high measurement accuracy. In phase change studies of carbon nanotubes, bi-porous structures for microelectronic thermal management, 100 nm thick PRTs are developed on silicon substrates with 10 nm titanium adhesive to achieve precise and interface-free temperature measurements. After an annealing at 375 °C, the PRT samples are calibrated at a temperature range from 20 to 180 °C. Measurement hysteresis of temperature appears in thermal cycles. Electrical resistance tends to become low during all heating periods, which establishes the maximum measurement deviation of 10 °C. Experimental results from two different thin-film PRTs indicate that accurate and repeatable temperature measurements can be achieved by either reducing heating speed or using data in the cooling period. (paper)

  5. Magnetic Thermometer: Thermal effect on the Agglomeration of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Daeseong; Kim, Hackjin

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the agglomeration of magnetite nanoparticles in the aqueous solution under magnetic field by measuring temporal change of magnetic weight. The magnetic weight corresponds to the force due to the magnetization of magnetic materials. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and used in this work. When the aqueous solution of magnetite nanoparticle is placed under magnetic field, the magnetic weight of the sample jumps instantaneously by Neel and Brown mechanisms and thereafter increases steadily following a stretched exponential function as the nanoparticles agglomerate, which results from the distribution of energy barriers involved in the dynamics. Thermal motions of nanoparticles in the agglomerate perturb the ordered structure of the agglomerate to reduce the magnetic weight. Fluctuation of the structural order of the agglomerate by temperature change is much faster than the formation of agglomerate and explained well with the Boltzmann distribution, which suggests that the magnetic weight of the agglomerate works as a magnetic thermometer.

  6. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  7. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, Jorman A.

    2000-01-01

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C

  8. Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence and burden associated with depression and anxiety disorders and the existence of treatment barriers, there is a clear need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions such as passive psychoeducational interventions. There are no published meta-analyses of the effectiveness of passive psychoeducation in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety or psychological distress. Methods Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases were searched in September 2008. Additional materials were obtained from reference lists. Papers describing passive psychoeducational interventions for depression, anxiety and psychological distress were included if the research design was a randomized controlled trial and incorporated an attention placebo, no intervention or waitlist comparison group. Results In total, 9010 abstracts were identified. Of these, five papers which described four research studies targeting passive psychoeducation for depression and psychological distress met the inclusion criteria. The pooled standardized-effect size (four studies, four comparisons for reduced symptoms of depression and psychological distress at post-intervention was d = 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.40; Z = 2.04; P = 0.04; the number needed to treat: 9. Heterogeneity was not significant among the studies (I2 = 32.77, Q:4.46; P = 0.22. Conclusions Although it is commonly believed that psychoeducation interventions are ineffective, this meta-analysis revealed that brief passive psychoeducational interventions for depression and psychological distress can reduce symptoms. Brief passive psychoeducation interventions are easy to implement, can be applied immediately and are not expensive. They may offer a first-step intervention for those experiencing psychological distress or depression and might serve as an initial intervention in primary care or community models. The findings suggest that the quality of psychoeducation may be

  9. Use of infrared radiation thermometers for temperature control of plastic and paper webs in electric infrared ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Using infrared radiation thermometers in conjunction with infrared heater systems requires special considerations to ensure that accuracy will be achieved. If the thermometer picks up infrared radiation from the heaters, faulty readings can occur. Two methods are generally employed to eliminate this interference. Sight tubes are used to block infrared rays from entering the sensor lens, and a thermometer is chosen which responds to a different wavelength than that being emitted from the infrared heaters. The main types of electric infrared heaters are: (a) screw-in bulbs (shortwave); (b) evacuated tungsten filament tubes (shortwave); (c) quartz tubes (medium wave); (d) quartz panel heaters (medium wave); (e) Ceramic heaters (medium-long wave); (f) metal sheath heaters (medium-long wave). Positioning of a sensor on a production line is dictated by the product being processed and the desired use of the temperature information. The most common location for a sensor is just after the infrared unit. The pyrometer information can be used for setting up the process, for quality control, for heater failure detection, and for control of the heaters. For wide web application in which uniformity across the web is essential, traversing sensors can be used to scan the web to ensure a uniform heating of the product. This information then can be used to control infrared profiling zones which are positioned across the web. In plastics applications, the thermometer most commonly is positioned also at the exit end of the infrared unit. Control functions are similar to those just listed. In some indexing machines, the plastic is sensed while still in the last index station, and the index an be initiated by the thermometer

  10. [Breaking Bad News to Cancer Patients: Content, Communication Preferences and Psychological Distress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Gorba, Claudia; Oechsle, Karin; Vehling, Sigrun; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Breaking bad news can be a very distressing situation for both patients and physicians. Physician communication behavior should therefore match patients' communication preferences. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of bad news from the patients' perspective. Patients' preferences for communication of bad news as well as the fit to communication behavior displayed by physicians were also investigated. Finally, consequences of a mismatch between patients' preferences and physician communication were investigated in relation to psychological distress in patients. Methods The sample consisted of N=270 cancer patients (mean age=56.8 years, 48% female) with various cancer entities and different stages of disease (n=115 patients with early stage of cancer, n=155 patients with advanced cancer). The content of bad news was assessed with a specifically developed list of questions. The Measure of Patients' Preferences Scale (MPP) was used to assess patients' preferences for communication of bad news. Patients further completed the NCCN Distress Thermometer (cancer specific distress), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS- anxiety and depression) and the Demoralization Scale (DS-Scale) to gain information about psychological distress. Results Patients with early stage breast cancer received bad news M=1.6 times (SD=1.1, range: 1-5), patients with advanced cancers M=2.1 times (SD=1.6, range: 1-12). For 77% of early stage cancer patients and 70% of advanced cancer patients, the subjectively worst consultation was receiving the diagnosis and discussing treatment options. Patients' most important communication preferences were physicians' clinical competence and patient-centered communication, clear and direct communication and asking about patients information preferences. Patients in advanced stages report significantly more (29%) unmet communication needs than patients' in early stages (20%; pbad news without considering patients

  11. Problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent communication, dyadic functioning, and distress among adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Adrienne; Taggi-Pinto, Alison; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Alderfer, Melissa A; Devine, Katie A

    2018-05-01

    Some adolescents with cancer report distress and unmet needs. Guided by the disability-stress-coping model, we evaluated associations among problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent cancer-related communication, parent-adolescent dyadic functioning, and distress in adolescents with cancer. Thirty-nine adolescent-parent dyads completed measures of these constructs. Adolescents were 14-20 years old on treatment or within 1 year of completing treatment. Better problem-solving skills were correlated with lower adolescent distress (r = -0.70, P communication problems and dyadic functioning were not significantly related to adolescent distress (rs < 0.18). Future work should examine use of problem-solving interventions to decrease distress for adolescents with cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relationship between self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress in individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Escudero-Pérez, S; Barros-Albarrán, M D; López-Jiménez, A M; Perona-Garcelán, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress caused by the voices in psychiatric patients. Fifty-one individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis participated in this study. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) emotional factor was applied to measure the distress caused by the voices, the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS) was given for measuring the levels of self-focused attention, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. The results showed that distress caused by the voices correlated positively with self-focused attention (private and public) and negatively with mindfulness. A negative correlation was also found between mindfulness and self-focused attention (private and public). Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that public self-focus was the only factor predicting distress caused by the voices. Intervention directed at diminishing public self-focused attention and increasing mindfulness could improve distress caused by the voices.

  13. The effect of a communicational program on psychological distress in the elderly suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Hejazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is one of the most common psychological symptoms in elderly cancer patients. However, many of these patients do not receive any treatment for distress management. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of a communication program on the psychological distress of elderly cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This two-group clinical trial with a before and after design was conducted in Al-Zahra and Seyed-Al-Shohada hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 64 elderly patients were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control groups. A 3-week intervention (communicational program consisting of distributing educational booklets, practices, and phone follow-ups was performed for the intervention group. All sessions were held during the 3-week period with sessions held twice per week both in the form of personal attendance and phone tracking, and the patients were encouraged to do the tasks assigned to them. The control group received routine care, and at the end of the study, the content of the sessions was explained to them. The demographic and clinical data of the participants were recorded, and all participants completed Kessler's Psychological Distress inventory at baseline and at the end of the 3-week intervention. Results: We found a significant difference in the psychological distress scores between the two groups before and after the intervention (P < 0.001, independent t-test. Moreover, the mean psychological distress scores decreased significantly in the experimental group after the intervention (P < 0.001, paired t-test. Conclusions: Our communicational program had a positive effect on psychological distress in elderly patients with cancer. Therefore, this program could be used as an easy, cheap, and practical approach for reducing psychological distress in these patients.

  14. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  16. The effect of detecting undetected common mental disorders on psychological distress and quality of life in long-term sickness absence: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life.......The burden imposed by common mental disorders on individuals and society calls for interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving quality of life....

  17. Is Overall Mortality the Right Composite Endpoint in Clinical Trials of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Jesús; Martínez, Domingo; Mosteiro, Fernando; Ambrós, Alfonso; Añón, José M; Ferrando, Carlos; Soler, Juan A; Montiel, Raquel; Vidal, Anxela; Conesa-Cayuela, Luís A; Blanco, Jesús; Arrojo, Regina; Solano, Rosario; Capilla, Lucía; Del Campo, Rafael; Civantos, Belén; Fernández, María Mar; Aldecoa, César; Parra, Laura; Gutiérrez, Andrea; Martínez-Jiménez, Chanel; González-Martín, Jesús M; Fernández, Rosa L; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2018-06-01

    Overall mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a composite endpoint because it includes death from multiple causes. In most acute respiratory distress syndrome trials, it is unknown whether reported deaths are due to acute respiratory distress syndrome or the underlying disease, unrelated to the specific intervention tested. We investigated the causes of death after contracting acute respiratory distress syndrome in a large cohort. A secondary analysis from three prospective, multicenter, observational studies. A network of multidisciplinary ICUs. We studied 778 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with lung-protective ventilation. None. We examined death in the ICU from individual causes. Overall ICU mortality was 38.8% (95% CI, 35.4-42.3). Causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome modified the risk of death. Twenty-three percent of deaths occurred from refractory hypoxemia due to nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome. Most patients died from causes unrelated to acute respiratory distress syndrome: 48.7% of nonsurvivors died from multisystem organ failure, and cancer or brain injury was involved in 37.1% of deaths. When quantifying the true burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome, we identified 506 patients (65.0%) with one or more exclusion criteria for enrollment into current interventional trials. Overall ICU mortality of the "trial cohort" (21.3%) was markedly lower than the parent cohort (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43-0.70; p respiratory distress syndrome patients are not directly related to lung damage but to extrapulmonary multisystem organ failure. It would be challenging to prove that specific lung-directed therapies have an effect on overall survival.

  18. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  19. Why Do Distressed Firms Acquire?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Zhang (Quxian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAcquisitions made by distressed firms in recent years are economically important. This paper explores the rationale behind such acquisitions using a natural experiment. Exploiting a recent tax change which reduces debt restructuring costs for certain creditors and decreases bankruptcy

  20. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  1. "It's a Burden You Carry": Describing Moral Distress in Emergency Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lisa A; Perhats, Cydne; Delao, Altair M; Moon, Michael D; Clark, Paul R; Zavotsky, Kathleen E

    2016-01-01

    Moral distress in nursing has been studied in many settings, but there is a paucity of research on moral distress as it manifests in the emergency department. One study suggests a correlation between moral distress and aspects of burnout, and other researchers report that nurses have considered leaving their position or even their profession because of moral distress. Further exploration of these issues may provide insight into their effects on ED patient care and the emergency nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of moral distress as it is experienced and described by emergency nurses. A qualitative, exploratory design was employed using semi-structured focus groups for data collection. Using an iterative process, transcripts were analyzed for emerging themes by the research team. Six researchers analyzed the transcripts using a thematic analysis approach. Themes from the data included dysfunctional practice arena, being overwhelmed, and adaptive/maladaptive coping. Participants described, overall, a profound feeling of not being able to provide patient care as they wanted to. Causes of moral distress in emergency nurses are environment driven, not incident driven, as is described in other settings, and include a high-acuity, high-demand, technical environment with insufficient resources. Interventions should be targeted to improve environmental factors that contribute to the moral distress of emergency nurses. Future research should focus on the development and validation of an instrument to measure moral distress in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relational health, alexithymia, and psychological distress in college women: testing a mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; West, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Relational health refers to interpersonal interactions that are growth-fostering or mutually empathic and empowering. Poor relational health increases an individual's risk for developing psychological distress. Alexithymia is the inability to recognize and express one's own internal emotional experience. In this study, the associations of relational health, psychological distress, and alexithymia were examined by surveying 197 female undergraduate psychology students. Support was found for the hypothesis that alexithymic symptoms mediate the direct effect of poor relational health on psychological distress. The importance of assessing relational health and tailoring counseling interventions for people with low relational health and alexithymic symptoms is discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  3. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  4. Psychosocial Distress in Bladder Cancer Stratified by Gender, Age, Treatment, and Tumour Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Désirée Louise; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Hakenberg, Oliver W

    2018-05-14

    Cancer patients have to cope with anxieties -concerning their prognosis, potential recurrence/progression, and treatment-associated sequelae. Stress-related psychosocial factors influence survival and disease-related mortality in cancer patients. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, bladder cancer (BC) remains characterized by high rates of recurrence and progression. We screened -pre-therapeutically the stress level of BC patients stratified by gender, disease state, treatment, and other factors by -self-administered validated questionnaires to integrate them into psychosocial support as needed. A cross-sectional analysis of distress and need of psychosocial care was done in 301 patients undergoing treatment for BC by 2 questionnaires (Distress Thermometer [DT] and Hornheider Screening Instrument). Of the 301 patients, 230 patients underwent transurethral resection for a first -diagnosis, 63 for recurrent disease, 37 had progressive disease, and 25 had advanced metastatic disease and eventually died of BC. The mean stress level in all patients was 4.6. Twenty-eight percent of the patients expressed a need for psychosocial support. In patients with progressive disease, significantly higher stress scores were seen as well as a higher need of psychosocial care (5.4 and 41%). The median DT-level of 4.6 indicates moderate psychosocial stress in BC patients. From a stress level of 5, the recommendations of a psycho-oncological supervision are pronounced, so that our study showed that early systematic evaluation of psychosocial needs in BC patients is important. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  6. Association between age, distress, and orientations to happiness in individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Müller, Rachel; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ipsen, Catherine; Ravesloot, Craig

    2015-02-01

    To determine how age and distress are associated in individuals with disabilities, and how happiness and its components (meaning, pleasure, and engagement) mediate or moderate this relationship. These were cross-sectional analyses of survey data from 508 community-dwelling adults with a variety of self-reported health conditions and functional disabilities. Measures included the Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire and items from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System. Greater distress was associated with lower global happiness in both mediation and moderation models. The mediation model showed that middle-aged participants (age: 45-64) scored lowest in global happiness, and the effect of age on distress was partially mediated by happiness. None of the happiness components mediated the relationship of age on distress. The moderation model showed a significant interaction effect for age and global happiness on distress, where younger participants low on happiness were significantly more distressed. Of the three happiness components, only meaning was significantly associated with distress. There was a significant interaction between age and meaning, where participants who were younger and scored low on the meaning scale reported significantly higher distress. Findings from this study lay groundwork for the development of clinical interventions to address distress in individuals with functional disabilities. Middle-aged and younger people with disabilities may be particularly affected by lower levels of happiness and might benefit from psychological interventions that focus on increasing overall well-being and providing meaning and purpose in life. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Industry specific financial distress modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Sayari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates uncertainty levels of various industries and tries to determine financial ratios having the greatest information content in determining the set of industry characteristics. It then uses these ratios to develop industry specific financial distress models. First, we employ factor analysis to determine the set of ratios that are most informative in specified industries. Second, we use a method based on the concept of entropy to measure the level of uncertainty in industries and also to single out the ratios that best reflect the uncertainty levels in specific industries. Finally, we conduct a logistic regression analysis and derive industry specific financial distress models which can be used to judge the predictive ability of selected financial ratios for each industry. The results show that financial ratios do indeed echo industry characteristics and that information content of specific ratios varies among different industries. Our findings show diverging impact of industry characteristics on companies; and thus the necessity of constructing industry specific financial distress models.

  8. Bilateral Comparison of Mercury and Gallium Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdić, D.; Drnovšek, J.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

  9. Magnetic Nanoparticle Thermometer: An Investigation of Minimum Error Transmission Path and AC Bias Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhou Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias, was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method.

  10. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Song; Wenyuan, Li

    2014-06-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW.

  11. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijun; Li Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Design of a temperature measurement and feedback control system based on an improved magnetic nanoparticle thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongzhou; Sun, Yi; Liu, Jie; Su, Rijian; Yang, Ming; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong; Ye, Na

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia, as a novel cancer treatment, requires precise temperature control at 315 K-319 K (42 °C-46 °C). However, the traditional temperature measurement method cannot obtain the real-time temperature in vivo, resulting in a lack of temperature feedback during the heating process. In this study, the feasibility of temperature measurement and feedback control using magnetic nanoparticles is proposed and demonstrated. This technique could be applied in hyperthermia. Specifically, the triangular-wave temperature measurement method is improved by reconstructing the original magnetization response of magnetic nanoparticles based on a digital phase-sensitive detection algorithm. The standard deviation of the temperature in the magnetic nanoparticle thermometer is about 0.1256 K. In experiments, the temperature fluctuation of the temperature measurement and feedback control system using magnetic nanoparticles is less than 0.5 K at the expected temperature of 315 K. This shows the feasibility of the temperature measurement method for temperature control. The method provides a new solution for temperature measurement and feedback control in hyperthermia.

  13. Distress improves after mindfulness training for progressive MS: A pilot randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogosian, A; Chadwick, P; Windgassen, S; Norton, S; McCrone, P; Mosweu, I; Silber, E; Moss-Morris, R

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to effectively reduce anxiety, depression and pain in patients with chronic physical illnesses. We assessed the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specially adapted Skype distant-delivered mindfulness intervention, designed to reduce distress for people affected by primary and secondary progressive MS. Forty participants were randomly assigned to the eight-week intervention (n = 19) or a waiting-list control group (n = 21). Participants completed standardised questionnaires to measure mood, impact of MS and symptom severity, quality of life and service costs at baseline, post-intervention and three-month follow-up. Distress scores were lower in the intervention group compared with the control group at post-intervention and follow-up (p Skype video conferences appears accessible, feasible and potentially effective and cost-effective for people with progressive MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  14. Mindfulness and parenting distress among parents of children with disabilities: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for management of parenting distress in parents of children with disabilities. A narrative review was conducted. A search protocol was conducted using Google Scholar, EBSCO, Pubmed, CINAHL, Ovid, and PsycINFO databases up to September 1, 2016. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including MBIs and combined mindfulness and other interventions. Targeted outcomes included in this review were parenting stress and psychological distress. Most of the reviewed papers reported positive role of MBIs to manage parenting distress. The results of this first review on the topic provide preliminary support for the efficacy of MBIs for supporting parents of children with disabilities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Is Seeing Believing? The Process of Change During Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for Distressing Visual Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rea; Collerton, Daniel; Freeston, Mark; Christodoulides, Thomas; Dudley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    People with psychosis often report distressing visual hallucinations (VH). In contrast to auditory hallucinations, there is little empirical evidence on effective interventions. The effectiveness of a novel-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for VH was explored using a multiple baseline single case design with four participants. Change to individual appraisals, emotional and behavioural responses to VH were measured with daily diaries kept throughout the baseline and intervention phase lasting up to 16 sessions. Maintenance of change was tracked during a follow-up period of one month. Changes in appraisals, distress and response in accordance with the theory was evident in two out of four of the cases. However, change occurred within the baseline phase that limited the conclusions that change could be attributed to CBT alone. There was some evidence of clinically significant change and reliable change for two out of four of the cases at follow-up on one of the standardized psychiatric assessments. The research reported here has theoretical and clinical implications for refinement of the model and interventions for distressing VH. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Distressing visual hallucinations (VH) are a relatively common symptom of psychosis. Visual hallucinations seem to be associated with greater impairment and disability. We have no specific treatment for VH. The appraisal of the visual experience and the behavioural response is important in maintaining the distress. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for VH at present has limited value. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Psychological distress and the asylum process: a longitudinal study of forced migrants in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dermot A; Benson, Ciarán A; Dooley, Barbara A

    2008-01-01

    Although asylum seeking has become a major political issue in the Western world, research on its psychological impact is still in its infancy. This study examined levels and predictors of distress among a community sample of persons who have sought asylum in Ireland. A key aim was to provide a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between legal status security and psychological distress. Distress was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised at Time 1 (N = 162) and its shorter version (the Brief Symptom Inventory) at Time 2 (N = 70). Levels of severe distress were high at both baseline (46%) and follow-up (36%). The only persons to show a decrease in distress were those who had obtained a secure legal status (e.g., refugee status or residency) between the study phases. Distress risk factors included female gender, an insecure legal status, separation from children, discrimination, and postmigration stress. Protective factors were social support (Time 1) and the presence of a partner. The findings suggest that asylum seekers are a high-risk group for distress. This risk can be reduced by appropriate policy changes and interventions to increase social resources.

  17. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  18. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thirst distress and interdialytic weight gain: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.

  20. Mothers' Psychological Distress and Feeding of Their Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Estrem, Hayley; Pados, Britt F; Knafl, George J; Brandon, Debra

    To examine the change in psychological distress of mothers of preterm infants and its association with maternal feeding behaviors as the infant transitions to full oral feeding. This descriptive exploratory study used a subset of data from a study of the effects of a coregulated feeding intervention for 34 mothers and hospitalized preterm infants in a Level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal psychological distress was measured by maternal worry (Child Health Worry Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiology-Depression Scale), and role stress (Parental Stress Scale: NICU-Role Alteration) at three time points: within 1 week prior to the first oral feeding (T1), and at achievement of half (T2) and full oral feeding (T3). Feedings were videotaped at T2 and T3. An observational coding system measured maternal feeding behaviors. Linear mixed modeling evaluated the change in maternal psychological distress and its association with mothers' feeding behaviors as the infant transitioned to full oral feeding. Maternal depressive symptoms were highest at T1 and declined over time. Maternal worry and role stress were also highest at T1 but remained stable from T2 to T3. Increased maternal psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms and role stress, were associated with less use of developmentally supportive feeding behaviors, that is, minimizing tactile stimulation, providing steady touch to contain or stabilize the infant, and regulating milk flow. Supporting maternal psychological well-being while infants are learning to feed orally may be an appropriate target for interventions to support mother-infant early feeding interactions.

  1. Perceptions of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Coping Predict Emotional Distress During the Acute Phase After Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliousis, Michael; Rennoldson, Michael; Dawson, David L; Mills, Jayne; das Nair, Roshan

    2017-01-01

    To test whether a widely used model of adjustment to illness, the self-regulatory model, explains the patterns of distress during acute hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). According to the model, perceptions of HSCT, coping, and coping appraisals are associated with distress.
. Longitudinal, correlational.
. The Centre for Clinical Haematology at Nottingham City Hospital and the Department of Haematology at Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, both in the United Kingdom.
. 45 patients receiving mostly autologous transplantations for a hematologic malignancy.
. Patients were assessed at baseline, on transplantation day, and two and four weeks after transplantation using three questionnaires. Psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, stress, and overall distress (DASS-21); use of different coping styles (Brief COPE); and perceptions of HSCT and coping appraisals (Brief IPQ).
. As suggested by the self-regulatory model, greater distress was associated with negative perceptions of HSCT, controlling for the effects of confounding variables. Mixed support was found for the model's predictions about the impact of coping styles on distress. Use of active and avoidant coping styles was associated with more distress during the acute phase after HSCT.
. Negative perceptions of HSCT and coping contribute to psychological distress during the acute phase after HSCT and suggest the basis for intervention.
. Eliciting and discussing patients' negative perceptions of HSCT beforehand and supporting helpful coping may be important ways to reduce distress during HSCT.

  2. [Factors associated with psychological distress among military police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates factors associated with psychological distress among military police (n = 1,120) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article describes their social, economic, and demographic characteristics, quality of life, mental health, and work conditions. Measurement of psychological distress used the Self-Reported Questionnaire. Analysis of associations used logistic regression, considering factors associated with psychological distress. The results indicate an association between psychological distress and factors such as ability to react to difficult situations, dissatisfaction with life, health problems (especially digestive, nervous, and musculoskeletal symptoms), and adverse work conditions such as excessive workload, constant stress, and victimization. The article concludes by highlighting the need for health promotion interventions for the military police, focusing especially on their mental health.

  3. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented.

  4. Application of radcal gamma thermometer assemblies for coolant monitoring in Ringhals W-PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Romslo, K.; Moen, Oe.

    1982-07-01

    A study has been carried out investigating how Radcal Gamma Thermometers (RGTs) can be used for coolant inventory and core cooling monitoring in the Ringhals Westinghouse PWRs. The study concludes that two types of RGT rods would be required to come up with a complete solution covering both coolant inventory and core cooling monitoring. Above-core RGT rods will be installed in the guide tubes housing the outlet thermocouples. The Above-Core RGT rod is designed with 8 sensors where 4 are located in the upper head and 4 in the plenum. This rod will give an early warning about loss of coolant or void formation in the space from top of fuel to the reactor lid. A ninth thermocouple in this rod will measure the core outlet temperature as did the thermocouple the RGT rod replaced. The Above-Core RGT rods will give an early warning about approach to Inadequate Core Cooling (ICC) by measuring the collapsed water level inside the thermocouple guide tube. Four such rods are recommended per reactor. In-Core RGT rods are inserted from the seal table. These rods will give the information required for intelligent accident management in case ICC has developed. The signals obtainable from the rods will give direct information about fuel decay heat, core heat transfer conditions, core temperature and core coolant water level. The In-Core RGT rods can be used for local power monitoring during normal operation. Such a system can be shown to be economically motivated from a reactor operation point of view due to increased sensor lifetime, more accurate local power measurements, simpler physics corrections to signals, lower exposure to maintenance personnel. The signal transmission to the control room has been discussed, and ways have been indicated for presenting the information available to the operators. (Authors)

  5. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J. [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas LLC, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmingtonm, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@ge.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  6. The workings of a molecular thermometer: the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Polly B; Matus, Kira J M; Stratt, Richard M

    2004-09-15

    An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. It turned out to be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachloride's modes following initial excitation of O-H and C-H stretches in methanol, in effect making those CCl(4) modes "molecular thermometers" reporting on methanol's relaxation. In this paper, we use the example of a CCl(4) molecule dissolved in liquid argon to examine, on a microscopic level, just how this kind of thermal activation occurs in liquid solutions. The fact that even the lowest CCl(4) mode has a relatively high frequency compared to the intermolecular vibrational band of the solvent means that the only solute-solvent dynamics relevant to the vibrational energy transfer will be extraordinarily local, so much so that it is only the force between the instantaneously most prominent Cl and solvent atoms that will significantly contribute to the vibrational friction. We use this observation, within the context of a classical instantaneous-pair Landau-Teller calculation, to show that energy flows into CCl(4) primarily via one component of the nominally degenerate, lowest frequency, E mode and does so fast enough to make CCl(4) an excellent choice for monitoring methanol relaxation. Remarkably, within this theory, the different symmetries and appearances of the different CCl(4) modes have little bearing on how well they take up energy from their surroundings--it is only how high their vibrational frequencies are relative to the solvent intermolecular vibrational band edge that substantially favors one mode over another.

  7. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J.; Avila N, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  8. Staff Distress Improves by Treating Pain in Nursing Home Patients With Dementia: Results From a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasmul, Irene; Husebo, Bettina Sandgathe; Flo, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    Most people with dementia develop neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs), which are distressing for their carers. Untreated pain may increase the prevalence and severity of NPSs and thereby staff burden. We investigated the association between NPSs and the impact of individual pain treatment on distress in nursing home staff. Nursing home (NH) units were cluster-randomized to an intervention group (33 NH units; n = 175) or control group (27 NH units; n = 177). Patients in the intervention group received individual pain treatment for eight weeks, followed by a four-week washout period; control groups received care as usual. Staff informants (n = 138) used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-NH version (including caregiver distress) as primary outcome to assess their own distress. Other outcomes were pain (Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia-2 Pain Scale) and cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination). Using hierarchical regression analysis, all NPS items at baseline were associated with staff distress (P pain treatment reduced staff distress in the intervention group compared to control group especially in regard to agitation-related symptoms and apathy. Furthermore, our results indicated a multifactorial model of staff distress, in which enhanced knowledge and understanding of NPSs and pain in people with advanced dementia may play an important role. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mind-Body Skills Training to Improve Distress Tolerance in Medical Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian

    2016-01-01

    Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with

  11. A Field Assessment of a Prototype Meter for Measuring the Wet-Bulb Globe-Thermometer Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    A prototype electronic instrument for the direct measurement of the wet-bulb globe-thermometer index is described. An assessment is made of its accuracy, as compared with W.B.G.T. indices calculated from conventional thermometric data, and a comparison is made between W.B.G.T. values read from the meter and effective or corrected effective temperatures derived from separate thermometric and air velocity recording instruments in the same climates. The instrument proved to be reliable and accurate over a wide range of climates and is a useful self-contained device for use in habitability surveys and similar investigations. Images PMID:5663429

  12. Screening for risk of cardiovascular disease is not associated with mental distress: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Ladelund, Steen; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before scre...... reached the pre-screening level (except for anxiety). CONCLUSION: Screening for risk of cardiovascular disease followed by health counselling does not give rise to mental distress, but has a temporary beneficial effect.......OBJECTIVE: To analyze mental distress in relation to participation in lifestyle intervention. METHODS: In 2000-2001 a total of 1948 consecutive participants, living in the suburbs of Copenhagen, were asked to complete a short version of SCL-90-R (anxiety, depression, and somatization) before...

  13. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  14. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  15. Social Context of Depressive Distress in Aging Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and mental health in aging transgender adults. Survey responses from 61 transgender adults above 50 ( M age = 57.7, SD = 5.8; 77.1% male-to-female; 78.7% White non-Hispanic) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relationship between gender- and age-related discrimination, number of everyday discrimination experiences, and past-week depressive distress, adjusting for social support, sociodemographics, and other forms of discrimination. The most commonly attributed reasons for experiencing discrimination were related to gender (80.3%) and age (34.4%). More than half of participants (55.5%) met criteria for past-week depressive distress. In an adjusted multivariable model, gender-related discrimination and a greater number of everyday discrimination experiences were associated with increased odds of past-week depressive distress. Additional research is needed to understand the effects of aging and gender identity on depressive symptoms and develop interventions to safeguard the mental health of this vulnerable aging population.

  16. Social Context of Depressive Distress in Aging Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Reisner, Sari L.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and mental health in aging transgender adults. Survey responses from 61 transgender adults above 50 (Mage = 57.7, SD = 5.8; 77.1% male-to-female; 78.7% White non-Hispanic) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relationship between gender- and age-related discrimination, number of everyday discrimination experiences, and past-week depressive distress, adjusting for social support, sociodemographics, and other forms of discrimination. The most commonly attributed reasons for experiencing discrimination were related to gender (80.3%) and age (34.4%). More than half of participants (55.5%) met criteria for past-week depressive distress. In an adjusted multivariable model, gender-related discrimination and a greater number of everyday discrimination experiences were associated with increased odds of past-week depressive distress. Additional research is needed to understand the effects of aging and gender identity on depressive symptoms and develop interventions to safeguard the mental health of this vulnerable aging population. PMID:28380703

  17. Financial distress in Brazilian banks: an early warning model,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to propose an early warning model for predicting financial distress events in Brazilian banking institutions. Initially, a set of economic-financial indicators is evaluated, suggested by the risk management literature for identifying situations of bank insolvency and exclusively taking public information into account. For this, multivariate logistic regressions are performed, using as independent variables financial indicators involving capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earnings, and liquidity. The empirical analysis was based on a sample of 142 financial institutions, including privately and publicly held and state-owned companies, using monthly data from 2006 to 2014, which resulted in panel data with 12,136 observations. In the sample window there were nine cases of Brazilian Central Bank intervention or mergers and acquisitions motivated by financial distress. The results were evaluated based on the estimation of the in-sample parameters, out-of-sample tests, and the early warning model signs for a 12-month forecast horizon. These obtained true positive rates of 81%, 94%, and 89%, respectively. We conclude that typical balance-sheet indicators are relevant for the early warning signs of financial distress in Brazilian banks, which contributes to the literature on financial intermediary credit risk, especially from the perspective of bank supervisory agencies acting towards financial stability.

  18. Diabetes Distress Among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Sturt, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    with type 1 diabetes: the prevalence of DD; demographic, clinical, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of DD and interventions that reduce DD. Consistent with adult studies, around one third of adolescents experience elevated DD and this is frequently associated with suboptimal glycemic control, low self......Diabetes distress (DD) refers to the negative emotions arising from living with diabetes and the burden of self-management. Among adults, the prevalence and significance of DD are well established, but this is not the case among adolescents. This systematic review investigated among adolescents...

  19. Reasons for Distress Among Burn Survivors at 6, 12, and 24 Months Postdischarge: A Burn Injury Model System Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechman, Shelley A; McMullen, Kara; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Fauerbach, Jame A; Ryan, Colleen M; Herndon, David N; Holavanahalli, Radha; Gibran, Nicole S; Roaten, Kimberly

    2017-12-16

    To identify important sources of distress among burn survivors at discharge and 6, 12, and 24 months postinjury, and to examine if the distress related to these sources changed over time. Exploratory. Outpatient burn clinics in 4 sites across the country. Participants who met preestablished criteria for having a major burn injury (N=1009) were enrolled in this multisite study. Participants were given a previously developed list of 12 sources of distress among burn survivors and asked to rate on a 10-point Likert-type scale (0=no distress to 10=high distress) how much distress each of the 12 issues was causing them at the time of each follow-up. The Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey was administered at each time point as a measure of health-related quality of life. The Satisfaction With Appearance Scale was used to understand the relation between sources of distress and body image. Finally, whether a person returned to work was used to determine the effect of sources of distress on returning to employment. It was encouraging that no symptoms were worsening at 2 years. However, financial concerns and long recovery time are 2 of the highest means at all time points. Pain and sleep disturbance had the biggest effect on ability to return to work. These findings can be used to inform burn-specific interventions and to give survivors an understanding of the temporal trajectory for various causes of distress. In particular, it appears that interventions targeted at sleep disturbance and high pain levels can potentially effect distress over financial concerns by allowing a person to return to work more quickly. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  1. Piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina

    2012-06-13

    Piracetam is thought to promote the metabolism of brain cells when they are hypoxic. It has been used to prevent adverse effects of fetal distress. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of piracetam for suspected fetal distress in labour on method of delivery and perinatal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 February 2012). Randomised trials of piracetam compared with placebo or no treatment for suspected fetal distress in labour. Both review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality. One study of 96 women was included. Piracetam compared with placebo was associated with a trend to reduced need for caesarean section (risk ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the piracetam and placebo group for neonatal morbidity (measured by neonatal respiratory distress) or Apgar score. There is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of piracetam for fetal distress in labour.

  2. Liquidity Risk and Distressed Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medhat, Mamdouh

    I show theoretically and empirically that cash holdings can help rationalize the low returns to distressed equity. In my model, levered firms with financing constraints optimally choose their cash holdings to eliminate liquidity risk and optimally default when insolvent. Using data on solvency......, liquidity, and returns for US firms, I find evidence consistent with the model’s predictions: (1) In all solvency levels, the average firm holds enough liquid assets to cover its short-term liabilities; less solvent firms have (2) a higher fraction of their total assets in liquid assets and therefore (3......) lower conditional betas and (4) lower returns; (5) the profits of long-short solvency strategies are highest among firms with low liquidity; and (6) the profits of long-short liquidity strategies are highest among firms with low solvency....

  3. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  4. Assessing the Consumer Food Environment in Restaurants by Neighbourhood Distress Level across Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-03-01

    To assess the consumer food environment in restaurants in Saskatoon, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R), to examine differences by neighbourhood distress level and to reflect on the need for further refinement of the assessment of restaurant consumer food environments. Neighbourhoods were classified as low, middle, or high distress level based on the socioeconomic indicators (income, employment, and education) in the Material Deprivation Index. Differences in restaurant consumer food environments, indicated by mean NEMS-R total and sub-scores, were examined by various restaurant categories and by varying neighbourhood distress levels. Chain coffee shops and pita and sandwich restaurants had higher NEMS-R totals and "Healthy Entrées" sub-scores; however, burger and chicken restaurants and pizza restaurants had more barriers to healthful eating. Although restaurants in lower distress level neighbourhoods generally rated healthier (higher NEMS-R scores), only a few measures (such as "Facilitators" and "Barriers") significantly differed by neighbourhood distress level. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions to improve restaurant consumer food environments, especially in neighbourhoods with higher distress levels. The results suggest that reliable measures of the consumer food environment could be developed beginning with what can be measured by NEMS-R.

  5. Metacognitive self-reflectivity moderates the relationship between distress tolerance and empathy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    Deficits in empathy seen in schizophrenia are thought to play a major role in the social dysfunction seen in the disorder. However, little work has investigated potential determinants of empathic deficits. This study aimed to fill that gap by examining the effects of two variables on empathy - distress tolerance and metacognitive self-reflectivity. Fifty-four people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders receiving services at an urban VA or community mental health center were assessed for empathy, metacognition, and distress tolerance. Bivariate correlations and moderation methods were used to ascertain associations amongst these variables and examine interactions. Results revealed that, against hypotheses, empathy was not related at the bivariate level to either distress tolerance or metacognitive self-reflectivity. However, consistent with hypotheses, moderation analyses revealed that participants with higher self-reflectivity showed no relationship between distress tolerance and empathy, while those with lower self-reflectivity showed a relationship such that reduced ability to tolerate distress predicted reduced empathy. Taken together, results of this study suggest that lack of distress tolerance can negatively affect empathy in people with schizophrenia with lesser capacity for metacognitive self-reflection; thus, fostering self-reflectivity may help overcome that negative impact. Future work is needed investigating the impact of metacognitively-tailored interventions on empathy in this population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Psychological Flexibility as a Buffer against Caregiver Distress in Families with Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Jansen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that caregivers of persons with psychosis play an invaluable role in recovery, but unfortunately, often report high levels of distress. While cognitive models of caregiver distress have been well-supported, there is still limited knowledge of the psychological factors involved. Recent advances in cognitive behavioral therapy seem to converge on the importance of acceptance- and mindfulness based processes.Aim: To examine the impact of psychological flexibility on caregiver distress in the early phases of psychosis, while controlling for known predictors of caregiver distress.Method: Within a cross-sectional design, 101 caregivers of 38 persons with first-episode psychosis in a clinical epidemiological sample completed a series of self-report measures.Results: A linear mixed model analysis found that, after controlling for caregiver socio-demographic factors, service user symptoms, drug use and global functioning, psychological flexibility was a significant predictor of caregiver distress.Conclusion: Greater level of psychological flexibility in caregivers, seems to be related to lower levels of caregiver distress. This finding corresponds to studies within a broad range of emotional disorders. There may be important clinical implications in terms of facilitating the process of acceptance through interventions from the ‘third-wave’ or contextual cognitive behavioral therapies.

  7. Psychological distress in young adults exposed to war-related trauma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabre, Maria M; Hadi, Fawzyiah; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S

    2015-01-01

    We tested a conceptual model of the effect of war-trauma exposure in childhood on psychological distress in young adulthood. Participants included 151 urban Kuwaiti children (51% female; M age = 10.62 years) exposed to the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis (assessed in 1993); participants also included 140 parents (81% female; M age mothers = 36.50 years; M age fathers = 41 years). In 2003, 120 participants were reassessed as young adults (50% female; M age = 21.19 years). The conceptual model was evaluated with structural equations. War-trauma exposure was associated with psychological distress in children and parents, but parents reported larger effects than children. Parents' psychological distress did not contribute to children's psychological distress. Children's psychological distress did not dissipate over time. Social support may function as a potential mediator of the effect of war-trauma exposure on psychological distress. Findings support the importance of early detection and treatment of children exposed to war trauma. Findings also implicate social support as a factor to consider in clinical interventions for children exposed to war trauma.

  8. Brief Report: Service Implementation and Maternal Distress Surrounding Evaluation Recommendations for Young Children Diagnosed with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary; Vehorn, Alison; Dohrmann, Elizabeth; Newsom, Cassandra; Taylor, Julie Lounds

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence surrounding the ability of families of children with autism spectrum disorders to access and implement recommended interventions following diagnosis. The distress a family may encounter with regard to inability to access recommended services is also poorly understood. In this study, we present preliminary data regarding…

  9. Practice variation in the management of intrapartum fetal distress in The Netherlands and the Western world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.M.; Moors, S.; Runnard Heimel, van P.J.; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M.B.; Oei, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Solid evidence on the effect of intrauterine resuscitation on neonatal outcome is limited, and superiority of one intervention over the others is not clear. We therefore surveyed the clinical practice variation in fetal monitoring and the management of fetal distress during labor, in

  10. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  11. Psychosexual distress in women with gynecologic cancer: a feasibility study of an online support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Catherine C; Chivers, Meredith L; Urowitz, Sara; Barbera, Lisa; Wiljer, David; O'Rinn, Susan; Ferguson, Sarah E

    2013-04-01

    The psychosexual concerns of gynecologic cancer patients are often unaddressed and there are limited resources available for women to deal with this highly sensitive topic. This feasibility study examines the participation rates and preliminary outcomes for an online support group designed specifically for women who are sexually distressed subsequent to gynecologic cancer treatment A 12-week online intervention was developed to address the psychosexual impact of gynecologic cancer. This intervention included a professionally moderated, asynchronous discussion forum as well as the provision of psycho-educational materials addressing the psychosexual impact of gynecologic cancer. Each week, a new topic was introduced and relevant material was posted on the website. Women were encouraged to share their experiences related to the topic. Twenty-seven, sexually distressed, remitted gynecologic cancer patients were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or a waitlist control condition. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 4-month and 8-month follow-ups assessing sexual distress as the primary outcome as well as anxiety, depression, and illness intrusiveness. Participation rates differed between the two groups, with greater participation occurring in the second group. Exit interviews indicated that the majority of the participants were satisfied with the intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses suggest a small effect for reduction in sexual distress This feasibility study suggests that women find this intervention acceptable. Further research is required to determine efficacy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The relationship between clinical indicators, coping styles, perceived support and diabetes-related distress among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Oftedal, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2012-02-01

    This article is a report of a cross-sectional study examining the degree to which clinical indicators, coping styles and perceived support from healthcare professionals and family are related to diabetes-related distress. Many people with type 2 diabetes experience high levels of distress stemming from concerns and worries associated with their disease. Diabetes-related distress has predominantly been studied in relation to diabetes management and metabolic control, and to some extent in relation to coping styles and perceived social support. To date, little is known about the relative contribution of clinical indicators, coping styles and perceptions of social support to perceived distress among people with type 2 diabetes. A sample comprising 425 Norwegian adults, aged 30-70, with type 2 diabetes, completed questionnaires assessing coping styles, perceived social support from health professionals and family and diabetes-related distress assessed by the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale. Demographical and clinical data were collected by self-report. Data were collected in October 2008.   Results from the regression analyses showed a greater variance in emotional distress accounted for by coping styles (21·3%) and perceived support (19·7%) than by clinical indicators (5·8%). FINDINGS may indicate that healthcare providers should pay more attention to non-clinical factors such as coping styles and social support, when addressing diabetes-related distress. They should also be aware that interventions based on psychosocial approaches may primarily influence distress, and not necessarily metabolic control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Family caregivers' attributions about care-recipient behaviour: does caregiver relationship satisfaction mediate the attribution-distress relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-09-01

    The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Application of Monte Carlo Method for Evaluation of Uncertainties of ITS-90 by Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenčár, Rudolf; Sopkuliak, Peter; Palenčár, Jakub; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Suroviak, Emil; Halaj, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of uncertainties of the temperature measurement by standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrated at the defining fixed points according to ITS-90 is a problem that can be solved in different ways. The paper presents a procedure based on the propagation of distributions using the Monte Carlo method. The procedure employs generation of pseudo-random numbers for the input variables of resistances at the defining fixed points, supposing the multivariate Gaussian distribution for input quantities. This allows taking into account the correlations among resistances at the defining fixed points. Assumption of Gaussian probability density function is acceptable, with respect to the several sources of uncertainties of resistances. In the case of uncorrelated resistances at the defining fixed points, the method is applicable to any probability density function. Validation of the law of propagation of uncertainty using the Monte Carlo method is presented on the example of specific data for 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer in the temperature range from 0 to 660 °C. Using this example, we demonstrate suitability of the method by validation of its results.

  15. Fabrication of a mini multi-fixed-point cell for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragay-Enot, Monalisa; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Yong-Gyoo

    2017-07-01

    A mini multi-fixed-point cell (length 118 mm, diameter 33 mm) containing three materials (In-Zn eutectic (mass fraction 3.8% Zn), Sn and Pb) in a single crucible was designed and fabricated for the easy and economical fixed-point calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) for use in industrial temperature measurements. The melting and freezing behaviors of the metals were investigated and the phase transition temperatures were determined using a commercial dry-block calibrator. Results showed that the melting plateaus are generally easy to realize and are reproducible, flatter and of longer duration. On the other hand, the freezing process is generally difficult, especially for Sn, due to the high supercooling required to initiate freezing. The observed melting temperatures at optimum set conditions were 143.11 °C (In-Zn), 231.70 °C (Sn) and 327.15 °C (Pb) with expanded uncertainties (k  = 2) of 0.12 °C, 0.10 °C and 0.13 °C, respectively. This multi-fixed-point cell can be treated as a sole reference temperature-generating system. Based on the results, the realization of melting points of the mini multi-fixed-point cell can be recommended for the direct calibration of IPRTs in industrial applications without the need for a reference thermometer.

  16. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keawprasert, T. [National Institute of Metrology Thailand, Pathum thani (Thailand); Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  17. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody

  18. The premarital communication roots of marital distress and divorce: the first five years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-06-01

    Using data from 210 couples who provided data across the first 5 years of marriage, we examined how premarital communication quality was related to divorce and later distress. The results showed that premarital observed negative and positive communication nearly reached significance as predictors of divorce, while self-reported negative communication was significantly associated with divorce. In terms of marital adjustment, we found that both premarital observed and self-reported negative premarital communication (but not observed positive communication) were associated with lower adjustment during the first 5 years of marriage. The most important questions addressed in this study pertain to how positive and negative dimensions of communication change over time and how these changes are related to being distressed or nondistressed after 5 years of marriage. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine the changes in communication over time that are so central to theories of the development of marital distress and for research-based interventions. We found that all couples showed decreases in negative communication over time, but the nondistressed group declined significantly more than the distressed group in negative communication, suggesting they are handling negative emotions better. Implications for future research on the development of relationship distress and for enhancing research-based couples' intervention programs are provided. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Developing a medical picture book for reducing venipuncture distress in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ying; Kuo, Hui-Chen; Lee, Hsui-Chuan; Yiin, Shuenn-Jiun

    2017-10-01

    Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress. The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book. The behavioural distress of the control and picture book groups were assessed before, during, and after the intervention by using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (OSBD-R). We created a 12-page picture book, Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted undergoing venipunctures, as a guide for vein injection and for facilitating positive venipuncture outcomes in preschool-aged children. Over time, the OSBD-R scores of the picture book group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P book be routinely read and used during venipunctures to decrease procedural distress in preschool-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Thermometer by optical fiber for ampacity studies in overhead transmission lines; Termometro a fibra optica para estudo da ampacidade em linhas de transmissao aereas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, L.C.G.; Kawase, L.R.; Silva Filho, J.I. da; Silva, J.M.M. da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Igarashi, A.Y. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This article suggests the utilization of thermometers constructed from optical fibers technology in overhead power transmission lines. This will help the studies in progress about the electric power systems ampacity. It also presents the advantages of using optical fibers instead of conventional thermometers. As an example, the fact that the optical fibers are dielectric and make possible the remote monitoring. It is also shown a possibility of introducing such measuring system in electric junctions where OPGW cables are used 4 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: liliana at fis.puc-rio.br

  1. Psychological distress and its correlates among dental students: a survey of 17 Colombian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy

    2013-06-26

    -level factors, variations in levels of distress paralleled specific transitional stages of the 5-year dental curriculum, providing opportunities for targeted interventions.

  2. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Hammad Raza; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Hussain, Akthar; Selmer, Randi; Ahlberg, Nora

    2006-07-10

    In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000-2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46%) and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38%) in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) was used as a measure of psychological distress. Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p < 0.005). The Pakistani immigrants also reported higher distress, mean HSCL score 1.53(1.48-1.59), compared to the ethnic Norwegians, HSCL score 1.30(1.29-1.30). The groups differed significantly (p < 0.005) with respect to social support and feeling of powerlessness, the Pakistanis reporting less support and more powerlessness. The expected difference in mean distress was reduced from 0.23 (0.19-0.29) to 0.07 (0.01-0.12) and 0.12 (0.07-0.18) when adjusted for socioeconomic and social support variables respectively. Adjusting for all these variables simultaneously, the difference in the distress level between the two groups was eliminated Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions

  3. Life after cancer: how does public stigma increase psychological distress of childhood cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee

    2014-12-01

    Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing need satisfaction to reduce psychological distress in Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Khabbaz, Farah; Legate, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    Becoming a refugee is a potent risk factor for indicators of psychological distress such as depression, generalized stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though research into this vulnerable population has been scant, with even less work focusing on interventions. The current study applied principles from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) to develop and test an intervention aimed at increasing need-satisfying experiences in refugees of Syrian civil unrest. Forty-one refugees who fled Syria during the past 24 months and resettled in Jordan participated in the study and were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or a neutral comparison. The 1-week-long intervention alleviated some of the need frustration likely associated with refugee status, a major aim of the intervention, and also lowered refugees' self-reported symptoms of depression and generalized stress as compared to the comparison condition, though it did not reduce symptoms of PTSD. Discussion focuses on how these findings speak to the universal importance of need satisfaction for mental health, and how need-satisfying experiences can help buffer against the profound stress of being a refugee. Avenues for longer-term or more intensive interventions that may target more severe outcomes of refugee experiences, such as PTSD symptoms, are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Female sexual distress in infertile Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. 
 Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.

  6. Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Katie L.; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Hong, L. Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Impaired tolerance to distress may help explain part of the cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia. This project investigated distress intolerance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) as compared to controls, and whether distress intolerance represented an independent domain in relationship to symptoms, cognition, and functional capacity. Healthy controls (n=43) and SZ (n=65) completed a psychological distress challenge experiment and their levels of intolerance to distress were estimated. SZ showed increased distress intolerance such that they were significantly more likely to terminate the distress challenge session early compared to controls. Greater distress intolerance was associated with reduced functional capacity and worse cognitive performance in SZ. Mediation analyses suggested that distress intolerance had an independent effect on functional capacity, while some of this effect was mediated by cognitive performance. Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient’s ability to tolerate distress. PMID:25107316

  7. Spiritual Distress in Bereavement: Evolution of a Research Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Burke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many mourners turn to their spiritual beliefs and traditions when confronted by the death of a loved one. However, prior studies have either focused primarily on the benefits of faith following loss or studied spiritual struggle outside the context of bereavement. Moreover, scales to measure bereavement-related crises of faith and interventions specifically designed for spiritually inclined, distressed grievers are virtually non-existent. Our program of research, which to date has consisted of working with Christian grievers and is outlined below, elucidates complicated spiritual grief (CSG—a spiritual crisis following the loss of a loved one. For example, our longitudinal examination of 46 African American homicide survivors established the relation between positive religious coping, CSG, and complicated grief (CG, to clarify whether religious coping more strongly predicted bereavement distress or vice versa, with a follow-up study that determined the relation between religious coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We replicated and expanded these findings with a diverse sample of 150 grievers to explore the complex relation between CSG, CG, and meaning making in a comparison study of mourners who had experienced traumatic-versus natural death losses. In a companion study, we qualitatively analyzed 84 grievers’ narratives and interviewed a 5-member focus group to capture and learn from their firsthand experiences of spiritual distress. To close the gap in terms of CSG assessment, we also developed and validated the Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG. Currently, our ongoing CSG investigation extends in several directions: first, to a sample of family members anticipating the loss of their hospice-eligible loved one in palliative care; and, second, to the development and testing of a writing-intensive intervention for newly bereaved, spiritually inclined grievers.

  8. The contribution of self-esteem and self-concept in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Vos, Joël; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2011-11-01

    Clarification of the role of several aspects of self-concept regarding psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer will help to target counselling and psychosocial interventions more appropriately. In this study, we aimed (1) to examine the role of general self-esteem and specific aspects of self-concept (i.e. stigma, vulnerability, and mastery) in psychological distress in women at risk of hereditary breast cancer and (2) to compare the relative importance of these self-concept aspects in psychological distress in women with low versus high self-esteem. General and breast-cancer-specific distress, self-esteem, self-concept, and demographics were assessed in 246 women being at risk of hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. In the total study group, self-esteem was negatively associated with general distress. Furthermore, feeling stigmatized was strongly associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, and to a lesser degree with general distress. In women with low-self esteem, feelings of stigmatization were strongly associated with higher levels of both breast-cancer-specific and general distress, while a sense of mastery was associated with less general distress. For women with high self-esteem, feelings of both stigmatization and vulnerability were associated with more breast-cancer-specific distress, whereas there were no significant associations with general distress. Psychosocial interventions or support groups for women at risk of hereditary breast cancer should focus on self-esteem and feelings of stigmatization and isolation, and consequently tailor the interventions on specific items for respective women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  10. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction (TrIGR) Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    maintenance of posttraumatic distress and a range of adverse outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and suicidality , and...outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and suicidality , and alcohol/substance use disorders. There is a pressing need...deployment, posttraumatic, distress, PTSD, depression , functioning, psychotherapy, intervention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Who is Distressed Applying the Diabetes Related Distress Scale in a Diabetes Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    59 MDW /SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 7APR 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Who is Distressed? Applying the Diabetes -Related Distress...Scale in A Diabetes Clinic presented at/published to American Diabetes Association 2017 Meeting, San Francisco, CA (National Conference), 9-16 June...as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MOW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.) Using the Diabetes -Related Distress Scale in

  12. Financial distress prediction and operating leases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether including operating lease commitments in financial distress prediction models would increase the classification accuracy of these models. Classification accuracy measures the percentages of correctly classified companies in either of the two categories (healthy or

  13. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Unsympathetic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez-Lavin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system.

  14. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    ( 4000 g). I also find evidence that the collapse reduced the sex ratio, indicating selection in utero due to maternal prenatal stress exposure. My results imply large welfare losses from financial distress that have hitherto been ignored...

  15. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  16. Microinterventions produce immediate but not lasting benefits in mood and distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley B. Elefant

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Untreated depression remains one of the largest public health concerns. However, barriers such as unavailability of mental health providers and high cost of services limit the number of people able to benefit from traditional treatments. Though unsupported Internet interventions have proven effective at bypassing many of these barriers given their reach and scalability, attrition from interventions has been an ongoing concern. Microinterventions, or ultra-brief online tools meant to produce a rapid improvement in mood, may offer a way to provide the benefits of unsupported Internet interventions quickly, before attrition might occur. This study examined the immediate and lasting effects of three microinterventions (breathing exercises, thought records, and a pleasant activities selector on mood and distress. Participants (N = 122 were randomized into three groups, each group completing two of the three microinterventions. Participants were asked to rate their mood and level of distress before and after completing the microintervention. Depression and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and at four weekly follow-ups. Although lasting effects were not found, a significant within-group reduction in distress and improvement in mood were observed immediately following the completion of the microintervention. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of microinterventions to individuals for their immediate needs vis-à-vis mood and distress.

  17. Young Children Sympathize Less in Response to Unjustified Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three-year-old children saw an adult displaying the exact same distress in 3 different conditions: (a) the adult's distress was appropriate to a genuine harm, (b) the adult's distress was an overreaction to a minor inconvenience, and (c) there was no apparent cause for the adult's distress. Children who witnessed the adult being appropriately…

  18. Burden, quality of life and distress of the main caregiver in head and neck, cervix and rectal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel I

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Based on Portuguese experience, current practice does not focus sufficiently on the caregiver needs through caring of the cancer patient. Understanding the impact of different tumor types on caregiver burden, quality of life, and distress may help with organizing resources more efficiently to provide enhanced support for patients and caregivers. Methods: Ninety main caregivers of patients with cervix, rectal and head and neck cancer were interviewed at Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil. The Portuguese versions of Zarit Burden Interview, Caregiver Quality of Life Index - Cancer (CQOLC Scale and the distress thermometer were used. Results: The majority of caregivers were female (76.7%, median age was 45.5years (20-79, 40% were spouses and 38.7% sons/daughters. Zarit Burden Interview average score was 25.2 ± 11.6, higher on head and neck cancer group. 59.5% of caregivers had moderate burden and no cases of severe burden. Mean quality of life score was 64.8 ± 15.8 which was lower in the head and neck group. Average distress score across the three groups was seven and rectal group presented a lower score than the other two groups. A subgroup analysis (gender, kinship relation, employment status and cohabitation before starting care of caregivers characteristics showed no statistical differences. Conclusion: There were little differences in the experience of caring within caregivers based on the three different cancer groups, although caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer scored consistently worse in the three scales studied. More efforts should be taken to optimize coping strategies for these caregivers, as well as non-cohabitant and active caregivers, who had a worse caring experience.

  19. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  20. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P. [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-11

    The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

  2. Web-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Distressed Cancer Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances; Nielsen, Lisa; Aitken, Joanne F; Clutton, Samantha; Scuffham, Paul A; Youl, Philippa; Morris, Bronwyn; Baade, Peter D; Dunn, Jeff

    2018-01-31

    Web-based interventions present a potentially cost-effective approach to supporting self-management for cancer patients; however, further evidence for acceptability and effectiveness is needed. The goal of our research was to assess the effectiveness of an individualized Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on improving psychological and quality of life outcomes in cancer patients with elevated psychological distress. A total of 163 distressed cancer patients (111 female, 68.1%) were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Cancer Council Queensland Cancer Helpline and randomly assigned to either a Web-based tailored CBT intervention (CancerCope) (79/163) or a static patient education website (84/163). At baseline and 8-week follow-up we assessed primary outcomes of psychological and cancer-specific distress and unmet psychological supportive care needs and secondary outcomes of positive adjustment and quality of life. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no evidence of a statistically significant intervention effect on primary or secondary outcomes. However, per-protocol analyses found a greater decrease for the CancerCope group in psychological distress (P=.04), cancer-specific distress (P=.02), and unmet psychological care needs (P=.03) from baseline to 8 weeks compared with the patient education group. Younger patients were more likely to complete the CancerCope intervention. This online CBT intervention was associated with greater decreases in distress for those patients who more closely adhered to the program. Given the low costs and high accessibility of this intervention approach, even if only effective for subgroups of patients, the potential impact may be substantial. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001026718; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=364768&isReview=true (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6uPvpcovl). ©Suzanne K Chambers, Lee M Ritterband

  3. Psychological Distress in Jordanian Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Trait Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the role of mindfulness in predicting psychological distress in Arab parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this descriptive study, parents of 104 children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and mindfulness. The severity of autism in children was measured using the DSM-V criteria. After controlling for parental age and gender and the severity level of ASD, mindfulness was significantly associated with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (anxiety: β = 0.49, p < .001; stress: β = 0.55, p < .001; depression: β = 0.53, p < .001). Mindfulness-based intervention may help to reduce psychological distress in Arab parents of children with ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojsi, Francesca; Di Somma, Carmela; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Trojano, Luigi; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2017-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes distress in caregivers. The present study aims to examine the association between coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of ALS patients. Coping strategies were assessed in 96 ALS informal caregivers by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Data about caregivers' demographic characteristics, levels of burden, depression and anxiety (psychological distress) were also gathered by standardised questionnaires. Patients' clinical, cognitive and behavioural disturbances were evaluated by ALS specific assessment tools. Sequential logistic regression analysis showed that emotion-oriented coping strategy was significantly associated with high levels of depressive (p ALS caregivers. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing utilisation of maladaptive coping strategies may improve well-being in ALS caregivers, and, possibly, management of symptoms in ALS patients.

  5. Prevalence of job-related distress and satisfaction in a nationwide cardiology setting: The IANUS - itAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majani, Giuseppina; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Giardini, Anna; De Maria, Renata; Russo, Giulia; Maestri, Roberto; Marini, Marco; Milli, Massimo; Aspromonte, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    Cardiologists' work distress has been seldom studied. The ItAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study survey was designed to assess prevalence of work distress and satisfaction, and to gain insight into associations among these constructs and socio-demographics and job description. We invited members of our national cardiological society (Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri) to participate in an anonymous, self-report, exclusively web-based survey, posted on the Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri website. ItAliaN cardiologists' Undetected distress Study included socio-demographics, job description and a 15-item questionnaire on job-related distress and work satisfaction. Of 7393 invited cardiologists, 1064 completed the survey. Organizational problems and worries about medico-legal controversies were reported by 71% and 49% of participants, respectively; over one-third reported loss of enthusiasm, helplessness, work-life imbalance and lack of control over work. Conversely, 86% felt competent at work, 67% rewarded by the moral/human meaning of their work and 52% satisfied with their professional fulfilment. Factor analysis revealed a meaningful underlying structure including four factors: job strain, positive meaning, emotional fatigue and relational difficulties. Relational difficulties were more frequent in cardiologists working in primary-level than in secondary and tertiary care hospitals (P = 0.017 and P = 0.013, respectively). Interventional cardiologists reported higher positive meaning than those in the clinical inpatients area and outpatient diagnostic settings (P = 0.007 and P = 0.025, respectively) and lower emotional fatigue than subjects in the clinical inpatients area (P = 0.0005). Cardiologists' work distress should be interpreted integrating job-related negative aspects with a reappraisal of protective personal and relational resources, which should be fostered to promote physicians

  6. Perceived distress tolerance accounts for the covariance between discrimination experiences and anxiety symptoms among sexual minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Smith, Nathan Grant; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Forney, Margot; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-05-01

    Sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences have been implicated in elevated rates of anxiety symptoms within sexual minority groups. Theory suggests that chronic discrimination experiences may dampen the ability to tolerate distress, increasing vulnerability for anxiety. This study examined the role of distress tolerance, or the capacity to withstand negative emotions, as a construct underlying associations between discriminatory experiences and anxiety among sexual minority adults. Participants (N=119;M age =36.4±14.8; 50% cisgender male, 31% cisgender female, 19% transgender; 37% non-Latino white) were recruited from Houston, Texas. Measures administered included the Heterosexist Harassment, Rejection, and Discrimination Scale (discrimination experiences), Distress Tolerance Scale (distress tolerance), and the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (anxiety). The association of discrimination experiences and anxiety through distress tolerance was assessed using covariate-adjusted mediation modeling. Results indicated that sexual orientation-related discrimination experiences were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and that this association was mediated through lower distress tolerance. Significant indirect effects were specific to cognitive (versus somatic) anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that distress tolerance may be an explanatory mechanism in the association between discriminatory experiences and cognitive symptoms of anxiety and a potentially relevant target within clinical interventions to address anxiety-related health disparities among sexual minority adults. However, more sophisticated designs are needed to delineate causal associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting a Child with Phenylketonuria: An Investigation into the Factors That Contribute to Parental Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J

    2018-04-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.

  8. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-07-25

    The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years +/- SD 10-years) from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6). Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR) for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years). This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P or = 25 contacts per week (P = 0.016). The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  9. Interacting with the public as a risk factor for employee psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder in employees ranges from 10.5% to 18.5%. Mental disorders are responsible for substantial losses in employee productivity in both absenteeism and presenteeism. Potential work related factors contributing to mental difficulties are of increasing interest to employers. Some data suggests that being sales staff, call centre operator, nurse or teacher increases psychological distress. One aspect of these occupations is that there is an interaction with the public. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether employees who interact with the public are at greater risk of psychological distress. Methods Data was collected from two studies. In study one 11,259 employees (60% female; mean age 40-years ± SD 10-years from six employers responded to the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ which contained a measure of psychological distress, the Kessler 6 (K6. Employees were coded as to whether or not they interacted with the public. Binomial logistic regression was performed on this data to determine the odds ratio (OR for moderate or high psychological distress in employees that interacted with the public. Study two administered the HPQ and K6 to sales employees of a large Australian bank (N = 2,129; 67% female; mean age 39-years SD 10-years. This questionnaire also probed how many contacts individuals had with the public in the past week. Analysis of variance was used to determine if the number of contacts was related to psychological distress. Results In study one the prevalence of psychological distress in those that interacted and did not interact with the public were 19% and 15% respectively (P Conclusions The results of the current study are indicative that interaction with the public increases levels of psychological distress. Employees dealing with the public may be an employee subgroup that could be targeted by employers with mental health interventions.

  10. High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Conventional Oxygen Therapy in Children with Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthikarnkha, Punthila; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Prapphal, Nuanchan; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy compared with conventional oxygen therapy in children presented with respiratory distress. This was a randomized controlled study. Infants and children aged between 1 month to 5 years who were admitted to our tertiary referral center for respiratory distress (July 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015) and met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Infants and children hospitalized with respiratory distress were randomized into two groups of interventions. All clinical data, for example, respiratory score, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. The results were subsequently analyzed. A total of 98 respiratory distress children were enrolled during the study period. Only 4 children (8.2%) failed in HFNC therapy, compared with 10 children (20.4%) in conventional oxygen therapy group ( P = 0.09). After adjusted for body weight, underlying diseases, and respiratory distress score, there was an 85% reduction in the odds of treatment failure in HFNC therapy group (adjusted odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.66, P = 0.01). Most children in HFNC therapy group had significant improvement in clinical respiratory score, heart rate, and respiratory rate at 240, 360, and 120 min compared with conventional oxygen therapy ( P = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.03). HFNC therapy revealed a potential clinical advantage in management children hospitalized with respiratory distress compared with conventional respiratory therapy. The early use of HFNC in children with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress may prevent endotracheal tube intubation. TCTR 20170222007.

  11. Relationship of Genetic Variants With Procedural Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersig, Anne L; Schutte, Debra L; Standley, Jennifer; Leslie, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure. Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Samples were collected from children and biological parents for analysis of genomic variation. Genotyped variants had known or suspected association with phenotypes of interest. Analyses included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests. Genotype and phenotype data were available from 828 children and 376 family trios. Children were 50% male, had a mean age of 7.2 years, and were 84% White/non-Hispanic. In family-based analysis, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1143629, interleukin ( IL1B) 1β) was associated with observed child distress at Bonferroni-corrected levels of significance ( p = .00013), while two approached significance for association with high state anxiety (rs6330 Nerve Growth Factor, Beta Subunit, [ NGFB]) and high trait anxiety (rs6265 brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ BDNF]). In the child-only analysis, multiple SNPs showed nominal evidence of relationships with phenotypes of interest. rs6265 BDNF and rs2941026 cholecystokinin B receptor had possible relationships with trait anxiety in child-only and family-based analyses. Exploring genomic variation furthers our understanding of pain, anxiety, and distress and facilitates genomic screening to identify children at high risk of procedural pain, anxiety, and distress. Combined with clinical observations and knowledge, such explorations could help guide tailoring of interventions to limit procedure-related distress and identify genes and pathways of interest for future genotype-phenotype studies.

  12. Quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: contributions of parental distress and psychosocial family risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, N M; Khu, M; Reynolds, K; Guilcher, G M T; Schulte, F S M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of poor quality of life and social-emotional outcomes following treatment. The relationship between parent psychological distress and child adjustment in pediatric cancer survivors has been well established. However, limited research has examined the factors that may buffer this association. The current study examined the associations between psychosocial family risk factors, parental psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (hrql) in pediatric cancer survivors. Fifty-two pediatric cancer survivors (34 males, 18 females, mean age = 11.92) and their parents were recruited from a long-term cancer survivor clinic. Children and their parents who consented to participate completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Parents completed a demographic information form, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (pat 2.0) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (bsi). The Intensity of Treatment Rating (itr-3) was evaluated by the research team. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental psychological distress negatively predicted parent-reported hrql, while treatment intensity, gender, and psychosocial risk negatively predicted parent and child-reported hrql. Psychosocial risk moderated the association between parent psychological distress and parent-reported child hrql ( p = 0.03), whereby parents with high psychological distress but low levels of psychosocial risk reported their children to have higher hrql. Low levels of family psychosocial risk buffer the impact of parent psychological distress on child hrql in pediatric cancer survivors. The findings highlight the importance of identifying parents and families with at-risk psychological distress and psychosocial risk in order to provide targeted support interventions to mitigate the impact on hrql.

  13. Physical distress is associated with cardiovascular events in a high risk population of elderly men

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    Klemsdal Tor O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported health perceptions such as physical distress and quality of life are suggested independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. This study examined the associations between these factors and three years incidence of cardiovascular events in a population of elderly men with long term hyperlipidemia. Methods We studied observational data in a cohort of 433 men aged 64–76 years from a prospective, 2 × 2 factorial designed, three-year interventional trial. Information of classical risk factors was obtained and the following questionnaires were administered at baseline: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Physical Symptom Distress Index and Life Satisfaction Index. The occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular incidences and peripheral arterial disease were registered throughout the study period. Continuous data with skewed distribution was split into tertiles. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox regression analyses to assess the associations between physical distress, quality of life and cardiovascular events. Results After three years, 49 cardiovascular events were registered, with similar incidence among subjects with and without established cardiovascular disease. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum glucose, HADS-anxiety and treatment-intervention, physical distress was positively associated (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 – 7.9 for 3rd versus 1st tertile and quality of life negatively associated (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–5.8 for 3rd versus 1st tertile with cardiovascular events. The association remained statistically significant only for physical distress (hazard ratio 2.8 95% CI 1.2 – 6.8, p Conclusion Physical distress, but not quality of life, was independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in an observational study of elderly men predominantly

  14. Establishing Guidelines for Executing and Reporting Internet Intervention Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proudfoot, J; Klein, B.; Barak, A.; Carlbring, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Lange, A; Ritterband, L.; Andersson, G.

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet

  15. Establishing guidelines for executing and reporting internet intervention research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proudfoot, J.; Klein, B.; Barak, A.; Carlbring, P.; Cuijpers, P.; Lange, A.; Ritterband, L.; Andersson, G.

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet

  16. Psychological Distress After Orthopedic Trauma: Prevalence in Patients and Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Vincent, Kevin R; Brisbane, Sonya T; Sadasivan, Kalia K

    2015-09-01

    Orthopedic trauma is an unforeseen life-changing event. Serious injuries include multiple fractures and amputation. Physical rehabilitation has traditionally focused on addressing functional deficits after traumatic injury, but important psychological factors also can dramatically affect acute and long-term recovery. This review presents the effects of orthopedic trauma on psychological distress, potential interventions for distress reduction after trauma, and implications for participation in rehabilitation. Survivors commonly experience post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety, all of which interfere with functional gains and quality of life. More than 50% of survivors have psychological distress that can last decades after the physical injury has been treated. Early identification of patients with distress can help care teams provide the resources and support to offset the distress. Several options that help trauma patients navigate their short-term recovery include holistic approaches, pastoral care, coping skills, mindfulness, peer visitation, and educational resources. The long-term physical and mental health of the trauma survivor can be enhanced by strategies that connect the survivor to a network of people with similar experiences or injuries, facilitate support groups, and social support networking (The Trauma Survivors Network). Rehabilitation specialists can help optimize patient outcomes and quality of life by participating in and advocating these strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial factors and distress: a comparison between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic Pakistanis in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Akthar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Norwegian context, higher mental distress has been reported for the non-Western immigrants compared to the ethnic Norwegians and Western immigrants. This high level of distress is often related to different socio-economic conditions in this group. No efforts have been made earlier to observe the impact of changed psychosocial conditions on the state of mental distress of these immigrant communities due to the migration process. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and psychosocial factors among Pakistani immigrants and ethnic Norwegians in Oslo, and to investigate to what extent differences in mental health could be explained by psychosocial and socioeconomic conditions. Method Data was collected from questionnaires as a part of the Oslo Health Study 2000–2001. 13581 Norwegian born (attendance rate 46% and 339 ethnic Pakistanis (attendance rate 38% in the selected age groups participated. A 10-item version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL was used as a measure of psychological distress. Results Pakistanis reported less education and lower employment rate than Norwegians (p Conclusion Poor social support and economic conditions are important mediators of mental health among immigrants. The public health recommendations/interventions should deal with both the economic conditions and social support system of immigrant communities simultaneously.

  18. Partner violence and psychosocial distress among female sex workers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    Full Text Available Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW, most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China.A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects.About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders.This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.

  19. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  20. The interactive role of distress tolerance and eating expectancies in bulimic symptoms among substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Happel, Kate; Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties tolerating distress and the expectancy that eating will relieve negative affect have been linked with bulimic symptoms, which commonly co-occur with other forms of psychopathology characterized by emotion dysregulation (e.g., substance abuse). Indeed, problems with emotional functioning may be of particular relevance to bulimic symptoms in at-risk populations with heightened emotion dysregulation (such as substance use disorder patients). This study examined the interactive role of two emotion-related constructs (distress tolerance and the expectancy that eating relieves negative affect) in relation to bulimic symptoms among patients (N=93) recruited from a residential substance abuse treatment facility. Participants completed the Bulimia Test-Revised, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Distress Tolerance Scale, and the Eating Expectancy Inventory. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the main effects and interaction of distress tolerance and negative affect eating expectancies in relation to bulimic symptoms, controlling for participant gender and overall negative affect. Significant main effects were found for both distress tolerance and negative affect eating expectancies, and these two constructs were found to significantly interact in the prediction of bulimic symptoms. Interventions that address these constructs may be useful in treating those with bulimic symptoms, as well as those with co-occurring bulimic symptoms and substance use disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in mothers' and fathers' psychological distress after pediatric SCT: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Doyle, J; Berlin-Romalis, D; Hancock, K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally psychological distress and its correlates in mothers and fathers of children who undergo SCT, up to 2 years post SCT. A total of 111 parents of patients diagnosed mainly with leukemia completed standardized measures of depression and anxiety symptoms as indicators of psychological distress, 85 at 1 year pre-SCT and 81 at 2 years post SCT. Parents' age and gender, child's age, diagnosis, radiation history, behavior and physical health were examined as potential related factors. Linear mixed models for repeated measures with appropriate covariance structure were used in the analysis. Depression and anxiety scores significantly decreased by 2 years for mothers and fathers. Mothers reported significantly more depression symptoms than did fathers, but reported comparable symptoms of anxiety. Pre-SCT depression and anxiety scores, mother's age (younger), child's behavior problems, radiation history and diagnosis of neuroblastoma predicted maternal distress 2 years post SCT; pre-SCT depression and anxiety scores, father's age (older) and child's diagnosis predicted father's distress. This study highlights differences and similarities in mothers' and fathers' psychological distress and identifies related risk factors. The results can guide interventions for mothers and fathers whose children undergo SCT based on their pre-SCT psychosocial risk.

  2. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwape Lonia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia.

  3. Children's and Parents' Ability to Tolerate Child Distress: Impact on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R; Franklin, Martin; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Compton, Scott N; Tommet, Doug; Jones, Richard N; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The present study explored the concept of tolerance for child distress in 46 children (ages 5-8), along with their mothers and fathers, who received family-based CBT for OCD. The study sought to describe baseline tolerance, changes in tolerance with treatment, and the predictive impact of tolerance on symptom improvement. Tolerance was rated by clinicians on a single item and the CY-BOCS was used to measure OCD severity. Descriptive results suggested that all participants had some difficulty tolerating the child's distress at baseline while paired t tests indicated large improvements were made over treatment (d = 1.2-2.0). Fathers' initial tolerance was significantly related to symptom improvement in a multivariate regression as were fathers' and children's changes in distress tolerance over the course of treatment. Overall, results provide support for examining tolerance of child distress including its predictive impact and potential as a supplemental intervention target.

  4. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to treat respiratory distress in newborns in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, Juan Emmanuel; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Severe respiratory distress is a serious complication common to the three major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity (prematurity, intra-partum-related hypoxia and infections). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), 20% of babies presenting with severe respiratory distress die.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), is an effective intervention for respiratory distress in newborns and widely used in high-income countries. Following the development of simple, safe and relatively inexpensive CPAP devices, there is potential for large-scale implementation in the developing world.In this article, we describe existing CPAP systems and present a review of the current literature examining the effectiveness of CPAP compared to standard care (oxygen) in newborns with respiratory distress. We also discuss the evidence gap which needs to be addressed prior to its integration into health systems in LMICs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Women's experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard

    2014-10-14

    Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as

  6. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  7. Spirituality and distress in palliative care consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Judith; Paice, Judith A; Cameron, Jacqueline R; Shott, Susan

    2005-08-01

    One's spirituality or religious beliefs and practices may have a profound impact on how the individual copes with the suffering that so often accompanies advanced disease. Several previous studies suggest that negative religious coping can significantly affect health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between spirituality, religious coping, and symptoms of distress among a group of inpatients referred to the palliative care consult service. Pilot study. The study was conducted in a large academic medical center with a comprehensive Palliative Care and Home Hospice Program. (1) National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Management Assessment Tool; (2) Pargament Brief Religious Coping Scale (Brief RCOPE); (3) Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp); (4) Puchalski's FICA; and (5) Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF). The 31 subjects surveyed experienced moderate distress (5.8 +/- 2.7), major physical and psychosocial symptom burden, along with reduced function and significant caregiving needs. The majority (87.2%) perceived themselves to be at least somewhat spiritual, with 77.4% admitting to being at least somewhat religious. Negative religious coping (i.e., statements regarding punishment or abandonment by God) was positively associated with distress, confusion, depression, and negatively associated with physical and emotional well-being, as well as quality of life. Palliative care clinicians should be alert to symptoms of spiritual distress and intervene accordingly. Future research is needed to identify optimal techniques to address negative religious coping.

  8. The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationships Between Internal Distress and Smoking Behavior During a Quit Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M. Palm; Hayes, Steven C.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA) (i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether pre-quit general EA (Acceptance & Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between four measures of post-quit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving), and smoking. Participates: 40 adult smokers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Distress Tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Results: Multilevel models showed that pre-quit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks post-quit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between post-quit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high pre-quit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, pre-quit smoking-specific EA did not predict post-quit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA pre-quit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Conclusions: Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater post-quit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. PMID:25347023

  9. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  10. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  11. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Marie-Claude; Duchaine, Caroline S; Aubé, Karine; Talbot, Denis; Mantha-Bélisle, Marie-Michèle; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; St-Hilaire, France; Biron, Caroline; Vézina, Michel; Brisson, Chantal

    2018-02-28

    Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849) and 2-3 years following (T2, n = 2560) QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91) and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77-1.03). Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.998). Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers' mental health.

  12. Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Letellier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES, is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849 and 2–3 years following (T2, n = 2560 QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.91 and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77–1.03. Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75–0.998. Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers’ mental health.

  13. Internet-Based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological Distress Experienced by People With Hearing Problems: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Peter; Hesser, Hugo; Weineland, Sandra; Bergwall, Kajsa; Buck, Sonia; Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan; Lantz, Henning; Lunner, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    Psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent among people with hearing loss or other audiological conditions, but psychological interventions for these groups are rare. This article describes the study protocol for a randomized controlled trial for evaluating the effect of a psychological treatment delivered over the Internet for individuals with hearing problems and concurrent psychological distress. Participants who are significantly distressed will be randomized to either an 8-week Internet-delivered acceptance-based cognitive behavioral therapy (i.e., acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]), or wa it-list control. We aim to include measures of distress associated with hearing difficulties, anxiety, and depression. In addition, we aim to measure acceptance associated with hearing difficulties as well as quality of life. The results of the trial may further our understanding of how to best treat people who present problems with both psychological distress and hearing in using the Internet.

  14. Burnout, Moral Distress, Work-Life Balance, and Career Satisfaction among Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Joyce L; Mau, Lih-Wen; Virani, Sanya; Denzen, Ellen M; Boyle, Deborah A; Boyle, Nancy J; Dabney, Jane; De KeselLofthus, Alexandra; Kalbacker, Marion; Khan, Tippu; Majhail, Navneet S; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Paplham, Pamela; Parran, Leslie; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Rockwood, Todd H; Schmit-Pokorny, Kim; Shanafelt, Tait D; Stenstrup, Elaine; Wood, William A; Burns, Linda J

    2018-04-01

    moral distress and a greater degree of personal time. As the creation of healthy work environments is increasingly emphasized to improve quality care and decrease costs, these findings should be used by HCT leadership to develop interventions that mitigate work-related distress and in turn foster recruitment and retention of HCT providers. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerosolized prostacyclins for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Bastholm Bille, Anders; Allingstrup, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.This review was originally published in 2010 and updated...... (very low quality of evidence), and one RCT involved 67 critically ill adults (very low quality evidence).Only one RCT (paediatric trial) provided data on mortality and found no difference between intervention and control. However, this trial was eligible for meta-analysis due to a cross-over design...... low quality evidence).There were no adverse events such as bleeding or organ dysfunction in any of the included trials. Due to the limited number of RCTs, we were unable to perform the prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses or trial sequential analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are unable...

  16. Can live music therapy reduce distress and pain in children with burns after wound care procedures? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Marianne J E; Jeekel, Johannes; Rode, Heinz; Cox, Sharon; van Rosmalen, Joost; Hunink, Myriam G M; van Dijk, Monique

    2018-06-01

    Burn wound care procedures are very painful and lead to distress. Live music therapy has shown beneficial effects on distress and pain in specific pediatric patient populations. In this study we measured whether live music therapy has beneficial effects in terms of less distress and pain in children with burns after wound care procedures. This randomized assessor-blinded controlled trial (RCT) took place at the burns unit of the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. It included newly admitted inpatients between the ages of 0 and 13 years undergoing their first or second wound care procedures. Excluded were children with a hearing impairment or low level of consciousness. The intervention group received one live music therapy session directly after wound care in addition to standard care. The control group received standard care only. The primary outcome was distress measured with the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-revised (OSBD-r). The secondary outcome was pain measured with the COMFORT-behavioral scale (COMFORT-B). In addition, in children older than 5 years self-reported distress with the validated Wong-Baker scale (FACES) and pain with the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) were measured. Patients in both groups were videotaped for three minutes before wound care; during the music therapy or the control condition; and for two minutes thereafter. Two researchers, blinded to the study condition, independently scored the OSBD-r and the COMFORT-B from the video footage before and after music therapy. We included 135 patients, median age 22.6 months (IQR 15.4-40.7 months). Change scores did not significantly differ between the intervention and the control groups for either distress (p=0.53; d=0.11; 95% CI -0.23 to 0.45) or pain (p=0.99; d=0.04; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.38). Self-reported distress in a small group of children (n=18) older than 5 years indicated a significant reduction in distress after live music therapy (p=0

  17. Temperature and other data were collected using thermometer and bottle casts in the Chukchi and Bering Sea from 1947-02-11 to 1949-07-26 (NODC Accession 9700081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, oxygen, and salinity data were collected using thermometer and bottle casts from the USS CACOPAN, USS NEREUS, and HMCS CEDARWOOD in the Chukchi...

  18. The impact of antenatal mental distress on functioning and capabilities: views of health care providers and service users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Sumaya; Honikman, Simone; Evans, Bronwyn; Swartz, Leslie; Lund, Crick

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal mental distress has disabling consequences. It affects functioning and participation in daily activities and can lead to postnatal depression. This study employs the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), to explore the experiences of pregnant women with mental distress attending the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP). The analysis also adopts Amartya Sen's capabilities approach to provide suggestions for appropriate interventions. We conducted in-depth interviews with seven pregnant women experiencing antenatal mental distress, three postnatal women who had experienced antenatal mental distress and seven health care providers all affiliated with the PMHP. We used an open-ended interview guide employing domains from the ICF as well as from the capabilities approach. Participants attributed their antenatal mental distress to a range of environmental factors. Difficulties in functioning were reported by participants including difficulties at work and caring for children. Participants stated that services provided by the PMHP have a positive impact on functioning and capabilities. The study suggests that the ICF is useful for exploring the impact of antenatal mental distress on functioning. It is well complemented by the capabilities approach to inform interventions. Implications for Rehabilitation Antenatal mental distress is a significant public health issue that impacts on women's functioning and participation exacerbated by social factors such as poverty and exposure to violence. This study explored restrictions in functioning and participation faced by women with antenatal mental distress including the ability to care for children, find meaningful employment and sustain relationships. Counselling services can play a role in restoring functioning and capabilities for women experiencing antenatal mental distress. Counselling services have the ability to discuss restrictions in functioning caused by antenatal mental

  19. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) and 123 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Type D Scale (DS14), and Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale. Results: Remembered parenting was significantly associated with higher anxiety and depression...

  20. Diabetes distress and related factors in South African adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Behavioural Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of ... Keywords: adults, depression, diabetes-related distress, glycaemic index, South Africa ... self-care and glycaemic control.7,8 Diabetes-related distress is.

  1. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  2. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  3. Psychological Distress and Emotional Expression on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarova, Natalya N; Choi, Yoon Hyung; Whitlock, Janis; Cosley, Dan; Sosik, Victoria

    2017-03-01

    Social network sites (SNS) are a novel social environment for college students with psychological distress to connect with their peers, but the nature and effects of these interactions are not well understood. This study reports findings from a Facebook study among 238 college students reporting nonspecific psychological distress using the K-6 scale. Behavioral data included Facebook status updates containing affect words written by participants within the past 60 days and the number of responses (comments and likes) each update received. The updates were also coded for depression symptoms. Self-report data included participants' self-presentational concerns, the affective valence of each post, effects of responses on mood, and satisfaction with the responses to and outcome of each status update. Higher psychological distress was associated with displaying depression language on Facebook, with higher self-presentational concerns, and with less satisfaction with audiences' responses and less overall satisfaction with the outcome of the interaction. These results offer a unique glimpse into the social world of college students with psychological distress through their everyday use of Facebook, and how the interplay of this novel environment and students' mental health impacts their social behaviors and interaction meaning-making on Facebook.

  4. Diabetes distress among type 2 diabetic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes distress, HbA1c, glycaemic status ... [3] The management of diabetes mellitus and the ... morbidity and mortality risks associated with ... appropriate policy for prevention, control and ..... Mellitus and its Association Risk Indicators in a ... collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and.

  5. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  6. Distress classification measures in the banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carapeto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates distress classification measures in the banking sector. The power of ten different accounting measures is tested using media coverage as the benchmark for a sample of 1,175 banks which participated in merger and acquisitions or divestiture deals over the past 22 calendar years. According to the results of the study, a bank should be defined as distressed if the ratio of its non-performing loans to total loans is in the two highest deciles of the industry, using a three-year moving average. This measure is typically favored by practitioners, who maintain that other common measures, e.g., those involving provisions for loan losses, are not as accurate as they express only a managerial forecast. Interestingly, measures that capture capital adequacy too often depict the bank as healthy even if it is de facto distressed, while measures of asset quality, though highly correlated with each other, tend to overestimate the number of distressed banks.

  7. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  8. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  9. Religion and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces data from a new random sample of Japanese adults. Findings show that reporting of distress symptoms are: (1. positively associated with a religious coping index (i.e., beliefs that religion or supernatural beings provide comfort, support or protection), (2. associated in different directions with ownership of different…

  10. Psychological distress and intelligence in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T. W.; Antal, K.

    2016-01-01

    of distress-related items, the Personal Health Schema (PHS), having yes/no responses, together with a general IQ test, the Børge Prien's Prøve (BPP). The rate of endorsement of the PHS items was low, ranging between 3% and 29% with a median of two/three items. The Pearson correlation between the two variables...

  11. Psychological distress amongst undergraduate students of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health among university students represents an important public health concern and the health of university students has been the subject of increasing focus in recent years. Available evidence suggests that there are significantly more students experiencing high levels of distress compared with the ...

  12. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  13. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  14. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... (MBSRQ), Zung Depression Rating Scale, and Zung Anxiety Rating Scale were applied to ... psychological distress, and subjective quality of life among obese and ... kg/m2, not receiving any medication, no special training .... Emotional role ..... Questionnaire (MBSRQ) showed positive improvement.

  15. Family caregiving in schizophrenia: domains and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; van Wijngaarden, B.; Koeter, M. W.

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on (1) the dimensionality of the caregiving concept; (2) the relation between the identified caregiving dimensions and characteristics of the patient, the caregiver, and their relationship; and (3) the relation between caregiving dimensions and caregiver distress. Findings are

  16. Infertility, psychological distress, and coping strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...

  17. Intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and sexual distress in vulvodynia couples: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Katy; Bergeron, Sophie; Rosen, Natalie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Brassard, Audrey; Sadikaj, Gentiana

    2016-06-01

    Vulvodynia is a prevalent idiopathic pain condition with deleterious consequences for the sexuality of affected women and their spouses. Intimacy has been identified as a facilitator of adjustment to health difficulties in couples. Two components of intimacy were examined among couples with vulvodynia-empathic response and disclosure-in relation to their sexual satisfaction and sexual distress. Using an observational design, 50 women (Mage = 24.50 years, SD = 4.03) diagnosed with vulvodynia and their spouses (Mage = 26.10 years, SD = 5.70) participated in a filmed discussion focusing on the impact of vulvodynia on their lives. Empathic response and disclosure were assessed by a trained observer and self-reported by participants after engaging in the discussion. The actor-partner interdependence model guided the data analyses. Women's and spouses' higher observed and perceived empathic responses were associated with their own and their partners' greater sexual satisfaction. Women's and spouses' higher perceived disclosures were associated with their own and their partners' greater sexual satisfaction. Women's and spouses' higher observed empathic responses were associated with their own lower sexual distress. Women's higher observed empathic responses were associated with their spouses' lower sexual distress. Women and spouses' perceived greater empathic responses were associated with their own lower sexual distress. Women's and spouses' greater perceived disclosures during the discussion were associated with their own and their partners' lower sexual distress. Promoting empathic response and disclosure through couple interventions may buffer against the sexual distress and sexual dissatisfaction of couples coping with vulvodynia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Happiness, Pain Intensity, Pain Interference, and Distress in Individuals with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Molton, Ivan R; Ravesloot, Craig; Ipsen, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how the construct of happiness is related to pain intensity, pain interference, and distress in individuals with physical disabilities. This study involves cross-sectional analyses of 471 individuals with a variety of health conditions reporting at least mild pain. The first hypothesis that happiness mediates the relationship between pain intensity and two outcomes, pain interference and distress, was not supported. The second hypothesis was supported by a good fitting model (χ2(10) = 12.83, P = 0.23, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.025) and indicated that pain intensity significantly mediated the effect of happiness on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.13, P Happiness showed a significant direct effect on pain intensity (β = -0.20, P happiness components meaning, pleasure, and engagement fitted well (χ2(4) = 9.65, P = 0.05, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.055). Pain intensity acted as a significant mediator but only mediated the effect of meaning on pain interference (indirect effect: β = -0.07, P = 0.05) and on distress (indirect effect via pain interference: β = -0.04, P = 0.05). Only meaning (β = -0.10, P = 0.05), but neither pleasure nor engagement, had a significant direct effect on pain intensity. Participants who reported greater happiness reported lower pain interference and distress through happiness' effects on pain intensity. Experiencing meaning and purpose in life seems to be most closely (and negatively) associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and distress. Findings from this study can lay the groundwork for intervention studies to better understand how to more effectively decrease pain intensity, pain interference, and distress.

  19. How Does Distress Acquisition Incentivized by Government Purchases of Distressed Loans Affect Bank Default Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jiuan Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of bank default risk in connection with government bailouts has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question of how a bank’s default risk is affected by a distress acquisition is investigated. Specifically, the government provides a bailout program of distressed loan purchases for a strong bank to acquire a bank in distress. The acquirer bank may likely refuse the acquisition with a bailout when the amount of distressed loan purchases is large or the knock-out value of the acquired bank is high. When the acquirer bank realizes acquisition gains, the default risk in the consolidated bank’s equity return is negatively related to loan purchases, but positively to the knock-out value of the acquired bank. The government bailout, as such, in large part contributes to banking stability.

  20. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijantini, Wijantini

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported opera...

  1. A Nonrandomized Comparison Study of Self-Hypnosis, Yoga, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Emotional Distress in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, Isabelle; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Coucke, Philippe; Lifrange, Eric; Schroeder, Hélène; Wagener, Aurélie; Dupuis, Gilles; Jerusalem, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The authors asked breast cancer (BC) patients to participate in 1 of 3 mind-body interventions (cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), yoga, or self-hypnosis) to explore their feasibility, ease of compliance, and impact on the participants' distress, quality of life (QoL), sleep, and mental adjustment. Ninety-nine patients completed an intervention (CBT: n = 10; yoga: n = 21; and self-hypnosis: n = 68). Results showed high feasibility and high compliance. After the interventions, there was no significant effect in the CBT group but significant positive effects on distress in the yoga and self-hypnosis groups, and, also, on QoL, sleep, and mental adjustment in the self-hypnosis group. In conclusion, mind-body interventions can decrease distress in BC patients, but RCTs are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. The relationship between distress tolerance and antisocial personality disorder among male inner-city treatment seeking substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Stacey B; Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Gratz, Kim L; Lejuez, C W

    2008-10-01

    There is currently limited research on the potential mechanisms underlying the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). One such mechanism, distress tolerance (defined as an individual's behavioral persistence in the face of emotional distress) may underlie the development of ASPD and its associated behavioral difficulties. It was hypothesized that substance users with ASPD would evidence significantly lower levels of distress tolerance than substance users without ASPD. To test this relationship, we assessed 127 inner-city males receiving residential substance abuse treatment with two computerized laboratory measures of distress tolerance. The mean age of the sample was 40.1 years (SD = 9.8) and 88.2% were African American. As expected, multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that distress intolerance significantly predicted the presence of an ASPD diagnosis, above and beyond key covariates including substance use frequency and associated Axis I and II psychopathology. Findings suggest that distress tolerance may be a key factor in understanding the development of ASPD, setting the stage for future studies expanding on the nature of this relationship, as well as the development of appropriate interventions for this at-risk group.

  3. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of distress intolerance in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and problematic alcohol use among Latin American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Satisfaction with support versus size of network: differential effects of social support on psychological distress in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Felicity W K; Peterson, Amy M; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the direct and buffering effects of social support on longer-term global psychological distress among parents coping with pediatric cancer. In both sets of analyses, we examined whether these effects depended on the dimension of social support provided (i.e., satisfaction with support versus size of support network). Participants were 102 parents of pediatric cancer patients. At study entry, parents reported their trait anxiety, depression, and two dimensions of their social support network (satisfaction with support and size of support network). Parents subsequently reported their psychological distress in 3- and 9-month follow-up assessments. Parents' satisfaction with support had a direct effect on longer-term psychological distress; satisfaction was negatively associated with distress at both follow-ups. In contrast, size of support network buffered (moderated) the impact of trait anxiety and depression on later distress. Parents with smaller support networks and higher levels of trait anxiety and depression at baseline had higher levels of psychological distress at both follow-ups; for parents with larger support networks, there was no relationship. Social support can attenuate psychological distress in parents coping with pediatric cancer; however, the nature of the effect depends on the dimension of support. Whereas interventions that focus on increasing satisfaction with social support may benefit all parents, at-risk parents will likely benefit from interventions that ensure they have an adequate number of support resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Are mindfulness and self-compassion related to psychological distress and communication in couples facing lung cancer? A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.P.J.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Drift, M.A. van der; Molema, J.; Hurk, D.G.M. van den; Prins, J.B.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer patients and their spouses report high rates of distress. Due to the increasing popularity of and evidence for mindfulness-based interventions in cancer, mindfulness and self-compassion have been identified as potentially helpful skills when coping with cancer. This dyadic study examined

  7. The Formation of Teacher Work Teams under Adverse Conditions: Towards a More Realistic Scenario for Schools in Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintrop, Rick; Charles, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Group formation studies are rare in the literature on teacher professional learning communities (PLCs). But they are needed to render realistic scenarios and design interventions for practitioners who work in schools where teachers encounter distress and social adversity. Under these conditions, we may need approaches to PLC development that are…

  8. Intentional music use to reduce psychological distress in adolescents accessing primary mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Koike, Asami; Rickwood, Debra

    2018-04-01

    Many young people turn to music as a way of exploring and managing their moods and emotions. The literature is replete with studies that correlate music preferences and mental health, as well as a small but increasing interest in uses of music to promote well-being. Recent studies have shown that music use is often unconscious, thus difficult to influence without therapeutic conversations. No study has yet tested whether it is feasible to increase awareness of music use in young people who tend to ruminate with music, and test whether increased awareness can reduce distress. This feasibility study aimed to determine whether involvement in a brief music-based intervention was engaging and acceptable to a small sample of young people, and whether their levels of distress decreased and insight into music uses increased. A mixed methods approach was adopted, merging scores of distress and self-reported experience of the intervention to foster interpretation. Convergent analysis of the different data forms suggests that at least some of the measurable decreases in distress captured for all of the participants were related to participation in the sessions, according to the self-report of a number of the young people in interviews. This is demonstrated through descriptive data compiled under two key themes (Agency and Changed Uses) and illustrated through three case examples that were drawn largely from the words of the young people. This feasibility study suggests that young people's relationship with music provides a powerful platform for leveraging engagement in services and improvements in distress, when well timed and carefully scaffolded.

  9. The social context for psychological distress from iatrogenic gynecomastia with suggestions for its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, Richard J; Oliffe, John L

    2009-04-01

    Gynecomastia (breast development in males) is a side effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Medical interventions to prevent or treat gynecomastia carry risk of additional detrimental side effects. However, untreated gynecomastia can be physically uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. Shame from gynecomastia can lead patients to stop otherwise beneficial exercise. Our first aim is to explore the social context for gynecomastia and how it is interpreted by men with the condition, as well as by others, both male and female. Subsequently, we use our understanding of why gynecomastia is psychologically distressing to propose psychosocial interventions that could help men accept this side effect of ADT. We draw on academic literature, media accounts, and web-based testimonials from men with gynecomastia, to understand how gynecomastia is perceived by both patients and the medical community. We examine these resources in light of gynecomastia's impact on sex roles, sexuality, and gender identity issues. By exploring what breasts in a male mean to the individual, we produce an understanding of the social context for distress from gynecomastia. From this understanding, we derive hypotheses about who might be most distressed from gynecomastia and strategies for alleviating this distress. The shame and stigma of gynecomastia is linked to the objectification of women. We suggest that men fear that their breasts will marginalize and subordinate them within gender hierarchies. There is little evidence that breasts on a male erotically attract either men or women. Novel options for living with gynecomastia are contrasted with medicalized strategies including mastectomy. Assessment instruments need to be developed to identify patients most likely to experience distress from gynecomastia and seek out medical interventions. Surgical, radiological, or pharmacological interventions may not be universally necessary if greater acceptance of

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress: A promising transdiagnostic approach to treating disaster survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblen, Jessica L; Norris, Fran H; Symon, Kerry A; Bow, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for postdisaster distress (CBT-PD) is a transdiagnostic intervention that has been used following major disasters such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina. In this study, we report findings from a community-based treatment program that offered CBT-PD to individuals who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Eight trained community therapists delivered CBT-PD to 342 adults who had been exposed to Hurricane Sandy. Participants were assessed at referral, pretreatment, intermediate treatment, posttreatment and 5-month follow-up. The overall prepost effect size was 1.41, indicating large improvement pre to posttreatment. Gains were maintained at follow-up. Timing of the intervention did not affect outcome. Participants who received the intervention early (i.e., 10 to 15 months after Sandy) had the same improvement as those who received it later (i.e., 21 to 26 months after Sandy). Similarly, there was no difference in outcome between individuals with severe as compared with moderate distress at pretreatment. Results suggest that CBT-PD is appropriate for a range of individuals with moderate to severe distress and that it has benefit both early on as well as two years postdisaster. Findings add to growing literature that CBT-PD should be considered as one important component of a larger disaster response system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Wing, Rena R; Kahler, Christopher W; Thompson, J Kevin; Meltzer, Sari; Hecht, Jacki; Minami, Haruka; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis for Distress During Breast Radiotherapy: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Dillon, Matthew J; Schnur, Julie B

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to either the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis (n = 50) or Attention Control (n = 50) group. Results revealed significant benefits of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress at the mid-point (d = 0.54), the conclusion (d = 0.64), and 4 weeks following the conclusion (d = 0.65) of radiotherapy (all ps Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis as an evidence-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in women with breast cancer. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis has the benefits of being brief, noninvasive, lacking side-effects, and producing beneficial effects which last beyond the conclusion of radiotherapy. Given these strengths, we propose that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis is a strong candidate for greater dissemination and implementation in cancer populations.

  13. Predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy | Roos | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is a high incidence of distressing psychological symptoms including anxiety in pregnancy. Nevertheless, predictors of distress and anxiety during pregnancy have not been well characterized. We determined whether temperament and character, trait anxiety, resilience, and social support predicted distress ...

  14. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  15. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The...

  17. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  18. Maternal psychological distress after preterm birth: Disruptive or adaptive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, Ruby A.s.; Hoffenkamp, Hannah N.; Braeken, Johan; Tooten, Anneke; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Van Bakel, Hedwig J.a.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum distress is often construed as a marker of vulnerability to poor parenting. Less is known, however, about the impact of postpartum distress on parenting an infant born prematurely. The present study investigated whether high distress levels, which are particularly

  19. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...... of these findings for auditors and every stakeholder of business firms are considered....

  20. 47 CFR 80.1115 - Transmission of a distress alert by a station not itself in distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1115 Transmission...

  1. The spiritual distress assessment tool: an instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalised elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Estelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although spirituality is usually considered a positive resource for coping with illness, spiritual distress may have a negative influence on health outcomes. Tools are needed to identify spiritual distress in clinical practice and subsequently address identified needs. This study describes the first steps in the development of a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods A three-step process was used to develop the Spiritual Distress Assessment Tool (SDAT: 1 Conceptualisation by a multidisciplinary group of a model (Spiritual Needs Model to define the different dimensions characterizing a patient's spirituality and their corresponding needs; 2 Operationalisation of the Spiritual Needs Model within geriatric hospital care leading to a set of questions (SDAT investigating needs related to each of the defined dimensions; 3 Qualitative assessment of the instrument's acceptability and face validity in hospital chaplains. Results Four dimensions of spirituality (Meaning, Transcendence, Values, and Psychosocial Identity and their corresponding needs were defined. A formalised assessment procedure to both identify and subsequently score unmet spiritual needs and spiritual distress was developed. Face validity and acceptability in clinical practice were confirmed by chaplains involved in the focus groups. Conclusions The SDAT appears to be a clinically acceptable instrument to assess spiritual distress in elderly hospitalised persons. Studies are ongoing to investigate the psychometric properties of the instrument and to assess its potential to serve as a basis for integrating the spiritual dimension in the patient's plan of care.

  2. Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST: A Mixed Studies Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Aston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify evidence to support use of specific harms for the development of a children and young people’s safety thermometer (CYPST. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library post-1999 for studies in pediatric settings about pain, skin integrity, extravasation injury, and use of pediatric early warning scores (PEWS. Following screening, nine relevant articles were included. Convergent synthesis methods were used drawing on thematic analysis to combine findings from studies using a range of methods (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. A review of PEWS was identified so other studies on this issue were excluded. No relevant studies about extravasation injury were identified. The synthesized results therefore focused on pain and skin integrity. Measurement and perception of pain were complex and not always carried out according to best practice. Skin abrasions were common and mostly associated with device related injuries. The findings demonstrate a need for further work on perceptions of pain and effective communication of concerns about pain between parents and nursing staff. Strategies for reducing device-related injuries warrant further research focusing on prevention. Together with the review of PEWS, these synthesized findings support the inclusion of pain, skin integrity, and PEWS in the CYPST.

  3. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO2 fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Toru; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO 2 glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO 2 fibers are smaller than those from SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K

  4. Final report on SIM.T-S2: Comparison of the calibration of 100 Ω platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Chimenti Ruiz, V.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-01-01

    An International Comparison on industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand-carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This report presents the results of this comparison and provides detailed information of the measurements performed by the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Bringing the "self" into focus: conceptualising the role of self-experience for understanding and working with distressing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Smith, Sarah F; Hayward, Mark; Strauss, Clara; Fowler, David; Paulik, Georgie; Thomas, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is to reduce distress and disability, not to change the positive symptoms of psychosis, such as hearing voices. Despite demonstrated associations between beliefs about voices and distress, the effects of CBTp on reducing voice distress are disappointing. Research has begun to explore the role that the psychological construct of "self" (which includes numerous facets such as self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept) might play in causing and maintaining distress and disability in voice hearers. However, attempts to clarify and integrate these different perspectives within the voice hearing literature, or to explore their clinical implications, are still in their infancy. This paper outlines how the self has been conceptualised in the psychosis and CBT literatures, followed by a review of the evidence regarding the proposed role of this construct in the etiology of and adaptation to voice hearing experiences. We go on to discuss some of the specific intervention methods that aim to target these aspects of self-experience and end by identifying key research questions in this area. Notably, we suggest that interventions specifically targeting aspects of self-experience, including self-affection, self-reflection, self-schema and self-concept, may be sufficient to reduce distress and disruption in the context of hearing voices, a suggestion that now requires further empirical investigation.

  6. Antisocial Traits, Distress Tolerance, and Alcohol Problems as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Meagan J; Florimbio, Autumn Rae; Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L

    2018-01-01

    Men with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) traits are at an increased risk for consuming alcohol and perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). However, previous research has neglected malleable mechanisms potentially responsible for the link between ASPD traits, alcohol problems, and IPV perpetration. Efforts to improve the efficacy of batterer intervention programs (BIPs) would benefit from exploration of such malleable mechanisms. The present study is the first to examine distress tolerance as one such mechanism linking men's ASPD traits to their alcohol problems and IPV perpetration. Using a cross-sectional sample of 331 men arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs, the present study used structural equation modeling to examine pathways from men's ASPD traits to IPV perpetration directly and indirectly through distress tolerance and alcohol problems. Results supported a two-chain partial mediational model. ASPD traits were related to psychological aggression perpetration directly and indirectly via distress tolerance and alcohol problems. A second pathway emerged by which ASPD traits related to higher levels of alcohol problems, which related to psychological aggression perpetration. Controlling for psychological aggression perpetration, neither distress tolerance nor alcohol problems explained the relation between ASPD traits and physical assault perpetration. These results support and extend existing conceptual models of IPV perpetration. Findings suggest intervention efforts for IPV should target both distress tolerance and alcohol problems.

  7. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  8. Diabetes Distress and Glycemic Control: The Buffering Effect of Autonomy Support From Important Family Members and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron A; Piette, John D; Heisler, Michele; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2018-06-01

    To examine whether autonomy support (defined as social support for an individual's personal agency) for diabetes management from informal health supporters (family/friends) reduces the detrimental effects of diabetes distress on glycemic control. Three hundred eight veterans with type 2 diabetes and one or more risk factors for diabetes complications completed a survey that included measures of diabetes distress and perceived autonomy support from their main informal health supporter. Hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) data from 12 months before and after the survey were extracted from electronic medical records. Linear mixed modeling examined the main effects and interaction of autonomy support and diabetes distress on repeated measures of HbA 1c over the 12 months after the survey, controlling for mean prior 12-month HbA 1c , time, insulin use, age, and race/ethnicity. Diabetes distress ( B = 0.12 [SE 0.05]; P = 0.023) was associated with higher and autonomy support ( B = -0.16 [SE 0.07]; P = 0.032) with lower subsequent HbA 1c levels. Autonomy support moderated the relationship between diabetes distress and HbA 1c ( B = -0.13 [SE 0.06]; P = 0.027). Greater diabetes distress was associated with higher HbA 1c at low ( B = 0.21 [SE 07]; P = 0.002) but not high ( B = 0.01 [SE 0.07]; P = 0.890) levels of autonomy support. Autonomy support from main health supporters may contribute to better glycemic control by ameliorating the effects of diabetes distress. Interventions that reduce diabetes distress and enhance the autonomy supportiveness of informal supporters may be effective approaches to improving glycemic control. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Effects of Nursing Care Based on Watson's Theory of Human Caring on Anxiety, Distress, And Coping, When Infertility Treatment Fails: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun Ozan, Yeter; Okumuş, Hülya

    2017-06-01

    Introduction: The failure of infertility treatment leads to individual, familial, and social problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the nursing care program based on Watson's "Theory of Human Caring" on anxiety and distress caused by coping when the treatment fails. Methods: This study randomized controlled trial study was conducted from April to November 2012, with 86 Turkish women with infertility (intervention group: 45, control group: 41). Follow-up of 32 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from intervention group, and 35 infertile women, who failed infertility treatment from control group, continued for another four weeks. Data were collected through Spiel Berger's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, Distress Scale, and Ways of Coping Questionnaire. The analyses of data were conducted using SPSS ver 13. Results: The intervention and control groups significantly differed in terms of anxiety, distress, and coping levels. The intervention group's mean anxiety score decreased by thirteen points and distress by fourteen points (in a positive direction). The intervention group's mean positive coping style score increased. Whereas a negative increase was observed in the control group's values depending on the failure of the treatment. Conclusion: Watson's theory of human caring is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with infertility treatment to decrease levels of anxiety and distress, and to increase the positive coping style among infertile women.

  10. Występowanie i nasilenie distresu u pacjentów z nowotworem złośliwym w okresie przygotowania do leczenia chirurgicznego = The occurrence and severity of distress in cancer patients during preparation for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łuczyk

    2016-07-01

    diagnosed with a malignant tumor qualified for surgical treatment. The study used an original interview questionnaire and the distress thermometer. Results. More than half of patients diagnosed with malignant the period of preparation for surgery occurred mild distress, in some patients the severity of distress was considerable. In patients with severe levels of distress following most common problems were difficulties at work and school, in the relationship with a partner, and usually follows, and fatigue. The occurrence and severity of distress in cancer patients before surgery do not affect the socio-demographic factors and the type of cancer diagnosed.   Keywords: cancer, distress, distress thermometer, surgical treatment of cancer.

  11. Moderating Effects of Resilience on Depression, Psychological Distress, and Suicidal Ideation Associated With Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-12-01

    Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.

  12. A 3-stage model of patient-centered communication for addressing cancer patients' emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah; Street, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    To describe pathways through which clinicians can more effectively respond to patients' emotions in ways that contribute to betterment of the patient's health and well-being. A representative review of literature on managing emotions in clinical consultations was conducted. A three-stage, conceptual model for assisting clinicians to more effectively address the challenges of recognizing, exploring, and managing cancer patients' emotional distress in the clinical encounter was developed. To enhance and enact recognition of patients' emotions, clinicians can engage in mindfulness, self-situational awareness, active listening, and facilitative communication. To enact exploration, clinicians can acknowledge and validate emotions and provide empathy. Finally, clinicians can provide information empathetically, identify therapeutic resources, and give referrals and interventions as needed to help lessen patients' emotional distress. This model serves as a framework for future research examining pathways that link clinicians' emotional cue recognition to patient-centered responses exploring a patient's emotional distress to therapeutic actions that contribute to improved psychological and emotional health. Specific communicative and cognitive strategies are presented that can help clinicians better recognize a patient's emotional distress and respond in ways that have therapeutic value. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie T Gumuchian

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.

  14. Medical and psychosocial predictors of caregiver distress and perceived burden following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lynne C; Sander, Angelle M; Struchen, Margaret A; Sherer, Mark; Nakase-Richardson, Risa; Malec, James F

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether caregivers' medical and psychiatric histories, coping style, and social support predict global distress and perceived burden. Correlational, cohort study. A total of 114 caregivers of persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, assessed 1 year postinjury. Ratings of caregivers' medical and psychiatric history; Disability Rating Scale; Ways of Coping Questionnaire; Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; Brief Symptom Inventory; and Modified Caregiver Appraisal Scale. Caregivers' medical and psychiatric histories predicted global distress, after accounting for education, sex, income, and relationship, as well as disability of the person with injury. Increased use of escape-avoidance as a coping strategy was related to increased distress. Perceived burden was predicted by disability in the person with injury, use of escape-avoidance, and perceived social support. Caregivers' preinjury functioning is more predictive of global distress, whereas the functioning of the person with injury is more predictive of injury-related burden. Caregivers' medical and psychiatric histories are important considerations when targeting interventions; global stress management strategies may be as important as assisting with injury-related issues.

  15. Neglect and perceived stigmatization impact psychological distress of orphans in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.

  16. Do Sleep and Psychological Distress Mediate the Association Between Neighborhood Factors and Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Buysse, Daniel; Hale, Lauren; Buman, Matthew; Troxel, Wendy

    2018-05-14

    Pain affects millions of American adults. However, individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups experience higher rates of pain, and individuals from racial/ethnic minorities report greater pain severity and pain-related disability. Some studies find an association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and pain. The present study aimed to further understand the association between neighborhood disadvantage and pain, including the role of objective (e.g., crime rates) and subjective neighborhood characteristics (e.g., perceived safety, neighborhood satisfaction), and to examine sleep and psychological distress as potential mediators of these associations. The sample included 820 participants from two predominantly African American socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Trained data collectors interviewed participants on a number of self-report measures, and objective neighborhood characteristics were obtained from city crime data and street segment audits. Subjective characteristics, specifically perceived infrastructure and perceived safety, were associated with pain. Based on bootstrapped regression models, sleep efficiency and psychological distress were tested as mediators of the association between these neighborhood factors and pain. Results of mediation testing indicated that psychological distress served as a significant mediator. Though sleep efficiency was not a mediator, it had a significant independent association with pain. Understanding the contribution of sleep problems and psychological distress to pain among at-risk individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods is important to identifying ways that individual- and neighborhood-level interventions may be leveraged to reduce pain-related disparities.

  17. Predictors of emotional distress in pregnant women: the mediating role of relationship intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Castanheira, Eva; Moreira, Litícia; Correia, Paulo; Ribeiro, Duarte; Graça Pereira, M

    2017-12-15

    Assessment and treatment of emotional distress during pregnancy show that worries during pregnancy and interpersonal relationships with partners are the important factors determining psychological health. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of worries during pregnancy, relationship intimacy, and marital satisfaction on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in pregnant women, as well as to analyse the mediating effect of relationship intimacy between marital satisfaction and emotional distress. During their second and third trimester of pregnancy, 200 Portuguese women were recruited during childbirth preparation consultations and completed the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships Scale (PAIR), the Marital Life Areas Satisfaction Evaluation Scale (MLASES), and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that being unemployed or on sick leave, being younger, having a history of miscarriage, having more worries during pregnancy, and declaring low-relationship intimacy were the main predictors of emotional distress. Relationship intimacy mediated the relation of marital satisfaction to anxiety and depression symptoms. This study highlights the importance of the worries during pregnancy and relationship intimacy in shaping pregnant women's emotional distress, and identifies both as targets of intervention.

  18. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Aazami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  19. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  20. Psychological distress: precursor or consequence of dating infidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fincham, Frank D

    2009-02-01

    Research on infidelity-related distress has focused on victims with little attention to perpetrators. Two studies therefore explore the psychological functioning of individuals who have engaged in dating infidelity. Study 1 showed that, compared to faithful partners, individuals who had engaged in infidelity showed more psychological distress. Study 2 investigated the interrelationships among infidelity, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction over time. Results suggested that initial levels of psychological distress predicted later infidelity but infidelity did not predict subsequent psychological distress. Findings are interpreted in light of the broader infidelity literature, potential mechanisms are suggested, and avenues for future research are recommended.