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Sample records for distinguishing enterococcal species

  1. Whole-cell protein profiles are useful for distinguishing enterococcal species recovered from clinical specimens Los perfiles de proteínas totales son útiles para distinguir especies de enterococos recuperados de muestras clínicas

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    R. Massa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell protein analysis was performed for differentiating 150 enterococcal isolates to the species level, which had previously been identified by extended phenotypic conventional tests. Whole-cell protein profile (WCPP showed a high degree of similarity within species and comparison between species revealed important differences in band profiles. All Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates were properly located into their corresponding species, regardless of their clinical source and susceptibility pattern. Moreover, WCPP allowed relocation of some isolates that had erroneously been identified by the usual conventional scheme (i.e. two atypical arginine-negative E. faecalis isolates. WCPP proved to be a simple method to ascertain the various enterococcal species, especially those other than E. faecalis, and may be a suitable tool for high-complexity or reference clinical laboratories.La comparación del perfil de proteínas totales permitió agrupar 150 aislamientos de enterococos dentro de la especie en la que habían sido ubicados por el esquema convencional de pruebas bioquímicas. Los patrones de proteínas totales, comparados visualmente, se mantuvieron con alto grado de similitud intraespecie y revelaron diferencias notorias en la comparación interespecie. Todos los aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, independientemente de los sitios de aislamiento, cuadro clínico del paciente, biotipo o antibiotipo, fueron fácilmente encuadrados en su especie. Asimismo, el estudio del perfil de proteínas totales de enterococos permitió reubicar taxonómicamente aislamientos que habían sido incorrectamente identificados por los métodos bioquímicos convencionales, como por ejemplo dos aislamientos atípicos de E. faecalis arginina negativos. Dado que la metodología empleada es económica y rápida, la comparación de perfiles de proteínas totales en SDS-PAGE podría ser considerada una herramienta

  2. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  3. [Transfer of erythromycin-resistance among strains and species of bacteria: plasmid conjugation method in enterococcal isolates].

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    Lü, Ping; Xu, Xi-wei; Song, Wen-Qi; Zhen, Jing-hui; Yu, Sang-jie; Yang, Yong-hong; Shen, Xu-zhuang

    2007-08-14

    To study if the resistance to macrolide in Enterococcus can be transferred between strains, and species of the same and different genera. Agar dilution was used to screen 30 enterococcal isolates that were resistant to erythromycin. Conjugation was performed by filter mating method. The 30 donor bacteria included 13 strains of Enterococcus faecalis, 16 strains of E. faecium, and 1 strain of E. hirae. The recipient bacteria included 1 strain of E. faecalis sensitive to erythromycin and resistant to tetracycline, and 1 strain of Staphylococcus aureus with the MIC against erythromycin of 0.25 approximately 1 microg/ml. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test the existence of ermB gene and the tranposons Tn1545 and Tn917 in the enterococcal isolates before and after filter mating. The transfer rate between different strains and species of the same genus were all 100%. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) against erythromycin of 13 conjugates were both 512 microg/ml, and Tn1545 and Tn917 were found in the ermB gene of 12 conjugates. 17 conjugates were obtained from 16 strains of donor E. faecium and 1 strain of E. hirae with the MIC(50) and MIC(90) both of 512 microg/ml. The ermB gene was found in 16 of the 17 conjugates, and 11 of the 16 conjugates showed the existence of Tn1545 and Tn917, Tn1545 existed in the ermB gene of 4 conjugates, and Tn917 existed in the ermB gene of 1 conjugate. 30 conjugates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained by plasmid conjugation and transfer with a transfer rate of 100% and the MIC(50) and MIC(90) both of 512 microg/ml. The ermB gene was found in 28 of the 30 conjugates. Both Tn1545 and Tn917 were found in the ermB gene of 23 of the 28 conjugates, Tn1545 was found in the ermB gene of 4 conjugates, and Tn917 was found in the ermB gene of 1 conjugate. The resistance to macrolide of Enterococcus, related with the existence of ermB gene and transposons Tn1545 and Tn917, can be transferred between strains and species of same and different genera.

  4. Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.

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    Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence.

  5. Diurnal Variation in Enterococcus Species Composition in Polluted Ocean Water and a Potential Role for the Enterococcal Carotenoid in Protection against Photoinactivation

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    Maraccini, Peter A.; Ferguson, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus species composition was determined each hour for 72 h at a polluted marine beach in Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, CA. Species composition during the day was significantly different from that at night, based on an analysis of similarity. Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis were more prevalent at night than during the day, while E. hirae and other Enterococcus species were more prevalent during the day than the night. Enterococcus spp. containing a yellow pigment were more common during the day than the night, suggesting that the pigmented phenotype may offer a competitive advantage under sunlit conditions. A laboratory microcosm experiment established that the pigmented E. casseliflavus isolate and a pigmented E. faecalis isolate recovered from the field site decay slower than a nonpigmented E. faecalis isolate in a solar simulator in simulated, clear seawater. This further supports the idea that the yellow carotenoid pigment in Enterococcus provides protection under sunlit conditions. The findings are in accordance with previous work with other carotenoid-containing nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic bacteria that suggests that the carotenoid is able to quench reactive oxygen species capable of causing photoinactivation and photostress. The results suggest that using enterococcal species composition as a microbial source tracking tool may be hindered by the differential environmental persistence of pigmented and nonpigmented enterococci. PMID:22081569

  6. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

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    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  7. A single molecular marker to distinguish between species of Dioscorea.

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    Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    Yams are species of the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae), which consists of approximately 630 species. The majority of the world production of yams occurs in Africa with 58.8 million t annually, but they are also produced in the Americas and Asia. The saponins in yams have been reported to possess various properties to improve health. The tuber and aerial parts of various species often share morphological similarities, which can cause problems in the proper identification of sample material. For example, the rootstocks and aerial parts of Dioscorea villosa L. share similarities with Dioscorea polystachia Turcz. Dioscorea bulbifera L. may be mistaken for Dioscorea alata L. owing to similar morphologies. Various molecular analyses have been published to help with the identification of species and varieties within the genus Dioscorea. The multi-loci or single-locus analysis has resulted in varying success, some with only a limited discrimination rate. In the present study, a single nuclear genomic region, biparentally inherited, was analyzed for its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification and discrimination between D. bulbifera, D. villosa, D. nipponica, D. alata, D. caucasica, and D. deltoidea samples. The results of this study show that the LFY genomic region can be useful as a molecular marker to distinguish between samples.

  8. Mortality in enterococcal bloodstream infections increases with inappropriate antimicrobial therapy

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    Suppli, M.; Aabenhus, R.; Harboe, Z.B.

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus species are common in nosocomial bloodstream infections and their incidence is rising. Although well recognized in several serious bacterial infections, the influence of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in enterococcal bacteraemia has not been fully settled. The aim of the study.......7-10), thrombocytopenia (3.9, 1.6-9.3), chronic liver failure (3.3, 1.1-10) and age >/=60 years (2.2, 0.99-5.0). Antibiotics not appropriately covering enterococci are frequently administered empirically in suspected bloodstream infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy was an independent risk factor for mortality...

  9. Treatment of Enterococcal Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients by Oral Amoxicillin or Intra-Peritoneal Vancomcyin: a Retrospective Study

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    Cheuk Chun Szeto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Enterococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients is associated with a high complication rate. The optimal treatment regimen of PD-related enterococcal peritonitis is controversial. The latest international guideline recommends intra-peritoneal (IP vancomycin. Although ampicillin is often effective for systemic enterococcal infections, they have little in vitro activity when added to common PD solutions. Since oral amoxicillin achieves therapeutic drug level in the peritoneal cavity, we explore the efficacy of oral amoxicillin for enterococcal peritonitis. Methods: We studied 105 episodes of enterococcal peritonitis over 20 years in our unit; 43 (41.0% were treated with oral amoxicillin, and 62 (59.0% with IP vancomycin. Their clinical outcome was reviewed. Result: The overall primary response rate to oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 76.4% and 85.5%, respectively (p = 0.3. The complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 55.8% and 54.8%, respectively (p = 0.8. When the 5 episodes of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus episodes were excluded, the primary response rate and complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin were 86.8% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Oral amoxicillin has an excellent primary response rate and complete cure rate for PD-related peritonitis episodes caused by Enterococcus species, indicating that oral amoxicillin is a valid and convenient therapeutic option for enterococcal peritonitis episodes.

  10. Development of genetic markers distinguishing two invasive fire ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their hybrids

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    Three SNP markers were developed that are completely diagnostic in distinguishing the two fire ant species Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri. Although a fourth marker we developed is not fully diagnostic, it is still useful given one of the variants is confined to S. richteri. Joint use of these ma...

  11. DNA barcodes and molecular diagnostics to distinguish an introduced and native Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) species in eastern North America

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    G.A. Davis; N.P. Havill; Z.N. Adelman; A. Caccone; L.T. Kok; S.M. Salom

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on DNA barcodes can be powerful identification tools in the absence of distinctive morphological characters for distinguishing between closely related species. A specific example is distinguishing the endemic species Laricobius rubidus from Laricobius nigrinus, a biological control agent of hemlock...

  12. Low rate of infection control in enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections.

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    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Tripathi, Mohan S; Kenyon, Robert; Wetters, Nathan; Della Valle, Craig J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-10-01

    Enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare after joint arthroplasty. These cases are usually reported in series of PJIs caused by other pathogens. Because few studies have focused only on enterococcal PJIs, management and control of infection of these cases have not yet been well defined. We asked (1) what is the proportion of enterococcal PJI in our institutes; and (2) what is the rate of infection control in these cases? We respectively identified 22 and 14 joints with monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJI, respectively, caused by enterococcus. The diagnosis of PJI was made based on the presence of sinus tract or two positive intraoperative cultures. PJI was also considered in the presence of one positive intraoperative culture and abnormal serology. We determined the proportion of enterococcal PJI and management and control of infection in these cases. Minimum followup was 1.5 years (mean, 3.2 years). The proportion of monomicrobial enterococcal PJI was 2.3% (22 of 955 cases of PJI). Mean number of surgeries was two (range, 1-4). Initial irrigation and débridement was performed in 10 joints and eight patients needed reoperation. Seven of the 16 joints were initially managed using two-stage exchange arthroplasty and did not need further operation. Six patients had a definitive resection arthroplasty. Salvage surgeries (fusion and above-knee amputation) were performed in three cases (8%). The infection was ultimately controlled in 32 of the 36 patients. Management of enterococcal PJI is challenging and multiple operations may need to be performed to control the infection. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. [Recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with a transjugular intrahepatic protosystemic shunt].

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    Passeron, Amélie; Mihaïla-Amrouche, Liliana; Perreira Rocha, Elsa; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Capron, Loïc

    2004-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) are an accepted technique for controlling the complications of portal hypertension. Although the incidence of TIPS-associated bacteremia appears to be low (2%), this complication has a high mortality. We report one case of recurrent enterococcal bacteremia associated with TIPS and regression of TIPS thrombus after antibiotherapy. The antibiotic regimen is similar to that given in bacterial endocardites.

  14. Ribosomal resistance of clinical enterococcal to streptomycin isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Eliopoulos, G M; Farber, B F; Murray, B E; Wennersten, C; Moellering, R C

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of high-level resistance to streptomycin was studied in 12 clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis. Six strains produced streptomycin-modifying enzymes. Each of three enzyme-negative strains tested demonstrated ribosomal resistance to streptomycin. Lack of ribosomal susceptibility is a significant cause of high-level streptomycin resistance among clinical enterococcal isolates.

  15. A simple SDS-PAGE protein pattern from pitcher secretions as a new tool to distinguish Nepenthes species (Nepenthaceae).

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    Biteau, Flore; Nisse, Estelle; Miguel, Sissi; Hannewald, Paul; Bazile, Vincent; Gaume, Laurence; Mignard, Benoit; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frederic

    2013-12-01

    Carnivorous plants have always fascinated scientists because these plants are able to attract, capture, and digest animal prey using their remarkable traps that contain digestive secretions. Nepenthes is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with 120 species described thus far. Despite an outstanding diversity of trap designs, many species are often confused with each other and remain difficult to classify because they resemble pitchers or of the occurrence of interspecific hybrids. Here, we propose a new method to easily distinguish Nepenthes species based on a SDS PAGE protein pattern analysis of their pitcher secretions. Intraspecific comparisons were performed among specimens growing in different environmental conditions to ascertain the robustness of this method. Our results show that, at the juvenile stage and in the absence of prey in the pitcher, an examined species is characterized by a specific and stable profile, whatever the environmental conditions. The method we describe here can be used as a reliable tool to easily distinguish between Nepenthes species and to help with potential identification based on the species-specific protein pattern of their pitcher secretions, which is complementary to the monograph information.

  16. Relevance of wing morphology in distinguishing and classifying genera and species of Stenogastrinae wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baracchi, D.; Dapporto, L.; Turillazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny of the Stenogastrinae wasps is still under discussion and their systematic incomplete. In the present work we used geometric morphometrics, a technique based on a rigorous statistical assessment of shape, to compare the forewings of fifteen species of Stenogastrinae wasps belonging to

  17. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

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    Morton, Josephine; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Stewart, Linda D; Elliott, Christopher T; Grant, Irene R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni). Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries.

  18. Phage display-derived binders able to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.

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    Josephine Morton

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce phage display-derived binders with the ability to distinguish Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria spp., which may have potential utility to enhance detection of Listeria monocytogenes. To obtain binders with the desired binding specificity a series of surface and solution phage-display biopannings were performed. Initially, three rounds of surface biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. monocytogenes serovar 4b cells were performed followed by an additional surface biopanning round against L. monocytogenes 4b which included prior subtraction biopanning against gamma-irradiated L. innocua cells. In an attempt to further enhance binder specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b two rounds of solution biopanning were performed, both rounds included initial subtraction solution biopanning against L. innocua. Subsequent evaluations were performed on the phage clones by phage binding ELISA. All phage clones tested from the second round of solution biopanning had higher specificity for L. monocytogenes 4b than for L. innocua and three other foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. Further evaluation with five other Listeria spp. revealed that one phage clone in particular, expressing peptide GRIADLPPLKPN, was highly specific for L. monocytogenes with at least 43-fold more binding capability to L. monocytogenes 4b than to any other Listeria sp. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how a combination of surface, solution and subtractive biopanning was used to maximise binder specificity. L. monocytogenes-specific binders were obtained which could have potential application in novel detection tests for L. monocytogenes, benefiting both the food and medical industries.

  19. Use of Phage Antibodies to Distinguish Closely Related Species of Protozoan Parasites

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    Timothy Paget

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are typically identified in the laboratory using culture and microscopic observation. In this paper we describe the isolation and specificity of antibody fragments that can be used for the identification of Acanthamoeba. A phage library expressing a large repertoire (approx. 5×109 of antibody fragments was used to generate two libraries one enriched for bacteriophage that exhibit genus specific binding and the other containing bacteriophage that bind specifically to pathogenic Acanthamoeba. Individual clones were isolated on the basis of binding by ELISA, and then flowcytometry and immunofluorescence were used for further characterisation. Four monoclonal antibodies were isolated, specific for Acanthamoeba at the generic level with clone HPPG6 exhibiting the highest level of binding. Furthermore clone HPPG55 was specific for pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba.

  20. A simple chromosomal marker can reliably distinguishes Poncirus from Citrus species.

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    Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Dos Santos-Serejo, J A; Soares Filho, W Dos S; Guerra, M

    2007-03-01

    Several chromosome types have been recognized in Citrus and related genera by chromomycin A(3 )(CMA) banding patterns and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). They can be used to characterize cultivars and species or as markers in hybridization and backcrossing experiments. In the present work, characterization of six cultivars of P. trifoliata ("Barnes", "Fawcett", "Flying Dragon", "Pomeroy", "Rubidoux", "USDA") and one P. trifoliata x C. limonia hybrid was performed by sequential analyses of CMA banding and FISH using 5S and 45S rDNA as probes. All six cultivars showed a similar CMA(+) banding pattern with the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F. The capital letters indicate chromosomal types: B, a chromosome with one telomeric and one proximal band; D, with only one telomeric band; F, without bands. In situ hybridization labeling was also similar among cultivars. Three chromosome pairs displayed a closely linked set of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, two of them co-located with the proximal band of the B type chromosomes (B/5S-45S) and the third one co-located with the terminal band of a D pair (D/5S-45S). The B/5S-45S chromosome has never been found in any citrus accessions investigated so far. Therefore, this B chromosome can be used as a marker to recognize the intergeneric Poncirus x Citrus hybrids. The intergeneric hybrid analyzed here displayed the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F, with two chromosome types B/5S-45S and two D/5S-45S. The karyotype formula and the presence of two B/5S-45S chromosomes clearly indicate that the plant investigated is a symmetric hybrid. It also demonstrates the suitability of karyotype analyses to differentiate zygotic embryos or somatic cell fusions involving trifoliate orange germplasm.

  1. Incidence, clinical characteristics and 30-day mortality of enterococcal bacteraemia in Denmark 2006-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, M; Ostergaard, C; Arpi, M

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci currently account for approximately 10% of all bacteraemias, reflecting remarkable changes in their epidemiology. However, population-based data of enterococcal bacteraemia are scarce. A population-based cohort study comprised all patients with a first episode of Enterococcus faecalis...... as predictors of 30-day mortality in monomicrobial bacteraemia by logistic regression analysis. We identified 1145 bacteraemic patients, 700 (61%) of whom had monomicrobial bacteraemia. The incidence was 19.6/100 000 person-years (13.0/100 000 person-years for E. faecalis and 6.6/100 000 person-years for E....... faecium). The majority of bacteraemias were hospital-acquired (E. faecalis, 45.7%; E. faecium, 85.2%). Urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections were the predominant foci for the two species, respectively. Infective endocarditis (IE) accounted for 25% of patients with community-acquired E. faecalis bacteraemia...

  2. Clues to unraveling the coral species problem: distinguishing species from geographic variation in Porites across the Pacific with molecular markers and microskeletal traits

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    Zac Forsman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in the geographically widespread coral Porites lobata can make it difficult to distinguish from other massive congeneric species. This morphological variation could be attributed to geographic variability, phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of such factors. We examined genetic and microscopic morphological variability in P. lobata samples from the Galápagos, Easter Island, Tahiti, Fiji, Rarotonga, and Australia. Panamanian P. evermanni specimens were used as a previously established distinct outgroup against which to test genetic and morphological methods of discrimination. We employed a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS sequence, principal component analysis (PCA of skeletal landmarks, and Mantel tests to compare genetic and morphological variation. Both genetic and morphometric methods clearly distinguished P. lobata and P. evermanni, while significant genetic and morphological variance was attributed to differences among geographic regions for P. lobata. Mantel tests indicate a correlation between genetic and morphological variation for P. lobata across the Pacific. Here we highlight landmark morphometric measures that correlate well with genetic differences, showing promise for resolving species of Porites, one of the most ubiquitous yet challenging to identify architects of coral reefs.

  3. Characterization of Two Metal Binding Lipoproteins as Vaccine Candidates for Enterococcal Infections.

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    Felipe Romero-Saavedra

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium and faecalis are Gram-positive opportunistic pathogens that have become leading causes of nosocomial infections over the last decades. Especially multidrug resistant enterococci have become a challenging clinical problem worldwide. Therefore, new treatment options are needed and the identification of alternative targets for vaccine development has emerged as a feasible alternative to fight the infections caused by these pathogens.We extrapolate the transcriptomic data from a mice peritonitis infection model in E. faecalis to identify putative up-regulated surface proteins under infection conditions in E. faecium. After the bionformatic analyses two metal binding lipoproteins were identified to have a high homology (>72% between the two species, the manganese ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoprotein (PsaAfm, and the zinc ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoprotein (AdcAfm. These candidate lipoproteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The recombinant proteins were used to produce rabbit polyclonal antibodies that were able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediated killing of the homologous strain E. faecium E155 as well as clinical strains E. faecium E1162, Enterococcus faecalis 12030, type 2 and type 5. Mice were passively immunized with the antibodies raised against recombinant lipoproteins, showing significant reduction of colony counts in mice livers after the bacterial challenge and demonstrating the efficacy of these metal binding lipoproteins as promising vaccine candidates to treat infections caused by these enterococcal pathogens.Overall, our results demonstrate that these two metal binding lipoproteins elicited specific, opsonic and protective antibodies, with an extensive cross-reactivity and serotype-independent coverage among these two important nocosomial pathogens. Pointing these two protein antigens as promising immunogens, that can be used as single components or as carrier

  4. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

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    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  5. Distinguishing molecular features and clinical characteristics of a putative new rhinovirus species, human rhinovirus C (HRV C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McErlean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the most frequently detected pathogens in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs and yet little is known about the prevalence, recurrence, structure and clinical impact of individual members. During 2007, the complete coding sequences of six previously unknown and highly divergent HRV strains were reported. To catalogue the molecular and clinical features distinguishing the divergent HRV strains, we undertook, for the first time, in silico analyses of all available polyprotein sequences and performed retrospective reviews of the medical records of cases in which variants of the prototype strain, HRV-QPM, had been detected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Genomic analyses revealed that the six divergent strains, residing within a clade we previously called HRV A2, had the shortest polyprotein of all picornaviruses investigated. Structure-based amino acid alignments identified conserved motifs shared among members of the genus Rhinovirus as well as substantive deletions and insertions unique to the divergent strains. Deletions mostly affected regions encoding proteins traditionally involved in antigenicity and serving as HRV and HEV receptor footprints. Because the HRV A2 strains cannot yet be cultured, we created homology models of predicted HRV-QPM structural proteins. In silico comparisons confirmed that HRV-QPM was most closely related to the major group HRVs. HRV-QPM was most frequently detected in infants with expiratory wheezing or persistent cough who had been admitted to hospital and required supplemental oxygen. It was the only virus detected in 65% of positive individuals. These observations contributed to an objective clinical impact ranging from mild to severe. CONCLUSIONS: The divergent strains did not meet classification requirements for any existing species of the genus Rhinovirus or Enterovirus. HRV A2 strains should be partitioned into at least one new species, putatively called Human

  6. Assessment of the bacterial diversity of human colostrum and screening of staphylococcal and enterococcal populations for potential virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Delgado, Susana; Fernández, Leonides; García, Natalia; Albújar, Mar; Gómez, Adolfo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to breast milk, little is known about the bacterial composition of human colostrum. The objective of this work was to analyze the bacterial diversity of colostrum obtained from healthy women and to characterize the dominant bacterial species for the presence of possible virulence factors. Samples of colostrum obtained from 36 healthy women were inoculated into different culture media. Several isolates from each medium were selected and identified. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling. One representative of each profile was included in a genetic and phenotypic characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits/genes and sensitivity to antibiotics. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were the dominant species, followed by Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Among the 48 S. epidermidis isolates selected on the basis of their genetic profiles, the biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were detected in only 11 and six isolates, respectively. In parallel, 10 enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA, vanA, vanB, vanD, vanE and vanG genes. All of them were sensitive to vancomycin. There were no indications that the colostrum samples contained harmful bacteria.

  7. Fine-Scale Skeletal Banding Can Distinguish Symbiotic from Asymbiotic Species among Modern and Fossil Scleractinian Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowiak, Katarzyna; Kret, Sławomir; Mazur, Maciej; Meibom, Anders; Kitahara, Marcelo V; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of scleractinian corals on geological timescales is key to predict how modern reef ecosystems will react to changing environmental conditions in the future. Important to such efforts has been the development of several skeleton-based criteria to distinguish between the two major ecological groups of scleractinians: zooxanthellates, which live in symbiosis with dinoflagellate algae, and azooxanthellates, which lack endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. Existing criteria are based on overall skeletal morphology and bio/geo-chemical indicators-none of them being particularly robust. Here we explore another skeletal feature, namely fine-scale growth banding, which differs between these two groups of corals. Using various ultra-structural imaging techniques (e.g., TEM, SEM, and NanoSIMS) we have characterized skeletal growth increments, composed of doublets of optically light and dark bands, in a broad selection of extant symbiotic and asymbiotic corals. Skeletons of zooxanthellate corals are characterized by regular growth banding, whereas in skeletons of azooxanthellate corals the growth banding is irregular. Importantly, the regularity of growth bands can be easily quantified with a coefficient of variation obtained by measuring bandwidths on SEM images of polished and etched skeletal surfaces of septa and/or walls. We find that this coefficient of variation (lower values indicate higher regularity) ranges from ~40 to ~90% in azooxanthellate corals and from ~5 to ~15% in symbiotic species. With more than 90% (28 out of 31) of the studied corals conforming to this microstructural criterion, it represents an easy and robust method to discriminate between zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate corals. This microstructural criterion has been applied to the exceptionally preserved skeleton of the Triassic (Norian, ca. 215 Ma) scleractinian Volzeia sp., which contains the first example of regular, fine-scale banding of thickening deposits in a fossil coral

  8. Distinguishing between cancer driver and passenger gene alteration candidates via cross-species comparison: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xinglai; Tang, Jie; Halberg, Richard; Busam, Dana; Ferriera, Steve; Peña, Maria Marjorette O; Venkataramu, Chinnambally; Yeatman, Timothy J; Zhao, Shaying

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a cross-species comparison strategy to distinguish between cancer driver- and passenger gene alteration candidates, by utilizing the difference in genomic location of orthologous genes between the human and other mammals. As an initial test of this strategy, we conducted a pilot study with human colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mouse model C57BL/6J Apc Min/+ , focusing on human 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2. We first performed bioinformatics analysis on the evolution of 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 regions. Then, we performed exon-targeted sequencing, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses on a number of genes of both regions with both human and mouse colon tumors. These two regions (5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2) are frequently deleted in human CRCs and encode genuine colorectal tumor suppressors APC and SMAD4. They also encode genes such as MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) with their role in CRC etiology unknown. We have discovered that both regions are evolutionarily unstable, resulting in genes that are clustered in each human region being found scattered at several distinct loci in the genome of many other species. For instance, APC and MCC are within 200 kb apart in human 5q22.2 but are 10 Mb apart in the mouse genome. Importantly, our analyses revealed that, while known CRC driver genes APC and SMAD4 were disrupted in both human colorectal tumors and tumors from Apc Min/+ mice, the questionable MCC gene was disrupted in human tumors but appeared to be intact in mouse tumors. These results indicate that MCC may not actually play any causative role in early colorectal tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that its disruption in human CRCs is likely a mere result of its close proximity to APC in the human genome. Expanding this pilot study to the entire genome may identify more questionable genes like MCC, facilitating the discovery of new CRC driver gene candidates

  9. Catheter Removal versus Retention in the Management of Catheter-Associated Enterococcal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Marschall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococci are an important cause of central venous catheter (CVC-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSI. It is unclear whether CVC removal is necessary to successfully manage enterococcal CA-BSI.

  10. Using airborne middle-infrared (1.45–2.0 μm) video imagery for distinguishing plant species and soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, J.H.; Escobar, D.E.; Alaniz, M.A.; Davis, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a black-and-white visible/infrared (0.4–2.4 μm) sensitive video camera, filtered to record radiation within the 1.45–2.0 μm middle-infrared water absorption region, for discriminating among plant species and soil conditions. The camera provided adequate quality airborne imagery that distinguished the succulent plant species onions (Allium cepum L.) and aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) from nonsucculent plant species. Moreover, wet soil, dry crusted soil, and dry fallow soil could be differentiated in middle-infrared video images. Succulent plants, however, could not be distinguished from wet soil or water. These results show that middle-infrared video imagery has potential use for remote sensing research and applications

  11. vanA Gene Harboring Enterococcal and Non-enterococcal Isolates Expressing High Level Vancomycin and Teicoplanin Resistance Reservoired in Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakipoğlu, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Fadime; Icgen, Bulent

    2017-05-01

    Untreated wastewaters and treated effluents even after final disinfection contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes before they are released into surface waters. A correlation between resistant bacteria and antibiotics in surface waters has been found, as have antibiotic resistance genes. Of particular interest are vancomycin-resistant enterococci harboring vanA gene that confers high level of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics including teicoplanin. Therefore, in this study, river water samples were analysed to investigate vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant bacterial isolates harboring vanA gene. Out of 290, 15 surface water isolates displayed resistance to both antibiotics. These glycopeptide resistant enterococcal and non-enterococcal isolates, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, were found to harbor vanA gene with sequence similarities of 50 % to 100 %. The presence of D-alanine-D-lactate ligase encoded by vanA gene was also shown for all vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant isolates through western blot analysis. Due to reuse of treated wastewater and release of untreated wastewaters to water bodies, antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes are being introduced into surface waters and present human health risks. Therefore, surface waters are not only hot spots for vanA harboring enterococcal isolates but also non-enterococcal isolates due to gene dissemination and require special scientific consideration.

  12. Enterococcal Infective Endocarditis following Periodontal Disease in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek

    Full Text Available In humans, one of the major factors associated with infective endocarditis (IE is the concurrent presence of periodontal disease (PD. However, in veterinary medicine, the relevance of PD in the evolution of dogs' endocarditis remains poorly understood. In order to try to establish a correlation between mouth-associated Enterococcus spp. and infective endocarditis in dogs, the present study evaluated the presence and diversity of enterococci in the gum and heart of dogs with PD. Samples were collected during necropsy of 32 dogs with PD and visually diagnosed with IE, which died of natural causes or euthanasia. Enterococci were isolated, identified and further characterized by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE; susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and pathogenicity potential was also evaluated. In seven sampled animals, PFGE-patterns, resistance and virulence profiles were found to be identical between mouth and heart enterococci obtained from the same dog, allowing the establishment of an association between enterococcal periodontal disease and endocarditis in dogs. These findings represent a crucial step towards understanding the pathogenesis of PD-driven IE, and constitute a major progress in veterinary medicine.

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections: New Compounds, Novel Antimicrobial Therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Roel M; Willems, Rob J L; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium and E. faecalis. These new antibacterial agents include teixobactin (targeting lipid II and lipid III), lipopeptides derived from nisin (targeting lipid II), dimeric vancomycin analogues (targeting lipid II), sortase transpeptidase inhibitors (targeting the sortase enzyme), alanine racemase inhibitors, lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibitors (targeting LtaS), various oxazolidinones (targeting the bacterial ribosome), and tarocins (interfering with teichoic acid biosynthesis). The targets of these novel compounds and mode of action make them very promising for further antimicrobial drug development and future treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Here we review current knowledge of the most favorable anti-enterococcal compounds along with their implicated modes of action and efficacy in animal models to project their possible future use in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new multiplex PCR assay to distinguish among three cryptic Galba species, intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Pilar; Lounnas, Manon; Vázquez, Antonio Alejandro; Ayaqui, Rolando; Calvopiña, Manuel; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Dillon, Robert T; Jarne, Philippe; Loker, Eric S; Muñiz Pareja, Flavia Caroll; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Nárvaez, Alberto Orlando; Noya, Oscar; Robles, Luiggi Martini; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Uribe, Nelson; David, Patrice; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie

    2018-02-15

    A molecular tool described here allows in one step for specific discrimination among three cryptic freshwater snail species (genus Galba) involved in fasciolosis transmission, a worldwide infectious disease of humans and livestock. The multiplex PCR approach taken targets for each species a distinctive, known microsatellite locus which is amplified using specific primers designed to generate an amplicon of a distinctive size that can be readily separated from the amplicons of the other two species on an agarose gel. In this way, the three Galba species (G. cubensis, G. schirazensis, and G. truncatula) can be differentiated from one another, including even if DNA from all three were present in the same reaction. The accuracy of this new molecular tool was tested and validated by comparing multiplex PCR results with species identification based on sequences at mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new method is accurate, inexpensive, simple, rapid, and can be adapted to handle large sample sizes. It will be helpful for monitoring invasion of Galba species and for developing strategies to limit the snail species involved in the emergence or re-emergence of fasciolosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enterococcal urinary tract infections in a university hospital: clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Barros

    Full Text Available Although urinary tract infections (UTI represent the most common infection caused by enterococci, some aspects remain to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics present in UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. in patients followed up at the Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. All patients consecutively examined between 1997 and 2005, who received a diagnosis of UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. were included in the study. UTI was defined as the presence of 10(5 colony-forming units per mL of urine. Standard microbiological techniques were used. During the study period, 6.2% of the urine cultures were positive for Enterococcus spp. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years and 57% were male. At initial evaluation, 13% of the patients had complaints suggestive of UTI. Nineteen patients had a history consistent with obstructive uropathy and 26 with neurogenic bladder. At final evaluation, UTI was the diagnosis in 48 patients. In 36 patients (29%, the primary diagnosis was related to urogenital diseases, consisting of obstructive uropathy in 23 of these cases, while in 32 patients (25.8% primary diagnosis was related to neurologic diseases, frequently neurogenic bladder. UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. is not infrequent, is usually associated with few or no symptoms and occurs in sick patients who have anatomical or functional obstructive uropathy associated or not with urinary tract catheterization or instrumentation. The diagnosis of enterococcal UTI may indicate a urinary tract abnormality yet to be diagnosed.

  16. Using multispectral videography to distinguish the pattern of zonation and plant species composition in brackish water marshes of the Rio Grande Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, F.W.; Lonard, R.I.; Everitt, J.H. [Univ. of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Cyclical flooding of the Rio Grande and movement of floodwater into distributary channels formerly constituted significant freshwater input into the marshes of the Rio Grande Delta, but dams and flood control projects have eliminated this source of freshwater. The marshes are now dependent on rainfall alone for freshwater input and may be experiencing significant change in species of vegetation, abundance and patterns of distribution. Unfortunately, little is known of the ecology of these marshes. As a first step in providing needed information, multispectral videography was used to distinguish species composition and patterns of zonation in a brackish water marsh at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron County, Texas. The line intercept method of vegetation analysis provided ground truth and quantified species distribution and abundance. The vegetation of a typical brackish water marsh is organized into three zones along an elevation gradient. At the lowest elevations there is a distinct zone dominated by maritime saltwort, Batis maritime. At the lowest elevations in this zone where rainwater remains the longest, stands of California bulrush, Scirpus californicus, occur. An intermediate zone supports shoregrass, Monanthochloe littoralis, as the dominant species. A third (highest) zone is dominated by Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae. The upper margin of this zone grades gradually into a shrub-grassland community that occurs on lomas (clay dunes). Each of the zones is distinguished by a distinctive signature in the multispectral videography. The Batis maritime community has a bright pink to red image response. Monanthochloe littoralis has a dark brown color and Spartina spartinae has a light gray to pinkish-tan color. Brackish water marshes may be distinguished from saltwater marshes by the relative positions of the Monanthochloe littoralis and Spartina spartinae communities, but additional data are needed before this possibility is confirmed.

  17. Distinguishing contemporary hybridization from past introgression with postgenomic ancestry-informative SNPs in strongly differentiated Ciona species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchemousse, Sarah; Liautard-Haag, Cathy; Bierne, Nicolas; Viard, Frédérique

    2016-11-01

    Biological introductions bring into contact species that can still hybridize. The evolutionary outcomes of such secondary contacts may be diverse (e.g. adaptive introgression from or into the introduced species) but are not yet well examined in the wild. The recent secondary contact between the non-native sea squirt Ciona robusta (formerly known as C. intestinalis type A) and its native congener C. intestinalis (formerly known as C. intestinalis type B), in the Western English Channel, provides an excellent case study to examine. To examine contemporary hybridization between the two species, we developed a panel of 310 ancestry-informative SNPs from a population transcriptomic study. Hybridization rates were examined on 449 individuals sampled in eight sites from the sympatric range and five sites from allopatric ranges. The results clearly showed an almost complete absence of contemporary hybridization between the two species in syntopic localities, with only one-first-generation hybrid and no other genotype compatible with recent backcrosses. Despite the almost lack of contemporary hybridization, shared polymorphisms were observed in sympatric and allopatric populations of both species. Furthermore, one allopatric population from SE Pacific exhibited a higher rate of shared polymorphisms compared to all other C. robusta populations. Altogether, these results indicate that the observed level of shared polymorphism is more probably the outcome of ancient gene flow spread afterwards at a worldwide scale. They also emphasize efficient reproductive barriers preventing hybridization between introduced and native species, which suggests hybridization should not impede too much the expansion and the establishment of the non-native species in its introduction range. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A simple molecular technique for distinguishing species reveals frequent misidentification of Hawaiian corals in the genus Pocillopora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Erika C; Forsman, Zac H; Toonen, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Species within the scleractinian genus Pocillopora Lamarck 1816 exhibit extreme phenotypic plasticity, making identification based on morphology difficult. However, the mitochondrial open reading frame (mtORF) marker provides a useful genetic tool for identification of most species in this genus, with a notable exception of P. eydouxi and P. meandrina . Based on recent genomic work, we present a quick and simple, gel-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for the identification of all six Pocillopora species occurring in Hawai'i by amplifying either the mtORF region, a newly discovered histone region, or both, and then using the restriction enzymes targeting diagnostic sequences we unambiguously identify each species . Using this approach, we documented frequent misidentification of Pocillopora species based on colony morphology. We found that P. acuta colonies are frequently mistakenly identified as P. damicornis in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu. We also found that P. meandrina likely has a northern range limit in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, above which P. ligulata was regularly mistaken for P. meandrina .

  19. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  20. Using LC and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis as Tools to Distinguish Timbó Collections into Two Deguelia Species: A Contribution to Chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Danielle; E Silva, Consuelo; Pinheiro, Aline; Frommenwiler, Débora; Arruda, Mara; Guilhon, Giselle; Alves, Cláudio; Arruda, Alberto; Da Silva, Milton

    2016-04-30

    The species Deguelia utilis and Deguelia rufescens var. urucu, popularly known as "timbó," have been used for many years as rotenone sources in insecticide formulations. In this work, a method was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) system, and results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). By quantifying the major rotenoids of these species, it was possible to establish a linear relation between them. The ratio between the concentrations of rotenone and deguelin for D. utilis is approximately 1:0.8, respectively, while for D. rufescens var. urucu it is 2:1. These results may help to distinguish these species contributing to their taxonomic identification.

  1. Using LC and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis as Tools to Distinguish Timbó Collections into Two Deguelia Species: A Contribution to Chemotaxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle da Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The species Deguelia utilis and Deguelia rufescens var. urucu, popularly known as “timbó,” have been used for many years as rotenone sources in insecticide formulations. In this work, a method was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA system, and results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. By quantifying the major rotenoids of these species, it was possible to establish a linear relation between them. The ratio between the concentrations of rotenone and deguelin for D. utilis is approximately 1:0.8, respectively, while for D. rufescens var. urucu it is 2:1. These results may help to distinguish these species contributing to their taxonomic identification.

  2. Use of monoclonal antibodies to distinguish pathogenic Naegleria fowleri (cysts, trophozoites, or flagellate forms) from other Naegleria species.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparagano, O; Drouet, E; Brebant, R; Manet, E; Denoyel, G A; Pernin, P

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blotting (immunoblotting), and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Two MAbs (3A4 and 5D12) showed reactivity by ELISA with all N. fowleri strains tested and no reactivity with the five other Naegleria species, N. lovaniensis, N. gruberi, N. australiensis, N. jadini, and N. andersoni. These MAbs reacted with t...

  3. Efficacy of ampicillin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a mouse model of lethal enterococcal peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoweth, C E; Robinson, K A; Schaberg, D R

    1990-01-01

    Lethal enterococcal peritonitis in mice was used to compare trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) therapy with ampicillin therapy. Peritoneal fluid showed a 10(3)-CFU decrease in enterococci with ampicillin compared with TMP-SMX. Mortality of the untreated mice was 100%, compared with 40% for ampicillin and 95% for TMP-SMX, despite adequately measured levels in serum and peritoneal fluid.

  4. Post-surgical enterococcal meningitis: clinical and epidemiological study of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, Rodríguez; Asensi, V; Torres, J M; Pérez, F; Blanco, A; Maradona, J A; Cartón, J A

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcal post-surgical meningitis is an uncommon disease. 20 episodes of nosocomial post-surgical enterococcal meningitis diagnosed between 1994 and 2003 were retrospectively studied. During the period of study 20 cases of post-surgical enterococcal meningitis (60% female, mean age 55+/-18 y, range 16-78 y) were reviewed. The mean time between admission at the hospital and surgery was 26 (SD = 15) d (range 7-61 d). The most frequent underlying diseases were: intracerebral haemorrhage (55%), brain neoplasms (25%), head trauma (15%) and hydrocephalus (5%). 11 patients had previously received antibiotic treatment. The isolates identified were Enterococcus faecalis (n = 18) (90%), E. faecium (1) and E. durans (1). 11 patients had polymicrobial infections. The treatment most frequently used was vancomycin alone or with other antibiotics (11). In 5 patients intrathecal vancomycin (20 mg/d) was also added. The mortality rate was not different in intrathecally treated patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) devices were removed in 8 patients. Four patients died due to the infection. Mortality was significantly associated with lack of removal of the CSF devices (p = 0.04). Enterococcal spp. are a cause of nosocomial meningitis associated with neurosurgical procedures and the presence of neurological devices.

  5. Enterococcal surface protein transiently aggravates Enterococcus faecium-induced urinary tract infection in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, Masja; Heikens, Esther; Wijnands, Lucas M.; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; van der Poll, Tom; Willems, Rob J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The role that the enterococcal surface protein Esp plays in the capacity of Enterococcus faecium to adhere to uroepithelial cells and the role that it plays in urinary tract infection and peritonitis was investigated in vitro and in vivo, respectively, using Esp-expressing E. faecium (E1162) and its

  6. Use of monoclonal antibodies to distinguish pathogenic Naegleria fowleri (cysts, trophozoites, or flagellate forms) from other Naegleria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, O; Drouet, E; Brebant, R; Manet, E; Denoyel, G A; Pernin, P

    1993-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay, Western blotting (immunoblotting), and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA). Two MAbs (3A4 and 5D12) showed reactivity by ELISA with all N. fowleri strains tested and no reactivity with the five other Naegleria species, N. lovaniensis, N. gruberi, N. australiensis, N. jadini, and N. andersoni. These MAbs reacted with the three morphological forms of N. fowleri (trophozoites, cysts, and flagellates). The reactivity on Western blots was suppressed by treatment with metaperiodate, suggesting a carbohydrate epitope. Differences in reactivity patterns between trophozoites and cysts observed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay might reflect differences in biological properties. The formalin stability of the epitope may be useful in detecting N. fowleri in fixed biopsies and in investigating the pathological process.

  7. The microbiologic aspects, including diagnosis, of beta-hemolytic streptococcal and enterococcal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, A; Ferrieri, P

    1993-06-01

    . faecalis and E. faecium still account for the majority of human infections, but some of the newer enterococcal species (at present 19 species are recognized) have been encountered as well. The definitive species identification of enterococci requires the performance of an array of biochemical tests. The increasing antimicrobial resistance of enterococci, including high-level resistance to penicillins and aminoglycosides and occasionally also to glycopeptides, has hampered standard therapeutic regimens. All enterococci isolated from serious infections should be tested for high-level gentamicin and streptomycin resistance by one of several methods evaluated; beta-lactamase production (primarily found in E. faecalis) is reliably detected by the nitrocefin test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  8. Risk factors for enterococcal infection and colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Drougka, E; Fligou, F; Kolonitsiou, F; Liakopoulos, A; Dodou, V; Anastassiou, E D; Petinaki, E; Marangos, M; Filos, K S; Spiliopoulou, I

    2014-12-01

    Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are important causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) infections. Our goal was to identify the prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonization upon ICU admission and during ICU stay, as well as, their impact in enterococcal infection including vancomycin-susceptible cases (VSE). A prospective study regarding patients admitted in ICU (n = 497) was conducted during a 24-month period. Rectal swabs were collected upon admission and during hospitalization and inoculated onto selective medium. Enterococci were phenotypically characterized. van genes were investigated by PCR and clones were identified by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Epidemiologic data were collected from the ICU database. Risk factors for VRE carriage upon ICU admission (71/497) were: duration of previous hospitalization, glycopeptide administration, chronic heart failure, malignancy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and previous enterococcal infection (VRE and/or VSE). Risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU stay (36/250) were: quinolone administration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, and number of VRE-positive patients in nearby beds. Risk factors for enterococcal infection during ICU stay (15/284), including VRE and VSE cases, were: administration of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, cortisone use before ICU admission and VRE colonization, whereas, enteral nutrition was a protective factor. Previous VRE colonization and antibiotic usage are essential parameters for enterococcal infection (by VRE or VSE) during ICU stay. Previous enterococcal infection, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage are associated with VRE colonization upon ICU admission, whereas, patient to patient transmission, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage constitute risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU hospitalization.

  9. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  10. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Aconitum pseudolaeve and Aconitum longecassidatum, and Development of Molecular Markers for Distinguishing Species in the Aconitum Subgenus Lycoctonum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyu Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai and Aconitum longecassidatum Nakai, which belong to the Aconitum subgenus Lycoctonum, are distributed in East Asia and Korea. Aconitum species are used in herbal medicine and contain highly toxic components, including aconitine. A. pseudolaeve, an endemic species of Korea, is a commercially valuable material that has been used in the manufacture of cosmetics and perfumes. Although Aconitum species are important plant resources, they have not been extensively studied, and genomic information is limited. Within the subgenus Lycoctonum, which includes A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, a complete chloroplast (CP genome is available for only one species, Aconitum barbatum Patrin ex Pers. Therefore, we sequenced the complete CP genomes of two Aconitum species, A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, which are 155,628 and 155,524 bp in length, respectively. Both genomes have a quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of inverted repeated regions (51,854 and 52,108 bp, respectively separated by large single-copy (86,683 and 86,466 bp and small single-copy (17,091 and 16,950 bp regions similar to those in other Aconitum CP genomes. Both CP genomes consist of 112 unique genes, 78 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 30 transfer RNA (tRNA genes. We identified 268 and 277 simple sequence repeats (SSRs in A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, respectively. We also identified potential 36 species-specific SSRs, 53 indels, and 62 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the two CP genomes. Furthermore, a comparison of the three Aconitum CP genomes from the subgenus Lycoctonum revealed highly divergent regions, including trnK-trnQ, ycf1-ndhF, and ycf4-cemA. Based on this finding, we developed indel markers using indel sequences in trnK-trnQ and ycf1-ndhF. A. pseudolaeve, A. longecassidatum, and A. barbatum could be clearly distinguished using the novel indel markers AcoTT (Aconitum trnK-trnQ and Aco

  11. Combination of Ceftriaxone and Ampicillin for the Treatment of Enterococcal Endocarditis: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shaylee C; Lau, Tim T Y; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to review all human trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. MEDLINE (1946-), EMBASE (1974-), CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched through January 2017 using the search terms ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalosporin, enterococ*, and endocarditis. Unpublished studies were eligible for inclusion. Additional references were identified from literature citations. Clinical trials in humans that reported on clinical efficacy or adverse outcomes with ceftriaxone and ampicillin therapy in patients with enterococcal endocarditis were included. Case reports, nonhuman, and non-English studies were excluded. Four observational clinical studies were identified. One examined the effects of ceftriaxone and ampicillin alone, and 3 compared the therapy to the current standard of care, ampicillin and gentamicin. The studies had small sample sizes and were not adequately designed or powered to establish noninferiority or equivalence to the current standard of care. Rates of clinical cure with ampicillin 2 g every 4 hours and ceftriaxone 2 g every 12 hours were similar to those of ampicillin and gentamicin. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone therapy was well tolerated with low rates of renal failure (0%-33%). The evidence to support the use of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis is not definitive. In the absence of compelling evidence, clinicians may consider ampicillin and ceftriaxone in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infection at high risk for nephrotoxicity or those with aminoglycoside-resistant pathogens.

  12. Impact of enterococcal colonization and infection in solid organ transplantation recipients from the Swiss transplant cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, E; Kralidis, G; Boggian, K; Cusini, A; Garzoni, C; Manuel, O; Meylan, P R A; Mueller, N J; Khanna, N; van Delden, C; Berger, C; Koller, M T; Weisser, M

    2014-02-01

    The burden of enterococcal infections has increased over the last decades with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) being a major health problem. Solid organ transplantation is considered as a risk factor. However, little is known about the relevance of enterococci in solid organ transplantation recipients in areas with a low VRE prevalence. We examined the epidemiology of enterococcal events in patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study between May 2008 and September 2011 and analyzed risk factors for infection, aminopenicillin resistance, treatment, and outcome. Of the 1234 patients, 255 (20.7%) suffered from 392 enterococcal events (185 [47.2%] infections, 205 [52.3%] colonizations, and 2 events with missing clinical information). Only 2 isolates were VRE. The highest infection rates were found early after liver transplantation (0.24/person-year) consisting in 58.6% of Enterococcus faecium. The highest colonization rates were documented in lung transplant recipients (0.33/person-year), with 46.5% E. faecium. Age, prophylaxis with a betalactam antibiotic, and liver transplantation were significantly associated with infection. Previous antibiotic treatment, intensive care unit stay, and lung transplantation were associated with aminopenicillin resistance. Only 4/205 (2%) colonization events led to an infection. Adequate treatment did not affect microbiological clearance rates. Overall mortality was 8%; no deaths were attributable to enterococcal events. Enterococcal colonizations and infections are frequent in transplant recipients. Progression from colonization to infection is rare. Therefore, antibiotic treatment should be used restrictively in colonization. No increased mortality because of enterococcal infection was noted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development of Quantitative PCR Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Enterococcus spp. and Their Application to the Identification of Enterococcus Species in Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hodon; Henson, Michael; Elk, Michael; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Griffith, John; Blackwood, Denene; Noble, Rachel; Gourmelon, Michèle; Glassmeyer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The detection of environmental enterococci has been determined primarily by using culture-based techniques that might exclude some enterococcal species as well as those that are nonculturable. To address this, the relative abundances of enterococci were examined by challenging fecal and water samples against a currently available genus-specific assay (Entero1). To determine the diversity of enterococcal species, 16S rRNA gene-based group-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and evaluated against eight of the most common environmental enterococcal species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of 439 presumptive environmental enterococcal strains were analyzed to study further the diversity of enterococci and to confirm the specificities of group-specific assays. The group-specific qPCR assays showed relatively high amplification rates with targeted species (>98%), although some assays cross-amplified with nontargeted species (1.3 to 6.5%). The results with the group-specific assays also showed that different enterococcal species co-occurred in most fecal samples. The most abundant enterococci in water and fecal samples were Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, although we identified more water isolates as Enterococcus casseliflavus than as any of the other species. The prevalence of the Entero1 marker was in agreement with the combined number of positive signals determined by the group-specific assays in most fecal samples, except in gull feces. On the other hand, the number of group-specific assay signals was lower in all water samples tested, suggesting that other enterococcal species are present in these samples. While the results highlight the value of genus- and group-specific assays for detecting the major enterococcal groups in environmental water samples, additional studies are needed to determine further the diversity, distributions, and relative abundances of all enterococcal species found in water. PMID:23087032

  14. A genetic determinant in Streptococcus gordonii Challis encodes a peptide with activity similar to that of enterococcal sex pheromone cAM373, which facilitates intergeneric DNA transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, M M; Flannagan, S E; Jesionowski, A M; Brossard, K A; Clewell, D B; Sedgley, C M

    2010-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains secrete multiple peptides representing different sex pheromones that induce mating responses by bacteria carrying specific conjugative plasmids. The pheromone cAM373, which induces a response by the enterococcal plasmid pAM373, has been of interest because a similar activity is also secreted by Streptococcus gordonii and Staphylococcus aureus. The potential to facilitate intergeneric DNA transfer from E. faecalis is of concern because of extensive multiple antibiotic resistance, including vancomycin resistance, that has emerged among enterococci in recent years. Here, we characterize the related pheromone determinant in S. gordonii and show that the peptide it encodes, gordonii-cAM373, does indeed induce transfer of plasmid DNA from E. faecalis into S. gordonii. The streptococcal determinant camG encodes a lipoprotein with a leader sequence, the last 7 residues of which represent the gordonii-cAM373 heptapeptide SVFILAA. Synthetic forms of the peptide had activity similar to that of the enterococcal cAM373 AIFILAS. The lipoprotein moiety bore no resemblance to the lipoprotein encoded by E. faecalis. We also identified determinants in S. gordonii encoding a signal peptidase and an Eep-like zinc metalloprotease (lspA and eep, respectively) similar to those involved in processing certain pheromone precursors in E. faecalis. Mutations generated in camG, lspA, and eep each resulted in the ablation of gordonii-cAM373 activity in culture supernatants. This is the first genetic analysis of a potential sex pheromone system in a commensal oral streptococcal species, which may have implications for intergeneric gene acquisition in oral biofilms.

  15. Analysis of Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzyme Genes Responsible for High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance among Enterococcal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Shete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic modification results in high-level resistance to aminoglycoside (HLAR, which eliminates the synergistic bactericidal effect of combined exposure to a cell wall-active agent and an aminoglycoside. So aim of the study was to determine prevalence of HLAR enterococcal isolate and to study distribution of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in them. A total of 100 nonrepeat isolates of enterococci from various clinical samples were analyzed. As per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines enterococci were screened for HLAR by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration of all isolates for gentamicin and streptomycin was determined by E-test. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out for HLAR enterococcal isolates to identify aminoglycoside modifying enzymes genes responsible for resistance. 60% isolates were found to be high-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR whereas 45% isolates were found to be high-level streptomycin resistant (HLSR. By multiplex PCR 80% HLGR isolates carried bifunctional aminoglycoside modifying enzyme gene aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia whereas 18 out of 45 high-level streptomycin resistant, that is, 40%, isolates carried aph(3′-IIIa. However, aph(2′′-Ib, aph(2′′-Ic, aph(2′′-Id, and ant(4′-Ia genes which encode other aminoglycosides modifying enzymes were not detected. Bifunctional aminoglycoside modifying enzyme gene aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia is the predominant gene responsible for HLAR.

  16. Antagonistic Donor Density Effect Conserved in Multiple Enterococcal Conjugative Plasmids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie; Frank, Kristi L.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors. We recently demonstrated that the inhibitor peptide encoded on plasmid pCF10 is part of a unique quorum-sensing system in which it functions as a “self-sensing signal,” reducing the response to the pheromone in a density-dependent fashion. Based on the similarities between regulatory features controlling conjugation in pAD1 and pAM373 and those controlling conjugation in pCF10, we hypothesized that these plasmids are likely to exhibit similar quorum-sensing behaviors. Experimental findings indicate that for both pAD1 and pAM373, high donor densities indeed resulted in decreased induction of the conjugation operon and reduced conjugation frequencies. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous inhibitor, confirming that the inhibitor serves as an indicator for donor density. Donor density also affects cross-species conjugative plasmid transfer. Based on our experimental results, we propose models for induction and shutdown of the conjugation operon in pAD1 and pAM373. IMPORTANCE Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its ability to transfer antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants by sharing its genetic material with other bacteria through direct cell-cell contact via conjugation poses a serious threat. Two antagonistic signaling peptides control the transfer of plasmids pAD1 and pAM373: a peptide pheromone produced by

  17. A new Haemocystidium (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) species of the dhub lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis , in Abu Dhabi, distinguished by the absence of pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Sam R; Peirce, M A; Samour, J

    2012-06-01

    The spiny-tailed lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis , in Abu Dhabi is parasitized by Haemocystidium apigmentada n. sp., and 2 species of Hepatozoon . The elongate gametocytes of H. apigmentada are 13-19 × 6-9 µm, with length × width (LW) 90-133 µm(2), and L/W ratio 1.56-3.17. Gametocyte dimensions do not differ by sex. Gametocytes are unpigmented. Hepatozoon species 1 has gamonts with a consistently terminal nucleus, with dimensions of 13-16 × 4.5-7 µm, LW of 58-104 µm(2), and L/W ratio of 2.00-3.22. Hepatozoon species 2 gamonts have a broad nucleus at the midbody, and dimensions of 13-15.5 × 5-7 µm, LW of 71-109 µm(2), and L/W ratio of 1.93-3.00.

  18. New view on the age-specificity of pig Cryptosporidium by species-specific primers for distinguishing Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeníková, M.; Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 120-125 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Mixed infection * Age-specificity * Species-specific primers Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  19. Intra-specific rDNA-ITS restriction site variation and an improved protocol to distinguish species and hybrids in the .i.Daphnia longispina./i. complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skage, M.; Hobæk, A.; Ruthová, Š.; Keller, B.; Petrusek, A.; Seďa, Jaromír; Spaak, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 594, č. 1 (2007), s. 19-32 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0190 Grant - others:NRC(NO) 121181/720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Daphnia longispina species complex * ITS- RFLP * ribosomal DNA (rDNA) * ITS * intragenomic * interspecific hybrids Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.201, year: 2007

  20. Incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Dorsky, D; Feingold, J M; Bona, R D; Edwards, R L; Aslanzadeh, J; Tutschka, P J; Bilgrami, S

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 321 consecutive recipients of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) was conducted to ascertain the incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia. Ten patients developed VRE bacteremia at a median of 6 days following PBSCT. Nine isolates were Enterococcus faecium and one was E. faecalis. The median duration of bacteremia was 5 days. The central venous catheter was removed in seven individuals. Nine patients were treated with a variety of antimicrobial agents including quinupristin-dalfopristin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, oral bacitracin, co-trimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin. Bacteremia resolved without adverse sequelae in seven patients. Two individuals who died of other causes had persistent or relapsed bacteremia at the time of death. An additional patient suffered multiple relapses of VRE bacteremia and died as a result of VRE endocarditis 605 days following PBSCT. Mortality as a direct result of VRE bacteremia was 10% in this series. The optimal type and duration of treatment of VRE bacteremia has not been clearly defined. Therefore, we perform weekly stool surveillance cultures for VRE in our hospitalized transplant population and apply strict barrier precautions in those individuals in whom stool colonization has been identified. Furthermore, the empiric use of vancomycin has been restricted. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 147-152.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-enterococcal intrinsic glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Carlos; Cittadini, Roxana; Barberis, Claudia; Hernán Rodríguez, Carlos; Perez Martínez, Herminia; Genero, Fabiana; Famiglietti, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Non-enterococcal Gram-positive bacteria that are intrinsically vancomycin-resistant have been infrequently isolated in association with serious infections. However, well-documented infections have lately been reported with increasing frequency. Because these organisms may be pathogens, we tested the MICs of 19 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method for predicting susceptibility. The activity of these antimicrobial agents was assessed against 28 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 6; Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1; Lactobacillus casei, 1; Lactobacillus fermentum, 2; Lactobacillus brevis, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1; Weissella confusa, 2; Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 7; Leuconostoc lactis, 4; Pediococcus acidilactici, 2; Pediococcus pentosaceus, 1), isolated from clinical specimens in an Argentinian university hospital from 1997 to 2003. The MICs of penicillin for 67% of the Lactobacillus strains and 100% of the Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. strains tested were in the 0.25-2 microg/mL range. Erythromycin was the most active antimicrobial overall. Multiresistance was observed in 2 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1).

  2. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  3. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  4. Identification of an IS711 Element Interrupting the wboA Gene of Brucella abortus Vaccine Strain RB51 and a PCR Assay To Distinguish Strain RB51 from Other Brucella Species and Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Ramesh; McQuiston, John R.; Schurig, Gerhardt G.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Halling, Shirley M.; Boyle, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 is a natural stable attenuated rough mutant derived from the virulent strain 2308. The genetic mutations that are responsible for the roughness and the attenuation of strain RB51 have not been identified until now. Also, except for an assay based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, no other simple method to differentiate strain RB51 from its parent strain 2308 is available. In the present study, we demonstrate that the wboA gene encoding a glycosyltransferase, an enzyme essential for the synthesis of O antigen, is disrupted by an IS711 element in B. abortus vaccine strain RB51. Exploiting this feature, we developed a PCR assay that distinguishes strain RB51 from all other Brucella species and strains tested. PMID:10473532

  5. PCR slippage across the ML-2 microsatellite of the Cryptosporidium MIC1 locus enables development of a PCR assay capable of distinguishing the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum from other human infectious Cryptosporidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, M A; Sari, I; Hoefel, D; Monis, P T; King, B J

    2014-08-01

    Cryptosporidium are ubiquitous and significant enteropathogens of all classes of vertebrates and a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Of the 24 recognized species, the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and the host-specific Cryptosporidium hominis cause the majority of cases of human cryptosporidiosis. Here, we report on structural and transcriptional variability between C. parvum and C. hominis at the MIC1 locus, which encodes a microneme localized thrombospondin-like domain containing protein previously demonstrated to be critical for host cell infection by C. parvum. We demonstrate, using reverse transcription quantitative PCR with the aid of genomic data from the EuPathDB site, that the transcribed product in C. hominis is both truncated and significantly down-regulated in the sporozoite. We hypothesize that CpMIC1 may be a genetic factor involved in facilitating the wider host range of C. parvum in comparison with the specific host range of C. hominis. Furthermore, we show that the presence of a microsatellite (ML-2) within the C. parvum MIC-1 locus enables the development of a PCR marker that can rapidly distinguish the zoonotic C. parvum from C. hominis and other significant human infectious Cryptosporidium species due to reproducible PCR slippage across the ML-2 microsatellite. Additionally, we demonstrate that this locus is tightly linked to the GP60 locus, a locus commonly used in the genetic characterization of C. parvum and C. hominis isolates. This marker should provide a robust and additional tool to aid in the rapid identification of C. parvum from other Cryptosporidium species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Members of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus harbor genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Christensen, H.; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative D-Ala:D-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related...

  7. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2016-10-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.

  8. Host range of enterococcal vanA plasmids among Gram-positive intestinal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Guido; Freitas, Ana R.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The most prevalent type of acquired glycopeptide resistance is encoded by the vanA transposon Tn1546 located mainly on transferable plasmids in Enterococcus faecium. The limited occurrence in other species could be due to the lack of inter-species transferability and/or stability of T...

  9. Effective treatment of enterococcal infections of the kidneys in women with lupus nephritis in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Limanskaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effectiveness of Linezolid in the treatment of lupus nephritis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in the postpartum period. Materials and methods. The study involved 22 women with SLE with clinical and laboratory signs of lupus nephritis of the different level of activity. All women conducted urine culture with the definition of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. In postpartum period all women had received Linezolid antibiotic in the dosage 300 mg by intravenous administration 2 times a day for 5 days. After the treatment the control urine culture were carried out. Results. After Linezolid treatment in 100% of cases was marked the absence of significant microbial growth in urine. Also was marked the decrease of proteinuria and improvements in microscopy of urine sediment. Conclusions. The rapid development of microbial flora stability requires the use of antimicrobial drugs that are effective in the treatment of enterococcal and non-referred to already applied groups during this pregnancy. Linezolid is a highly redundant antibiotic which must be used in case of potentially intractable infections.

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%, 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%, 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%, 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%, and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital

  11. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Li, Gang; Wang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%), 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%), 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%), 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%), and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%). The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital exhibited various

  12. Ensemble Equivalence for Distinguishable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Peralta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of distinguishable particles has become relevant in systems of colloidal particles and in the context of applications of statistical mechanics to complex networks. In this paper, we present evidence that a commonly used expression for the partition function of a system of distinguishable particles leads to huge fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble and, consequently, to nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. We will show that the alternative definition of the partition function including, naturally, Boltzmann’s correct counting factor for distinguishable particles solves the problem and restores ensemble equivalence. Finally, we also show that this choice for the partition function does not produce any inconsistency for a system of distinguishable localized particles, where the monoparticular partition function is not extensive.

  13. Environmental occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene is an unreliable indicator of human fecal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Whitman, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene found in Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium has recently been explored as a marker of sewage pollution in recreational waters but its occurrence and distribution in environmental enterococci has not been well-documented. If the esp gene is found in environmental samples, there are potential implications for microbial source tracking applications. In the current study, a total of 452 samples (lake water, 100; stream water, 129; nearshore sand, 96; and backshore sand, 71; Cladophora sp. (Chlorophyta), 41; and periphyton (mostly Bacillariophyceae), 15) collected from the coastal watersheds of southern Lake Michigan were selectively cultured for enterococci and then analyzed for the esp gene by PCR, targeting E. faecalis/ E. faecium (espfs/fm) and E. faecium (espfm). Overall relative frequencies for espfs/fm and espfm were 27.4 and 5.1%. Respective percent frequency for the espfs/fm and espfm was 36 and 14% in lake water; 38.8 and 2.3% in stream water; 24 and 6.3% in nearshore sand; 0% in backshore sand; 24.4 and 0% in Cladophora sp.; and 33.3 and 0% in periphyton. The overall occurrence of both espfs/fm and espfm was significantly related (χ2 = 49, P espfs/fm increased in lake and stream water and nearshore sand. Further, E. coli and enterococci cell densities were significant predictors for espfs/fm occurrence in post-rain lake water, but espfm was not. F+ coliphage densities were not significant predictors for espfm or espfs/fm gene incidence. In summary, the differential occurrence of the esp gene in the environment suggests that it is not limited to human fecal sources and thus may weaken its use as a reliable tool in discriminating contaminant sources (i.e., human vs nonhuman).

  14. The role of side stream dark field microvasculature imaging in a rare case of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endocarditis complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Bechar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidestream dark field (SDF imaging allows direct visualization of microvascular architecture and function. We examine the role of an SDF imaging device in visualizing the sub-lingual microvasculature as a surrogate for splanchnic microperfusion. We demonstrate good correlation between current monitoring techniques and the SDF imaging device in a rare case of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE sepsis along with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. To the best of our knowledge, VRE endocarditis with concurrent HIT has not been described in literature. The role of SDF imaging may predict the earlier need for escalation of care, improving morbidity and mortality.

  15. Distinguishing drought and water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    Water resources can become strained by both natural factors such as drought and human factors such as unsustainable use. Water resource managers can develop practices to reduce overuse of water resources, but they cannot prevent droughts, so distinguishing the causes of water stress can be useful.

  16. Bacteriocins with a broader antimicrobial spectrum prevail in enterococcal symbionts isolated from the hoopoe's uropygial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    The use of compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria against pathogens in animals is one of the most exciting discoveries in ecological immunology. The study of those antibiotic metabolites will enable an understanding of the defensive strategies against pathogenic infections. Here, we explore the role of bacteriocins explaining the antimicrobial properties of symbiotic bacteria isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops). The antagonistic activity of 187 strains was assayed against eight indicator bacteria, and the presence of six bacteriocin genes was detected in the genomic DNA. The presence of bacteriocin genes correlated with the antimicrobial activity of isolates. The most frequently detected bacteriocin genes were those encoding for the MR10 and AS-48 enterocins, which confer the highest inhibition capacity. All the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus, with E. faecalis as the most abundant species, with the broadest antimicrobial spectrum and the highest antagonistic activity. The vast majority of E. faecalis strains carried the genes of MR10 and AS-48 in their genome. Therefore, we suggest that fitness-related benefits for hoopoes associated with harbouring the most bactericidal symbionts cause the highest frequency of strains carrying MR10 and AS-48 genes. The study of mechanisms associated with the acquisition and selection of bacterial symbionts by hoopoes is necessary, however, to reach further conclusions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and distribution of enterococcal clonal complex 17 from animals and human beings in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ka Hee; Hwang, Sun Young; Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Young Kyung; Shin, Sook; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Park, Yong Ho

    2012-09-01

    Enterococci are major zoonotic bacteria that cause opportunistic infections in human beings and animals. Moreover, pathogenic strains can be disseminated between human beings and animals, particularly companion animals that come into frequent contact with people. Recently, Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 (CC17) has emerged as a pandemic clone. Most CC17 strains are ampicillin resistant and possess virulence genes such as esp and hyl. Despite the possible dissemination of CC17 between human beings and animals, prevalence data about CC17 in animals is limited. In the present study, the phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance were compared, as well as virulence gene profiles from 184 enterococci strains isolated from chickens, pigs, companion animals, and human patients in Korea. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF) strains were selected, and multilocus sequence typing was performed to investigate the dispersion of CC17 among animals and human beings. The companion animal and human isolates showed high resistance rates to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, whereas food animal isolates showed high tetracycline and erythromycin resistance rates. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium was only detected in human (21/21 E. faecium, 100%) and companion animal (3/5 E. faecium, 60%) isolates, and all human AREF strains and 1 canine AREF strain were confirmed as CC17. In conclusion, the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and the distribution of enterococcal CC17 in companion animal enterococcal strains were similar to those of human strains rather than to those of food animal strains.

  18. Distinguishing Ichthyoses by Protein Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations. PMID:24130705

  19. Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, J. A. Jimenez; Mancho, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalizes the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consists of determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of high...

  20. Generalized Pauli principle for particles with distinguishable traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Vanasse, Jared; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The s=3/2 Ising spin chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and magnetic field is shown to be equivalent to a system of 17 species of particles with internal structure. The same set of particles (with different energies) is shown to generate the spectrum of the s=1/2 Ising chain with dimerized nearest-neighbor coupling. The particles are free of interaction energies even at high densities. The mutual exclusion statistics of particles from all species is determined by their internal structure and encoded in a generalized Pauli principle. The exact statistical mechanical analysis can be performed for thermodynamically open or closed systems and with arbitrary energies assigned to all particle species. Special circumstances make it possible to merge two or more species into a single species. All traits that distinguish the original species become ignorable. The particles from the merged species are effectively indistinguishable and obey modified exclusion statistics. Different mergers may yield the same end product, implying that the inverse process (splitting any species into subspecies) is not unique. In a macroscopic system of two merged species at thermal equilibrium, the concentrations of the original species satisfy a functional relation governed by their mutual statistical interaction. That relation is derivable from an extremum principle. In the Ising context the system is open and the particle energies depend on the Hamiltonian parameters. Simple models of polymerization and solitonic paramagnetism each represent a closed system of two species that can transform into each other. Here they represent distinguishable traits with different energies of the same physical particle. © 2012 American Physical Society

  1. George Stephanopoulos to give Cutchins Distinguished Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2006-01-01

    ABC News' chief Washington correspondent and"This Week" anchor George Stephanopoulos will give the Cutchins Distinguished Lecture at Virginia Tech on Thursday, March 16, 7:30 p.m., in Burruss Auditorium.

  2. Time Is of the Essence: The Impact of Delayed Antibiotic Therapy on Patient Outcomes in Hospital-Onset Enterococcal Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasowski, Evan J; Claeys, Kimberly C; Lagnf, Abdalhamid M; Davis, Susan L; Rybak, Michael J

    2016-05-15

    With increasing prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), appropriate antibiotic therapy for enterococcal bloodstream infections (EBSI) can be delayed. Data regarding the impact of delayed therapy on EBSI outcomes are conflicting, and the time delay most strongly associated with poor outcomes has not been defined. This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of adult, nonneutropenic patients with hospital-onset EBSI from 2010 to 2014. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to determine the delay in appropriate therapy most predictive of 30-day mortality. Appropriate therapy was defined as antibiotic therapy to which the enterococci and copathogen, where applicable, were susceptible. Outcomes and clinical characteristics were compared between patients receiving early or delayed therapy, defined by CART timepoint. Poisson regression was employed to determine the independent association of delayed therapy on 30-day mortality and predictors of delayed therapy. Overall, 190 patients were included. A breakpoint in time to appropriate therapy was identified at 48.1 hours, where 30-day mortality was substantially increased (14.6% vs 45.3%; P therapy after 48.1 hours also experienced higher in-hospital mortality and longer EBSI duration. After adjustment for severity of illness and comorbidity, delayed therapy ≥48.1 hours was associated with a 3-fold increase in 30-day mortality (risk ratio, 3.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.96-5.09]). Vancomycin resistance was the only independent predictor of delayed therapy. In patients with hospital-onset EBSI, receipt of appropriate therapy within the first 48 hours was associated with reduced mortality, underscoring the potential role of rapid diagnostic testing for early identification of VRE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, C Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-04-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes by their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, was used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes.

  4. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  5. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  6. Distinguishing intrauterine foetal demise versus abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy always poses a clinical dilemma. Transvaginal ultrasound is the ideal radiological procedure in locating these pregnancies. However in resource limited setting, abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds can be the only available yet unreliable modalities for distinguishing intrauterine versus ...

  7. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  8. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  9. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  10. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  11. Generalized coherence concurrence and path distinguishability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Seungbeom

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new family of coherence monotones, named the generalized coherence concurrence (or coherence k -concurrence), which is an analogous concept to the generalized entanglement concurrence. The coherence k -concurrence of a state is nonzero if and only if the coherence number (a recently introduced discrete coherence monotone) of the state is not smaller than k , and a state can be converted to a state with nonzero entanglement k -concurrence via incoherent operations if and only if the state has nonzero coherence k -concurrence. We apply the coherence concurrence family to the problem of wave-particle duality in multi-path interference phenomena. We obtain a sharper equation for path distinguishability (which witnesses the duality) than the known one and show that the amount of each concurrence for the quanton state determines the number of slits which are identified unambiguously. (paper)

  12. Generalized coherence concurrence and path distinguishability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Seungbeom

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new family of coherence monotones, named the generalized coherence concurrence (or coherence k-concurrence), which is an analogous concept to the generalized entanglement concurrence. The coherence k-concurrence of a state is nonzero if and only if the coherence number (a recently introduced discrete coherence monotone) of the state is not smaller than k, and a state can be converted to a state with nonzero entanglement k-concurrence via incoherent operations if and only if the state has nonzero coherence k-concurrence. We apply the coherence concurrence family to the problem of wave-particle duality in multi-path interference phenomena. We obtain a sharper equation for path distinguishability (which witnesses the duality) than the known one and show that the amount of each concurrence for the quanton state determines the number of slits which are identified unambiguously.

  13. Distinguishing the communicative functions of gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function. The re....... The results of the experiments show that the granularity of the attributes used seems appropriate for the task of distinguishing the desired communicative functions. This is a promising result in view of a future automation of the annotation task.......This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function...

  14. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  15. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter γ. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  16. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integral and Multidimensional Linear Distinguishers with Correlation Zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Leander, Gregor; Nyberg, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero......-correlation linear approximations and that a zero-correlation linear distinguisher is actually a special case of multidimensional linear distinguishers. These observations provide new insight into zero-correlation cryptanalysis which is illustrated by attacking a Skipjack variant and round-reduced CAST-256 without...

  18. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  19. Metabolite production by species of Stemphylium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Rossman, Amy; Andersen, Birgitte

    Morphology and phylogeny have been used to distinguish members of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Stemphylium. A third method for distinguishing species of fungi is by chemotaxonomy. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium via HPLC-UV-MS analysis, while also exploring the potential of chemotaxonomy as a robust identification method for Stemphylium. Several species were found to have species-specific metabolites, while other species were distinguishable by a broader metabolic profile rather than specific metabolites. Many previously described metabolites were found to be important for distinguishing species, while some unknown metabolites were also determined to have important roles in distinguishing species of Stemphylium. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium across the whole genus. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New Malesian species of Viscaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1996-01-01

    Three new Malesian species of Viscaceae are described. Ginalloa flagellaris Barlow is distinguished as a species from New Guinea and New Britain, previously included within G. arnottiana Korthals. Viscum exile Barlow is recognized as a new species endemic to Celebes, related to V. ovalifolium.

  1. High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Distribution of Aminoglycoside Resistant Genes among Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus Species in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elango Padmasini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are nosocomial pathogen with multiple-drug resistance by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Aminoglycosides along with cell wall inhibitors are given clinically for treating enterococcal infections. 178 enterococcal isolates were analyzed in this study. E. faecalis is identified to be the predominant Enterococcus species, along with E. faecium, E. avium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. dispar and E. gallinarum. High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR by MIC for gentamicin (GM, streptomycin (SM and both (GM + SM antibiotics was found to be 42.7%, 29.8%, and 21.9%, respectively. Detection of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme encoding genes (AME in enterococci was identified by multiplex PCR for aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia; aph(2′′-Ib; aph(2′′-Ic; aph(2′′-Id and aph(3′-IIIa genes. 38.2% isolates carried aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia gene and 40.4% isolates carried aph(3′-IIIa gene. aph(2′′-Ib; aph(2′′-Ic; aph(2′′-Id were not detected among our study isolates. aac(6′-Ie-aph(2′′-Ia and aph(3′-IIIa genes were also observed in HLAR E. durans, E. avium, E. hirae, and E. gallinarum isolates. This indicates that high level aminoglycoside resistance genes are widely disseminated among isolates of enterococci from Chennai.

  2. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  3. Distinguishing attack on five-round Feistel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Raddum, H

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown (by J. Patarin) how to distinguish a general five-round Feistel network from a random permutation using O(2/sup 3n/2/) chosen plaintexts or O(2/sup 7n/4/) known plaintexts. The present authors report improvement of these results and a distinguisher is presented which uses ro...

  4. Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2014 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award is Mary E. Kite. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    indistinguishable particles or of nonidentical distinguishable particles, it requires more care to identify a gas of identical distinguishable particles. In undergraduate physics courses treating either quantum me- chanics or classical statistical mechanics, students are introduced to the concept of a gas of particles which may be ...

  6. Man as a Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…

  7. Metabolite production by species of Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Rossman, Amy; Andersen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    Morphology and phylogeny has been used to distinguish members of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Stemphylium. A third method for distinguishing species is by chemotaxonomy. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium via HPLC-UV-MS analysis, while...... also exploring the potential of chemotaxonomy as a robust identification method for Stemphylium. Several species were found to have species-specific metabolites, while other species were distinguishable by a broader metabolic profile rather than specific metabolites. Many previously described...

  8. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed. (paper)

  9. Diversity in Grain Amaranths and Relatives Distinguished by Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbo Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genotyping by sequencing (GBS method has become a molecular marker technology of choice for many crop plants because of its simultaneous discovery and evaluation of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and utility for germplasm characterization. Genome representation and complexity reduction are the basis for GBS fingerprinting and can vary by species based on genome size and other sequence characteristics. Grain amaranths are a set of three species that were domesticated in the New World to be high protein, pseudo-cereal grain crops. The goal of this research was to employ the GBS technique for diversity evaluation in grain amaranth accessions and close relatives from six Amaranthus species and determine genetic differences and similarities between groupings. A total of 10,668 SNPs were discovered in 94 amaranth accessions with ApeKI complexity reduction and 10X genome coverage Illumina sequencing. The majority of the SNPs were species specific with 4,568 and 3,082 for the two grain amaranths originating in Central America Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus and 3,284 found amongst both A. caudatus, originally domesticated in South America, and its close relative, A. quitensis. The distance matrix based on shared alleles provided information on the close relationships of the two cultivated Central American species with each other and of the wild and cultivated South American species with each other, as distinguished from the outgroup with two wild species, A. powellii and A. retroflexus. The GBS data also distinguished admixture between each pair of species and the geographical origins and seed colors of the accessions. The SNPs we discovered here can be used for marker development for future amaranth study.

  10. Evidence supporting need satisfaction and frustration as two distinguishable constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Ylenio; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to (1) investigate whether psychological need satisfaction and frustration are distinguishable constructs or part of a single continuum, and (2) to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation models (ESEM) were tested using three samples ( N total = 959). In all samples, a CFA model specifying satisfaction and frustration of each psychological need as distinguishable constructs fit the data better than models specifying them as part of a continuum, even after including method corrections (CFA) or cross-loadings (ESEM). Scale score reliabilities were adequate only when the satisfaction and frustration of each need were treated as distinguishable constructs. The paper provides strong support for specifying need satisfaction and frustration as distinguishable but correlated constructs, as well as adequate evidence of dimensionality, reliability and criterion validity for the Spanish version of the NSFS.

  11. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  12. Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M

    2010-03-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand the non-literal meanings of sarcastic speakers and ironic speakers but did not distinguish ironic and sarcastic speakers' intentions. Nine- to ten-year-olds were more accurate at understanding sarcastic and ironic speakers and they distinguished these speakers' intentions, rating sarcastic criticisms as more 'mean' than ironic criticisms. These results show that children can determine the non-literal meanings of sarcasm and irony by six years of age but do not distinguish the pragmatic purposes of these speech acts until later in middle childhood.

  13. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  14. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    fuzzy quantum particles.' In this case, the overlap of their wavefunctions during collisional mixing makes it impos- sible to distinguish individual particles. Any gas of identical quantum particles will necessarily be indistinguishable, even if it.

  15. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  16. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using metabolomics. Plan: Employing a cross-sectional

  17. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  18. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  20. Distinguishing Sulfotyrosine Containing Peptides from their Phosphotyrosine Counterparts Using Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangming; Zhang, Yixiang; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Dann, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Sulfotyrosine and phosphotyrosine are two post-translational modifications present in higher eukaryotes. A simple and direct mass spectrometry method to distinguish between these modifications is crucial to advance our understanding of the sulfoproteome. While sulfation and phosphorylation are nominally isobaric, the accurate mass of the sulfuryl moiety is 9.6 mDa less than the phosphoryl moiety. Based on this difference, we have used an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer to characterize, resolve, and distinguish between sulfotyrosine and phosphotyrosine modifications using a set of model peptides. Multiple fragmentation techniques, namely HCD, CID, ETD, ETciD, and EThcD, have been used to compare the different fragmentation behaviors between peptides modified with these species. Sulfotyrosine undergoes neutral loss using HCD and CID, but the sulfuryl moiety is largely stable under ETD. In contrast, phosphotyrosine is stable during fragmentation using all these methods. This differential stability provides a mechanism to distinguish sulfopeptides from phosphopeptides. Based on the rigorous characterization presented herein, this work serves as a model for accurate identification of phosphotyrosine and, more challenging, sulfotyrosine, in complex proteomic samples.

  1. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  2. 29 CFR 794.107 - “Establishment” distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the definition of “enterprise” in section 3(r), as set forth in § 794.106, that the activities of the... § 794.107 “Establishment” distinguished. The “enterprise” referred to in the section 7(b)(3) exemption... “an entire business or enterprise” which may include several separate places of business. (See...

  3. Distinguishing between Exogenous and Endogenous Intent-to-Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Karoly, Paul; Martin, Jessica L.; Benshoff, Annja

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we distinguish between 2 types of students who intend to transfer and graduate from another institution. During the fall of 2006, 507 first-semester students attending a state university completed a survey. Seventy-six percent of the students indicated that they planned on graduating from the University (intent-to-persist), 16%…

  4. Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gradual drying of Urmia Lake has left vast saline areas all around it, increasing the risk of salinization of agricultural lands next to the Lake. The current research was aimed to predict soil salinity and distinguish the boundary line between saline and agricultural lands by taking in to account the spatial variability of soil salinity ...

  5. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  6. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  7. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No metabolic markers could distinguish between gram positive and gram negative septicemia. α-Amino-adipic acid, citramalic acid and xanthurenic acid, produced only by bacteria, show promise. Alanine and glycine increased significantly over 24 h and can be used as diagnostic markers and perhaps as markers of ...

  8. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution of water. F-RNA (male-specific) coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these sero-groups are specific for human excreta and the other two for animal excreta.

  9. Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett S. Kramer, MD, MPH, Associate Director for Disease Prevention and Director of the Office of Medical Applications of Research in the Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, presented "Cancer Prevention: Distinguishing Strength of Evidence from Strength of Opinion".

  10. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie

    2009-01-01

    or with melanocytic naevi. While AMs are clearly distinguished from CM by displaying few BRAF mutations, they are commonly indistinguishable from CM at the level of gene expression. The aim was to carry out expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers and of the protein deleted in malignant brain...

  11. Ability to distinguish whisky (uisge beatha) from brandy (cognac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E J; Campbell, D M; Roberts, R S

    To assess ability to distinguish between first rate malt whisky and brandy and between different brands of each. Crossover with two sessions of 12 blindfold tastings of two whiskies and two brandies before and after supper, repeated not more than seven days later. Dundas, Ontario. 4 volunteers aged 50-68 years, all moderate drinkers of alcohol and members of a wine club. Proportion of samples correctly identified (whisky v brandy) and, of those, the proportion of brands correctly identified. Only one participant produced irrefutable statistical evidence (P < 0.0001) of being able to distinguish between whisky and brandy, correctly identifying 50/51 (98%) samples. Two participants achieved some success in identification (72%, P = 0.0031 and 65% P = 0.031). The fourth participant's responses reflected pure guesswork. Brandy was no easier to identify than whisky (P = 0.84). The participant who was best able to distinguish between whisky and brandy was also best able to identify correctly the brand of whisky (100%, P < 0.0001). Despite the fact that not all participants completed the full number of tastings the results show that some participants could distinguish neither between malt whisky and brandy nor between different brands of whisky and brandy. However, the success of one participant shows that "it can be done" and that his whisky specific ability is acquired not innate.

  12. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  13. Metabolic markers as possible diagnostic tools to distinguish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... In conclusion, (in PDF file it is conclusively) metabolites can be used to diagnose septicemia and possibly its progression, but not to distinguish between gram positive and gram negative septicemia. Key words: Septicaemia, baboon, Gram negative, Gram positive, metabolic marker. INTRODUCTION.

  14. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  15. Plasma sarcosine does not distinguish early and advanced stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Diagnosis of prostate cancer by prostate specific antigen (PSA) is error-prone and cannot distinguish benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from malignant disease, nor identify aggressive and indolent types. Methods. We determined serum sarcosine (N-methylglycine) in 328 cancer patients by gas ...

  16. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  17. Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Murugan, Ramar; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2010-09-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the highly traded raw drugs and also used as a stimulative food additive in Europe and USA. While, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recognizes T. terrestris as Goksura, Tribulus lanuginosus and T. subramanyamii are also traded by the same name raising issues of quality control. The nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence were used to develop species-specific DNA markers. The species-specific markers efficiently amplified 295bp for T. terrestris (TT1F and TT1R), 300bp for T. lanuginosus (TL1F and TL1R) and 214bp for T. subramanyamii (TS1F and TS1R). These DNA markers can be used to distinguish T. terrestris from its adulterants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology distinguishes the lower molars of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Matthew M; Gunz, Philipp; Wood, Bernard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2008-12-01

    Tooth crown morphology plays a central role in hominin systematics, but the removal of the original outer enamel surface by dental attrition often eliminates from consideration the type of detailed crown morphology that has been shown to discriminate among hominin taxa. This reduces the size of samples available for study. The enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) is the developmental precursor and primary contributor to the morphology of the unworn outer enamel surface, and its morphology is only affected after considerable attrition. In this paper, we explore whether the form of the EDJ can be used to distinguish between the mandibular molars of two southern African fossil hominins: Paranthropus (or Australopithecus) robustus and Australopithecus africanus. After micro-computed tomographic scanning the molar sample, we made high-resolution images of the EDJ and used geometric morphometrics to compare EDJ shape differences between species, in addition to documenting metameric variation along the molar row within each species. Landmarks were collected along the marginal ridge that runs between adjacent dentine horns and around the circumference of the cervix. Our results suggest that the morphology of the EDJ can distinguish lower molars of these southern African hominins, and it can discriminate first, second, and third molars within each taxon. These results confirm previous findings that the EDJ preserves taxonomically valuable shape information in worn teeth. Mean differences in EDJ shape, in particular dentine horn height, crown height, and cervix shape, are more marked between adjacent molars within each taxon than for the same molar between the two taxa.

  19. An efficient method of distinguishing chaos from noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an important problem in chaos theory whether an observed irregular signal is deterministic chaotic or stochastic. We propose an efficient method for distinguishing deterministic chaotic from stochastic time series for short scalar time series. We first investigate, with the increase of the embedding dimension, the changing trend of the distance between two points which stay close in phase space. And then, we obtain the differences between Gaussian white noise and deterministic chaotic time series underlying this method. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to testify the validity and robustness of the method. Simulation results indicate that our method can distinguish deterministic chaotic from stochastic time series effectively even when the data are short and contaminated. (general)

  20. Can accretion disk properties distinguish gravastars from black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2009-01-01

    Gravastars, hypothetic astrophysical objects, consisting of a dark energy condensate surrounded by a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter, have been proposed as an alternative to the standard black hole picture of general relativity. Observationally distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and gravastars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. This is due to the fact that in static gravastars large stability regions (of the transition layer of these configurations) exist that are sufficiently close to the expected position of the event horizon, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of gravastars from an astrophysical black hole. However, in the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of distinguishing gravastars from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks around rotating gravastars and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around slowly rotating gravastars, with all the metric tensor components estimated up to the second order in the angular velocity. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation is always smaller than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e. gravastars provide a less efficient mechanism for converting mass to radiation than black holes. Thus, these observational signatures provide the possibility of clearly distinguishing rotating gravastars from Kerr-type black holes.

  1. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  2. Distinguishing new physics scenarios with polarized electron and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinguishing new physics scenarios. Figure 1. Left panel: ΛH vs. ΛAA confusion region from e+e− → e+e−. Right panel: ΛLL vs. ΛRR confusion region from e+e− → l+l− (l = µ, τ). √ s = 0.5 TeV, Lint = 100 fb−1. the identification reaches are rather high compared to the current bounds, depend- ing on energy and luminosity, ...

  3. Distinguishing snoring sounds from breath sounds: a straightforward matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Christian; Herzog, Michael; Ettl, Tobias; Kuehnel, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Although snoring is a common problem, no unequivocal definition yet exists for this acoustic phenomenon. The primary study objective was to investigate whether snoring sounds can be distinguished at all clearly from breath sounds. Our secondary objective was to evaluate whether the sound pressure level in common use and psychoacoustic parameters are suitable for making this distinction. Twenty-five subjects exposed to 55 sound sequences were asked to decide whether these were breath sounds or snoring sounds, and to indicate how certain they were about their decision. The sound pressure level and the psychoacoustic parameters of loudness, sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength were then analyzed, and psychoacoustic annoyance was calculated from these parameters. Sixteen percent of the sound sequences could not be classified unequivocally, although the individual raters stated that they were still moderately certain about their decision. The sound pressure level and psychoacoustic parameters were capable of distinguishing between breath sounds and snoring sounds. The optimum for sensitivity and specificity was 76.9 and 78.8 %, respectively. Because snoring appears to be a subjective impression, at least in part, a generally valid acoustic definition therefore seems to be impossible. The sound pressure level and psychoacoustic parameters are suitable for distinguishing between breath sounds and snoring sounds. Nevertheless, when interpreting results, the only moderate validity of these parameters due to the absence of a universally valid definition of snoring should be taken into account.

  4. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  5. A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer from China (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae with a key to World species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer, 1912, C. sinicus sp. n., is described and illustrated, collected from a Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. orchard in Yunnan province of China. This is the third described species of the genus in the World. The new species can be distinguished from the other two described Calogalesus species by the head profile, proportions of the antennal segments, tridentate mandible, and mandible length. A key to World species of the genus is provided.

  6. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  7. Emergence of unusual species of enterococci causing infections, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sambasiva R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterococci tend to be one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, with E. faecalis and E. faecium accounting up to 90% of the clinical isolates. Nevertheless, the incidence of other species of enterococci from clinical sources shows an alarming increase with the properties of intrinsic resistance to several antibiotics including beta-lactams and glycopeptides. Thus proper identification of enterococci to species level is quintessential for management and prevention of these bacteria in any healthcare facility. Hence this work was undertaken to study the prevalence of unusual species of enterococci causing human infections, in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South India from July 2001 to June 2003. Isolates of enterococci were collected from various clinical specimens and speciated using extensive phenotypic and physiological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed and interpreted as per NCCLS guidelines. Whole cell protein (WCP fingerprinting of enterococci were done for species validation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and analyzed computationally. Results Our study showed the prevalence of unusual (non-faecalis and non-faecium enterococci and atypical (biochemical variant species of enterococci as 19% (46 isolates and 5% (12 isolates respectively. The 7 unusual species (46 isolates isolated and confirmed by phenotypic characterization includes: 15 E. gallinarum (6.2%, 10 E. avium (4.1%, 6 E. raffinosus (2.5%, 6 E. hirae (2.5%, 4 E. mundtii (1.7%, 3 E. casseliflavus-including the two atypical isolates (1.2% and 2 E. durans (0.8%. The 12 atypical enterococcal species (5% that showed aberrant sugar reactions in conventional phenotyping were confirmed as E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. casseliflavus respectively by WCP fingerprinting. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing depicted the

  8. Cytomorphologic features distinguishing Bethesda category IV thyroid lesions from parathyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid follicular cells share similar cytomorphological features with parathyroid. Without a clinical suspicion, the distinction between a thyroid neoplasm and an intrathyroidal parathyroid can be challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the distinguishing cytomorphological features of parathyroid (including intrathyroidal and Bethesda category IV (Beth-IV thyroid follicular lesions, which carry a 15%–30% risk of malignancy and are often followed up with surgical resection. Methods: A search was performed to identify “parathyroid” diagnoses in parathyroid/thyroid-designated fine-needle aspirations (FNAs and Beth-IV thyroid FNAs (follicular and Hurthle cell, all with diagnostic confirmation through surgical pathology, immunocytochemical stains, Afirma® analysis, and/or clinical correlation. Unique cytomorphologic features were scored (0-3 or noted as present versus absent. Statistical analysis was performed using R 3.3.1 software. Results: We identified five FNA cases with clinical suspicion of parathyroid neoplasm, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid lesion that had an eventual final diagnosis of the parathyroid lesion (all female; age 20–69 years and 12 Beth-IV diagnoses (11 female, 1 male; age 13–64 years. The following cytomorphologic features are useful distinguishing features (P value: overall pattern (0.001, single cells (0.001, cell size compared to red blood cell (0.01, nuclear irregularity (0.001, presence of nucleoli (0.001, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (0.007, and nuclear chromatin quality (0.028. Conclusions: There are cytomorphologic features that distinguish Beth-IV thyroid lesions and (intrathyroidal parathyroid. These features can aid in rendering correct diagnoses and appropriate management.

  9. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... as a control group. Unsupervised cluster analysis identified two distinct subgroups related to genetic complexity. Sporadic and HBOC associated tumors had complex genetic profiles with an average 41% of the genome altered, whereas the mismatch repair defective tumors had stable genetic profiles...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  10. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  11. How to distinguish dark energy and modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Zhang Shuangnan

    2008-01-01

    The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy) or a modification of general relativity (modified gravity). In the literature it has been proposed that combining the probes of the cosmic expansion history and growth history can distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity. In this work, without invoking nontrivial dark energy clustering, we show that the possible interaction between dark energy and dark matter could make the interacting dark model and the modified gravity model indistinguishable. An explicit example is also given. Therefore, it is required to seek some complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  12. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  13. Identification of diagnostic peptide regions that distinguish Zika virus from related mosquito-borne Flaviviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Lee

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area. In order to identify Zika-specific peptide regions that could be used as serology reagents, we have applied comparative genomics and protein structure analyses to identify amino acid residues that distinguish each of 10 Flavivirus species and subtypes from each other by calculating the specificity, sensitivity, and surface exposure of each residue in relevant target proteins. For ZIKV we identified 104 and 116 15-mer peptides in the E glycoprotein and NS1 non-structural protein, respectively, that contain multiple diagnostic sites and are located in surface-exposed regions in the tertiary protein structure. These sensitive, specific, and surface-exposed peptide regions should serve as useful reagents for seroprevalence studies to better distinguish between prior infections with any of these mosquito-borne Flaviviruses. The development of better detection methods and diagnostic tools will enable clinicians and public health workers to more accurately estimate the true incidence rate of asymptomatic infections, neurological syndromes, and birth defects associated with ZIKV infection.

  14. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Bluemke, David A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Frassica, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often performed for further evaluation. For the detailed assessment of a fracture site, CT offers a high-resolution view of the bone cortex and periosteum which aids the diagnosis of a pathologic fracture. The character of underlying bone marrow patterns of destruction can also be ascertained along with evidence of a soft tissue mass. MRI, however, is a more sensitive technique for the detection of underlying bone marrow lesions at a fracture site. In addition, the surrounding soft tissues, including possible involvement of adjacent muscle, can be well evaluated with MRI. While bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET are not specific, they offer a whole-body screen for metastases in the case of a suspected malignant pathologic fracture. In this review, we present select examples of fractures that underscore imaging features that help distinguish stress fractures from pathologic fractures, since accurate differentiation of these entities is paramount. (orig.)

  15. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Distinguishing deterministic and noise components in ELM time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Kuzovkov, V.N

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the main problems in the preliminary data analysis is distinguishing the deterministic and noise components in the experimental signals. For example, in plasma physics the question arises analyzing edge localized modes (ELMs): is observed ELM behavior governed by a complicate deterministic chaos or just by random processes. We have developed methodology based on financial engineering principles, which allows us to distinguish deterministic and noise components. We extended the linear auto regression method (AR) by including the non-linearity (NAR method). As a starting point we have chosen the nonlinearity in the polynomial form, however, the NAR method can be extended to any other type of non-linear functions. The best polynomial model describing the experimental ELM time series was selected using Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). With this method we have analyzed type I ELM behavior in a subset of ASDEX Upgrade shots. Obtained results indicate that a linear AR model can describe the ELM behavior. In turn, it means that type I ELM behavior is of a relaxation or random type

  17. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Surya, Sumati

    2011-08-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  18. Causal topology in future and past distinguishing spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrikar, Onkar [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa campus, Goa 403 726 (India); Surya, Sumati, E-mail: ssurya@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)

    2011-08-07

    The causal structure of a strongly causal spacetime is particularly well endowed. Not only does it determine the conformal spacetime geometry when the spacetime dimension n > 2, as shown by Malament and Hawking-King-McCarthy (MHKM), but also the manifold dimension. The MHKM result, however, applies more generally to spacetimes satisfying the weaker causality condition of future and past distinguishability (FPD), and it is an important question whether the causal structure of such spacetimes can determine the manifold dimension. In this work, we show that the answer to this question is in the affirmative. We investigate the properties of future or past distinguishing spacetimes and show that their causal structures determine the manifold dimension. This gives a non-trivial generalization of the MHKM theorem and suggests that there is a causal topology for FPD spacetimes which encodes manifold dimension and which is strictly finer than the Alexandrov topology. We show that such a causal topology does exist. We construct it using a convergence criterion based on sequences of 'chain intervals' which are the causal analogues of null geodesic segments. We show that when the region of strong causality violation satisfies a local achronality condition, this topology is equivalent to the manifold topology in an FPD spacetime.

  19. Useful tests on pleural fluid that distinguish transudates from exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Vives, M; Vicente de Vera, M C; Cao, G; Rubio, M; Rivas, M C

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to compare the classic Light's criteria with different testing strategies in an effort to improve the accuracy of pleural fluid (PF) categorization. Thirty-two patients with transudates and 140 with exudates on the basis of their clinical diagnosis were entered into the study. We examined the discriminative properties of 10 analytes in the identification of PF, both singly and in combination with an 'or' rule, to see which was best in distinguishing a transudate from an exudate. A combination of PF lactate dehydrogenase (LD) > 307 U/L (two-thirds of the upper limit of the serum LD reference range) with either PF cholesterol > 1.55 mmol/L or PF to serum protein ratio > 0.5 had a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of Light's criteria. We suggest the use of PF LD and cholesterol in combination as an alternative method for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates. This test combination avoids the need for venepuncture and the simultaneous collection of a blood sample.

  20. Beta-lactam combination therapy for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species bacteremia: A summary and appraisal of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal bacteremia and enterococcal bacteremia are prevalent in hospitalized or recently instrumented patients, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat due to the pathogenicity of the organisms, poor response to antibiotics, and increasing development of multidrug resistance. Therefore, there has been increasing interest in combination therapy for the treatment of these infections. The aim of this review was to summarize and assess the evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for both Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species blood stream infections. Currently, there is promising in vitro data but little clinical evidence supporting combination beta-lactam therapy for this indication. Further clinical investigations are needed to elucidate the potential benefits of beta-lactam combination therapy over monotherapy for Gram-positive bacteremia, although combination therapy may be useful in refractory cases of bacteremia that do not respond to standard antibiotic therapy.

  1. New species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, J.A.; Martins, E.S.; Catarino, L.

    2014-01-01

    Genus Maerua has around 60 species represented on the African continent, of which three have been reported for Angola. Two new species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola are here described. Both are closely similar to M. juncea subsp. juncea, being distinguished by floral traits such as the

  2. Measuring competition in plant communities where it is difficult to distinguish individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for measuring plant-plant interactions in undisturbed semi-natural and natural plant communities where it is difficult to distinguish individual plants is discussed. It is assumed that the ecological success of the different plant species in the plant community may be adequately....... The method allows direct measurements of the competitive effects of neighbouringzplants on plant performance and the estimation of parameters that describe the ecological processes of plantplant interactions during the growing season as well as the process of survival and recruitment between growing seasons....... Additionally, the presented method is suited for testing different ecological hypothesis on competitive interactions along environmental gradients, investigating the importance of competition, as well as predicting the likelihood of different ecological scenarios....

  3. PCR-RFLP method to distinguish Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella pallida and Frankliniella tenuicornis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybylska Arnika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrips from the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera, Thripidae are phytophagous on crops and wild plants. Some of them cause slight economic damage, however, others including F. occidentalis and F. intonsa are responsible for considerable losses in crop production. Moreover, they constitute a double threat for host plants by not only feeding on them but also vectoring viruses, some of which are on the quarantined list of the European Plant Protection Organization. The rapid detection and differentiation between more and less harmful Frankliniella species is, therefore, important in order to combat the pests at the time of their appearance. In this study, we have undertaken to develop a method of detecting F. occidentalis, F. intonsa, F. pallida, and F. tenuicornis. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of ITS1 rDNA fragments of these insects using universal primers pair giving products of slightly distinct length for studied insects. Restriction enzymes digestion which is easy to interpret, allows for visible differentiation of all these Frankliniella species. The method was shown to be species-specific and sensitive. Even single specimens in either the larvae or adult stage could be distinguished.

  4. Candidate genes for migration do not distinguish migratory and non-migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Ramos, Juan S; Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Migratory traits in birds have been shown to have a strong heritable component and several candidate genes have been suggested to control these migratory traits. To investigate if the genetic makeup of one or a set of these candidate genes can be used to identify a general pattern between migratory and non-migratory birds, we extracted genomic sequence data for 25 hypothesised candidate genes for migration from 70 available genomes across all orders of Aves and characterised sequence divergence between migratory and non-migratory phenotypes. When examining each gene separately across all species, we did not identify any genetic variants in candidate genes that distinguished migrants from non-migrants; any resulting pattern was driven by the phylogenetic signal. This was true for each gene analysed independently, but also for concatenated sequence alignments of all candidate genes combined. We also attempted to distinguish between migrant and non-migrants using structural features at four candidate genes that have previously been reported to show associated with migratory behaviour but did not pick up a signal for migratory phenotype here either. Finally, a screen for dN/dS ratio across all focal candidate genes to probe for putative features of selection did not uncover a pattern, though this might not be expected given the broad phylogenetic scale used here. Our study demonstrates the potential of public genomic data to test for general patterns of migratory gene candidates in a cross-species comparative context, and raise questions on the applicability of candidate gene approaches in a macro-evolutionary context to understand the genetic architecture of migratory behaviour.

  5. OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Nevin D

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication. Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both genomes helps to distinguish between these scenarios. This kind of comparison can also help to describe how gene families have evolved within a single genome that has undergone polyploidy or other large-scale duplications, as in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana – and probably most plant genomes. Results We describe a suite of programs called OrthoParaMap (OPM that makes genomic comparisons, identifies syntenic regions, determines whether sets of genes in a gene family are related through speciation or internal chromosomal duplications, maps this information onto phylogenetic trees, and infers internal nodes within the phylogenetic tree that may represent local – as opposed to speciation or segmental – duplication. We describe the application of the software using three examples: the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE gene family on the X chromosomes of mouse and human; the 20S proteasome subunit gene family in Arabidopsis, and the major latex protein gene family in Arabidopsis. Conclusion OPM combines comparative genomic positional information and phylogenetic reconstructions to identify which gene duplications are likely to have arisen through internal genomic duplications (such as polyploidy, through speciation, or through local duplications (such as unequal crossing-over. The software is freely available at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~cann0010/.

  6. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Daniel M. Wegner: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Daniel M. Wegner, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. "For seminal contributions that span psychology's breadth--from cognitive to social to personality to clinical--and that reach beyond its borders to philosophy and neuroscience. Daniel M. Wegner's studies on transactive memory, action identification, ironic processes, and apparent mental causation all bear his characteristic mark: a beautiful idea brought to life by an elegant experiment. He has spent his scientific career identifying new and important problems and then offering solutions that sparkle with originality and insight. He has seen doors where others saw walls, opened them to reveal new rooms, and illuminated their dark corners." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Distinguishing high surf from volcanic long-period earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John; Haney, Matt; Fee, David; Paskievitch, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Repeating long-period (LP) earthquakes are observed at active volcanoes worldwide and are typically attributed to unsteady pressure fluctuations associated with fluid migration through the volcanic plumbing system. Nonvolcanic sources of LP signals include ice movement and glacial outburst floods, and the waveform characteristics and frequency content of these events often make them difficult to distinguish from volcanic LP events. We analyze seismic and infrasound data from an LP swarm recorded at Pagan volcano on 12–14 October 2013 and compare the results to ocean wave data from a nearby buoy. We demonstrate that although the events show strong similarity to volcanic LP signals, the events are not volcanic but due to intense surf generated by a passing typhoon. Seismo-acoustic methods allow for rapid distinction of volcanic LP signals from those generated by large surf and other sources, a critical task for volcano monitoring.

  9. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  10. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers...... are examined. The results reveal that decliners compared to receivers are less price conscious and that they perceive flyers as more inconvenient and less useful. Although decliners generally use other media less for deal searching than receivers, they are more inclined to search for grocery deals...... on the Internet.To reach the decliners, retailers could focus on the possibilities of the Internet, but to stop the trend of escalating numbers of decliners, retailers will have to address the perceived inconvenience and uselessness of sales flyers....

  11. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  12. Remotely Distinguishing and Mapping Endogenic Water on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Petro, Noah E.

    2017-01-01

    Water and/or hydroxyl detected remotely on the lunar surface originates from several sources: (i) comets and other exogenous debris; (ii) solar wind implantation; (iii) the lunar interior. While each of these sources is interesting in its own right, distinguishing among them is critical for testing hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Moon and our Solar System. Existing spacecraft observations are not of high enough spectral resolution to uniquely characterize the bonding energies of the hydroxyl molecules that have been detected. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution and associations of H, OH- or H2O with specific lunar lithologies provide some insight into the origin of lunar hydrous materials. The global distribution of OH-/H2O as detected using infrared spectroscopic measurements from orbit is here examined, with particular focus on regional geological features that exhibit OH-/H2O absorption band strengths that differ from their immediate surroundings.

  13. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer.......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers...

  14. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2017 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orbital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR. This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  16. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Zhu Lijun; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z 2 ) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z 3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z 3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z 3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z 3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z 2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of M T2 -type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  17. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV. SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs, DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mesenchymal differentiation, growth, genomic integrity, oxidative damage, death, and inflammation. Low-CNA SCCs tended to be HPV(+ and display hypermethylation with repression of TET1 demethylase and FANCF, previously linked to predisposition to SCC, or harbor mutations affecting CASP8, RAS-MAPK pathways, chromatin modifiers, and immunoregulatory molecules. We uncovered hypomethylation of the alternative promoter that drives expression of the ΔNp63 oncogene and embedded miR944. Co-expression of immune checkpoint, T-regulatory, and Myeloid suppressor cells signatures may explain reduced efficacy of immune therapy. These findings support possibilities for molecular classification and therapeutic approaches. : Campbell et al. reveal that squamous cell cancers from different tissue sites may be distinguished from other cancers and subclassified molecularly by recurrent alterations in chromosomes, DNA methylation, messenger and microRNA expression, or by mutations. These affect squamous cell pathways and programs that provide candidates for therapy. Keywords: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma with squamous differentiation, human papillomavirus

  18. Distinguishing Failure to Cure From Complication After Penile Prosthesis Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L

    2017-05-01

    A successful penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) surgery can be defined by outcomes beyond the absence of complications. To introduce the concept of failure to cure (FTC) in the context of PPI to more accurately gauge postoperative outcomes after PPI. Consecutive patients from our sexual function registry who underwent PPI from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed. Demographics, previous treatment of erectile dysfunction, comorbidities, social history, postoperative problems (POPs), and surgical outcomes were tabulated. Patients completed the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaires. We defined a complication, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, as any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not constitute an FTC. FTC was defined as a POP that was not a complication. The χ 2 tests, t-tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used. Patient-reported and objective outcomes after PPI. Our enrollment consisted of 185 patients, and we contacted 124 (67%). Of these, 16 (12.9%) had a POP requiring reoperation. Eight patients developed surgical complications (three infections, four erosions, and one chronic pain). Eight patients had FTC (four malpositions and four malfunctions). Factors that correlated with POPs were previous PPI, body mass index higher than 30 kg/m 2 , and previous treatment with intracorporal injections (P .05 for all comparisons). POPs after PPI surgery can be more accurately categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications to more clearly distinguish surgical complications from FTC. Limitations of our study include its retrospective approach. Our series included a large proportion of patients treated for prostate cancer, which limits the generalizability of our findings. We also had a relatively short median follow-up time of 27 months. Patient-reported outcome

  19. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  20. Research leadership: should clinical directors be distinguished researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen; Goodall, Amanda H; Bastiampillai, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Clinical directors established research-led healthcare by combining research, teaching and clinical excellence within the teaching hospitals. This research culture created high clinical standards, which benefited patients, the workforce and healthcare organisations. The current paper explores this research leadership role for clinical directors. It reviews studies arising from the theory of expert leadership, which focuses on the relationship between a leader's core knowledge and organisational performance. More specifically, we examine the expert leader's research track record, the associations with their organisation's performance, and the influence of research activity on clinical excellence. Distinguished researchers still lead the most prestigious teaching hospitals and the most trusted departments of psychiatry in the United States where the clinical directorate structure originated. It is also known that good scholars can improve research output when appointed to leadership positions. This suggests that the clinical director's research track record should be a consideration at a time when research is being embedded in Australia's local health networks. A clinical director's leadership may influence the research performance of their department and contribute to the quality of mental healthcare. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Distinguishing human cell types based on housekeeping gene signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyolu, Chuba; Zakharia, Fouad; Baker, Julie

    2012-03-01

    'In this report, we use single cell gene expression to identify transcriptional patterns emerging during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the endodermal lineage. Endoderm-specific transcripts are highly variable between individual CXCR4(+) endodermal cells, suggesting that either the cells generated from in vitro differentiation are distinct or that these embryonic cells tolerate a high degree of transcript variability. Housekeeping transcripts, on the other hand, are far more consistently expressed within the same cellular population. However, when we compare the levels of housekeeping transcripts between hESCs and derived endoderm, patterns emerge that can be used to clearly separate the two embryonic cell types. We further compared four additional human cell types, including 293T, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), HepG2, and endoderm-derived iPSC. In each case, the relative levels of housekeeping transcripts defined a particular cell fate. Interestingly, we find that three transcripts, LDHA, NONO, and ACTB, contribute the most to this diversity and together serve to segregate all six cell types. Overall, this suggests that levels of housekeeping transcripts, which are expressed within all cells, can be leveraged to distinguish between human cell types and thus may serve as important biomarkers for stem cell biology and other disciplines. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Identification of three distinguishable phenotypes in golden retriever muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio, C E; Fadel, L; Gaiad, T P; Martins, D S; Araújo, K P C; Zucconi, E; Brolio, M P; Giglio, R F; Morini, A C; Jazedje, T; Froes, T R; Feitosa, M L T; Valadares, M C; Beltrão-Braga, P C B; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A

    2009-04-07

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a human disease characterized by progressive and irreversible skeletal muscle degeneration caused by mutations in genes coding for important muscle proteins. Unfortunately, there is no efficient treatment for this disease; it causes progressive loss of motor and muscular ability until death. The canine model (golden retriever muscular dystrophy) is similar to DMD, showing similar clinical signs. Fifteen dogs were followed from birth and closely observed for clinical signs. Dogs had their disease status confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and genotyping. Clinical observations of musculoskeletal, morphological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal features allowed us to identify three distinguishable phenotypes in dystrophic dogs: mild (grade I), moderate (grade II) and severe (grade III). These three groups showed no difference in dystrophic alterations of muscle morphology and creatine kinase levels. This information will be useful for therapeutic trials, because DMD also shows significant, inter- and intra-familiar clinical variability. Additionally, being aware of phenotypic differences in this animal model is essential for correct interpretation and understanding of results obtained in pre-clinical trials.

  3. Method and apparatus for distinguishing hydrocarbon from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, H.; Ullo, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a neutron-based technique and apparatus for distinguishing between some oils and fresh water. It is proposed that the oil/water content of the fluid within a geological formation may be investigated by irradiating the formation with neutrons and by measuring a property indicative of neutron transport through the formation to derive an indication of the influence of the formation fluids on neutron transport. Specifically, the neutron flux distribution resulting from the irradiation is measured and used to derive a first signal which is a function of both formation porosity and hydrogen density of the fluid in the formation. The presence of oil versus water in the formation is then determined by deriving a second porosity signal. This signal may be less affected by the nature of the formation fluid, whether water or oil, than the first signal. In this case it may be obtained from a gamma-gamma density tool or a sonic tool. Alternatively, it may be obtained following the change of the formation fluid to a fluid having a different hydrogen density and combining the signals to determine their differential. Where the first porosity signal exceed the second, oil as opposed to water may be suspected. The step of detecting the neutron flux distribution may include detecting the spatial neutron flux distribution by detecting neutron flux amplitudes at one or more points spaced from the neutron source. In addition, the neutron detection step may comprise the detection of the epithermal neutron flux distribution

  4. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  5. Distinguishability of Neutrino Flavors Through Their Different Shower Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ching; Chen, Pisin; Hu, Chia-Yu; Lai, K.-C.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new avor identification method to distinguish mu and tau type ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN). Energy loss of leptons in matter is an important information for the detection of neutrinos originated from high energy astrophysical sources. 50 years ago, Askaryan proposed to detect Cherenkov radiowave signals emitted from the negative charge excess of neutrino-induced particle shower. The theory of Cherenkov radiation under Fraunhofer approximation has been widely studied in the past two decades. However, at high energies or for high density materials, electromagnetic shower should be elongated due to the Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal (LPM) effect. As such the standard Fraunhofer approximation ceases to be valid when the distance between the shower and the detector becomes comparable with the shower length. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed recently to investigate this regime. Here we adopt the deduced relationship between the radio signal and the cascade development profile to investigate its implication to lepton signatures. Our method provides a straightforward technique to identify the neutrino avor through the detected Cherenkov signals.

  6. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneil A Raju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient’s right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient’s symptoms. Intrigued by our patient’s case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  8. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  9. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  10. A 16-gene signature distinguishes anaplastic astrocytoma from glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Alige Mahabala Rao

    Full Text Available Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma.

  11. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  12. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Rego, C.; Oliveira, H.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Ilyonectria radicicola and its Cylindrocarpon-like anamorph represent a species complex that is commonly associated with root rot disease symptoms on a range of hosts. During the course of this study, several species could be distinguished from I. radicicola sensu stricto based on morphological and

  14. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slansky Jill E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. Methods We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA. Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma. Conclusions The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic

  15. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  16. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, Beth A; Cutter, Gary R; Wojcieszyn, John W; Bellgrau, Donald; Gemmill, Robert M; Hunter, Lawrence E; Modiano, Jaime F; Phang, Tzu L; Fosmire, Susan P; Scott, Milcah C; Trapp, Susan C; Duckett, Megan M; Robinson, Sally R; Slansky, Jill E; Sharkey, Leslie C

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA). Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma). The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic plasticity creates this phenotype, although they suggest that cells

  17. Gene expression profiling identifies inflammation and angiogenesis as distinguishing features of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Beth A; Phang, Tzu L; Fosmire, Susan P; Scott, Milcah C; Trapp, Susan C; Duckett, Megan M; Robinson, Sally R; Slansky, Jill E; Sharkey, Leslie C; Cutter, Gary R; Wojcieszyn, John W; Bellgrau, Donald; Gemmill, Robert M; Hunter, Lawrence E; Modiano, Jaime F

    2010-11-09

    The etiology of hemangiosarcoma remains incompletely understood. Its common occurrence in dogs suggests predisposing factors favor its development in this species. These factors could represent a constellation of heritable characteristics that promote transformation events and/or facilitate the establishment of a microenvironment that is conducive for survival of malignant blood vessel-forming cells. The hypothesis for this study was that characteristic molecular features distinguish hemangiosarcoma from non-malignant endothelial cells, and that such features are informative for the etiology of this disease. We first investigated mutations of VHL and Ras family genes that might drive hemangiosarcoma by sequencing tumor DNA and mRNA (cDNA). Protein expression was examined using immunostaining. Next, we evaluated genome-wide gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Canine 2.0 platform as a global approach to test the hypothesis. Data were evaluated using routine bioinformatics and validation was done using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Each of 10 tumor and four non-tumor samples analyzed had wild type sequences for these genes. At the genome wide level, hemangiosarcoma cells clustered separately from non-malignant endothelial cells based on a robust signature that included genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, adhesion, invasion, metabolism, cell cycle, signaling, and patterning. This signature did not simply reflect a cancer-associated angiogenic phenotype, as it also distinguished hemangiosarcoma from non-endothelial, moderately to highly angiogenic bone marrow-derived tumors (lymphoma, leukemia, osteosarcoma). The data show that inflammation and angiogenesis are important processes in the pathogenesis of vascular tumors, but a definitive ontogeny of the cells that give rise to these tumors remains to be established. The data do not yet distinguish whether functional or ontogenetic plasticity creates this phenotype, although they suggest that cells

  18. A new species of Epidendrum (Orchidaceae from Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolanowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Epidendrum is described and illustrated based on Panamanian material. The new entity belongs to the E. nocturnum complex and is distinguished by its oblong-elliptic leaves and by lip shape.

  19. Descriptions of two new earthworm species, Iridodrilus abujaensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two new eudriline earthworm species, Iridodrilus abujaensis and Iridodrilus furcothecata are described from collections made around the Federal Capital Territory and Wukari, Nigeria. They are distinguished by the forms of their external papillae, seminal vesicles, ovospermathecal systems and other characters.

  20. A new species of Rhinolophus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Thong, Vu Dinh

    2011-03-01

    A new species of the genus Rhinolophus is described from Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The new taxon belongs to the Rhinolophus "philippinensis-group" and is distinguished by differences in the nose-leaf structures, craniodental characteristics, and bacular features.

  1. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of Cacosternum from Pietermaritzburg, Natal, is described. It is a small, slender, smooth-skinned form, immediately distinguishable from all previously described taxa by the bold brown and yellow reticulations dorsally and ventrally.

  2. A new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Piper (Piperaceae), P. silhouettanum, is described from the Anse Mondon river valley, Silhouette Island, Seychelles. This species is close to P. nigrum but distinguished by its different venation, glabrous leaves, persistent elongated stipules and reduced bracts. This species is

  3. Feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K. Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. Among mammals, members of the order Carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. We therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas, the brown hyena (Hyena brunnea, the caracal (Caracal caracal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, the leopard (Panthera pardus and the lion (Panthera leo using a bacterial killing assay. The differences in immune responses amongst the six species were independent of their foraging behaviour, body mass or social organisation but reflected their phylogenetic relatedness. The bacterial killing capacity of black-backed jackals, a member of the suborder Caniformia, followed the pattern established for a wide variety of vertebrates. In contrast, the five representatives of the suborder Feliformia demonstrated a killing capacity at least an order of magnitude higher than any species reported previously, with a particularly high capacity in caracals and cheetahs. Our results suggest that the immunocompetence of threatened felids such as the cheetah has been underestimated and its assessment ought to consider both innate and adaptive components of the immune system.

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  5. Distinguishing the Clinical Nurse Specialist From Other Graduate Nursing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Coke, Lola A

    Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction. The purpose of this article was to define the role, educational preparation, role differences, and practice competencies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner, clinical nurse leader, and nurse educator/staff development educator roles. A second purpose was to provide role clarity and demonstrate the unique value the CNS brings to the healthcare environment. Using evidence and reviewing role competencies established by varying organizations, each role is presented with similarities and differences among the roles discussed. In addition, collaboration among the identified roles was reviewed, and recommendations were provided for the new and practicing CNSs. Although there are some similarities among the graduate nursing roles such as in educational, licensing, and certification requirements, each role must be understood to gain the full role scope and benefit and glean the anticipated outcomes. Healthcare providers must be aware of the differences in graduate nursing roles, especially in comparing the CNS with other roles to avoid confusion that may lead to roles being underused with a limited job scope. The CNS provides a unique set of services at all system outcome levels and is an essential part of the healthcare team especially in the acute care setting.

  6. T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657

  7. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gainsbury, Sally M; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., "gambling-like game") may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities.

  8. A new species of Gastrosaccus (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from the South West Coast of Australia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    A description of a new mysid Gastrosaccus robusta, is given. This species is distinguished from related species by possessing lobes on the carapace, a strong chitinous projection on the fifth abdominal segment, characters of the male pleopods...

  9. Novitates Gabonensis 59: Combretum wilksii (Combretaceae), a New Species from Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The new species Combretum wilksii Jongkind from Gabon is described. The species belongs to Combretum Loefling sect. Combretum. The combination of the almost flat upper receptacle, the subcircular, glabrous petals ca. 2 mm long, and the glabrous disk distinguishes this species from all other Combretum species in Africa and, more particularly, from related Gabonese species such as C. scandens Liben, C. polyanthum

  10. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-07-13

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided.

  11. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  12. Distinguishing the albedo of exoplanets from stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, L. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Demangeon, O.; Sousa, S. G.; Lendl, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Light curves show the flux variation from the target star and its orbiting planets as a function of time. In addition to the transit features created by the planets, the flux also includes the reflected light component of each planet, which depends on the planetary albedo. This signal is typically referred to as phase curve and could be easily identified if there were no additional noise. As well as instrumental noise, stellar activity, such as spots, can create a modulation in the data, which may be very difficult to distinguish from the planetary signal. Aims: We analyze the limitations imposed by the stellar activity on the detection of the planetary albedo, considering the limitations imposed by the predicted level of instrumental noise and the short duration of the obervations planned in the context of the CHEOPS mission. Methods: As initial condition, we have assumed that each star is characterized by just one orbiting planet. We built mock light curves that included a realistic stellar activity pattern, the reflected light component of the planet and an instrumental noise level, which we have chosen to be at the same level as predicted for CHEOPS. We then fit these light curves to try to recover the reflected light component, assuming the activity patterns can be modeled with a Gaussian process. Results: We estimate that at least one full stellar rotation is necessary to obtain a reliable detection of the planetary albedo. This result is independent of the level of noise, but it depends on the limitation of the Gaussian process to describe the stellar activity when the light curve time-span is shorter than the stellar rotation. As an additional result, we found that with a 6.5 magnitude star and the noise level of CHEOPS, it is possible to detect the planetary albedo up to a lower limit of Rp = 0.03 R*. Finally, in presence of typical CHEOPS gaps in the simulations, we confirm that it is still possible to obtain a reliable albedo.

  13. Distinguishing between hierarchical and lopsided SO(10) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Parul

    2005-01-01

    100 times lower than that in the AB case. Thus the two models can be distinguished based on their predictions regarding CP and flavor violating processes, and can be tested in future experiments

  14. Can orbital angle morphology distinguish dogs from wolves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Luc; Spanoghe, Inge; Miller, Rebecca; Van Dongen, Stefan

    For more than a century, the orbital angle has been studied by many authors to distinguish dog skulls from their progenitor, the wolf. In early studies, the angle was reported to be different between dogs (49°-55°) and wolves (39°-46°). This clear difference was, however, questioned in a more recent Scandinavian study that shows some overlap. It is clear that in all studies several methodological issues were unexplored or unclear and that group sizes and the variety of breeds and wolf subspecies were small. Archaeological dog skulls had also not been studied. Our goal was to test larger and more varied groups and add archaeological samples as they are an evolutionary stage between wolves and modern dogs. We also tested the influence of measuring methods, intra- and inter-reliability, angle symmetry, the influence of variations in skull position and the possibility of measuring and comparing this angle on 3D CT scan images. Our results indicate that there is about 50 % overlap between the angle range in wolves and modern dogs. However, skulls with a very narrow orbital angle were only found in wolves and those with a very wide angle only in dogs. Archaeological dogs have a mean angle very close to the one of the wolves. Symmetry is highest in wolves and lowest in archaeological dogs. The measuring method is very reliable, for both inter- and intra-reliability (0.99-0.97), and most skull position changes have no statistical influence on the angle measured. Three-dimensional CT scan images can be used to measure OA, but the angles differ from direct measuring and cannot be used for comparison. Evolutionary changes in dog skulls responsible for the wider OA compared to wolf skulls are mainly the lateralisation of the zygomatic process of the frontal bone. Our conclusion is that the orbital angle can be used as an additional morphological measuring method to discern wolves from recent and archaeological dogs. Angles above 60° are certainly from recent dogs. Angles

  15. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M. Beth; Chen, Jim Y.; Coleman, Jamie L.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Neel, Mike D.; Gold, Robert E.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. RESULTS On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. CONCLUSION Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic

  16. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  17. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra Lyons

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6% and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%. Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  18. Incidence of Type II CRISPR1-Cas Systems in Enterococcus Is Species-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Casandra; Raustad, Nicole; Bustos, Mario A.; Shiaris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems, which obstruct both viral infection and incorporation of mobile genetic elements by horizontal transfer, are a specific immune response common to prokaryotes. Antiviral protection by CRISPR-Cas comes at a cost, as horizontally-acquired genes may increase fitness and provide rapid adaptation to habitat change. To date, investigations into the prevalence of CRISPR have primarily focused on pathogenic and clinical bacteria, while less is known about CRISPR dynamics in commensal and environmental species. We designed PCR primers and coupled these with DNA sequencing of products to detect and characterize the presence of cas1, a universal CRISPR-associated gene and proxy for the Type II CRISPR1-Cas system, in environmental and non-clinical Enterococcus isolates. CRISPR1-cas1 was detected in approximately 33% of the 275 strains examined, and differences in CRISPR1 carriage between species was significant. Incidence of cas1 in E. hirae was 73%, nearly three times that of E. faecalis (23.6%) and 10 times more frequent than in E. durans (7.1%). Also, this is the first report of CRISPR1 presence in E. durans, as well as in the plant-associated species E. casseliflavus and E. sulfureus. Significant differences in CRISPR1-cas1 incidence among Enterococcus species support the hypothesis that there is a tradeoff between protection and adaptability. The differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may exert varying selective pressure that results in a species-dependent distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26600384

  19. Distinguishing human and possum faeces using PCR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, M; Robson, B; Nourozi, F; Wood, D; Gilpin, B J

    2013-09-01

    Specificity testing of two published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) markers for the detection of human faecal pollution, revealed 100% false-positive rates to brush-tailed possum faeces (n = 10), but low false-positive rates against other potential pollution sources. Cross-reaction with possums could be a problem with other human-specific markers; therefore, a possum PCR marker was developed for use in conjunction with human PCR markers. The possum PCR marker was based on Bacteroidales 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences, and was tested on 233 individual faecal samples from 11 other animal species. Sensitivity of the possum marker in possum faeces (n = 36) was high at 83.3%. Cross-reactivity of the possum marker was limited to black swan (7/20 samples), human (2/48 samples) and rabbit (1/10) faecal samples, all at marker concentrations at least four orders of magnitude lower than possum faeces. The possum marker was not detected in human sewage or the faeces of other animal species. Specificity of the possum PCR marker, therefore, was high at 95.7%. To exclude the possibility that only possum pollution is being detected, additional testing by other faecal source tracking methods is required where the water sample is positive for both human and possum markers.

  20. Distinguishing epidemic waves from disease spillover in a wildlife population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Meggan E; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-05-22

    Serengeti lions frequently experience viral outbreaks. In 1994, one-third of Serengeti lions died from canine distemper virus (CDV). Based on the limited epidemiological data available from this period, it has been unclear whether the 1994 outbreak was propagated by lion-to-lion transmission alone or involved multiple introductions from other sympatric carnivore species. More broadly, we do not know whether contacts between lions allow any pathogen with a relatively short infectious period to percolate through the population (i.e. reach epidemic proportions). We built one of the most realistic contact network models for a wildlife population to date, based on detailed behavioural and movement data from a long-term lion study population. The model allowed us to identify previously unrecognized biases in the sparse data from the 1994 outbreak and develop methods for judiciously inferring disease dynamics from typical wildlife samples. Our analysis of the model in light of the 1994 outbreak data strongly suggest that, although lions are sufficiently well connected to sustain epidemics of CDV-like diseases, the 1994 epidemic was fuelled by multiple spillovers from other carnivore species, such as jackals and hyenas.

  1. Development of PCR-RFLP method to distinguish between Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis in Taiwan water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Tien; Tsaihong, John Chin; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Tsai, Chia-Mu; Peng, Shih-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan pathogen that causes cryptosporidiosis has emerged as an important source of diarrheal illness among humans and animals. The current routine laboratory technique used for Cryptosporidium diagnosis is light microscopy with acid-fast staining but the technique has low efficiency and sensitivity for species-specific identification. Single PCR to amplify a 220 bp fragment of 18 S ribosomal DNA of C. parvum and C. hominis was developed. The restriction enzymes, TaqI and VspI, were used to distinguish between amplicons of human and bovine C. parvum genotype. Water samples, collected from Lo-Na, Ton-Pu, Ho-Ping, and Jen-Ai, Taiwan contained only bovine C. parvum genotype whereas in the Ton-Pu and Jen-Ai samples C. hominis was also present. Thus, the used of PCR-RFLP allowed successful identification of Cryptosporidium in water samples and differentiation between human and bovine species.

  2. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  3. A molecular biological protocol to distinguish potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbeck-Busch, Kathrin; Roder, Anja; Hasse, Dirk; de Boer, Wietse; Martínez, José Luis; Hagemann, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the importance of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas as an opportunistic pathogen as well as in biotechnology has increased. The aim of the present study was to develop new methods for distinguishing between strains closely related to the potentially human pathogenic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and those closely related to the plant-associated Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. To accomplish this, 58 strains were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and the occurrence of specific functional genes. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, an ARDRA protocol was developed which allowed differentiation between strains of the S. maltophilia and the S. rhizophila group. As it was known that only salt-treated cells of S. rhizophila were able to synthesize the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG), the ggpS gene responsible for GG synthesis was used for differentiation between both species and it was confirmed that it only occurred in S. rhizophila strains. As a further genetic marker the smeD gene, which is part of the genes coding for the multidrug efflux pump SmeDEF from S. maltophilia, was used. Based on the results we propose a combination of fingerprinting techniques using the 16S rDNA and the functional genes ggpS and smeD to distinguish both Stenotrophomonas species.

  4. A new species of Niditinea (Tineidae: Tineinae) with a preference for bird nests and the known larval habitats of the species in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe and illustrate Niditinea sabroskyi new species, a species mostly associated with bird nests. We provide diagnostic information to distinguish the new species from the other two species occurring in the United States, Niditinea fuscella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Niditinea orleansella (Chambers...

  5. Population genetics and cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheron, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Does the definition of a species matter for pest management purposes? Taxonomists provide us with tools - usually morphological characters - to identify a group of organisms that we call a species. The implication of this identification is that all of the individuals that fit the provided description are members of the species in question. The taxonomists have considered the range of variation among individuals in defining the species, but this variation is often forgotten when we take the concept of species to the level of management. Just as there is morphological variation among individuals, there is also variation in practically any character we might imagine, which has implications for the short and long term success of our management tactics. The rich literature on insecticide resistance should be a constant reminder of the fact that the pressure on pest survival and reproduction applied by our management approaches frequently leads to evolutionary changes within the pest species. The degree of variation within a particular species is a defining characteristic of that species. This level of variability may have very important implications for successful management, so it is very important to measure variation and, whenever possible, the genetic basis of that variation, in a target species. Population genetic approaches can provide evidence of genetic structure (or lack thereof) among populations of a species. These types of data can be used to discuss the movement of pest populations on a local or global scale. In other cases, we may have a complex of species that share some, but not all, characteristics. Species complexes that share morphological characters (i.e., cannot be easily distinguished) but not biological characters are referred to as sibling or cryptic species

  6. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  7. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion (‘feelings’), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals (‘attribution’, ‘anthropomorphizing’), our ability to think and talk about emotion (‘concepts of emotion’, ‘semantic knowledge of emotion’) and the behaviors caused by an emotion (‘expression of emotions’, ‘emotional reactions’). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of ‘emotion’. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. PMID:27798256

  8. The comparative chloroplast genomic analysis of photosynthetic orchids and developing DNA markers to distinguish Phalaenopsis orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Tien-Chih; Lin, Jhong-Yi; Chen, Ting-Chieh; Wu, Wen-Luan; Chang, Ching-Chun

    2012-07-01

    The chloroplast genome of Phalaenopsis equestris was determined and compared to those of Phalaenopsis aphrodite and Oncidium Gower Ramsey in Orchidaceae. The chloroplast genome of P. equestris is 148,959 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (25,846 bp) separates the genome into large single-copy (85,967 bp) and small single-copy (11,300 bp) regions. The genome encodes 109 genes, including 4 rRNA, 30 tRNA and 75 protein-coding genes, but loses four ndh genes (ndhA, E, F and H) and seven other ndh genes are pseudogenes. The rate of inter-species variation between the two moth orchids was 0.74% (1107 sites) for single nucleotide substitution and 0.24% for insertions (161 sites; 1388 bp) and deletions (189 sites; 1393 bp). The IR regions have a lower rate of nucleotide substitution (3.5-5.8-fold) and indels (4.3-7.1-fold) than single-copy regions. The intergenic spacers are the most divergent, and based on the length variation of the three intergenic spacers, 11 native Phalaenopsis orchids could be successfully distinguished. The coding genes, IR junction and RNA editing sites are relatively more conserved between the two moth orchids than between those of Phalaenopsis and Oncidium spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How should neuroscience study emotions? by distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ('feelings'), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ('attribution', 'anthropomorphizing'), our ability to think and talk about emotion ('concepts of emotion', 'semantic knowledge of emotion') and the behaviors caused by an emotion ('expression of emotions', 'emotional reactions'). I think that the most pressing challenge facing affective neuroscience is the need to carefully distinguish between these distinct aspects of 'emotion'. I view emotion states as evolved functional states that regulate complex behavior, in both people and animals, in response to challenges that instantiate recurrent environmental themes. These functional states, in turn, can also cause conscious experiences (feelings), and their effects and our memories for those effects also contribute to our semantic knowledge of emotions (concepts). Cross-species studies, dissociations in neurological and psychiatric patients, and more ecologically valid neuroimaging designs should be used to partly separate these different phenomena. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Single species victory in a two-site, two-species model of population dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jack; Sander, Len; Kessler, David

    2008-03-01

    We study the behavior of two species, differentiated only by their dispersal rates in an environment providing heterogeneous growth rates. Previous deterministic studies have shown that the slower-dispersal species always drives the faster species to extinction, while stochastic studies show that the opposite case can occur given small enough population and spatial heterogeneity. Other models of similar systems demonstrate the existence of an optimum dispersal rate, suggesting that distinguishing the species as faster or slower is insufficient. We here study the interface of these models for a small spatial system and determine the conditions of stability for a single species outcome.

  11. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  12. New Species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae) III

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Susanne S.; Hausner, Gerlinde

    2000-01-01

    Three new species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae) are described, illustrated, and placed in a phylogenetic context: S. gentryana from western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia, S. lozaniana from the western Andes in Colombia, and S. vasqueziana from Amazonian Peru. In addition, Siparuna calantha from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, originally described by Janet Perkins as a variety of a Mexican entity, is raised to species rank because its broader leaves and more numerous carpels readily distinguish...

  13. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  14. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  15. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3... General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee shall: (a) Have custody of: (1) The official seal and prototypes thereof, and masters, molds, dies, and all...

  16. Wavelet coherence analysis : A new approach to distinguish organic and functional tremor types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, G.; Van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Elting, J. W. J.

    Objective: To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. Methods: In this pilot study,

  17. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ..., Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer AGENCY: National Institutes of Health... sixth annual Philip S. Chen, Jr., Ph.D. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer... present ``Treatment of Cancer with Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr...

  18. Egg numbers and fecundity traits in nine species of Mantella poison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The body size and number of eggs in dissected females were analysed in nine species of the Malagasy frog genus Mantella basing upon preserved specimens. These species were distinguished in terms of habitat and grouped as 'grassland species' (included M. betsileo, M. expectata, M. viridis), and 'rainforest species' ...

  19. Molecular Typing of Nocardia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of clinically significant Nocardia species is essential for the definitive diagnosis, predict antimicrobial susceptibility, epidemiological purposes, and for an effective treatment. Conventional identification of Nocardia species in routine medical laboratories which is based on phenotypic (cellular morphology, colonial characteristics, biochemical and enzymatic profiles, and chemotaxonomic characteristics is often laborious, and time-consuming. The procedure requires expertise, and newer species can be difficult to differentiate with accuracy from other related species. Alternative methods of identification, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and molecular biology techniques allow a better characterization of species. The taxonomy of the genus Nocardia has been dramatically been revised during the last decade and more than 30 valid human clinical significance species of Nocardia have been reported. The use of molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or PCR restriction endonuclease analysis has been the focus of recent investigations to distinguish the isolates of Nocardia from other actinomycetes genera. The methods have revolutionized the characterization of the Nocardiae by providing rapid, sensitive, and accurate identification procedures. The present review describes the currently known medically important pathogenic species of Nocardia.

  20. Novitates neocaledonicae III : a new species of Citronella (Cardiopteridaceae) endemic to New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Munzinger, Jérôme; Levionnois, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Cardiopteridaceae, Citronella hirsuta, endemic to the east-central part of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, distinguished on the basis of morphological evidence, is described and illustrated. This new species is distinguished by its densely hirsute leaves, while the two others species of Citronella occurring in New Caledonia have glabrous leaves. Citronella hirsuta is restricted to ultramafic substrate, and only known from areas that are situated within mining conce...

  1. Supplements to the Pteridophytes in Taiwan (II: A Newly Recorded Species Diplazium crassiusculum Ching (Athyriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly recorded species, Diplazium crassiusculum Ching, in northern Taiwan is described and illustrated in this paper. It can be distinguished from other congeners by its coriaceous fronds, free terminal pinna, serrate margins, oblong-lanceolate pinnae, and sori solely formed at the acroscopic side of the first veinlet in each venous set. A key is provided to distinguish the morphologically related species of Taiwan. This species is apparently rare and is known only in one location in Taiwan.

  2. Three new, seemingly-cryptic species in the lichen genus Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae) distinguished in two-phase phenotype evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, I.; Vondrák, Jan; Fernández-Mendoza, F.; Wilk, K.; Khodosovtsev, A.; Halici, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 3-4 (2016), s. 243-262 ISSN 0003-3847 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phylogenetic analyses * partition schemes * forming ascomycota Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2016

  3. Can We Distinguish Plant Species that are Rare and Endangered from Other Plants Using Their Biological Traits?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabrielová, J.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Tackenberg, O.; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2013), s. 449-466 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06178 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : central Europe * life-history traits * phylogenetically independent contrasts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  4. Dorstenia triseriata (Moraceae) a new and endangered species from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson F. P.; Pereira, Jorge Fontella; Carauta, J. Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Moraceae is described, illustrated and compared to its close morphological relatives. Dorstenia triseriata presents similarities with Dorstenia turnerifolia but distinguished by size of peduncle, diameter of receptacle, number of bract rows, color of marginal bracts, and by an indistinct fringe on inflorescence. A conservation assessment based on IUCN criteria determines the new species to be vulnerable (VU). PMID:25009436

  5. [Species determination of puparia of forensically important blowflies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, C; Wollenek, G

    1983-01-01

    The cephalopharyngealsclerite and the morphology of the 12th puparian segment provide useful recognition features to distinguish the puparia of forensically important blow-fly species. In addition it was found that the size of the puparia can only make restricted reference to the identification of the species. The most useful characters of the puparia are finally collected in a classification key.

  6. A new species of Phlebopus (Botales, Basidiomycota) from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Baroni; Joaquin Cifuentes; Beatriz Ortiz Santana; Silvia Cappello

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Phlebopus mexicanus, is described from southern tropical rainforests of Mexico based on morphological and molecular characters. Several features distinguish this species from others of Phlebopus including the medium to small basidiomata with olivaceous brown tomentose pileus that becomes finely areolate cracked with age, the dark...

  7. A Newly Naturalized Species in Taiwan: Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytolacca icosandra L. (Phytolaccaceae, native to the South America has been found recently in central Taiwan. This newly naturalized species is distinguished by its erect spike-like racemes and 12–20 stamens. This paper describes the morphology of the species and provides line drawing and photographs for identification.

  8. New Solanum species from Tanzanian coastal forests may already ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unusually long inflorescences with a dense covering of long straight prickles on the rachis distinguish S. ruvu from all other African species of spiny Solanum. Its likely affinities lie with another coastal forest species, S. zanzibarense, which exhibits a similar scandent habit, subentire leaves, thin stems, and prickles that ...

  9. Onychiurid species from Wanda Mountains in China, with descriptions of two new species (Collembola, Onychiuridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Wu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of onychiurid species from the Wanda Mountains in China is presented. Eighteen species belonging to twelve genera have been found, including two new species. Bionychiurus qinglongensis sp. n. can be easily distinguished from other known species of the genus by the absence of pseudocelli on Th. I tergum and fewer number of vesicles in postantennal organ. Onychiurus heilongjiangensis sp. n. is diagnosed by pseudocellar formulae as 32/133/33352 dorsally and 3/011/31120 ventrally, parapseudocellar formula as 0/000/111001+1m, ratio of anal spine/unguis as 0.6, unguiculus without inner basal lamella, and male ventral organ absent. PMID:25147452

  10. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U

    2012-09-15

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  11. Quantum-Secret-Sharing Scheme Based on Local Distinguishability of Orthogonal Seven-Qudit Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Chen-Ming; Si, Meng-Meng

    2018-02-01

    The concept of judgment space was proposed by Wang et al. (Phys. Rev. A 95, 022320, 2017), which was used to study some important properties of quantum entangled states based on local distinguishability. In this study, we construct 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states in the sense of permutation, calculate their judgment space and propose a distinguishability rule to make the judgment space more clearly. Based on this rule, we study the local distinguishability of the 15 kinds of seven-qudit quantum entangled states and then propose a ( k, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme. Finally, we analyze the security of the scheme.

  12. Transcript of presentation of Distinguished Alumni Award to James Roche and Thomas White, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Elster, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Transcript of the words of Provost Richard S. Elster from the September 2001 Distinguished Alumni Award recognition of Secretary of the Air Force the Honorable James Roche and Secretary of the Army the Honorable Thomas White.

  13. Distinguishing Endogenic and Impact Craters Using Depth to Diameter Ratios and Circularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Greeley, R.

    2011-03-01

    Based on concerns for surface age dating, morphometric data from the McCartys Flow, New Mexico, was compared to craters in the Colombia Hills area in Gusev Crater, Mars, to distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters in lava flows.

  14. Phenolic compounds as cultivar- and variety-distinguishing factors in some plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepacka, Joanna; Gujska, Elżbieta; Michalak, Joanna

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether phenolic compounds in some varieties of buckwheat, winter and spring barley and peas can be used as factors which distinguish selected cultivars and varieties of plant material. It was observed that the content of total phenolics might be useful as a cultivar-distinguishing factor for all the plant materials analyzed, but it was a distinguishing factor for only some varieties. Individual cultivars and varieties were best distinguished by the content of syringic acid. The levels of syringic and vanillic acids were in reverse proportion to the total amount of phenolics soluble in methanol and a positive correlation between syringic and ferulic acid was observed. Moreover, the protein content of plant material was analyzed and a significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlation between this component and ferulic and vanillic acids was noted.

  15. Four new species and one new genus of zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia from the Galapagos Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Reimer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has confirmed the presence of several species of undescribed macrocnemic zoanthids (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia: Macrocnemina in the Galapagos. In this study four new species, including two belonging to a new genus, are described. Two species, Terrazoanthus onoi sp. n. and Terrazoanthus sinnigeri sp. n., both belong within the recently erected family Hydrozoanthidae to the new genus Terrazoanthus, which can be distinguished from the type genus Hydrozoanthus by being attached to abiotic substrate as opposed to hydrozoans for Hydrozoanthus. Each new species of zoanthid can be clearly distinguished by a number of characters. Antipathozoanthus hickmani sp. n. is distinguished by its exclusive association with the antipatharian Antipathes galapagensis, and has approximately 40 tentacles. Parazoanthus darwini sp. n. is distinguished by its frequent association with sponges, with approximately 24–30 tentacles and polyps embedded in a well-developed coenenchyme. T. onoi sp. n. is distinguished by its bright red oral disk color, 32–40 tentacles, and has only basitrichs and mastigophores present in the pharynx. T. sinnigeri sp. n. is distinguished by usually occurring on the underside of rubble and rocks on sandy bottoms, showing 30–36 tentacles, and numerous nematocyst types in the pharynx. The two Terrazoanthus species, although divergent in both morphology and ecology, are apparently very closely related, with identical mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. These two species can be molecularly distinguished by their subtly different yet distinct sequences of internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA.

  16. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow, D T; Shotwell, O L; Adams, G L

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  17. Distinguishing feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) using stable carbon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Lucy; Dynes, Travis; Berry, Jennifer; Delaplane, Keith; McCormick, Lydia; Brosi, Berry

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The ability to distinguish feral and managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) has applications in studies of population genetics, parasite transmission, pollination, interspecific interactions, and bee breeding. We evaluated a diagnostic test based on theoretical differences in stable carbon isotope ratios generated by supplemental feeding. We evaluated (1) if carbon isotope ratios can distinguish feral and managed honeybees and (2) the temporal persistence of the signal aft...

  18. Distinguished Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryles, Daisy; Roback, Diane; Ink, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Includes 12 articles that list notable books for college-bound youth, young adults, and children; paperbacks for young adults; audiobooks for young adults; children's videos; recordings for children; software and Web sites for children; bestsellers of 2000; and literary prizes that were awarded in 2000. (LRW)

  19. (Annonaceae) species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... 2Bioactivity Programme, Natural Products Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor. Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. ... The genus Xylopia comprises about 170 species and they are widely .... American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) while VRSA156 and. VISA24 were lab ...

  20. A Model to Partly but Reliably Distinguish DDOS Flood Traffic from Aggregated One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

  1. Description of three new species of Labena Cresson from Mexico (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae), with notes on tropical species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, Alejandra; Bordera, Santiago; Sääksjärvi, Ilari Eerikki

    2015-04-22

    Three new species of Labena Cresson (Ichneumonidae, Labeninae); L. littoralis sp. nov., L. tekalina sp. nov. and L. madoricola sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Material was collected with Malaise traps in 2008 and 2009 in the Biosphere Reserve Ria Lagartos (Mexico). Diagnostic characters to distinguish them from all other New World species of the genus are provided. In addition, the tropical species richness of the genus is shortly discussed.

  2. Species delimitation of the Hyphydrus ovatus complex in western Palaearctic with an update of species distributions (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The species status of Hyphydrus anatolicus Guignot, 1957 and H. sanctus Sharp, 1882, previously often confused with the widespread H. ovatus (Linnaeus, 1760, are tested with molecular and morphological characters. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 was sequenced for 32 specimens of all three species. Gene-trees were inferred with parsimony, time-free bayesian and strict clock bayesian analyses. The GMYC model was used to estimate species limits. All three species were reciprocally monophyletic with CO1 and highly supported. The GMYC species delimitation analysis unequivocally delimited the three species with no other than the three species solution included in the confidence interval. A likelihood ratio test rejected the one-species null model. Important morphological characters distinguishing the species are provided and illustrated. New distributional data are given for the following species: Hyphydrus anatolicus from Slovakia and Ukraine, and H. aubei Ganglbauer, 1891, and H. sanctus from Turkey.

  3. How to distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and water/volatile-dominated super-Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benneke, Björn; Seager, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H 2 -dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H 2 O, CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , or N 2 . Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out cloud-free H 2 -dominated scenarios, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on wing steepness and relative depths of absorption features in moderate-resolution near-infrared transmission spectra (R ∼ 100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H 2 -dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H 2 O atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be reduced by a factor of ∼3 compared to the published Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 and Very Large Telescope transit observations by Berta et al. and Bean et al. We argue that the required precision for the distinction may be achievable with currently available instrumentation by stacking 10-15 repeated transit observations. We provide a scaling law that scales our quantitative results to other transiting super-Earths and Neptunes such as HD 97658b, 55 Cnc e, GJ 3470b and GJ 436b. The analysis in this work is performed using an improved version of our Bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework. The new framework not only constrains the gas composition and cloud/haze parameters, but also determines our confidence in having detected molecules and cloud/haze species through Bayesian model comparison. Using the Bayesian tool, we demonstrate quantitatively that the subtle transit depth variation in the Berta et al. data is not sufficient to claim the

  4. How to distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and water/volatile-dominated super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benneke, Björn; Seager, Sara, E-mail: bbenneke@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    One of the most profound questions about the newly discovered class of low-density super-Earths is whether these exoplanets are predominately H{sub 2}-dominated mini-Neptunes or volatile-rich worlds with gas envelopes dominated by H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, or N{sub 2}. Transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b rule out cloud-free H{sub 2}-dominated scenarios, but are not able to determine whether the lack of deep spectral features is due to high-altitude clouds or the presence of a high mean molecular mass atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that one can unambiguously distinguish between cloudy mini-Neptunes and volatile-dominated worlds based on wing steepness and relative depths of absorption features in moderate-resolution near-infrared transmission spectra (R ∼ 100). In a numerical retrieval study, we show for GJ 1214b that an unambiguous distinction between a cloudy H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere and cloud-free H{sub 2}O atmosphere will be possible if the uncertainties in the spectral transit depth measurements can be reduced by a factor of ∼3 compared to the published Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Camera 3 and Very Large Telescope transit observations by Berta et al. and Bean et al. We argue that the required precision for the distinction may be achievable with currently available instrumentation by stacking 10-15 repeated transit observations. We provide a scaling law that scales our quantitative results to other transiting super-Earths and Neptunes such as HD 97658b, 55 Cnc e, GJ 3470b and GJ 436b. The analysis in this work is performed using an improved version of our Bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework. The new framework not only constrains the gas composition and cloud/haze parameters, but also determines our confidence in having detected molecules and cloud/haze species through Bayesian model comparison. Using the Bayesian tool, we demonstrate quantitatively that the subtle transit depth variation in the Berta et al. data is

  5. Henricia djakonovi sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Echinasteridae: a new sea star species from the Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Chichvarkhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape of skeletal plates, and life coloration, which distinguishes them from the other Henricia species inhabiting the Sea of Japan. Nevertheless, these species can be distinguished by their abactinal spines: in both species, they are short and barrel-like, but the new species is the only Henricia species in Russian waters of the Pacific that possesses such spines with a massive, smooth, bullet-like tip. The spines in H. pseudoleviuscula are crowned with a variable number of well-developed thorns. About half (<50% of the abactinal pseudopaxillae in the new species are oval, not crescent-shaped as in H. pseudoleviuscula.

  6. At the foot of the shrew: Manus morphology distinguishes closely-related Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis griseoventris (Mammalia: Soricidae) in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.

    2010-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.

  7. Saurauia taylorii (Actinidiaceae), a distinctive new species from the Kaijende Highlands of Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, W.

    2008-01-01

    Saurauia taylorii is described from subalpine environments in the Kaijende Highlands of Enga Province. The new species is easily distinguished by its unusually small and glabrous leaf-blades, and by its nodding flowers.

  8. The new species of Mysidacea (Crustacea), Anchialina labatus and Gastrosaccus sarae, from south west Australia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    on the third segment of the mandibular palp and by the modification of the exopod of the third pleopod of the male. G. sarae is distinguished from the other species by the shape and armature of the telson...

  9. Regional vs local drivers of phylogenetic and species diversity in stream fish communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, S.; Helmus, M.R.; Brosse, S.; Grenouillet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Regional and local processes are thought to influence community phylogenetic and species diversity, but have proved challenging to distinguish. We disentangled the effects of local (limiting similarity and habitat filtering) and regional processes (biogeography, history and geographical constraints)

  10. Aureobasidium thailandensis, a new species isolated from leaves and wooden surfaces in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureobasidium thailandense is described from material collected on leaves and wooden surfaces in Thailand. Phylogenetically it is distinct from other species of Aureobasidium. Phenotypically it is distinguished by its cardinal temperatures, salt tolerance, and production of reddish brown hyphal pigm...

  11. Peracarida) from the southern Indian Ocean with descriptions of two new species.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Jasmine, P.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    shares characters associated with the Brevicaudata- and Thompsonii-groups and is distinguished from related species by the presence of a short telson, the anterior margin of the carapace with a triangular rostral plate, the labrum with a long process...

  12. Confocal Raman microscopy for identification of bacterial species in biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Brooke D.; Quivey, Robert G.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Implemented through a confocal microscope, Raman spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between biofilm samples of two common oral bacteria species, Streptococcus sanguinis and mutans, which are associated with healthy and cariogenic plaque, respectively. Biofilms of these species are studied as a model of dental plaque. A prediction model has been calibrated and validated using pure biofilms. This model has been used to identify the species of transferred and dehydrated samples (much like a plaque scraping) as well as hydrated biofilms in situ. Preliminary results of confocal Raman mapping of species in an intact two-species biofilm will be shown.

  13. Relationship evaluation in six herbal species (Curcuma) by DNA barcoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J.; Liu, J.; Ding, C.

    2015-01-01

    Three chloroplast regions, rbcL, psbA-trnH and petA-psbJ were applied to assess the genetic relationships among six Curcuma medicinal species, which are difficult to distinguish from morphology. The Maximum Parsimony tree was conducted by Kimura 2-parameter model with MEGA 4. The genetic relationships were linked with geographical distributions among these six species; Curcuma sichuanensis is a mutation species of Curcuma longa, Curcuma sichuanensis couldnot be defined as a single species, and Curcuma chuanhuangjiang is an individual species. (author)

  14. A new species of Andean semiaquatic lizard of the genus Potamites (Sauria, Gymnophtalmidae from southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new lizard species of the genus Potamites from the montane forests of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba (Cusco region and Apurimac River valley (Ayacucho region, between 1500 and 2000 meters of elevation, in southern Peru. The new species is distinguishable from all other species of the genus mainly byhighly keeled scattered scales on dorsum and females lacking femoral pores.

  15. A new species of Andean semiaquatic lizard of the genus Potamites (Sauria, Gymnophtalmidae) from southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Germán; Vásquez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new lizard species of the genus Potamites from the montane forests of the Cordillera de Vilcabamba (Cusco region) and Apurimac River valley (Ayacucho region), between 1500 and 2000 meters of elevation, in southern Peru. The new species is distinguishable from all other species of the genus mainly by having highly keeled scattered scales on dorsum and females lacking femoral pores.

  16. A new species of Charinus Simon 1892 from Brazil, with notes on behavior (Amblypygi, Charinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva de Miranda, Gustavo; Milleri-Pinto, Milena; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Charinus is described and illustrated from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Charinus ruschii sp. n. is found in Santa Lúcia reserve, Espírito Santo state, and is sympatric with C. brasilianus and C. montanus. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other species of the...

  17. Comparative "Omics" of the Fusarium fujikuroi Species Complex Highlights Differences in Genetic Potential and Metabolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, E.-M.; Münsterkötter, M.; Proctor, R.H.; Brown, D.W.; Sharon, A.; Idan, Y.; Oren-Young, L.; Sieber, C.M.; Novák, O.; Pěnčík, A.; Tarkowská, D.; Hromadová, K.; Freeman, S.; Maymon, M.; Elazar, M.; Youssef, S.A.; El-Shabrawy, E.S.M.; Shalaby, A.B.A.; Houterman, P.; Brock, N.L.; Burkhardt, I.; Tsavkelova, E.A.; Dickschat, J.S.; Galuszka, P.; Güldener, U.; Tudzynski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share

  18. Status of non-cocoa tree species in cocoa multistrata systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations to assess the status of non-cocoa tree species in the cocoa systems of southern Cameroon were carried out in four contrasting locations, distinguished by ecology, population density and land use intensity. One set of ... farms where they were found showed that most species were fairly rare. Tree species ...

  19. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi

    2015-08-05

    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  20. Aporosa tetragona Tagane & V. S. Dang (Phyllanthaceae), a new species from Mt. Hon Ba, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagane, Shuichiro; Dang, Van Son; Toyama, Hironori; Naiki, Akiyo; Hidetoshi Nagamasu; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tran, Hop

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Aporosa tetragona Tagane & V. S. Dang, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Mt. Hon Ba located in the Khanh Hoa Province, South Vietnam. This species is characterized by tetragonal pistillate flowers and fruits, which are clearly distinguishable from the other previously known species of the genus. The morphology and phylogeny based on rbcL and matK of this species indicated that the new species belongs to section Appendiculatae Pax & K. Hoffm.

  1. Scandinavian Oncophorus (Bryopsida, Oncophoraceae: species, cryptic species, and intraspecific variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Hedenäs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavian members of the acrocarpous moss genus Oncophorus were revised after field observations had suggested unrecognized diversity. Based on molecular (nuclear: internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, ITS; plastid: trnGUCC G2 intron, trnG, rps4 gene + trnS-rps4 spacer, rps4 and morphological evidence, four morphologically distinguishable species are recognized, Oncophorus elongatus (I.Hagen Hedenäs, O. integerrimus Hedenäs sp. nov. (syn. O. virens var. elongatus Limpr., O. virens (Hedw. Brid., and O. wahlenbergii Brid. (O. sardous Herzog, syn. nov.. Oncophorus elongatus was earlier recognized, but much of its variation was hidden within O. wahlenbergii. Its circumscription is here expanded to include plants with long leaves having mostly denticulate or sharply denticulate upper margins and with long and narrow marginal cells in the basal portion of the sheathing leaf lamina. The new species O. integerrimus sp. nov. differs from O. virens in having more loosely incurved leaves and entire or almost entire upper leaf margins. Besides these characters, the species in the respective pairs differ in quantitative features of the leaf lamina cells. Several cryptic entities were found, in several cases as molecularly distinct as some of the morphologically recognizable species, and phylogeographic structure is present within O. elongatus and O. virens.

  2. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for distinguishing Taylorella equigenitalis from Taylorella equigenitalis-like organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, A B; Cooke, C L; Jang, S S; Hirsh, D C

    2001-05-01

    It is difficult to distinguish isolates of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis, from a T. equigenitalis-like organism isolated from asymptomatic donkeys and horses. Although T. equigenitalis is responsible for a severe, contagious disease of the reproductive tract of equids, the T. equigenitalis-like organism, although contagious, does not appear to produce disease. Because of the economic consequences of correctly distinguishing isolates of these 2 microorganisms, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was developed that will distinguish isolates of T. equigenitalis from the T. equigenitalis-like microorganism. The primers used in the PCR assay were designed to amplify unique regions of the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA.

  3. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Soil forensics: How far can soil clay analysis distinguish between soil vestiges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R S; Melo, V F; Abreu, G G F; Sousa, M H; Chaker, J A; Gomes, J A

    2018-03-01

    Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other. To test these hypotheses 16 Oxisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 1.000m, and 16 Inceptisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 300m from each other. Clay fractions were extracted from soil samples and analyzed for hyperspectral color reflectance (HSI), X-ray diffraction crystallographic (XRD), and for contents of iron oxides, kaolinite and gibbsite. The dataset was submitted to multivariate analysis and results were from 65% to 100% effective to distinguish between samples from the two soil types. Both soil types could be consistently distinguished for forensic purposes according to the distance that samples were collected from each other: 1000m for Oxisol and 10m for Inceptisol. Clay color and XRD analysis were the most effective techniques to distinguish clay samples, and Inceptisol samples were more easily distinguished than Oxisol samples. Soil forensics seems a promising field for soil scientists as soil clay can be useful as forensic evidence by using routine analytical techniques from soil science. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Viability in holder of irradiated cells: distinguish between repair and cell multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    In experiments in which liquid holding recovery (LHR) was measured, the majority of cellular population is formed by non-viable cells and cell multiplication may be important for LHR expression. In order to distinguish between recuperation of viability (true LHR) and cell multiplication, it was necessary to employ improved plating techniques and a fluctuation test based on Poisson distribution. Our results are an indication that this fluctuation test, used together with the traditional method, is a good tool to distinguish repair from cell multiplication. (author)

  6. Lonnie R. Snowden Jr.: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy is given to a psychologist who has made a distinguished empirical and/or theoretical contribution to research in public policy, either through a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of work. The 2014 recipient of this award is Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. "Over the past several decades, Lonnie R. Snowden Jr. has systematically built a research agenda on the financing and organization of mental health services that has driven much of our current health policy reform efforts." Snowden Jr.'s award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A Vizing-like theorem for union vertex-distinguishing edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Bousquet, Nicolas; Dailly, Antoine; Duchene, Eric; Kheddouci, Hamamache; Parreau, Aline

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a variant of the vertex-distinguishing edge coloring problem, where each edge is assigned a subset of colors. The label of a vertex is the union of the sets of colors on edges incident to it. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding a coloring with the minimum number of colors where every pair of vertices receive distinct labels. Finding such a coloring generalizes several other well-known problems of vertex-distinguishing colorings in graphs. We show that for any grap...

  8. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Kevin L. Nadal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2017 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Kevin L. Nadal, who has advanced "scholarship on stigma through his work on microaggressions related to sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, race/ethnicity, and religion." Nadal's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing tools for quantifying plant litter and invasive species in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Sridhar, B.B. Maruthi; Olsson, Aaryn Dyami; Glenn, Edward P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Huete, Alfredo; Lyon, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Green vegetation can be distinguished using visible and infrared multi-band and hyperspectral remote sensing methods. The problem has been in identifying and distinguishing the non-photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) landscape components, such as litter and soils, and from green vegetation. Additionally, distinguishing different species of green vegetation is challenging using the relatively few bands available on most satellite sensors. This chapter focuses on hyperspectral remote sensing characteristics that aim to distinguish between green vegetation, soil, and litter (or senescent vegetation). Quantifying litter by remote sensing methods is important in constructing carbon budgets of natural and agricultural ecosystems. Distinguishing between plant types is important in tracking the spread of invasive species. Green leaves of different species usually have similar spectra, making it difficult to distinguish between species. However, in this chapter we show that phenological differences between species can be used to detect some invasive species by their distinct patterns of greening and dormancy over an annual cycle based on hyperspectral data. Both applications require methods to quantify the non-green cellulosic fractions of plant tissues by remote sensing even in the presence of soil and green plant cover. We explore these methods and offer three case studies. The first concerns distinguishing surface litter from soil using the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), as applied to no-till farming practices where plant litter is left on the soil after harvest. The second involves using different band combinations to distinguish invasive saltcedar from agricultural and native riparian plants on the Lower Colorado River. The third illustrates the use of the CAI and NDVI in time-series analyses to distinguish between invasive buffelgrass and native plants in a desert environment in Arizona. Together the results show how hyperspectral imagery can be applied to

  10. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  11. A new Aceria species (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Spain on Pycnocomon rutifolium (Dipsacaceae) and supplementary descriptions of Aceria eucricotes and A. kuko from Lycium spp. (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Géza; Sánchez, Iňigo

    2017-03-19

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria pycnocomi sp. nov., associated with Pycnocomon rutifolium (Dipsacaceae), is described and illustrated from Spain. Morphological differences distinguishing this new species from similar Aceria species are discussed. The female, male and nymph of Aceria eucricotes (Nalepa, 1892) and Aceria kuko (Kishida, 1927) are redescribed and illustrated from Spain and Hungary, respectively; both were collected from Lycium spp. (Solanaceae). Morphological differences distinguishing these two species are discussed.

  12. Study on distinguishing of Chinese ancient porcelains by neutron activation and fuzzy cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang An

    1992-01-01

    By means of the method of neutron activation, the contents of trace elements in some samples of Chinese ancient porcelains from different places of production were determined. The data were analysed by fuzzy cluster analysis. On the basis of the above mentioned works, a method with regard to the distinguishing and determining of Chinese ancient porcelain was suggested

  13. C. Cybele Raver: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well…

  14. Comments on "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology:" Evidence-Based Interventions for Grandiose Bragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited…

  15. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  16. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  17. A Methodology for Distinguishing between Extinction and Punishment Effects Associated with Response Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. In extinction and punishment, different schedules of reinforcement or punishment are in effect when a given proportion of responses is blocked. Response patterns in treatment of hand mouthing in an adult with profound mental retardation suggest that a…

  18. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  19. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  20. A high-throughput screening assay for distinguishing nitrile hydratases from nitrilases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Mara Lima Angelini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified colorimetric high-throughput screen based on pH changes combined with an amidase inhibitor capable of distinguishing between nitrilases and nitrile hydratases. This enzymatic screening is based on a binary response and is suitable for the first step of hierarchical screening projects.

  1. Linear Distinguishers in the Key-less Setting: Application to PRESENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The application of the concept of linear cryptanalysis to the domain of key-less primitives is largely an open problem. In this paper we, for the first time, propose a model in which its application is meaningful for distinguishing block ciphers. Combining our model with ideas from message...

  2. Mie scattering distinguishes the topological charge of an optical vortex: a homage to Gustav Mie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbin, V.; Garbin, Valeria; Volpe, Giovanni; Ferrari, Enrico; Versluis, Michel; Cojoc, Dan; Petrov, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    One century after Mie's original paper, Mie scattering is still a fertile field of scientific endeavor. We show that the Mie scattering distinguishes the topological charge of light beams with phase dislocations. We experimentally and numerically study the scattering of highly focused

  3. Distinguishing Lewd and Lascivious Acts from Related Crimes Against Minors’ Sexual Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragozina I. G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the criminal law norms related to the crime provided for by Article 135 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The authors estimate judicial practice and outline disputable issues of correlation of the given norms and offer the criteria to distinguish lewd and lascivious acts from related crimes

  4. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  5. Are Children Able to Distinguish among the Concepts of Aloneness, Loneliness, and Solitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaki, Evangelia

    2004-01-01

    School-age children's ability to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude was the focus of this study. This ability has been largely neglected by researchers. Also, the relation of this ability with self-reported loneliness was examined. Individual interviews were conducted with 180 second, fourth, and sixth graders…

  6. Distinguished-Level Learning Online: Support Materials from LangNet and RussNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Betty Lou; Ehrman, Madeline; Lekic, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the reader to two online sources of materials for working on improving listening and reading skills. The materials are intended for learners already at Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Level 3 (Superior) proficiency in Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Korean, Russian, and Spanish, who desire to reach Level 4 (Distinguished, or…

  7. Computable categoricity of the Boolean algebra B(omega) with a distinguished automorphism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazhenov, N. A.; Tukhbatullina, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2013), s. 89-97 ISSN 0002-5232 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Boolean algebra with distinguished automorphism * computable categoricity * categoricity spectrum Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2013

  8. Wavelet coherence analysis: A new approach to distinguish organic and functional tremor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G; Van der Stouwe, A M M; Maurits, N M; Tijssen, M A J; Elting, J W J

    2018-01-01

    To distinguish tremor subtypes using wavelet coherence analysis (WCA). WCA enables to detect variations in coherence and phase difference between two signals over time and might be especially useful in distinguishing functional from organic tremor. In this pilot study, polymyography recordings were studied retrospectively of 26 Parkinsonian (PT), 26 functional (FT), 26 essential (ET), and 20 enhanced physiological (EPT) tremor patients. Per patient one segment of 20 s in duration, in which tremor was present continuously in the same posture, was selected. We studied several coherence and phase related parameters, and analysed all possible muscle combinations of the flexor and extensor muscles of the upper and fore arm. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was applied to compare WCA and standard coherence analysis to distinguish tremor subtypes. The percentage of time with significant coherence (PTSC) and the number of periods without significant coherence (NOV) proved the most discriminative parameters. FT could be discriminated from organic (PT, ET, EPT) tremor by high NOV (31.88 vs 21.58, 23.12 and 10.20 respectively) with an AUC-ROC of 0.809, while standard coherence analysis resulted in an AUC-ROC of 0.552. EMG-EMG WCA analysis might provide additional variables to distinguish functional from organic tremor. WCA might prove to be of additional value to discriminate between tremor types. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  10. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K.; Loh, Po-Ru; Finucane, Hilary K.; Ripke, Stephan; Yang, Jian; Patterson, Nick; Daly, Mark J.; Price, Alkes L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Corvin, Aiden; Walters, James T. R.; Farh, Kai-How; Holmans, Peter A.; Lee, Phil; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Collier, David A.; Huang, Hailiang; Pers, Tune H.; Agartz, Ingrid; Agerbo, Esben; Albus, Margot; Alexander, Madeline; Amin, Farooq; Bacanu, Silviu A.; Begemann, Martin; Belliveau, Richard A.; Bene, Judit; Bergen, Sarah E.; Bevilacqua, Elizabeth; Bigdeli, Tim B.; Black, Donald W.; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Byerley, William; Cahn, Wiepke; Cai, Guiqing; Cairns, Murray J.; Campion, Dominique; Cantor, Rita M.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Carrera, Noa; Catts, Stanley V.; Chambert, Kimberly D.; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Chen, Ronald Y. L.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Cheng, Wei; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Chong, Siow Ann; Cloninger, C. Robert; Cohen, David; Cohen, Nadine; Cormican, Paul; Craddock, Nick; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crowley, James J.; Curtis, David; Davidson, Michael; Davis, Kenneth L.; Degenhardt, Franziska; del Favero, Jurgen; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Demontis, Ditte; Dikeos, Dimitris; Dinan, Timothy; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drapeau, Elodie; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Durmishi, Naser; Eichhammer, Peter; Eriksson, Johan; Escott-Price, Valentina; Essioux, Laurent; Fanous, Ayman H.; Farrell, Martilias S.; Frank, Josef; Franke, Lude; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Friedl, Marion; Friedman, Joseph I.; Fromer, Menachem; Genovese, Giulio; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Godard, Stephanie; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Golimbet, Vera; Gopal, Srihari; Gratten, Jacob; de Haan, Lieuwe; Hammer, Christian; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Mark; Hansen, Thomas; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hartmann, Annette M.; Henskens, Frans A.; Herms, Stefan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hoffmann, Per; Hofman, Andrea; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Ikeda, Masashi; Joa, Inge; Julià, Antonio; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Karjalainen, Juha; Kavanagh, David; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kennedy, James L.; Khrunin, Andrey; Kim, Yunjung; Klovins, Janis; Knowles, James A.; Konte, Bettina; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kucinskiene, Zita Ausrele; Kuzelova-Ptackova, Hana; Kähler, Anna K.; Laurent, Claudine; Keong, Jimmy Lee Chee; Lee, S. Hong; Legge, Sophie E.; Lerer, Bernard; Li, Miaoxin; Li, Tao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Limborska, Svetlana; Loughland, Carmel M.; Lubinski, Jan; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Macek, Milan; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maher, Brion S.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mallet, Jacques; Marsal, Sara; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarley, Robert W.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meier, Sandra; Meijer, Carin J.; Melegh, Bela; Melle, Ingrid; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Metspalu, Andres; Michie, Patricia T.; Milani, Lili; Milanova, Vihra; Mokrab, Younes; Morris, Derek W.; Mors, Ole; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murray, Robin M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nelis, Mari; Nenadic, Igor; Nertney, Deborah A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Nicodemus, Kristin K.; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nisenbaum, Laura; Nordin, Annelie; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; O'Dushlaine, Colm; O'Neill, F. Anthony; Oh, Sang-Yun; Olincy, Ann; Olsen, Line; van Os, Jim; Pantelis, Christos; Papadimitriou, George N.; Papiol, Sergi; Parkhomenko, Elena; Pato, Michele T.; Paunio, Tiina; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Perkins, Diana O.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Pimm, Jonathan; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Powell, John; Price, Alkes; Pulver, Ann E.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quested, Digby; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Reimers, Mark A.; Richards, Alexander L.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Roussos, Panos; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Schall, Ulrich; Schubert, Christian R.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schwab, Sibylle G.; Scolnick, Edward M.; Scott, Rodney J.; Seidman, Larry J.; Shi, Jianxin; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sim, Kang; Slominsky, Petr; Smoller, Jordan W.; So, Hon-Cheong; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stahl, Eli A.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Straub, Richard E.; Strengman, Eric; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Subramaniam, Mythily; Suvisaari, Jaana; Svrakic, Dragan M.; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Söderman, Erik; Thirumalai, Srinivas; Toncheva, Draga; Tooney, Paul A.; Tosato, Sarah; Veijola, Juha; Waddington, John; Walsh, Dermot; Wang, Dai; Wang, Qiang; Webb, Bradley T.; Weiser, Mark; Wildenauer, Dieter D.; Williams, Nigel M.; Williams, Stephanie; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Wong, Emily H. M.; Wormley, Brandon K.; Wu, Jing Qin; Xi, Hualin Simon; Zai, Clement C.; Zheng, Xuebin; Zimprich, Fritz; Wray, Naomi R.; Stefansson, Kari; Visscher, Peter M.; Adolfsson, Rolf; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bramon, Elvira; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Børglum, Anders D.; Cichon, Sven; Darvasi, Ariel; Domenici, Enrico; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Esko, Tõnu; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gill, Michael; Gurling, Hugh; Hultman, Christina M.; Iwata, Nakao; Jablensky, Assen V.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kirov, George; Knight, Jo; Lencz, Todd; Levinson, Douglas F.; Li, Qingqin S.; Liu, Jianjun; Malhotra, Anil K.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McQuillin, Andrew; Moran, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N.; Petryshen, Tracey L.; Posthuma, Danielle; Rietschel, Marcella; Riley, Brien P.; Rujescu, Dan; Sham, Pak C.; Sklar, Pamela; St Clair, David; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Wendland, Jens R.; Werge, Thomas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; O'Donovan, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Both polygenicity (many small genetic effects) and confounding biases, such as cryptic relatedness and population stratification, can yield an inflated distribution of test statistics in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, current methods cannot distinguish between inflation from a true

  11. How to distinguish between the annihilation and the creation of optical vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Filippus S

    2013-10-01

    Optical vortices are always created or annihilated as vortex dipoles-pairs with opposite topological charge. Here a quantity, consisting of the transverse first and second derivatives of the optical field, is derived with which one can distinguish between vortex dipole annihilation and creation events. Analytical and numerical examples are provided as a demonstration of the method.

  12. Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed ...

  13. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  14. A Simple Test to Distinguish between D-Glucose and D-Fructose

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. A Simple Test to Distinguish between D-Glucose and D-Fructose. Sangeeta Pandita Samta Goyal Nadira Arif Sarita Passey. Classroom Volume 12 Issue 4 April 2007 pp 92-94 ...

  15. Selection of particle characteristics to distinguish amongst potential sources of particulate matter in poultry and pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-Lopez, M.; Hermosilla, T.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the contribution of individual sources to particulate matter (PM) in different size fractions is essential to improve PM reduction from livestock houses. We investigated which input data (particle chemical, morphological or combined characteristics) were best to distinguish amongst

  16. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  17. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  18. A novel histological technique for distinguishing between epithelial cells in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Claire E V; Jensen, Cynthia G; Vintiner, Susan K; Elliot, Douglas A; McGlashan, Susan R

    2008-06-10

    There are a number of forensic cases in which the identification of the epithelial cell type from which DNA originated would provide important probative evidence. This study aimed to develop a technique using histological staining of fixed cells to distinguish between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelium. First, 11 different stains were screened on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded cells from five women. Samples were analysed qualitatively by examining staining patterns (colour) and morphology (absence or presence of nuclei). Three of the staining methods--Dane's, Csaba's and Ayoub-Shklar--were successful in distinguishing skin epithelial cells from buccal and vaginal. Second, cells were smeared directly onto slides, fixed with one of five fixatives and stained with one of the three stains mentioned above. Methanol fixation, coupled with the Dane's staining method, specific to keratin, was the only technique that distinguished between all three cell types. Skin cells stained magenta, red and orange and lacked nuclei; buccal cells stained predominantly orange-pink with red nuclei; while vaginal cells stained bright orange with orange nuclei and a blue extracellular hue. This staining pattern in vaginal cells was consistent in samples collected from 50 women aged between 18 and 67. Identification of cell type from unlabelled micrographs by 10 trained observers showed a mean success rate of 95%. The results of this study demonstrate that histological staining may provide forensic scientists with a technique for distinguishing between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelial cells and thus would enable more conclusive analyses when investigating sexual assault cases.

  19. A new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available Microglanis garavelloi, new species, collected in tributaries of rio Paranapanema and rio Tietê, is the first species of the genus described from upper rio Paraná basin. The new species can be distinguished from other species of Microglanis on morphometric characters, color pattern, caudal-fin shape, pectoral-spine morphology and lateral line development. Characters used specifically to distinguish M. garavelloi from M. cottoides (laguna dos Patos and rio Uruguay basins and M. parahybae (rio Paraíba do Sul basin include morphometrics, color pattern and pectoral-spine serration.

  20. Distribution of species and antimicrobial resistance among enterococci isolated from the fecal microbiota of captive blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andréa de Andrade Rangel de; Faria, Adriana Rocha; Pinto, Tatiana de Castro Abreu; Merquior, Vânia Lúcia Carreira; Neves, Daniel Marchesi; Costa, Rodrigo de Cerqueira da; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins

    2018-02-15

    Enterococcal strains recovered from fecal samples of captive blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva) assisted at two wild animal screening centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as Enterococcus hirae (the predominant species; 75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (17.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4.8%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.7%), and Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.9%). All strains were susceptible to linezolid and teicoplanin. Rates of nonsusceptibility (including resistant and intermediate categories) to other 16 antimicrobials tested varied from 69.3% to 0.4%, A considerable proportion (48.0%) of the strains was multidrug-resistant and diverse genetic determinants associated with antimicrobial resistance were identified. Tetracycline-resistant strains carried the tet(M) and/or tet(L) genes. Macrolides resistance was associated with the erm(B), erm(A) and mefA genes, while 43.2% of the isolates were negative for the investigated genes. High-level resistance to gentamicin associated with the aac(6')-le-aph(2″)-la gene was detected in one E. faecalis strain. The two strains presenting high-level resistance to streptomycin were negative for the ant(6')-Ia, ant(3')-Ia, ant(9')-Ia and ant(9')-Ib genes. The vat(D) gene was found in all the 47 quinupristin/dalfopristin resistant strains identified as non-E. faecalis. Analysis of PFGE profiles of E. hirae strains after restriction with SmaI demonstrated the occurrence of five clonal groups. The predominant E. hirae clone was distributed among birds in the two institutions, suggesting that this clone was well adapted to the host and environments investigated. The four clonal groups identified among E. faecalis were composed by small numbers of strains and, generally, restricted to birds in the same sector. The occurrence of enterococcal strains exhibiting antimicrobial resistance traits and carrying genetic determinants that represent potential threats to the health of both humans and animals, in

  1. Identifying Chinese species of Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda using DNA barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOU Zhong-E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a standard cytochrome c oxidase I sequence, DNA barcoding has been shown to be effective to distinguish known species and to discover cryptic species. Here we assessed the efficiency of DNA barcoding for the amphipod genus Gammarus from China. The maximum intraspecific divergence for widespread species, Gammarus lacustris, was 3.5%, and mean interspecific divergence reached 21.9%. We presented a conservative benchmark for determining provisional species using maximum intraspecific divergence of Gammarus lacustris. Thirty-one species possessed distinct barcode clusters. Two species were comprised of highly divergent clades with strong neighbor-joining bootstrap values, and likely indicated the presence of cryptic species. Although DNA barcoding is effective, future identification of species of Gammarus should incorporate DNA barcoding and morphological detection.

  2. Calonectria (Cylindrocladium) species associated with dying Pinus cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Rodas, C A; Crous, P W; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J

    2009-12-01

    Calonectria (Ca.) species and their Cylindrocladium (Cy.) anamorphs are well-known pathogens of forest nursery plants in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. An investigation of the mortality of rooted Pinus cuttings in a commercial forest nursery in Colombia led to the isolation of two Cylindrocladium anamorphs of Calonectria species. The aim of this study was to identify these species using DNA sequence data and morphological comparisons. Two species were identified, namely one undescribed species, and Cy. gracile, which is allocated to Calonectria as Ca. brassicae. The new species, Ca. brachiatica, resides in the Ca. brassicae species complex. Pathogenicity tests with Ca. brachiatica and Ca. brassicae showed that both are able to cause disease on Pinus maximinoi and P. tecunumanii. An emended key is provided to distinguish between Calonectria species with clavate vesicles and 1-septate macroconidia.

  3. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; Caldwell, Pat; Braun, Uwe; Harrington, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 & ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA gene, elongation factor 1-alpha, histone H3, actin and calmodulin gene regions suggest that Groups I and II are two distinct species. Furthermore, Cercospora zeae-maydis (Group I) can be distinguished from C. zeina sp. nov. (Group II) by its faster growth rate on artificial media, the ability to produce cercosporin, longer conidiophores, and broadly fusiform conidia. A PCR-based test that distinguishes the two species was developed using species-specific primers designed from the histone H3 gene.

  4. A new caprellid species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Senticaudata) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Macarena; Lacerda, Mariana B; Guerra-García, José M

    2017-05-01

    A new species of caprellid, Pseudaeginella arraialensis, is described from Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Abundant material was collected in Praia do Forno, associated to hydroids and algae of natural rocky substrata and fouling communities of artificial floating structures. The new species can be distinguished easily from the remaining species in the genus mainly by the pattern of dorsal projections, and by the setose antennae and gnathopod 2 in males. The dietary analysis revealed that the species is omnivorous, with a high contribution of small crustaceans in its diet. Detailed figures showing ontogenetic development and intraspecific variation of P. arraialensis are also included.

  5. Epibiotic Diatoms Are Universally Present on All Sea Turtle Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathan J; Majewska, Roksana; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A; Nel, Ronel; Paladino, Frank V; Rojas, Lourdes; Zardus, John D; Pinou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    The macro-epibiotic communities of sea turtles have been subject to growing interest in recent years, yet their micro-epibiotic counterparts are almost entirely unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that diatoms are epibionts for all seven extant species of sea turtle. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy, we inspected superficial carapace or skin samples from a single representative of each turtle species. We distinguished 18 diatom taxa from these seven individuals, with each sea turtle species hosting at least two diatom taxa. We recommend that future research is undertaken to confirm whether diatom communities vary between sea turtle species and whether these diatom taxa are facultative or obligate commensals.

  6. A new species of Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somran Suddee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lecanorchis betongensis, a new species from tropical rain forest in southern peninsular Thailand, is described and illustrated. The combination of semicircular column wings and a labellum with an odd number of major veins (but devoid of calli places the new species in sect. Lecanorchis. However, the lack of any fusion between the labellum and the column readily distinguishes L. betongensis from all other species of the genus. The new species seems morphologically closest to L. malaccensis from Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra.

  7. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata, V. barbellata and V. dilloniana are distributed throughout the Caribbean islands and are all found in Puerto Rico. The vegetative parts of the species are similar; however, their conspicuous flowers easily distinguish them. Electrophoresis of seven polymorphic enzymes reveale...

  8. A new species of Xylotrechus Chevrolat from China (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shulin; Yang, Weicheng

    2017-01-01

    Xylotrechus tristisfacies sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Clytini) from China is described and illustrated. Characters distinguishing the new species from its close relatives, which possess an entirely black or dark brown pronotum with a black median stripe on the disc and dense yellowish to gray pubescent elytra with black or brown spots or bands, are presented.

  9. Rapid identification of Armillaria species by PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longa, Claudia M O; La Porta, Nicola

    2014-12-01

    The molecular approach has been used to distinguish between Armillaria species because of the ambiguity when using morphological traits. PCR-DGGE using the fungal primers ITS3GC-ITS4 enables a selective separation of amplicons and results in a simple and rapid approach to discriminate in one-step the most common Armillaria species in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid Identification of Sporothrix Species by T3B Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Sampaio, Paula; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Pais, Célia; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2012-01-01

    This article describes PCR fingerprinting using the universal primer T3B to distinguish among species of the Sporothrix complex, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. schenckii. This methodology generated distinct banding patterns, allowing the correct identification of all 35 clinical isolates at the species level, confirmed by partial calmodulin (CAL) gene sequence analyses. This methodology is simple, reliable, rapid, and cheap, making it an ideal routine identification system for clinical mycology laboratories. PMID:22403427

  11. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  12. Three new Macropsini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) leafhopper species from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin

    2017-06-02

    Three new species, Macropsella recta, Toropsis minuspina and Varicopsella apecurvata spp. nov. are described and illustrated from Australia.       Leafhoppers of the subfamily Macropsinae are found abundantly in the Holarctic, Oriental and Australian regions (Linnavuori, 1978) and have been collected from around the world, except for Antarctica, Oceania and South America (Hamilton, 1980). Both Hamilton (1980) and Evans (1966) suggested that there were likely a myriad of uncollected and undescribed species in Australia alone and Evans (1971) commented that the Macropsinae are possibly more abundant in Australia than anywhere else in the world. Day and Fletcher (1994) listed 45 macropsine species in eight genera and mentioned that the Australian fauna needs "a thorough examination to establish the generic affinities of the species…". In her unpublished doctoral dissertation, Semeraro (2014) recently completed a revision and phylogeny of the Australian fauna, documenting an additional 50 undescribed species and proposing changes to the generic classification, but this work has not yet been published. The new Australian species described herein, representing three genera, one not previously recorded in Australia, were not included in Semeraro's (2014) dissertation.Study of samples recently collected from Australia revealed the presence of 3 new species, representing the genera Macropsella Hamilton, Toropsis Hamilton and Varicopsella Hamilton.Macropsella was established by Hamilton (1980) with Macropsis saidora Evans, 1971 as the type species. Five Macropsis species describeded by Evans (1971), one Macropsis species described by Kirkaldy (1907) and new species Macropsella complicata Hamilton (1980) were previously included in this genus. The seven species of this genus are known only from New Guinea and Northern Australia. Members of this genus can be distinguished by their usually white spotted tegminal veins, tapered male pygofer and laterally directed short

  13. Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals.

  14. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni new species (Hydropsychidae: Trichoptera) with species list of Trichoptera from Li Phi Falls, Mekong River, southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudee, Pongsak; Malicky, Hans

    2017-03-10

    A new species named Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni n. sp. is presented along with a list of Trichoptera from Li Phi falls, Mekong River, southern Laos. Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni n. sp. is described and figured based on adult males and females. It is distinguished from the others by its forewing pattern and color, which is yellowish brown.

  16. A study of lactose metabolism in Lactococcus garvieae reveals a genetic marker for distinguishing between dairy and fish biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortina, Maria Grazia; Ricci, Giovanni; Borgo, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    Dairy and fish isolates of Lactococcus garvieae were tested for their ability to utilize lactose and to grow in milk. Fish isolates were unable to assimilate lactose, but unexpectedly, they possessed the ability to grow in milk. Genetic studies, carried out constructing different vectorette libraries, provided evidence that in fish isolates, no genes involved in lactose utilization were present. For L. garvieae dairy isolates, a single system for the catabolism of lactose was found. It consists of a lactose transport and hydrolysis depending on a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system combined with a phospho-beta-galactosidase. The genes involved were highly similar at the nucleotide sequence level to their counterparts in Lactococcus lactis; however, while in many L. lactis strains these genes are plasmid encoded, in L. garvieae they are chromosomally located. Thus, in the species L. garvieae, the phospho-beta-galactosidase gene, detectable in all strains of dairy origin but lacking in fish isolates, can be considered a reliable genetic marker for distinguishing biotypes in the two diverse ecological niches. Moreover, we obtained information regarding the complete nucleotide sequence of the gal operon in L. garvieae, consisting of a galactose permease and the Leloir pathway enzymes. This is one of the first reports concerning the determination of the nucleotide sequences of genes (other than the 16S rDNA gene) in L. garvieae and should be considered a step in a continuous effort to explore the genome of this species, with the aim of determining the real relationship between the presence of L. garvieae in dairy products and food safety.

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections : New Compounds, Novel Antimicrobial Therapies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Roel M; Willems, Rob J L; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause

  18. Enterococcal endocarditis - a case treated with teicoplanin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    placed in the supra-annular position with single non- absorbable sutures, It was noted that a perivalvular abscess was present in relation to the left right commissure. The aorta was closed, the heart de-aired and the ... weeks of combination therapy he was discharged on oral amoxycillin for a further 4 weeks. Follow-up 6 ...

  19. Enterococcal endocarditis - a case treated with teicoplanin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was known to have had an aortic valve defect since childhood and had recently undergone splenectomy following trauma. Blood cultures were negative prior to valve replacement. A perivalvular abscess was noted at operation. In vitro minimal bactericidal results and serum activity were the basis of the ...

  20. Key for European species of the Cheilosia proxima group (Diptera, Syrphidae with a description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Vujic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new hoverfly species, Cheilosia barbafacies Vujić & Radenković sp. n. (Diptera, Syrphidae, is described and distinguished from the closely related species C. pascuorum Becker, 1894, based on material collected from the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. Diagnostic characteristics and an identification key for the members of the proxima group of Cheilosia s. str., including the new taxon, are provided.

  1. Hemlock woolly adelgid biological control: molecular methods to distinguish Laricobius nigrinus, L. rubidus, and their hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Gina Davis; Joanne Klein; Adalgisa Caccone; Scott. Salom

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics use DNA-based methods to assign unknown organisms to species. As such, they rely on a priori species designation by taxonomists and require validation with enough samples to capture the variation within species for accurately selecting diagnostic characters.

  2. Belief in a just what? Demystifying just world beliefs by distinguishing sources of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People's Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice.

  3. On distinguishing different models of a class of emergent Universe solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Souvik

    2018-03-01

    A specific class of singularity-free cosmological model has recently been considered in light of different observational data such as observed Hubble data, BAO data from luminous red galaxy survey by Slowan digital sky survey (SDSS) and CMB data from WMAP. However, it is observed that only 12-14 data points are used to study the viability of the model in late time. In this paper, we discuss the viability of all the models belonging to the same class of EU in light of union compilation data (SNIa) which consists of over a hundred data points, thus getting a more robust test for viability. More importantly, it is crucial that we can distinguish between the various models proposed in the class of solution obtained. We discuss here why with the present observational data it is difficult to distinguish between all of them. We show that the late-time behaviour of the model is typical to any asymptotically de Sitter model.

  4. Jon Carlson: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jon Carlson as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. "For his contributions in creating educational and training materials in psychology for instruction and the public. Jon Carlson has a distinguished career in higher education, maintained an active private practice, served 34 years as a school psychologist/counselor, is a prolific author and scholar, and is an innovator in the development of media-based training materials. His contribution to education and training is noteworthy for the volume of his professional production, the scope of topics addressed, and his ability to provide meaningful tools to change how psychologists are trained. His audiovisual work documents the profession of psychology in terms of research and practice for current scholars and for future generations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Distinguishing between a true period and its alias, and other tasks of model discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the task of distinguishing between two different alternative models that can explain observed time-series data roughly equally, mainly focusing on the period-ambiguity case (aliasing). We propose a test for checking whether the rival models are observationally equivalent for now or are already distinguishable: the Vuong closeness test, which is based on the Kullback-Leibler information criterion. It is asymptotically normal and can work (in a certain sense) even in a misspecified case in which both proposed alternatives are actually wrong. This test is also very simple for practical use. We apply it to several known extrasolar planetary systems and find that our method often helps to resolve various model ambiguities emerging in astronomical practice, but prevents us from hasty conclusions in other cases.

  6. Kevin M. McGuinness: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations are considered for psychologists working in a wide variety of institutional practice settings (e.g., schools, military, state hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs). Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including but not limited to children/adolescents/adults/older adults, urban/rural/frontier populations, minority populations, and persons with serious mental illness, are considered. The 2014 recipient is Kevin M. McGuinness, for "broadening the public conception of professional psychology through institutional practice. McGuinness has distinguished himself through service with the U.S Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and academic institutions." McGuiness's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The Road to a Court of Appeal—Part II: Distinguishing Features and Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    of the road taken. By mapping the sequence of events that lead to the creation of the new court, the complexity that goes into large-scale judicial restructuring can begin to be fully appreciated. This is the second and concluding part of the article, covering the distinguishing features and establishment......-lasting effects on the judicial system of the state. The creation of a new court takes a considerable effort from a number of branches of the State, in formulating the correct path for its establishment to proceed. In this article, the history of a Court of Appeal is set out, before discussing the referendum...... to amend the Constitution to allow for it. This is followed by looking at some of the provisions of the Amendment Bill that was put before both the Oireachtas and the people, before looking at three distinguishing features of the Bill, and finally discussing its establishment in 2014, along with analysis...

  8. Belief in a Just What? Demystifying Just World Beliefs by Distinguishing Sources of Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People’s Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  9. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrijo, Tiago F; Constantini, Joice P; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, Uncitermes teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube.

  10. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, Livia T.C.; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  11. Distinguish of Famous Jun Porcelain in Ancient and Present Age by INAA and BP Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Liang Xianhua; Zhao Weijuan; Sun Hongwei; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Gao Zhengyao; Cui Pengfei; Yang Dawei; Li rongwu; Zhao Qingyun; Sun Xinmin; Zhao Wenjun; Feng Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Forty samples of Jun porcelain from an ancient Juntai kiln and 3 modern Jun kilns (Kongjia, Miaojia and Xinghang) were selected and analyzed for 25 elements by INAA.The data were trained and forecasted by BP neural network. The results indicate that the network can distinguish unknown body and glaze samples of the official Jun porcelain and the modern top-grade Jun porcelain after proper training. (authors)

  12. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Cameron J. Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2017 recipient is Cameron J. Camp, whose innovative programs have informed psychologists in working with dementia patients to improve their living skills and enhance their independence. Camp's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Identification of bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Zhang, Qiangbo; Jin, Bin; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) can be helpful in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (malignant obstructive jaundice) from benign obstructive jaundice. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of bile survivin and CA199 in differentiating cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice. The area under the curve for survivin and CA199 in bile and serum were 0.780 (p jaundice.

  14. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, Livia T.C., E-mail: livia.vilela@ifrj.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IF-RJ), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mattos, Marcio C.S. de; Esteves, Pierre M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-09-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA). The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture. (author)

  15. Haemophilus haemolyticus: A Human Respiratory Tract Commensal to Be Distinguished from Haemophilus influenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, T.F.; Brauer, A.L.; Sethi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Haemophilus influenzae is a common pathogen in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a prospective study, selected isolates of apparent H. influenzae had an altered phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that these variant strains were genetically different from ty...... distinguish H. haemolyticus from H. influenzae. H. haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal. The recognition that some strains of apparent H. influenzae are H. haemolyticus substantially strengthens the association of true H. influenzae with clinical infection....

  16. And then there were 12--distinguishing Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes from old or new copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of announcements of the authentications of two previously unknown Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes in one month, this paper reviews the possibilities and potential pitfalls that might be involved in distinguishing 17th/18th century single-lensed microscopes from historical and modern copies. It is clear that a combination of characteristics must be considered, no single parameter will do. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice: Linda R. Mona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice are intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in institutional settings in psychology. The 2017 award winner is Linda R. Mona, whose treatment of veterans with disabilities has advanced treatment with respect to sexual health. Her clinical work and advocacy for psychology practice have received national recognition. Mona's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Social interactions in voting behavior: distinguishing between strategic voting and the bandwagon effect

    OpenAIRE

    Evrenk, Haldun; Sher, Chien-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of strategic voting in multi-party elections potentially overestimate the extent of it by counting erroneously votes cast under different motivations as strategic votes. We propose a method that corrects some of this overestimation by distinguishing between strategic voting (voting for a candidate other than the most preferred one to reduce the likelihood of an election victory by a third candidate that is disliked even more) and the votes cast under the ‘bandwagon effect’ (voti...

  19. New class of two-loop neutrino mass models with distinguishable phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Chen, Shao-Long; Ma, Ernest; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    We discuss a new class of neutrino mass models generated in two loops, and explore specifically three new physics scenarios: (A) doubly charged scalar, (B) dark matter, and (C) leptoquark and diquark, which are verifiable at the 14 TeV LHC Run-II. We point out how the different Higgs insertions will distinguish our two-loop topology with others if the new particles in the loop are in the simplest representations of the SM gauge group.

  20. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K.; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine need...

  1. Local Determinants of Crime: Distinguishing Between Resident and Non-resident Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Spengler, Hannes; Büttner, Thiess

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits the local determinants of crime using a spatial model distinguishing between resident and non-resident offenders. Employing data for German municipalities, the model is estimated by means of a spatial GMM approach. Focusing on resident offenders legal earnings opportunities and the expected gain from offenses are found to be important determinants of crime. Also the socio-economic background in terms of unemployment, poverty, and inequality proves significant for both prope...

  2. The use of tribromoisocyanuric acid to distinguish among primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. C. Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be easily distinguished due to their reactivity towards tribromoisocyanuric acid (TBCA. The test is performed by adding TBCA to the alcohol in a test tube heated in a boiling water bath. Orange color develops in the tube containing the primary alcohol, light yellow is observed in the tube containing the secondary alcohol while the tertiary alcohol results in a colorless mixture.

  3. J. David Creswell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Lack of utility of measuring serum bilirubin concentration in distinguishing perforation status of pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, William; Bruno, Santina; Attaway, David; Dharmar, Logesh; Tam, Derek; Homel, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric appendicitis is a common, potentially serious condition. Determining perforation status is crucial to planning effective management. Determine the efficacy of serum total bilirubin concentration [STBC] in distinguishing perforation status in children with appendicitis. Retrospective review of 257 cases of appendicitis who received abdominal CT scan and measurement of STBC. There were 109 with perforation vs 148 without perforation. Although elevated STBC was significantly more common in those with [36%] vs without perforation [22%], the mean difference in elevated values between groups [0.1mg/dL] was clinically insignificant. Higher degrees of hyperbilirubinemia [>2mg/dL] were rarely encountered [5%]. Predictive values for elevated STBC in distinguishing perforation outcome were imprecise [sensitivity 38.5%, specificity 78.4%, PPV 56.8%, NPV 63.4%]. ROC curve analysis of multiple clinical and other laboratory factors for predicting perforation status was unenhanced by adding the STBC variable. Specific analysis of those with perforated appendicitis and percutaneously-drained intra-abdominal abscess which was culture-positive for Escherichia coli showed an identical rate of STBC elevation compared to all with perforation. The routine measurement of STBC does not accurately distinguish perforation status in children with appendicitis, nor discern infecting organism in those with perforation and intra-abdominal abscess. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Methods to Distinguish Heterodera schachtii from Heterodera glycines Using PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop rapid methods for distinguishing between Heterodera schachtii and H. glycines detected from chinese cabbage fields of highland in Gangwon, Korea. To do this, we performed PCR-RFLP and PCR with the primers set developed in this study for GC147, GC408 and PM001 population, H. schachtii, and YS224, DA142 and BC115 population, H. glycines. Eight restriction enzymes generated RFLP profiles of mtDNA COI region for populations of H. schachtii and H. glycines, repectively. As a result, treatment of two restriction enzymes, RsaI and HinfI, were allowed to distinguish H. schachtii from H. glycines based on the differences of DNA band patterns. The primer set, #JBS1, #JBG1 and #JB3R, amplified specific fragments with 277 and 339 bp of H. schachtii, 339 bp of H. glycines, respectively, while it did not amplify fragments from three root-knot nematodes and two root-lesion nematodes. Thus, the primer set developed in this study could be a good method, which is used to distinguish between H. schachtii and H. glycines.

  6. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-07-01

    Distinguishing transcription regulatory patterns of different gene groups is a common problem in various bioinformatics studies. In this work we developed a methodology to deal with such a problem based on machine learning techniques. We applied our method to two biologically important problems related to detecting a difference in transcription regulation of: a/ protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human, as well as b/ a difference between primate-specific and non-primate-specific long non-coding RNAs. Our method is capable to classify RNAs using various regulatory features of genes that transcribe into these RNAs, such as nucleotide frequencies, transcription factor binding sites, de novo sequence motifs, CpG islands, repetitive elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish primate-specific from non-primate-specific promoters of lncRNAs with accuracy above 80%. Consequently, we can hypothesize that transcription of the groups of genes mentioned above are regulated by different mechanisms. Feature selection techniques allowed us to reduce the number of features significantly while keeping the accuracy around 80%. Consequently, we can conclude that selected features play significant role in transcription regulation of coding and non-coding genes, as well as primate-specific and non-primate-specific lncRNA genes.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid markers to distinguish bacterial meningitis from cerebral malaria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njunge, James M; Oyaro, Ian N; Kibinge, Nelson K; Rono, Martin K; Kariuki, Symon M; Newton, Charles R; Berkley, James A; Gitau, Evelyn N

    2017-01-01

    Background . Few hospitals in high malaria endemic countries in Africa have the diagnostic capacity for clinically distinguishing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) from cerebral malaria (CM). As a result, empirical use of antibiotics is necessary. A biochemical marker of ABM would facilitate precise clinical diagnosis and management of these infections and enable rational use of antibiotics. Methods. We used label-free protein quantification by mass spectrometry to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers that distinguish ABM (n=37) from CM (n=22) in Kenyan children. Fold change (FC) and false discovery rates (FDR) were used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Subsequently, potential biomarkers were assessed for their ability to discriminate between ABM and CM using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. The host CSF proteome response to ABM ( Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae ) is significantly different to CM. Fifty two proteins were differentially expressed (FDR<0.01, Log FC≥2), of which 83% (43/52) were upregulated in ABM compared to CM. Myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin were present in 37 (100%) and 36 (97%) of ABM cases, respectively, but absent in CM (n=22). Area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were assessed for myeloperoxidase (1, 1, and 1; 95% CI, 1-1) and lactotransferrin (0.98, 0.97, and 1; 95% CI, 0.96-1). Conclusion. Myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin have a high potential to distinguish ABM from CM and thereby improve clinical management. Their validation requires a larger cohort of samples that includes other bacterial aetiologies of ABM.

  8. Applying protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging to distinguish solitary brain metastases from glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hao; Zou, Tianyu; Wang, Xianlong; Du, Yongxing; Jiang, Chunxiu; Ma, Ling; Zhu, Jianbin; He, Wen; Rui, Qihong; Wen, Zhibo [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lou, Huiling [The First People' Hospital of Guangzhou, Department of Geriatrics, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Shanshan [Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huang, Zhongqing [Shantou University Medical College, Department of Medical Image Center, Yuebei People' s Hospital, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Zhou, Jianyuan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the utility of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MR imaging in distinguishing solitary brain metastases (SBMs) from glioblastomas (GBMs). Forty-five patients with SBMs and 43 patients with GBMs underwent conventional and APT-weighted sequences before clinical intervention. The APTw parameters and relative APTw (rAPTw) parameters in the tumour core and the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) were obtained and compared between SBMs and GBMs. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the best parameter for distinguishing between the two groups. The APTw{sub max}, APTw{sub min}, APTw{sub mean}, rAPTw{sub max}, rAPTw{sub min} or rAPTw{sub mean} values in the tumour core were not significantly different between the SBM and GBM groups (P = 0.141, 0.361, 0.221, 0.305, 0.578 and 0.448, respectively). However, the APTw{sub max}, APTw{sub min}, APTw{sub mean}, rAPTw{sub max}, rAPTw{sub min} or rAPTw{sub mean} values in the PBZ were significantly lower in the SBM group than in the GBM group (P < 0.001). The APTw{sub min} values had the highest area under the ROC curve 0.905 and accuracy 85.2% in discriminating between the two neoplasms. As a noninvasive imaging method, APT-weighted MR imaging can be used to distinguish SBMs from GBMs. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of Financial Ratio to Distinguish Indonesia Joint Venture General Insurance Company Performance using Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiakto Soekarno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry stands as a service business that plays a significant role in Indonesiaeconomical condition. The development of insurance industry in Indonesia, both of generalinsurance and life insurance, has increased very fast. The general insurance industry itselfdivided into two major players which are local private company and Joint Venture Company.Lately, the use of statistical techniques and financial ratios models to asses financial institutionsuch as insurance company have been used as one of the appropriate combination inpredicting the performance of an industry. This research aims to distinguish between JointVenture General Insurance Companies that have a good performance and those who are lessperforming well using Discriminant Analysis. Further, the findings led that DiscriminantAnalysis is able to distinguish Joint Venture General Insurance Companies that have a goodperformance and those who are not performing well. There are also six ratios which are RBC,Technical Reserve to Investment Ratio, Debt Ratio, Return on Equity, Loss Ratio, and ExpenseRatio that stand as the most influential ratios to distinguish the performance of joint venturegeneral insurance companies. In addition, the result suggest business people to be concernedtoward those six ratios, to increase their companies’ performance.Key words: general insurance, financial ratio, discriminant analysis

  10. Behavioral evidence for community-wide species discrimination from echolocation calls in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Maike; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-07-01

    Recognizing species identity is crucial for many aspects of animal life and is often mediated by acoustic signals. Although most animals are able to distinguish acoustic signals of their own species from other sympatrically occurring species, it is yet unknown whether animals can distinguish among acoustic signals of different closely related sympatric species. In this context, echolocating bats are a particularly interesting model system: their echolocation system evolved primarily for spatial orientation and foraging, but recent studies indicate that echolocation also has an important communicative function. Yet, the role of echolocation calls for species discrimination and thus potentially for interspecific communication has not been investigated. Using a behavioral discrimination assay, we found that two species of wild horseshoe bats could discriminate calls of their own species from those of three sympatric congeneric species. We further show that the bats were able to discriminate between echolocation calls of different congeneric species from the local community. In both cases, discrimination ability was high despite strong overlap of species' call frequency bands. This study provides the first experimental evidence for species discrimination based on echolocation calls. On a more general level, it shows for the first time that animals can distinguish among acoustic signals of different closely related and ecologically similar species from their local community.

  11. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (≥6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ≥ 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (≥2 mm) − 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as −2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is

  12. Description of a New Mangrove Root Dwelling Species of Teleotanais (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from India, with a Key to Teleotanaidae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Larsen, K.; Sahoo, G.; Ansari, Z.A.

    of Teleotanais Lang, 1956 is given. The new species can be distinguished from it two congeners by the following combination of characters: cephalothorax shorter than pereonites 1–3 combined; antennule without pigmentation, distal article incompletely fused...

  13. Design and construction of "synthetic species".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreno

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is an area of biological research that combines science and engineering. Here, I merge the principles of synthetic biology and regulatory evolution to create a new species with a minimal set of known elements. Using preexisting transgenes and recessive mutations of Drosophila melanogaster, a transgenic population arises with small eyes and a different venation pattern that fulfils the criteria of a new species according to Mayr's Biological Species Concept. The population described here is the first transgenic organism that cannot hybridize with the original wild type population but remains fertile when crossed with other identical transgenic animals. I therefore propose the term "synthetic species" to distinguish it from "natural species", not only because it has been created by genetic manipulation, but also because it may never be able to survive outside the laboratory environment. The use of genetic engineering to design artificial species barriers could help us understand natural speciation and may have practical applications. For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity.

  14. The stock of invasive insect species and its economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Invasions of nonindigenous organisms have long been linked to trade, but the contribution of individual trade pathways remains poorly understood, because species are not observed immediately upon arrival and the number of species arriving annually is unknown. Species interception records may count both new arrivals and species long introduced. Furthermore, the stock of invasive insect species already present is unknown. In this study, a state-space model is used to infer the stock of detected as well as undetected invasive insect species established in the United States. A system of equations is estimated jointly to distinguish the patterns of introduction, identification, and eradication. Introductions of invasive species are modeled as dependent on the volume of trade and arrival of people. Identifications depend on the public efforts at invasive species research, as well as on the established stock of invasive species that remain undetected. Eradications of both detected and undetected invasive species depend on containment and quarantine efforts, as well as on the stock of all established invasive species. These patterns are estimated by fitting the predicted number of invasive species detections to the observed record in the North American Non-Indigenous Arthropod Database. The results indicate that agricultural imports are the most important pathway of introduction, followed by immigration of people. Expenditures by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service are found to explain the species identification record well. Between three and 38 invasive insect species are estimated to be established in the United States undetected.

  15. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Šašić

    Full Text Available The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods.

  16. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A. Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  17. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  18. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  19. Minimal barcode distance between two water mite species from Madeira Island: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Horreo, Jose Luis; Valdecasas, Antonio G

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we compare morphological and molecular data in their ability to distinguish between species of water mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Hydrachnidia). We have focused on the two species of the genus Lebertia inhabiting the island of Madeira. While traditional morphological traits were initially sufficient to distinguish between these two species, the molecular data were more dependable on the kind of analysis carried out. Single arbitrary genetic distance (e.g. a K2P distance below 2%) may lead to the conclusion that the specimens under study belong to the same species. Analysing the same specimens with the coalescent model has proved the evolutionary independence of both Lebertia clades in Madeira. Furthermore, multi-rate Poisson Tree Process analysis confirmed both lineages as independent species. Our results agree with previous studies warning of the dangers of rigid species delimitation based on arbitrary molecular distances. In addition, the importance of different molecular data approaches for correct species delimitation in water mites is highlighted.

  20. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  1. Nepenthes baramensis (Nepenthaceae) – a new species from north-western Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, C.; Moran, J.A.; Lee, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Nepenthes baramensis, a new species from peat swamp and heath forests in north-western Borneo, is described. It is distinguished from related species on the basis of its modified pitchers, which facilitate a facultative mutualistic interaction with Hardwicke’s Woolly Bat, Kerivoula hardwickii, which

  2. Amyloidity is not diagnostic for species in the Mycena pearsoniana complex (Mycena sectio Calodontes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffer Bugge Harder; D. Jean Lodge; Ronald H. Petersen; Karen W. Hughes; Joaquin Cifuentes Blanco; Tobias Guldberg Froslev; Thomas. L& #230; ssoe

    2012-01-01

    Mycena sectio Calodontes with otherwise amyloid spores, the inamyloid spores of Mycena pearsoniana Dennis ex Singer were a distinguishing feature for this species and its subsection Violacella. Although the original concept of this species was European, Singer chose to typify it with material...

  3. Two new species of Paratrigona Schwarz and the male of Paratrigona ornaticeps (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two distinctive new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Paratrigona Schwarz from Ecuador and Paraguay are described and figured. The Ecuadorian species, P. scapisetosa sp. n., belongs to the haeckeli-lineatifrons group and is easily distinguished from its congeners by the unique shape and...

  4. A new species of Tallaperla (Plecoptera: Peltoperlidae) from North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Kirchner, R.F.; Zuellig, R.E.; Lenat, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new species of Tallaperla, T. maiyae, is described from Wilkes County, North Carolina, U.S.A. from two males. The new species is similar to T. maria and T. anna, but can be distinguished by the combination of a prominent spine-like epiproct and brown coloration.

  5. A New Species and Key to the Jaltomata (Solanaceae) of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Jaltomata (Solanaceae) species from Mexico is described, and a key to the five Jaltomata of Mexico is provided. Known only from the type locality, the new Jaltomata species is distinguished from the similar Jaltomata by having a purple flowering calyx to 6.8 mm in diameter, calyx lobes both re...

  6. A new species of electric ray of the genus Narcine Henle, 1834 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of electric ray of the genus Narcine Henle, 1834 is described from seven specimens collected from two localities off the western coast of Madagascar, in the Moçambique Channel. Narcine insolita, sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the unique presence of a very prominent first ...

  7. A new species of the genus Dilar Rambur (Neuroptera: Dilaridae) from Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Oswald; Nathan M. Schiff

    2001-01-01

    Dilar macleodi is described as a new species from lowland rainforest habitat in the Malaysian State of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. Diagnoses are provided to distinguish D. macleodi from the four other dilarid species that have been reported from the peninsula of Indochina or the Malay Archipelago.

  8. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  9. Confronting different models of community structure to species-abundance data : a Bayesian model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, RS; Olff, H

    Species abundances are undoubtedly the most widely available macroecological data, but can we use them to distinguish among several models of community structure? Here we present a Bayesian analysis of species-abundance data that yields a full joint probability distribution of each model's

  10. Confronting different models of community structure to species-abundance data: a Bayesian model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Olff, H.

    2005-01-01

    Species abundances are undoubtedly the most widely available macroecological data, but can we use them to distinguish among several models of community structure? Here we present a Bayesian analysis of species-abundance data that yields a full joint probability distribution of each model's

  11. Identifying commercially relevant Echinacea species by AFLP molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, Luigi; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Falistocco, Egizia

    2009-11-01

    The rising interest in medicinal plants has brought several species of the genus Echinacea to the attention of many scientists. Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea are the most important for their immunological properties, well known and widely used by the native Americans. The three species are easily distinguishable on the basis of their morphological characteristics, but it would be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish them in commercial preparations of ground, dry plant parts of E. purpurea (the most valuable species for chemotherapeutic properties) mixed with the other two species. Species-specific molecular markers could be useful to address this issue. In the present work, using fresh material collected from cultivated Echinacea spp., AFLP analysis was used to discriminate the three species and to detect species-specific DNA fragments. By using 14 primer combinations it was possible to detect a total of 994 fragments, of which 565 were polymorphic. Overall, 89 fragments were unique to E. purpurea, 32 to E. angustifolia, and 26 to E. pallida. E+CAC/M+AAT or E+CAC/M+AGC alone provided 13, 9, and 4 or 7, 5, and 5 specific fragments for E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida, respectively. A validation trial to confirm the results was carried out on bulked samples of 23 accessions covering most of the genetic diversity of the three species. The results are discussed in terms of practical applications in the field of popular medicine, detecting frauds, and implications for the genus Echinacea.

  12. Distinguishing malaria and influenza: Early clinical features in controlled human experimental infection studies☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Patrick J.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Meyer, Joel; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During the H1N1 influenza pandemic (pH1N1/09) diagnostic algorithms were developed to guide antiviral provision. However febrile illnesses are notoriously difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent evidence highlights the importance of incorporating travel history into diagnostic algorithms to prevent the catastrophic misdiagnosis of life-threatening infections such as malaria. We applied retrospectively the UK pH1N1/09 case definition to a unique cohort of healthy adult volunteers exposed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria or influenza to assess the predictive value of this case definition, and to explore the distinguishing clinical features of early phase infection with these pathogens under experimental conditions. For influenza exposure the positive predictive value of the pH1N1/09 case definition was only 0.38 (95% CI: 0.06–0.60), with a negative predictive value of 0.27 (95% CI: 0.02–0.51). Interestingly, 8/11 symptomatic malaria-infected adults would have been inappropriately classified with influenza by the pH1N1/09 case definition, while 5/8 symptomatic influenza-exposed volunteers would have been classified without influenza (P = 0.18 Fisher's exact). Cough (P = 0.005) and nasal symptoms (P = 0.001) were the only clinical features that distinguished influenza-exposed from malaria-exposed volunteers. An open mind regarding the clinical cause of undifferentiated febrile illness, particularly in the absence of upper respiratory tract symptoms, remains important even during influenza pandemic settings. These data support incorporating travel history into pandemic algorithms. PMID:22531678

  13. Reclassification of Hart and Northwest Africa 6047: Criteria for distinguishing between CV and CK3 chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tasha L.; Gross, Juliane

    2017-11-01

    The single parent body model for the CV and CK chondrites (Greenwood et al.) was challenged by Dunn et al., who argued that magnetite compositions could not be reconciled by a single metamorphic sequence (i.e., CV3 → CK3 → CK4-6). Cr isotopic compositions, which are distinguishable between the CV and CK chondrites, also support two different parent bodies (Yin et al.). Despite this, there are many petrographic and mineralogical similarities between the unequilibrated (petrologic type 3) CK chondrites and the CV chondrites (also type 3), which may result in misclassification of samples. Hart and Northwest Africa 6047 (NWA 6047) are an excellent example of this. In this study, we revisit the classification of Hart and NWA 6047 using magnetite compositions, petrography, and compositions of olivine, the most ubiquitous mineral in both CV and CK chondrites. Not only do our results suggest that NWA 6047 and Hart were misclassified, but our assessment of CV and CK3 chondrites has also led to the development of criteria that can be used to distinguish between CV and CK3 chondrites. These criteria include: abundances of Cr2O3, TiO2, NiO, and Al2O3 in magnetite; Fa content and NiO abundance of matrix olivine; FeO content of chondrules; and the chondrule:matrix ratio. Classification as a CV chondrite is also supported by the presence of igneous chondrule rims, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, and an elongated petrofabric. However, none of these petrographic characteristics can be used conclusively to distinguish between CV and CK3 chondrites.

  14. Critical appraisal of discriminant formulas for distinguishing thalassemia from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2017-08-28

    Many discriminant formulas have been reported for distinguishing thalassemia trait from iron deficiency in patients with microcytic anemia. Independent verification of several discriminant formulas is deficient or even lacking. Therefore, we have retrospectively investigated discriminant formulas in a large, well-characterized patient population. The investigational population consisted of 2664 patients with microcytic anemia: 1259 had iron deficiency, 1196 'pure' thalassemia trait (877 β- and 319 α-thalassemia), 150 had thalassemia trait with concomitant iron deficiency or anemia of chronic disease, and 36 had other diseases. We investigated 25 discriminant formulas that only use hematologic parameters available on all analyzers; formulas with more advanced parameters were disregarded. The diagnostic performance was investigated using ROC analysis. The three best performing formulas were the Jayabose (RDW index), Janel (11T), and Green and King formulas. The differences between them were not statistically significant (p>0.333), but each of them had significantly higher area under the ROC curve than any other formula. The Jayabose and Green and King formulas had the highest sensitivities: 0.917 both. The highest specificity, 0.925, was found for the Janel formula, which is a composite score of 11 other formulas. All investigated formulas performed significantly better in distinguishing β- than α-thalassemia from iron deficiency. In our patient population, the Jayabose RDW index, the Green and King formula and the Janel 11T score are superior to all other formulas examined for distinguishing between thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia. We confirmed that all formulas perform much better in β- than in α-thalassemia carriers and also that they incorrectly classify approximately 30% of thalassemia carriers with concomitant other anemia as not having thalassemia. The diagnostic performance of even the best formulas is not high enough for making a final

  15. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Octavio Andres Santos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded annually by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2017 award winner is Octavio Andres Santos, who has demonstrated through several initiatives "effective engagement with advocacy, professional organizations, and research in the area of health disparities and multicultural/multilingual assessment." Santos's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology: Luz Maria Garcini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. The 2016 award winners is Luz Maria Garcini, whose commitment to the health and mental health of those recently immigrated has led to research and service that "have greatly benefited the lives of undocumented individuals in the border area of southern California." Garcini's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Primary sensory cortices contain distinguishable spatial patterns of activity for each sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M; Mouraux, A; Hu, L; Iannetti, G D

    2013-01-01

    Whether primary sensory cortices are essentially multisensory or whether they respond to only one sense is an emerging debate in neuroscience. Here we use a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data in humans to demonstrate that simple and isolated stimuli of one sense elicit distinguishable spatial patterns of neuronal responses, not only in their corresponding primary sensory cortex, but in other primary sensory cortices. These results indicate that primary sensory cortices, traditionally regarded as unisensory, contain unique signatures of other senses and, thereby, prompt a reconsideration of how sensory information is coded in the human brain.

  19. Distinguishing humans from computers in the game of go: A complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquidé, C.; Georgeot, B.; Giraud, O.

    2017-08-01

    We compare complex networks built from the game of go and obtained from databases of human-played games with those obtained from computer-played games. Our investigations show that statistical features of the human-based networks and the computer-based networks differ, and that these differences can be statistically significant on a relatively small number of games using specific estimators. We show that the deterministic or stochastic nature of the computer algorithm playing the game can also be distinguished from these quantities. This can be seen as a tool to implement a Turing-like test for go simulators.

  20. In a distinguishing spacetime the horismos relation generates the causal relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    It is proved that in a distinguishing spacetime the horismos relation E + = J + /I + generates the causal relation J + . In other words two causally related events are joined by a chain of horismotically related events, or again, the causal relation is the smallest transitive relation containing the horismos relation. The result is sharp in the sense that the distinction cannot be weakened to future or past distinction. Finally, it is proved that a spacetime in which the horismos relation generates the causal relation is necessarily non-total imprisoning.

  1. Ways of distinguishing epigenetic types of gray-colored rocks in sheet-infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, S.D.; Yashunskii, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    At an infiltration deposit of uranium in Upper-Cretaceous sandy-clay alluvial deposits (Central Kyzylkum), six stages of postsedimentation epigenetic transformations were distinguished. The genesis of altered rocks was determined mostly by mineralogical methods. A new methodological technique is suggested, which calls for analysis of the textural, structural, and mineral correspondence of ferruginous components of gray-colored and oxidized rocks in the region of their contact and makes it possible to typify epigenetic changes in conditions of repeated change in the direction of geochemical processes

  2. Sleeping in fits and starts: a practical guide to distinguishing nocturnal epilepsy from sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Christopher P

    2014-12-01

    Accurately diagnosing sleep-related events, and particularly distinguishing nocturnal frontal lobe seizures from other sleep disorders such as parasomnias, can be challenging. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events from sleep, epileptic and non-epileptic, considers important diagnostic points in the history, and evaluates the role of investigations in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  4. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Adriana Galván.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2016 award winners is Adriana Galván, whose "scientific discoveries have delineated neurobiological determinants of adolescent behavior that promote the transition from dependence on caregivers to autonomy." Galván's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The importance of distinguishing illegality from guilt in trials for alleged medical malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Díaz Brousse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A proper analysis of the essential elements that comprise a criminal offense that falls under the purview of medical negligence is fundamental in order to rule, in justice, cases of alleged malpractice. It is necessary to properly distinguish between accusations of illegality and those of guilt. Open legal essays and precedents about such illicit acts provide judges with great latitude in determining when acts are consistent or not with standard care. This power mandates that judges should ground their convictions on objective infringements of the law rather than subjective criteria.

  6. A graphical technique for distinguishing plant material and soil from atmospheric deposition in biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores the limits to which a new graphical technique can distinguish the various hierarchical levels of sources of trace elements within biomonitors. When applied to data from Portuguese lichens, it appears to resolve four levels of sources, from plant material down to individual types of pollution. Careful factor analysis appears to offer very similar results, being weaker than the graphical method in some aspects and stronger in others. As a result, it now seems possible to determine sources for elements in lichens with better precision and confidence than was available previously. (author)

  7. Distinguishing relative and absolute risk models for radiation-induced cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Darby, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for distinguishing between the goodness-of-fit of relative and absolute risk models are applied to mortality data from atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima for the disease grouping consisting of all cancers other than leukaemia. The effect of allowing the radiation-induced risk to depend on variables such as sex, age at exposure and/or time since exposure is illustrated. Predicted numbers of deaths and numbers of years of life lost in an irradiated population are calculated for those models that fit the data well. Problems in extrapolating beyond the period for which follow-up data are currently available are emphasized. (author)

  8. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  9. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models are increasingly being used to understand complex biochemical systems, to analyse experimental data and make predictions about unobserved quantities. However, we rarely know how robust our conclusions are with respect to the choice and uncertainties of the model. Using algebraic......-state concentrations of the species in the core model, after suitable matching of parameters. Importantly, our results provide guidelines to the modeller in choosing between models and in distinguishing their properties. Further, our work provides a formal way of comparing models that share a common skeleton....

  10. New earthworm species of Righiodrilus (Clitellata, Glossoscolecidae) from eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bianca Tamires Silva Dos; Bartz, Marie Luise Caroline; Hernández-García, Luis Manuel; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Martins, Marlucia Bonifácio; James, Samuel Wooster

    2017-03-10

    Three new species of the glossoscolecid earthworm genus Righiodrilus are described from material collected in northern Pará and Maranhão States, Brazil. Rhigiodrilus gurupi n. sp. is characterized by four pairs of post-testicular spermathecae in xiv-xvii. Rhigiodrilus viseuensis n. sp. is distinguished by tubercula pubertatis in xix-xxiii and clitellum in xvi-xxiii. Rhigiodrilus moju n. sp. is the only species in the genus that lacks tubercula pubertatis. We provide an updated key and a distribution map for all species of Righiodrilus.

  11. Thismia huangii (Thismiaceae, a New Species from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yi Chiang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thismia Griff.(Thismiaceae, comprises about 35 species. Heretofore, one species was recorded from Kaohsiung County in southern Taiwan. In the course of our botanical inventory, a new species, Thismia huangii P. Y. Jiang et T. H. Hsieh, was collected from northwestern part of the island. Thismia huangii is close to T. rodwayi F. von Muller and T. americana Pfeifer, but can be distinguished from the latter by its orange perianth, dark-orange or red annulus, long hairy connectives, and stigma lobe with one long hair. A taxonomic description, line drawing, pollen morphology in SEM observation, chromosome number, distribution information, and color photographs of the floral characters are provided.

  12. A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Genting Highlands, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-02-14

    Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prefrontal cortex activity, sympatho-vagal reaction and behaviour distinguish between situations of feed reward and frustration in dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, Lorenz; Reefmann, Nadine; Wolf, Martin; Langbein, Jan

    2013-02-15

    Recent concepts relating to animal welfare accept that animals experience affective states. These are notoriously difficult to measure in non-verbal species, but it is generally agreed that emotional reactions consist of well-coordinated reactions in behaviour, autonomic and brain activation. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether each or a combination of these aspects can differentiate between situations presumed to differ in emotional content. To this end, we repeatedly confronted dwarf goats at short intervals with a covered and an uncovered feed bowl (i.e. presumably frustrating and rewarding situations respectively) whilst simultaneously observing their behaviour, measuring heart-rate and heart-rate variability and haemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. When faced with a covered feed bowl, goats occupied themselves at locations away from the bowl and showed increased locomotion, while there was a general increase in prefrontal cortical activity. There was little indication of autonomic changes. In contrast, when feed was accessible, the goats reduced locomotion, focused their behaviour on the feed bowl, showed signs of sympathetically mediated arousal reflecting anticipation and, if any cortical activity at all was present, it was concentrated to the left hemisphere. We thus observed patterns in behaviour, sympathetic reaction and brain activity that distinguished between a situation of frustration and one of reward in dwarf goats. These patterns consisted of a well-coordinated set of reactions appropriate in respect of the emotional content of the stimuli used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinguishing emotional coregulation from codysregulation: an investigation of emotional dynamics and body weight in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Rebecca G; Barnard, Kobus; Butler, Emily A

    2015-02-01

    Well-regulated emotions, both within people and between relationship partners, play a key role in facilitating health and well-being. The present study examined 39 heterosexual couples' joint weight status (both partners are healthy-weight, both overweight, 1 healthy-weight, and 1 overweight) as a predictor of 2 interpersonal emotional patterns during a discussion of their shared lifestyle choices. The first pattern, coregulation, is one in which partners' coupled emotions show a dampening pattern over time and ultimately return to homeostatic levels. The second, codysregulation, is one in which partners' coupled emotions are amplified away from homeostatic balance. We demonstrate how a coupled linear oscillator (CLO) model (Butner, Amazeen, & Mulvey, 2005) can be used to distinguish coregulation from codysregulation. As predicted, healthy-weight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the man was heavier than the woman displayed coregulation, but overweight couples and mixed-weight couples in which the woman was heavier showed codysregulation. These results suggest that heterosexual couples in which the woman is overweight may face formidable coregulatory challenges that could undermine both partners' well-being. The results also demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between various interpersonal emotional dynamics for understanding connections between interpersonal emotions and health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Finding an optimum immuno-histochemical feature set to distinguish benign phyllodes from fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Priti Prasanna; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Das, Raunak Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhalaxmi; Maity, Ashok; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Dhara, Santanu; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-05-01

    Benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma are two well-known breast tumors with remarkable diagnostic ambiguity. The present study is aimed at determining an optimum set of immuno-histochemical features to distinguish them by analyzing important observations on expressions of important genes in fibro-glandular tissue. Immuno-histochemically, the expressions of p63 and α-SMA in myoepithelial cells and collagen I, III and CD105 in stroma of tumors and their normal counterpart were studied. Semi-quantified features were analyzed primarily by ANOVA and ranked through F-scores for understanding relative importance of group of features in discriminating three classes followed by reduction in F-score arranged feature space dimension and application of inter-class Bhattacharyya distances to distinguish tumors with an optimum set of features. Among thirteen studied features except one all differed significantly in three study classes. F-Ranking of features revealed highest discriminative potential of collagen III (initial region). F-Score arranged feature space dimension and application of Bhattacharyya distance gave rise to a feature set of lower dimension which can discriminate benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma effectively. The work definitely separated normal breast, fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes, through an optimal set of immuno-histochemical features which are not only useful to address diagnostic ambiguity of the tumors but also to spell about malignant potentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. The 2017 recipient of the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology was selected by the 2016 Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee. Members of the 2016 BPA were Antonette M. Zeiss, PhD (Chair); Linda A. Reddy, PhD; Lois O. Condie, PhD; Timothy A. Cavell, PhD; Robert T. Kinscherff, PhD, JD; Jared L. Skillings, PhD, ABPP; Cynthia A. Gómez, PhD; Lisa K. Kearney, PhD, ABPP; and Dinelia Rosa, PhD. Members of the 2016 APAGS Scholarship and Awards Selection Committee were Jerrold Yeo, MA; Jacklynn Fitzgerald, MA; and Roseann Fish Getchell, MA, Med. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool for Distinguishing between Normal and Malignant Colorectal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm−1 to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues.

  18. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Elzey, Sherrie; Johnson, Ronald; Park, Heaweon; Grassian, Vicki H; Maher, Tabitha; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m(-3)) and contained up to 39% +/- 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10-80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (product is predominately composed of particles larger than several hundred nanometers. The methods presented here are applicable to any occupational or environmental setting in which one needs to distinguish incidental sources from engineered product.

  19. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  20. WHEN CAN GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Mark; Fairhurst, Stephen; Brown, Duncan A.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harry, Ian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries have the potential to uncover the distribution of masses and spins of black holes and neutron stars in the universe. The binary components' physical parameters can be inferred from their effect on the phasing of the gravitational-wave signal, but a partial degeneracy between the components' mass ratio and their spins limits our ability to measure the individual component masses. At the typical signal amplitudes expected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (signal-to-noise ratios between 10 and 20), we show that it will in many cases be difficult to distinguish whether the components are neutron stars or black holes. We identify when the masses of the binary components could be unambiguously measured outside the range of current observations: a system with a chirp mass M ≤ 0.871 M ☉ would unambiguously contain the smallest-mass neutron star observed, and a system with M ≥ 2.786 M ☉ must contain a black hole. However, additional information would be needed to distinguish between a binary containing two 1.35 M ☉ neutron stars and an exotic neutron-star-black-hole binary. We also identify those configurations that could be unambiguously identified as black hole binaries, and show how the observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a neutron-star-black-hole binary could be used to constrain the black hole spin.

  1. A new approach to pleural effusion in cats: markers for distinguishing transudates from exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, Andrea; Slater, Linda A; Heller, Jane; Connolly, David J; Church, David B

    2009-10-01

    Classification of pleural effusion (PE) is central to diagnosis. Traditional veterinary classification has distinguished between transudates, modified transudates and exudates. In human medicine PEs are divided into only two categories: transudates and exudates. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in 20 cats presented with PE, paired samples of serum and pleural fluid for the following parameters: Light's criteria (pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase concentration (LDHp), pleural fluid/serum LDH ratio, pleural fluid/serum total protein ratio (TPr)), pleural fluid total protein, pleural fluid cholesterol concentration, pleural fluid/serum cholesterol ratio (CHOLr), serum-effusion cholesterol gradient (serum cholesterol minus PE cholesterol concentration (CHOLg)), PE total nucleated cells count (TNCCp) and pleural fluid glucose (GLUp). LDHp and TPr were found most reliable when distinguishing between transudates and exudates, with sensitivity of 100% and 91% and specificity of 100%, respectively. When conflict between the clinical picture and laboratory results exists, calculation of CHOLr, CHOLg and TNCCp measurement may help in the classification of the effusion. Measurement of serum albumin (in the case of a transudate) may provide additional information regarding the pathogenesis of the effusion.

  2. Distinguishing age-related cognitive decline from dementias: A study based on machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Füsun; Iscen, Pınar; Sahin, Sevki; Çinar, Nilgun; Karsidag, Sibel; Goularas, Dionysis

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to examine the distinguishability of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) from dementias based on some neurocognitive tests using machine learning. 106 subjects were divided into four groups: ARCD (n=30), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=20), vascular dementia (VD) (n=21) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=35). The following tests were applied to all subjects: The Wechsler memory scale-revised, a clock-drawing, the dual similarities, interpretation of proverbs, word fluency, the Stroop, the Boston naming (BNT), the Benton face recognition, a copying-drawings and Öktem verbal memory processes (Ö-VMPT) tests. A multilayer perceptron, a support vector machine and a classification via regression with M5-model trees were employed for classification. The pairwise classification results show that ARCD is completely separable from AD with a success rate of 100% and highly separable from MCI and VD with success rates of 95.4% and 86.30%, respectively. The neurocognitive tests with the higher merit values were Ö-VMPT recognition (ARCD vs. AD), Ö-VMPT total learning (ARCD vs. MCI) and semantic fluency, proverbs, Stroop interference and naming BNT (ARCD vs. VD). The findings show that machine learning can be successfully utilized for distinguishing ARCD from dementias based on neurocognitive tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Gonzalo; Davenport, María C; Del Valle, María de la P; Gallegos, Paulina; Kannemann, Ana L; Bokser, Vivian; Ferrero, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Despite most meningitis are not bacterial, antibiotics are usually administered on admission because bacterial meningitis is difficult to be rule-out. Distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis on admission could avoid inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization. We aimed to validate a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children, on arriving to the emergency room. This prospective study included patients aged or = 1000 cells/mm(3), CSF protein > or = 80 mg/dl, peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count > or = 10.000/mm(3), seizure = 1 point each. Sensitivity (S), specificity (E), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) of the BMS to predict bacterial meningitis were calculated. Seventy patients with meningitis were included (14 bacterial meningitis). When BMS was calculated, 25 patients showed a BMS= 0 points, 11 BMS= 1 point, and 34 BMS > or = 2 points. A BMS = 0 showed S: 100%, E: 44%, VPP: 31%, VPN: 100%, RVP: 1,81 RVN: 0. A BMS > or = 2 predicted bacterial meningitis with S: 100%, E: 64%, VPP: 41%, VPN: 100%, PLR: 2.8, NLR:0. Using BMS was simple, and allowed identifying children with very low risk of bacterial meningitis. It could be a useful tool to assist clinical decision making.

  4. WHEN CAN GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Mark; Fairhurst, Stephen [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Brown, Duncan A.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harry, Ian W. [Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, UC Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2013-03-20

    Gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries have the potential to uncover the distribution of masses and spins of black holes and neutron stars in the universe. The binary components' physical parameters can be inferred from their effect on the phasing of the gravitational-wave signal, but a partial degeneracy between the components' mass ratio and their spins limits our ability to measure the individual component masses. At the typical signal amplitudes expected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (signal-to-noise ratios between 10 and 20), we show that it will in many cases be difficult to distinguish whether the components are neutron stars or black holes. We identify when the masses of the binary components could be unambiguously measured outside the range of current observations: a system with a chirp mass M {<=} 0.871 M{sub Sun} would unambiguously contain the smallest-mass neutron star observed, and a system with M {>=} 2.786 M{sub Sun} must contain a black hole. However, additional information would be needed to distinguish between a binary containing two 1.35 M{sub Sun} neutron stars and an exotic neutron-star-black-hole binary. We also identify those configurations that could be unambiguously identified as black hole binaries, and show how the observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a neutron-star-black-hole binary could be used to constrain the black hole spin.

  5. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d ¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d ¯ , we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d ¯ , which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d ¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  6. Spectroscopic (multi-energy) CT distinguishes iodine and barium contrast material in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P. [University of Otago, Department of Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J.A. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Cook, N.J. [Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butzer, J.S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physics Department, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schleich, N. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Christchurch Hospital, Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Firsching, M. [Friedrich Alexander University, Physics Department, Erlangen (Germany); Grasset, R.; Ruiter, N. de [University of Canterbury, Hitlab NZ, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, M. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Section, Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2010-09-15

    Spectral CT differs from dual-energy CT by using a conventional X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. We wished to produce 3D spectroscopic images of mice that distinguished calcium, iodine and barium. We developed a desktop spectral CT, dubbed MARS, based around the Medipix2 photon-counting energy-discriminating detector. The single conventional X-ray tube operated at constant voltage (75 kVp) and constant current (150 {mu}A). We anaesthetised with ketamine six black mice (C57BL/6). We introduced iodinated contrast material and barium sulphate into the vascular system, alimentary tract and respiratory tract as we euthanised them. The mice were preserved in resin and imaged at four detector energy levels from 12 keV to 42 keV to include the K-edges of iodine (33.0 keV) and barium (37.4 keV). Principal component analysis was applied to reconstructed images to identify components with independent energy response, then displayed in 2D and 3D. Iodinated and barium contrast material was spectrally distinct from soft tissue and bone in all six mice. Calcium, iodine and barium were displayed as separate channels on 3D colour images at <55 {mu}m isotropic voxels. Spectral CT distinguishes contrast agents with K-edges only 4 keV apart. Multi-contrast imaging and molecular CT are potential future applications. (orig.)

  7. Distinguishing lesions from posterior acoustic shadowing in breast ultrasound via non-linear dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madabhushi, Anant; Yang, Peng; Rosen, Mark; Weinstein, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Breast ultrasound (US) in conjunction with digital mammography has come to be regarded as the gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. While breast US has certain advantages over digital mammography, it suffers from image artifacts such as posterior acoustic shadowing (PAS), presence of which often obfuscates lesion margins. Since classification of lesions as either malignant or benign is largely dictated by lesion's shape and margin characteristics, it is important to distinguish lesion area from PAS. This paper represents the first attempt to extract and identify those image features that can help distinguish between lesion and PAS. Our methodology comprises of extracting over 100 statistical, gradient, and Gabor features at multiple scales and orientations at every pixel in the breast US image. Adaboost, a powerful feature ensemble technique is used to discriminate between lesions and PAS by combining the different image features. A non-linear dimensionality reduction method called Graph Embedding is then used to visualize separation and inter-class dependencies between lesions and PAS in a lower dimensional space. Results of quantitative evaluation on a database of 45 breast US images indicate that our methodology allows for greater discriminability between the lesion and PAS classes compared to that achievable by any individual image texture or intensity feature.

  8. Distinguishing cold dark matter dwarfs from self-interacting dark matter dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Our collaboration has simulated several high-resolution (mbaryon = 500Mo, mdm = 2500Mo) cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as a self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) (with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass (MFM) hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark matter dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) (at ~105 Mo) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. Here our SIDM galaxies continue to display a cored inner profile unlike their CDM counterparts. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts.

  9. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H

    2009-01-19

    Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17). Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (Phemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (Phemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (Phemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  10. Distinguishing ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi using carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Hou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi, a group of widespread symbiotic fungi with plant, obtain carbon source from trees and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake with their widespread hyphal network. Ectomycorrhizal fungi can be used as inoculants to improve the survival rates of plantation. Saprophytic fungi use the nutrition from the debris of plant or animals, and it is difficult to distinguish the saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal fungi by morphological and anatomic methods. In this research, the differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of these fungi were analyzed. The results showed that the abundances of 13C of were higher than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi and the abundances of 15N of saprophytic fungi were lower than those of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Such differences of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions between ectomycorrhizal fungi and saprophytic fungi can be ascribed to their different nutrition sources and ecological functions. These results collectively indicate that stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions are an effective proxy for distinguishing between ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  11. Endoscopic ultrasonographic characteristics of gastric schwannoma distinguished from gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Chul; Son, Dong-Jun; Oh, Hyung-Hoon; Oak, Chan-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Chung, Cho-Yun; Myung, Dae-Seong; Kim, Jong-Sun; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric schwannoma (GS), a rare neurogenic mesenchymal tumor, is usually benign, slow-growing, and asymptomatic. However, GS is often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) on endoscopic and radiological examinations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EUS characteristics of GS distinguished from GIST. A total of 119 gastric subepithelial lesions, including 31 GSs and 88 GISTs, who were histologically identified and underwent EUS, were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the EUS characteristics, including location, size, gross morphology, mucosal lesion, layer of origin, border, echogenic pattern, marginal halo, and presence of an internal echoic lesion by retrospective review of the medical records. GS patients comprised nine males and 22 females, indicating female predominance. In the gross morphology according to Yamada's classification, type I was predominant in GS and type III was predominant in GIST. In location, GSs were predominantly located in the gastric body and GISTs were predominantly located in the cardia or fundus. The frequency of 4th layer origin and isoechogenicity as compared to the echogenicity of proper muscle layer was significantly more common in GS than GIST. Although not statistically significant, marginal halo was more frequent in GS than GIST. The presence of an internal echoic lesion was significantly more common in GIST than GS. The EUS characteristics, including tumor location, gross morphology, layer of origin, echogenicity in comparison with the normal muscle layer, and presence of an internal echoic lesion may be useful in distinguishing between GS and GIST.

  12. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  14. The Profile of Heparanase Expression Distinguishes Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma from Benign Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Leandro Luongo; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Oliveira, Olivia Capela Grimaldi; Matos, Maria Graciela Luongo; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    The search for a specific marker that could help to distinguish between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign lesions remains elusive in clinical practice. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucoronidase implicated in the process of tumor invasion, and the heparanase-2 (HPSE2) modulates HPSE activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heparanases in the development and differential diagnosis of follicular pattern thyroid lesions. HPSE and HPSE2 expression by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry evaluation, western blot analysis and HPSE enzymatic activity were evaluated. The expression of heparanases by qRT-PCR showed an increase of HPSE2 in thyroid carcinoma (P = 0.001). HPSE activity was found to be higher in the malignant neoplasms than in the benign tumors (P<0.0001). On Western blot analysis, HPSE2 isoforms were detected only in malignant tumors. The immunohistochemical assay allowed us to establish a distinct pattern for malignant and benign tumors. Carcinomas showed a typical combination of positive labeling for neoplastic cells and negative immunostaining in colloid, when compared to benign tumors (P<0.0001). The proposed diagnostic test presents sensitivity and negative predictive value of around 100%, showing itself to be an accurate test for distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. This study shows, for the first time, a distinct profile of HPSE expression in thyroid carcinoma suggesting its role in carcinogenesis.

  15. Can We Distinguish Low-mass Black Holes in Neutron Star Binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; East, William E.; Lehner, Luis

    2018-04-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binary neutron stars (NS) represents another milestone in gravitational-wave astronomy. However, since LIGO is currently not as sensitive to the merger/ringdown part of the waveform, the possibility that such signals are produced by a black hole (BH)–NS binary can not be easily ruled out without appealing to assumptions about the underlying compact object populations. We review a few astrophysical channels that might produce BHs below 3 M ⊙ (roughly the upper bound on the maximum mass of an NS), as well as existing constraints for these channels. We show that, due to the uncertainty in the NS equation of state, it is difficult to distinguish GWs from a binary NS system from those of a BH–NS system with the same component masses, assuming Advanced LIGO sensitivity. This degeneracy can be broken by accumulating statistics from many events to better constrain the equation of state, or by third-generation detectors with higher sensitivity to the late-spiral to post-merger signal. We also discuss the possible differences in electromagnetic (EM) counterparts between binary NS and low-mass BH–NS mergers, arguing that it will be challenging to definitively distinguish the two without better understanding of the underlying astrophysical processes.

  16. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  17. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloitre, Marylène; Garvert, Donn W; Weiss, Brandon; Carlson, Eve B; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. THE LCA REVEALED FOUR DISTINCT CLASSES OF INDIVIDUALS: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  18. Distinguishing simulated from genuine dissociative identity disorder on the MMPI-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Due to high elevations on validity and clinical scales on personality and forensic measures, it is challenging to determine if individuals presenting with symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) are genuine or not. Little research has focused on malingering DID, or on the broader issue of the profiles these patients obtain on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), despite increasing awareness of dissociation. This study sought to characterize the MMPI-2 profiles of DID patients and to determine the utility of the MMPI-2 in distinguishing DID patients from uncoached and coached DID simulators. The analyses revealed that Infrequency, Back Infrequency, and Infrequency-Psychopathology (Fp) distinguished simulators from genuine DID patients. Fp was best able to discriminate simulated DID. Utility statistics and classification functions are provided for classifying individual profiles as indicative of genuine or simulated DID. Despite exposure to information about DID, the simulators were not able to accurately feign DID, which is inconsistent with the iatrogenic/sociocultural model of DID. Given that dissociation was strongly associated with elevations in validity, as well as clinical scales, including Scale 8 (i.e., Schizophrenia), considerable caution should be used in interpreting validity scales as indicative of feigning, and Scale 8 as indicative of schizophrenia, among highly dissociative individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. EXCISING TAGS: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INTERROGATIVE SFPS AND TAG QUESTIONS IN TAIWANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Hian Lau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper serves as an investigation into the differences between interrogative sentence-final particles (SFPs and tag questions (tags in Taiwanese. What we are concerned with is the discrepancies found among the lists of interrogative SFPs in the literature. To distinguish tags from the interrogative particles (PRTs, a testing procedure is devised based on the proposal for testing negative particles (NEG-PRTs in Hsieh (2001. We conclude that buē, bē, bô, m, honn, m̄, ma, nih are interrogative SFPs and hiòo, m-me(me, sī--bô, sī-m̄ (sìm and sioh are tag questions. Among the interrogative SFPs, buē, bē, bô, and m are negative-particles which occur under IP, honn, m̄, ma, and nih are particles which perch higher, under CP. We believe that distinguishing SFPs from tags is the foundation of a solid investigation into SFPs.

  20. A new Cernosvitoviella species (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) and its comparison with other Cernosvitoviella species from Sphagnum mires in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Csitári, Bianka; Felföldi, Tamás

    2017-04-18

    Results of a comparative investigation on five Cernosvitoviella species from Hungarian Sphagnum mires including their distribution and the description of a new species, Cernosvitoviella farkasi sp. n., are presented in this paper. Cernosvitoviella atrata, C. aggtelekiensis, C. crassoductus and C. farkasi sp. n. could be easily distinguished from each other based on both morphological and molecular taxonomic analyses. However, C. minor seems to be a species complex on the basis of these investigations, so it was referred as C. minor sensu lato. The status of the C. minor variants requires further studies.

  1. Molecular discrimination of Perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) species using the polymerase chain reaction and species-specific mitochondrial primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, D.; Waycott, M.; Byrne, L.

    2006-01-01

    This work was prompted by the need to be able to identify the invasive mussel species, Perna viridis, in tropical Australian seas using techniques that do not rely solely on morphology. DNA-based molecular methods utilizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach were developed to distinguish...... designed that can act as a forward primer in PCRs for any Perna species. Four reverse primers have also been designed, based on nad4 and intergenic spacer sequences, which yield species-specific products of different lengths when paired with the conserved forward primer. A further pair of primers has been...

  2. Ultrastructure of five Euglena species positioned in the subdivision Serpentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusel-Fetzmann, Elsa; Weidinger, Marieluise

    2008-11-01

    Within the genus Euglena, the subgroup "Serpentes" is characterised by species with long, slim cell bodies, which move without flagellum by snake-like locomotion in the detritus or in the mud, or swim freely in the water with a flagellum. Two major groups can be distinguished. The first is centred around the species Euglena satelles, with Euglena carterae, Euglena adhaerens and others, and is characterised by a straight-ended anterior part of the cell without a protruding flagellum. The second group is centred around the species Euglena deses, with its varieties, and Euglena ehrenbergii, and is characterised by a lateral canal opening at the anterior end with one flagellum protruding sideways. The representatives of the whole Serpentes group have various (15-30) large chloroplasts containing characteristic naked pyrenoids. The exception is Euglena ehrenbergii, which possesses innumerable small chloroplasts without pyrenoids. To better characterise this whole subgroup, to better taxonomically distinguish between the diverse species and to provide a basis for further molecular-genetic analysis of the phylogeny of and relationship between the Euglena species, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the five selected species. One important distinguishing feature among the species is the form of the pellicle. It can differ in thickness or cross-sectional shape (e.g. A-, M-or plateau-like shape) and can have various arrangements of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum mucus vesicles. We show that the group is more heterogeneous than expected and that some species have very individual features that poorly fit into a common Serpentes group, particularly the above-mentioned Euglena ehrenbergii. Euglena carterae, formerly named Euglena deses var. carterae, with its typical straight-ended canal opening, does not fit into the Euglena deses varieties, as has already been confirmed by molecular genetic methods.

  3. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  4. Anatomical risk factors that distinguish dyslexia from SLI predict reading skill in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Christiana M; Lombardino, Linda J; Walsh, Katherine; Eckert, Mark A; Mockler, Jennifer L; Rowe, Lisa A; Williams, Sharyl; DeBose, Cheryl B

    2002-01-01

    These studies investigated whether anatomical measures could separate phonologically-based reading disability (PD) from nonphonologically-based learning disabilities such as specific language impairment (SLI). In a previous study. four brain measures (cerebral asymmetry. summed planum temporale and parietale asymmetry, anterior cerebellar asymmetry, and a duplicated left Heschl's gyrus) distinguished a group of PD adults from reading disabled adults without specific phonological deficits (URD). Study 1 found that these measures did not distinguish 14 reading disabled children from 21 children with SLI. Instead, differences were found in cerebral volume, planum temporale asymmetry, and the size of a single left Heschl's gyrus. Study 2 demonstrated that including all seven measures in a discriminant analysis separated the adults and children into two groups: one with 100% of the PD adults and 75% of the reading disabled children and the other with 72% of the SLI children and 75% of the URD adults. Study 3 demonstrated that an anatomical risk factor index (ARF7) generated from the discriminant function with seven brain measures predicted reading in normal children. Children with ARF7 near 0 (normal anatomy) had superior verbal ability and phonological decoding scores that improved with age. Normal children with negative ARF7 the relatively s mall symmetrical structures that characterize SLI)had deficits in verbal ability. Children with positive ARF7 (the asymmetrical structures that characterize PD) had phonological decoding scores that decreased with age. These results suggest that PD and SLI are qualitatively different disorders associated with anatomical deviations in opposite directions from the population mean. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to: (1) distinguish the neuroanatomical features that characterize PD and SLI; (2) recognize that PD is associated with large asymmetrical brain structures while SLI is associated with smaller

  5. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  6. Description of a new species of the genus Bitomus Szepligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidaefrom India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samiuddin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bitomus Szepligeti is described and illustrated from India. The taxonomic validity of new species has been supported by description of detail morphology, four illustrations and detail discussion. Its distinguishing characters from other closely related species are also discussed. These are: clypeus 1.3x as wide as high, mesonotum 0.8x as wide as long, propodeum with a short mid-longitudinal carina anteriorly, vain r arising from basal third of stigma.

  7. Four new species and one new genus of zoanthids (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Galapagos Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer,James; Fujii,Takuma

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed the presence of several species of undescribed macrocnemic zoanthids (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia: Macrocnemina) in the Galapagos. In this study four new species, including two belonging to a new genus, are described. Two species, Terrazoanthus onoi sp. n. and Terrazoanthus sinnigeri sp. n., both belong within the recently erected family Hydrozoanthidae to the new genus Terrazoanthus, which can be distinguished from the type genus Hydrozoanthus by being at...

  8. Lithocarpus orbicarpus (Fagaceae), a new species of Stone Oak from Phang Nga province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Strijk,Joeri; Sirimongkol,Sukontip; Rueangruea,Sukid; Ritphet,Nikom; Chamchumroon,Voradol

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species is described, Lithocarpus orbicarpus Strijk, collected from Ton Pariwat Wildlife Sanctuary, Mueang district, Phang Nga Province in the Peninsular Floristic Region of Thailand. We provide the first technical illustrations and colour photographs of the new species, as well as a description of its conservation status and the collecting locality. The species can be easily distinguished by its unique orbicular acorns, each covered with a dense pattern of irregularly placed s...

  9. A revision of the genus Lomaantha, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Yong; O'Neill, Nichole R; Zhang, Xiu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Lomaantha phragmitis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from a specimen collected on dead culms of Phragmites communis in southern China. The fungus differs from other described Lomaantha species in its conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and conidial appendages. Conidial morphology and presence or absence of percurrent proliferation of conidiogenous cells are the main characters distinguishing species within this genus. We provided a key and synoptic table of morphological characters of all three Lomaantha species.

  10. A new species of crinoid-associated Periclimenes from Honduras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy

    2014-05-02

    A new species of crinoid associated Periclimenes, P. rincewindi sp. nov. is described from the Bay Islands (Honduras) in the Caribbean. The species associates with the swimming crinoid, Analcidometra armata and displays a unique colour pattern. Morphologically, the new species is closely related to the other known crinoid associates in the Caribbean, specifically Periclimenes crinoidalis, from which it can be distinguished by a suite of relatively minor morphological features.

  11. Three new species of Claudiella Reichardt & Vanin, 1976 (Coleoptera, Torridincolidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Cesar João; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-12-05

    The monotypic Neotropical genus Claudiella Reichardt & Vanin, 1976 is currently known only from Brazil (C. ingens Reichardt & Vanin, 1976). We describe here three new species from Brazil, C. jefersoni sp. n., C. jeaneae sp. n. and C. anamariae sp. n., from Roraima, Minas Gerais and Bahia states, respectively, bringing to four the number of species included in Claudiella. These species can be distinguished by different characteristics observed in the legs, mouth parts, metathoracic wings and male genitalia.

  12. The aesthetics of hazardous waste - Distinguishing visual impacts from publicly perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.

    1986-01-01

    The need to address the aesthetic impacts of hazardous waste projects on the environment and the public stems from two sources: government regulations which specifically require assessment of aesthetic effects; and rapidly increasing public concern for perceived impacts and risks of existing or proposed hazardous waste facilities. How aesthetic issues are handled on hazardous waste projects can potentially have significant implications on the fate of those projects. These implications range from delays in the permitting process to denial of sites or costly legal judgments in damage suits. This paper discusses strategies for evaluating the aesthetic/perceptual aspects of hazardous waste. In particular, it focuses upon ways to distinguish visual concerns from other influences on public perceptions such as perceived health and safety risks

  13. Do stellar clusters form fewer binaries? Using moderate separation binaries to distinguish between nature and nurture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Fewer wide-separation binaries are found in dense stellar clusters than in looser stellar associations. It is therefore unclear whether feedback in clusters prevents the formation of multiple systems or dynamical interactions destroy them. Measuring the prevalence of close, bound binary systems provide a key test to distinguish between these possibilities. Systems with separations of 10-50 AU will survive interactions in the cluster environment, and therefore are more representative of the natal population of multiple systems. By fitting a double-star PSF, we will identify visual binaries in the Orion Nebula with separations as small as 0.03. At the distance of Orion, this corresponds to a physical separation of 12 AU, effectively closing the observational gap in the binary separation distribution left between known visual and spectroscopic binaries (>65 AU or PhD thesis.

  14. Capturing Physiology of Emotion along Facial Muscles: A Method of Distinguishing Feigned from Involuntary Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood Mehmood; Ward, Robert D.; Ingleby, Michael

    The ability to distinguish feigned from involuntary expressions of emotions could help in the investigation and treatment of neuropsychiatric and affective disorders and in the detection of malingering. This work investigates differences in emotion-specific patterns of thermal variations along the major facial muscles. Using experimental data extracted from 156 images, we attempted to classify patterns of emotion-specific thermal variations into neutral, and voluntary and involuntary expressions of positive and negative emotive states. Initial results suggest (i) each facial muscle exhibits a unique thermal response to various emotive states; (ii) the pattern of thermal variances along the facial muscles may assist in classifying voluntary and involuntary facial expressions; and (iii) facial skin temperature measurements along the major facial muscles may be used in automated emotion assessment.

  15. Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2014 recipient is Sathasivan ("Saths") Cooper. Cooper is active in global cooperation in psychology for the public and the discipline's benefit so that psychology can truly serve all of humanity. The first psychologist from outside the West to lead the International Union of Psychological Science, he is the driving force behind the Pan-African Psychology Union and continues to ensure that less-developed psychology dispensations play meaningful roles in international psychology." Cooper's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. [Distinguishing the voice of self from others: the self-monitoring hypothesis of auditory hallucination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-08-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH), a psychopathological phenomenon where a person hears non-existent voices, commonly occur in schizophrenia. Recent cognitive and neuroscience studies suggest that AH may be the misattribution of one's own inner speech. Self-monitoring through neural feedback mechanisms allows individuals to distinguish between their own and others' actions, including speech. AH maybe the results of an individual's inability to discriminate between their own speech and that of others. The present paper tries to integrate the three theories (behavioral, brain, and model approaches) proposed to explain the self-monitoring hypothesis of AH. In addition, we investigate the lateralization of self-other representation in the brain, as suggested by recent studies, and discuss future research directions.

  19. A mutant of uracil DNA glycosylase that distinguishes between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T Kimber

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that a mutant of uracil DNA glycosylase (N123D:L191A distinguishes between cytosine and methylcytosine. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG efficiently removes uracil from DNA in a reaction in which the base is flipped into the enzyme's active site. Uracil is selected over cytosine by a pattern of specific hydrogen bonds, and thymine is excluded by steric clash of its 5-methyl group with Y66. The N123D mutation generates an enzyme that excises cytosine. This N123D:L191A mutant excises C when it is mispaired with A or opposite an abasic site, but not when it is paired with G. In contrast no cleavage is observed with any substrates that contain 5-methylcytosine. This enzyme may offer a new approach for discriminating between cytosine and 5-methylcytosine.

  20. C. Cybele Raver: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well cited, and she has received support from numerous foundations and federal sources. One of the most highly respected scholars and investigators in developmental science, she studies the various factors that affect children's self-regulation and consequently their academic readiness. Her research has revealed effective new strategies for prevention and intervention at home and at school for the most educationally and economically challenged children. Raver's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Distinguishing Event Spectator Spending Profiles: Projected Impacts of the 2009 U.S. Open Golf Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K.S. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectators at mega-sport events are an aggregation of market segments with distinct consumer behaviours. Relatively few economic impact studies have distinguished spectator market segments or the event tourists crowding out other visitors, resulting in inaccurate results. Despite a plethora of prior studies, there remains a need for a refined and agile model to predict a sporting event’s economic impact. The purpose of this study is to describe the ex ante model, ACE: Assessing Consumers of Events, developed to estimate spending impacts by spectators. ACE is then applied to the 2009 U.S. Women’s Open Golf Championship to illustrate its data requirements and results. U.S. Open spectators are projected to spend $7.5 million in the host economy and induce a slight crowding out effect. Future applications of the ACE model are discussed.

  2. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  3. Automatic Content Creation for Games to Train Students Distinguishing Similar Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwong-Hung; Leung, Howard; Tang, Jeff K. T.

    In learning Chinese, many students often have the problem of mixing up similar characters. This can cause misunderstanding and miscommunication in daily life. It is thus important for students learning the Chinese language to be able to distinguish similar characters and understand their proper usage. In this paper, we propose a game style framework in which the game content in identifying similar Chinese characters in idioms and words is created automatically. Our prior work on analyzing students’ Chinese handwriting can be applied in the similarity measure of Chinese characters. We extend this work by adding the component of radical extraction to speed up the search process. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more accurate and faster in finding more similar Chinese characters compared with the baseline method without considering the radical information.

  4. Expression of a family of noncoding mitochondrial RNAs distinguishes normal from cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, Verónica A; Villota, Claudio; Villegas, Jaime; Landerer, Eduardo; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L; Martínez, Ronny; Lopez, Constanza; Gaete, Fancy; Toro, Viviana; Rodriguez, Ximena; Burzio, Luis O

    2009-06-09

    We reported the presence in human cells of a noncoding mitochondrial RNA that contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 815 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5' end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). The transcript contains a stem-loop structure and is expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to this transcript, normal human proliferating cells in culture express 2 antisense mitochondrial transcripts. These transcripts also contain stem-loop structures but strikingly they are down-regulated in tumor cell lines and tumor cells present in 17 different tumor types. The differential expression of these transcripts distinguishes normal from tumor cells and might contribute a unique vision on cancer biology and diagnostics.

  5. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

  6. Distinguishing between electrons and γ-rays in experiment TGV using a pulse rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, P.; Stekl, I.; Benes, P.; Brudanin, V.B.; Rukhadze, N.I.; Egorov, V.G.; Kovalenko, V.E.; Kovalik, A.; Pismennij, R.; Salamatin, A.V.; Timkin, V.; Vylov, Ts.; Venos, D.

    2002-01-01

    The TGV (Telescope Germanium Vertical) collaboration is interested in the measurement of double-beta decay of 48 Ca (TGV I) and 106 Cd (TGV II). The background in the experiment TGV I has been suppressed by several methods. One of them was based on distinguishing between electrons and gamma rays due to the different rise time of the signals obtained from semiconductor detector. Two experimental setups have been tested, the first one used a charge-sensitive analog-to-digital converter, while the second one utilized digital oscilloscope. The reduction of the background counting rate (due to gamma rays) in single HPGe detector by a factor of (1.4-3.8) was reached. (author)

  7. Distinguishing the desire to learn from the desire to perform: The social value of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.

  8. Distinguishing between attributional and mnemonic sources of familiarity: the case of positive emotion bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Michael F; Stone, Laura K; Hatch, Hannah S; Schnall, Simone

    2010-03-01

    Does familiarity arise from direct access to memory representations (a mnemonic account) or from inferences and diagnostic cues (an attributional account)? These theoretically distinct explanations can be difficult to distinguish in practice, as is shown by the positivity effect, the increase in feelings of familiarity that accompanies positive emotion. Experiment 1 manipulated mnemonic and attributional sources of positivity via word valence and physical expressions of emotion, respectively. Both sources influenced the tendency to call items old, but receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed a change in accuracy only with the mnemonic source. To further contrast the mnemonic and attributional accounts, Experiment 2 varied the ratio of positive to neutral words. A higher proportion of positive words exaggerated the pattern of increased old judgments and decreased accuracy for positive words, relative to neutral ones, consistent with the mnemonic account but inconsistent with the attributional account.

  9. The Use of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis to Distinguish Between Similar Job Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, Nicole M; Fidler, James R

    Two primary roles in the clinical laboratory are those of Medical Technologist (MT) and Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT). Job analyses, which form the foundation of test blueprints employed for credentialing practitioners, suggest a reasonable amount of overlap in the tasks performed by MTs and MLTs. However, credentialing assessments must clearly distinguish between the two roles and ensure that they address competencies appropriate to each practice designation. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis techniques were applied to explore and differentiate the two laboratory practitioner job roles as an aspect of examination development. Results from the analysis suggest a high degree of similarity between these two groups in terms of scope of tasks performed. Subject matter expert interpretation suggests that the assessments are more appropriately differentiated by underlying level of task knowledge rather than scope of tasks. DIF may be applicable to other exploratory investigations that seek to differentiate job roles comprised of common competencies.

  10. Distinguishing dark matter from unresolved point sources in the Inner Galaxy with photon statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Samuel K. [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, 400 Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Lisanti, Mariangela [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Safdi, Benjamin R., E-mail: samuelkl@princeton.edu, E-mail: mlisanti@princeton.edu, E-mail: bsafdi@princeton.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 6-304, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope suggests that there is an extended excess of GeV gamma-ray photons in the Inner Galaxy. Identifying potential astrophysical sources that contribute to this excess is an important step in verifying whether the signal originates from annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we focus on the potential contribution of unresolved point sources, such as millisecond pulsars (MSPs). We propose that the statistics of the photons—in particular, the flux probability density function (PDF) of the photon counts below the point-source detection threshold—can potentially distinguish between the dark-matter and point-source interpretations. We calculate the flux PDF via the method of generating functions for these two models of the excess. Working in the framework of Bayesian model comparison, we then demonstrate that the flux PDF can potentially provide evidence for an unresolved MSP-like point-source population.

  11. Temporal acoustic measures distinguish primary progressive apraxia of speech from primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joseph R; Hanley, Holly; Utianski, Rene; Clark, Heather; Strand, Edythe; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if acoustic measures of duration and syllable rate during word and sentence repetition, and a measure of within-word lexical stress, distinguish speakers with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) from nonapraxic speakers with the agrammatic or logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and control speakers. Results revealed that the PPAOS group had longer durations and reduced rate of syllable production for most words and sentences, and the measure of lexical stress. Sensitivity and specificity indices for the PPAOS versus the other groups were highest for longer multisyllabic words and sentences. For the PPAOS group, correlations between acoustic measures and perceptual ratings of AOS were moderately high to high. Several temporal measures used in this study may aid differential diagnosis and help quantify features of PPAOS that are distinct from those associated with PPA in which AOS is not present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology: science and scientific thinking as safeguards against human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-02-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for school psychologists. Specifically, we (a) outline basic principles of scientific thinking, (b) delineate widespread cognitive errors that can contribute to belief in pseudoscientific practices within school psychology and allied professions, (c) provide a list of 10 key warning signs of pseudoscience, illustrated by contemporary examples from school psychology and allied disciplines, and (d) offer 10 user-friendly prescriptions designed to encourage scientific thinking among school psychology practitioners and researchers. We argue that scientific thinking, although fallible, is ultimately school psychologists' best safeguard against a host of errors in thinking. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicholas Epley: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Nicholas Epley, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For brilliant empirical and theoretical contributions to social cognition in general and for creative insights into how people understand the minds of others in particular. Nicholas Epley's empirical work demonstrates how basic mechanisms of social cognition can lead to interpersonal conflict and misunderstanding. His theoretical work expands social cognition beyond its traditional focus on human beings as targets of judgment, showing how basic mechanisms explain people's understanding of minds of all kinds, from pets to gadgets to gods. His work shows how social psychology, at its best, increases understanding of everyday life and inspires others to understand more." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Robert L. Hatcher: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of psychological knowledge to improve learning in educational settings, including prekindergarten to Grade 12, or in communities. The 2014 recipient is Robert L. Hatcher. He is acknowledged "for his deep and abiding commitment to improving training for psychologists, for his leadership in developing practicum competencies, and for his vision for competency-based education in psychology." Hatcher's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Biology Laboratory Exercise Using Macromolecule Assays to Distinguish Four Types of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte W. Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawbacks of cookbook-style laboratory exercises for General Biology courses is that students are not challenged to develop skills in scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and designing and carrying out experiments. Several traditional laboratory curricula include exercises involving semi-quantitative colorimetric assays to detect proteins (biuret test, reducing sugars (Benedict’s test, starch (Lugol’s test, and lipids (Sudan red test in a variety of easily prepared solutions (glucose, albumin, glycine, etc. and familiar food items (lemon juice, cornstarch, egg white, etc.. An extension of this lab exercise was developed to allow students to use their knowledge of the macromolecule assays to design an experiment to distinguish four types of “milk”: whole milk, skim milk, cream, and soy milk (rice milk or almond milk could also be included.

  17. Distinguishing narcissism and hostility: similarities and differences in interpersonal circumplex and five-factor correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Smith, T W; Rhodewalt, F

    2001-06-01

    Narcissism and hostility are both characterized by dysfunctional social interactions, including tendencies to perceive slights, experience anger, and behave aggressively. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities and differences of narcissism and hostility, using 2 conceptual tools-the interpersonal circumplex and the Five-factor model. In a sample of 292 undergraduate men and women, composite measures of hostility (i.e., Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire [Buss & Perry, 1992] and Cook-Medley Hostility [Cook & Medley, 1954] total scores) were inversely correlated with affiliation and unrelated to dominance. In contrast, composite narcissism scores (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory) were positively correlated with dominance and inversely correlated with affiliation. Examination of components of these traits revealed additional similarities and differences, as did associations with other dimensions of the Five-factor model. These findings suggest that the traits of narcissism and hostility are distinguishable by their interpersonal referents, as are their components.

  18. Sensory Neuron Fates Are Distinguished by a Transcriptional Switch that Regulates Dendrite Branch Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cody J.; O’Brien, Timothy; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Spencer, W. Clay; Feingold-Link, Elana; Husson, Steven J.; Hori, Sayaka; Mitani, Shohei; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensory neurons adopt distinct morphologies and functional modalities to mediate responses to specific stimuli. Transcription factors and their downstream effectors orchestrate this outcome but are incompletely defined. Here, we show that different classes of mechanosensory neurons in C. elegans are distinguished by the combined action of the transcription factors MEC-3, AHR-1, and ZAG-1. Low levels of MEC-3 specify the elaborate branching pattern of PVD nociceptors, whereas high MEC-3 is correlated with the simple morphology of AVM and PVM touch neurons. AHR-1 specifies AVM touch neuron fate by elevating MEC-3 while simultaneously blocking expression of nociceptive genes such as the MEC-3 target, the claudin-like membrane protein HPO-30, that promotes the complex dendritic branching pattern of PVD. ZAG-1 exercises a parallel role to prevent PVM from adopting the PVD fate. The conserved dendritic branching function of the Drosophila AHR-1 homolog, Spineless, argues for similar pathways in mammals. PMID:23889932

  19. Distinguishing Majorana bound states and Andreev bound states with microwave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Tao

    2018-04-01

    Majorana fermions are a fascinating and not yet confirmed quasiparticles in condensed matter physics. Here we propose using microwave spectra to distinguish Majorana bound states (MBSs) from topological trivial Andreev bound states. By numerically calculating the transmission and Zeeman field dependence of the many-body excitation spectrum of a 1D Josephson junction, we find that the two kinds of bound states have distinct responses to variations in the related parameters. Furthermore, the singular behaviors of the MBSs spectrum could be attributed to the robust fractional Josephson coupling and nonlocality of MBSs. Our results provide a feasible method to verify the existence of MBSs and could accelerate its application to topological quantum computation.

  20. How to distinguish between bleeding and coagulated extradural hematomas on the plain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, O.F.; Espersen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Four types of extradural hematoma could be separated at examination of the plain CT scan in 54 extradural hematomas. Two major groups appear: the still bleeding hematoma showing either generally low attenuation values of ''holes'', and a coagulated homogenous type with generally high attenuation values. The attenuation values of the bleeding-liquid part of hematoma - were correlated to hemoglobin concentration in blood, to which clots were not related. Seven extradural hematomas grew and coagulated on repeated preoperative CT scans. In two cases intravenous contrast was given to the bleeding type of hematoma, and the contrast media appeared in ''holes'', but not in areas of high attenuation value. It is easy to distinguish between the different types of hematoma on the plain CT scan, and the separation by eye between the still bleeding and the coagulated extradural hematoma seems reliable. (orig.)

  1. Adam M. Grant: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Distinguishing the Higgs Boson from the Dilaton at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Skiba, Witold; Grinstein, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    It is likely that the LHC will observe a color- and charge-neutral scalar whose decays are consistent with those of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson. The Higgs interpretation of such a discovery is not the only possibility. For example, electroweak symmetry breaking could be triggered by a spontaneously broken, nearly conformal sector. The spectrum of states at the electroweak scale would then contain a narrow scalar resonance, the pseudo-Goldstone boson of conformal symmetry breaking, with Higgs-boson-like properties. If the conformal sector is strongly coupled, this pseudodilaton may be the only new state accessible at high energy colliders. We discuss the prospects for distinguishing this mode from a minimal Higgs boson at the LHC and ILC. The main discriminants between the two scenarios are (i) cubic self-interactions and (ii) a potential enhancement of couplings to massless SM gauge bosons

  3. The ethics and practical importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2006-03-01

    Nurses globally are required and expected to report nursing errors. As is clearly demonstrated in the international literature, fulfilling this requirement is not, however, without risks. In this discussion paper, the notion of 'nursing error', the practical and moral importance of defining, distinguishing and disclosing nursing errors and how a distinct definition of 'nursing error' fits with the new 'system approach' to human-error management in health care are critiqued. Drawing on international literature and two key case exemplars from the USA and Australia, arguments are advanced to support the view that although it is 'right' for nurses to report nursing errors, it will be very difficult for them to do so unless a non-punitive approach to nursing-error management is adopted.

  4. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Gravity modes as a way to distinguish between hydrogen- and helium-burning red giant stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedding, Timothy R.; Mosser, Benoit; Huber, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    -precision photometry obtained by the Kepler spacecraft over more than a year to measure oscillations in several hundred red giants. We find many stars whose dipole modes show sequences with approximately regular period spacings. These stars fall into two clear groups, allowing us to distinguish unambiguously between......Red giants are evolved stars that have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their cores and instead burn hydrogen in a surrounding shell. Once a red giant is sufficiently evolved, the helium in the core also undergoes fusion. Outstanding issues in our understanding of red giants include....... Asteroseismology offers a way forward, being a powerful tool for probing the internal structures of stars using their natural oscillation frequencies. Here we report observations of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants that permit a distinction between evolutionary stages to be made. We use high...

  6. Giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin: a newly reported benign entity to be distinguished from chordoma. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirra, J.M.; Brien, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are reported of a newly described intraosseous entity of vertebral bodies deemed ''giant notochordal hamartoma of intraosseous origin''. This entity is commonly mistaken for chordoma and must be distinguished from it as the consequences of misinterpretation may be serious. The clinical, radiological and histologic criteria that can be used to distinguish these two entities are emphasized. Included is a proposed pathogenesis for this lesion, its probable notochordal origin, and a review of other probable cases. (orig.)

  7. Acceptance of the 2014 Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award by Carla Koretsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Carla

    2015-06-01

    I am deeply touched to have received the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. It was a great surprise when I received the notice that I had been chosen for the award. It has been a tremendous pleasure to work on behalf of student members of the Geochemical Society, Japanese Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemists to organize the student travel grants over the past few years. Certainly, this is not an effort that I undertook on my own. Many, many members of the GS, the JGS and the EAG generously donated their time and expertise to serve as reviewers for the many travel grant applicants we receive each year. Seth Davis, the GS Chief Operating Officer, spent countless hours helping to organize applications, the website, distribution of funds and many other aspects of the competition. Without Seth and the many expert reviewers, we could not run the travel grant program each year and provide this important financial support to allow more students to experience the Goldschmidt Conference. I also enjoyed my time as Geochemical News co-editor, and I should point out that GN during those years was ably co-edited by Johnson Haas. It has been a pleasure to see Elements take off, and GN evolve into a timely source of important announcements and information about cutting-edge science since I stepped down as co-editor. I feel very fortunate to work with so many outstanding colleagues in the global geochemical community, and I am a little embarrassed, and also very grateful, to have been selected for the Geochemical Society Distinguished Service Award. Thank you!

  8. Distinguishing Nitro vs Nitrito Coordination in Cytochrome c' Using Vibrational Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Zach N; Mandella, Brian L; Sen, Kakali; Kekilli, Demet; Hough, Michael A; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Strange, Richard W; Andrew, Colin R

    2017-11-06

    Nitrite coordination to heme cofactors is a key step in the anaerobic production of the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). An ambidentate ligand, nitrite has the potential to coordinate via the N- (nitro) or O- (nitrito) atoms in a manner that can direct its reactivity. Distinguishing nitro vs nitrito coordination, along with the influence of the surrounding protein, is therefore of particular interest. In this study, we probed Fe(III) heme-nitrite coordination in Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP), an NO carrier that excludes anions in its native state but that readily binds nitrite (K d ∼ 0.5 mM) following a distal Leu16 → Gly mutation to remove distal steric constraints. Room-temperature resonance Raman spectra (407 nm excitation) identify ν(Fe-NO 2 ), δ(ONO), and ν s (NO 2 ) nitrite ligand vibrations in solution. Illumination with 351 nm UV light results in photoconversion to {FeNO} 6 and {FeNO} 7 states, enabling FTIR measurements to distinguish ν s (NO 2 ) and ν as (NO 2 ) vibrations from differential spectra. Density functional theory calculations highlight the connections between heme environment, nitrite coordination mode, and vibrational properties and confirm that nitrite binds to L16G AXCP exclusively through the N atom. Efforts to obtain the nitrite complex crystal structure were hampered by photochemistry in the X-ray beam. Although low dose crystal structures could be modeled with a mixed nitrite (nitro)/H 2 O distal population, their photosensitivity and partial occupancy underscores the value of the vibrational approach. Overall, this study sheds light on steric determinants of heme-nitrite binding and provides vibrational benchmarks for future studies of heme protein nitrite reactions.

  9. Distinguishing imaging features between spinal hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Y; Hirai, T; Kawanaka, K; Shiraishi, S; Yoshida, M; Kitajima, M; Uetani, H; Azuma, M; Iryo, Y; Yamashita, Y

    2014-10-01

    Systematic investigations of the distinguishing imaging features between spinal hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and bone metastasis have not been reported, to our knowledge. The purpose of this study was to determine the distinguishing imaging features of the 2 entities. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic images of 8 consecutive male patients (age range, 52-78 years; mean, 64 years) with suspected spinal metastasis on MR imaging and FDG-PET, which was later confirmed as hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow. MR imaging, FDG-PET, CT, and bone scintigraphy images were qualitatively and/or quantitatively evaluated. Imaging findings in 24 patients with spinal metastasis were compared, and differences were statistically analyzed. All 8 vertebral hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow lesions were hypointense on T1- and T2-weighted images; lesions contiguous with the adjacent vertebra were significantly more often seen in hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow than in metastasis (P = .035). T2 signal intensity of the lesion was significantly different between the 2 entities (P = .033). FDG-PET showed slightly higher uptake in all hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow lesions; their maximum standard uptake value was significantly lower than that of metastatic lesions (P = .037). CT attenuation of hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow was equal to or slightly higher than that of adjacent normal-appearing vertebra; the CT appearances of hyperplastic hematopoietic bone marrow and metastasis were significantly different (P bone marrow; the uptake was significantly different from that of metastasis (P 3.6, the lesion was considered metastatic. A normal appearance on CT or bone scintigraphy excluded metastasis. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Distinguishing patients with Parkinson's disease subtypes from normal controls based on functional network regional efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhang

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD are inhomogeneous. However, the symptom-specific intrinsic neural activities underlying the PD subtypes are still not well understood. Here, 15 tremor-dominant PD patients, 10 non-tremor-dominant PD patients, and 20 matched normal controls (NCs were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Functional brain networks were constructed based on randomly generated anatomical templates with and without the cerebellum. The regional network efficiencies (i.e., the local and global efficiencies were further measured and used to distinguish subgroups of PD patients (i.e., with tremor-dominant PD and non-tremor-dominant PD from the NCs using linear discriminant analysis. The results demonstrate that the subtype-specific functional networks were small-world-organized and that the network regional efficiency could discriminate among the individual PD subgroups and the NCs. Brain regions involved in distinguishing between the study groups included the basal ganglia (i.e., the caudate and putamen, limbic regions (i.e., the hippocampus and thalamus, the cerebellum, and other cerebral regions (e.g., the insula, cingulum, and calcarine sulcus. In particular, the performances of the regional local efficiency in the functional network were better than those of the global efficiency, and the performances of global efficiency were dependent on the inclusion of the cerebellum in the analysis. These findings provide new evidence for the neurological basis of differences between PD subtypes and suggest that the cerebellum may play different roles in the pathologies of different PD subtypes. The present study demonstrated the power of the combination of graph-based network analysis and discrimination analysis in elucidating the neural basis of different PD subtypes.

  11. Distinguishing Antimicrobial Models with Different Resistance Mechanisms via Population Pharmacodynamic Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jacobs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD modeling is increasingly used for antimicrobial drug development and optimization of dosage regimens, but systematic simulation-estimation studies to distinguish between competing PD models are lacking. This study compared the ability of static and dynamic in vitro infection models to distinguish between models with different resistance mechanisms and support accurate and precise parameter estimation. Monte Carlo simulations (MCS were performed for models with one susceptible bacterial population without (M1 or with a resting stage (M2, a one population model with adaptive resistance (M5, models with pre-existing susceptible and resistant populations without (M3 or with (M4 inter-conversion, and a model with two pre-existing populations with adaptive resistance (M6. For each model, 200 datasets of the total bacterial population were simulated over 24h using static antibiotic concentrations (256-fold concentration range or over 48h under dynamic conditions (dosing every 12h; elimination half-life: 1h. Twelve-hundred random datasets (each containing 20 curves for static or four curves for dynamic conditions were generated by bootstrapping. Each dataset was estimated by all six models via population PD modeling to compare bias and precision. For M1 and M3, most parameter estimates were unbiased (<10% and had good imprecision (<30%. However, parameters for adaptive resistance and inter-conversion for M2, M4, M5 and M6 had poor bias and large imprecision under static and dynamic conditions. For datasets that only contained viable counts of the total population, common statistical criteria and diagnostic plots did not support sound identification of the true resistance mechanism. Therefore, it seems advisable to quantify resistant bacteria and characterize their MICs and resistance mechanisms to support extended simulations and translate from in vitro experiments to animal infection models and

  12. Sensory Hyperinnervation Distinguishes Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis from Overactive Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Sigrid; Gamper, Marianne; Fehr, Mathias K; Viereck, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Pain is the key symptom that distinguishes bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis from overactive bladder syndrome but overlap occurs. To find a discriminating marker for these bladder diseases we examined sensory hyperinnervation and neurotrophin receptor expression in bladder biopsies as well as nerve growth factor levels in urine. Bladder biopsies from patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, including 12 with and 19 without Hunner lesions, 13 with overactive bladder syndrome and 12 healthy controls, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to the nerve cell marker PGP9.5 (neuron-specific protein gene product 9.5), p75 NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor), the B-lymphocyte marker CD20 and mast cell tryptase. Urinary nerve growth factor was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subepithelial sensory hyperinnervation on PGP9.5 staining had 97% sensitivity and 76% specificity, increased lymphocytic infiltration had 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and urothelial defects had 97% sensitivity and 76% specificity to distinguish bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with and without Hunner lesions from overactive bladder syndrome and healthy controls. Increased sensory innervation was associated with submucosal mast cell localization. Staining of p75 NTR in basal urothelial cells was indicative of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Urinary nerve growth factor levels were below the detection level and did not differentiate bladder diseases from healthy controls. Sensory hyperinnervation and basal urothelial p75 NTR staining together with assessment of inflammatory lymphocytes and urothelial integrity allow for the differentiation of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder syndrome even in the absence of Hunner lesions. Furthermore, these histopathological criteria enable the identification of early disease stages or oligosymptomatic/asymptomatic cases and may permit timely treatment

  13. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Reema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101, follicular adenoma (47, or follicular carcinoma (17. Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Results: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101 of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64 of follicular neoplasms ( P < .0001. All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages ( P < .12. Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17% but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101 of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin ( P < .0003. Conclusions: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  14. Biocrystallization as a method for distinguishing between organically and conventionally produced milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Popović-Vranješ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Holistic methods, such as biocrystallization and capillary dynamolysis, can be used to confirm differences in chemical composition between organic and conventionally produced milk. The utilization of such methods is complementary to other quality assurance methods and demonstrates a complex aspect of food quality. In this study, biocrystallization was used as a method for distinguishing between organic and conventionally produced pasteurized milk, demonstrating how the differences in the dairy cow feeding regime can affect milk properties. The biocrystallization was performed by means of copper (II chloride dihydrate (CuCl2*2H2O. The biocrystallization patterns obtained from the conventional and organic milk samples were readily distinguished. A significant indication of differences was the emergence of degradation features in the biocrystallization patterns. While degradation features do not appear in organic milk, conventional milk showed clear indications of degradation, although the compound analysis of the two milks indicated no differences. From the morphological perspective, the biocrystallization patterns of organic milk have fared better according to all criteria. The results of the fatty acid analysis in milk from conventional and certified organic farms showed a greater content of beneficial fatty acids in organic milk: oleic (P<0.05, linoleic and linolenic (P<0.01. The analysis of animal feed indicated a higher content of cellulose, i.e. acid detergent fibers (ADF, and a lower content of neutral detergent fibers (NDF in the organic animal feed. It was concluded that the method of copper chloride biocrystallization can determine the differences between pasteurized conventional and organic milk, which is greatly important in assuring the consumers of the milk origin, since the organic chain implies the increased quality control of soil, animal feed, animals and final dairy products with added value.

  15. THE ASIATIC SPECIES OF LINDENBERGIA Lehm. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. PRIJANTO*

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available Lindenbergia is represented in Asia by 7 species. Based on the hairiness oftheir ovaries L. muraria (Roxb. Briihl (= L. urticifolia Lehm. and L. indica(L. Vatke (= L. polyantha Benth. are reinstated as distinct species. I followBentham in including Lindenbergia in the tribe Gratioleae.Objection to the use of the aestivation of corolla as the only positivecharacter for distinguishing subfamilies of the Scrophulariaceae is put forward;it is shown that several genera (Lindenbergia, Isoplexis, Lagotis, Erinus, Frey-linia,, Phygelius and Mimulus considered to belong to one subfamily actuallyhave the aestivation character of the other subfamily.The occurrence of resupinatton of the flower in Dopatrium juncewm (Roxb.Buch.-Ham. ex Benth. is recorded for the first time.

  16. Identification of taxonomic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter species by numerical analysis of AFLP profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ona, Stephen L.W.; Harringtona, Clare S.

    2000-01-01

    at higher S-levels. All outbreak or 'genetically identical' strains of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, C. hyointestinalis and C. sputorum clustered at S-levels > 92% and were distinguished from unrelated strains. Numerical analysis of AFLP profiles is useful for concurrent identification......Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based profiling was performed on 138 strains representing all named Campylobacter species and subspecies. Profiles of 15/16 species comprised 6 to greater than 100 fragments and were subjected to numerical analysis. The mean similarity of 48 duplicate......, outbreak and/or 'identical' strain profiles exceeded 94%. Species were clearly distinguished at the 17.90% similarity (S-) level in the dendrogram. Subspecies of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter. hyointestinalis, and biovars of Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter sputorum were distinguished...

  17. Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata from central and southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chávez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of lizards assigned to the genus Euspondylus from the montane forests of the Peruvian Andes in the Pasco Department (central Peru and Ayacucho Department (southern Peru both at elevations of 2550 and 3450 m, respectively, are described. The new species are distinguishable from all other Peruvian and Ecuadorian species of Euspondylus by a unique combination of morphometric, scalation and color pattern characteristics. Natural history data for the new species and for E. spinalis are also provided.

  18. Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata) from central and southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Germán; Siu-Ting, Karen; Duran, Vilma; Venegas, Pablo J

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of lizards assigned to the genus Euspondylus from the montane forests of the Peruvian Andes in the Pasco Department (central Peru) and Ayacucho Department (southern Peru) both at elevations of 2550 and 3450 m, respectively, are described. The new species are distinguishable from all other Peruvian and Ecuadorian species of Euspondylus by a unique combination of morphometric, scalation and color pattern characteristics. Natural history data for the new species and for Euspondylus spinalis are also provided.

  19. A new species of the genus Diogenes Dana, 1851 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Diogenidae) from Gujarat, northwestern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jigneshkumar N; Osawa, Masayuki; Vachhrajani, Kauresh D

    2016-12-15

    A new species of diogenid hermit crab, Diogenes chhapgari n. sp., is described on the basis of material collected during the crustacean faunal survey along the coastal areas of the Gujarat State, northwestern India. The new species is referred to the D. edwardsii (De Haan, 1849) species group and appears closest to D. singaporensis Rahayu, 2015. However, D. chhapgari n. sp. is distinguished from this species by the armature on the fourth segment of the antennal peduncle and carpus of the left cheliped.

  20. A new orthoclad species of Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra, N.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The adults and pupa of a new species, Rheocricotopus rarispina are described from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. The species is distinguished by the few spines on the thoracic horn, anal lobe without fringe and bristle-like L setae and presence of ovoid humeral pit, nine squamal setae, structure of anal point and triangular and subterminal crista dorsalis in the adult male. With this new species, the number of Indian species of the genus rises to six.