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Sample records for distinct varietal differences

  1. Effect of acetylation and varietal differences on the pasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pasting properties of starch from eight varieties of corn; Okomasa, Obatanpa, Dodzi, Mamaba, Dadaba, Dorke, Golden crystal, and CIDA-ba were studied to establish the effects of acetylation and varietal differences on the pasting properties. Native starches extracted from the corn varieties were modified with 10% v/v ...

  2. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety...... from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only...... 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what...

  3. Effect of different enological practices on skin and seed proanthocyanidins in three varietal wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Fernández-Fernández, Jose I; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2010-11-10

    Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins.

  4. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2756 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2756 Section 51.2756 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2714 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section 51.2714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  7. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 15N enrichment of soil NH4+-N as an alternative non-N2-fixing reference for assessing varietal differences in N2 fixation of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.K.; Ladha, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A pot experiment in the greenhouse was conducted to assess the usefulness of 15 N enrichment of soil NH 4 + -N as an alternative to a non-fixing reference plant to determine varietal differences in N 2 fixation among rice varieties. Diverse rice genotypes were grown in a 15 N stabilized soil obtained after 6 wk of application under flooded conditions. Atom % 15 N excess of soil NH 4 + -N was decreased exponentially with amount of N mineralized (r=99). Close agreement was observed between the 15 N enrichment of reference rice plant and 15 N enrichment of KCl extractable NH 4 + -N from unplanted pots maintained in the greenhouse. Whole plant atom % 15 N excess was inversely correlated within growth duration. Therefore, it was necessary to calculate Ndfa within growth duration. Ndfa estimated within the growth duration using 15 N enrichment of soil NH 4 + -N and reference rice genotype correlated almost perfectly (r=998). Thus the study demonstrated the potential of using 15 N enrichment of soil NH 4 + -N as a non-N 2 fixing reference for reliable estimate of biological nitrogen fixation by nonlegumes under flooded conditions. (author)

  9. Protein, Calcium, Zinc, and Iron Contents of Finger Millet Grain Response to Varietal Differences and Phosphorus Application in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wekha N. Wafula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the influence of phosphorus fertilizers on the concentrations of nutrients, particularly calcium, protein, zinc, and iron in finger millet grains grown in different agro-ecologies in Kenya. The on-station experiments were carried out at Kiboko (Eastern Kenya, Kakamega, and Alupe (Western Kenya in 2015 during the short and long rainy seasons. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The treatments comprised of four levels of phosphorus (0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 and three finger millet varieties (U-15, P-224 and a local variety. Application of phosphorus significantly (p ≤ 0.05 increased the protein content of finger millet grain in varieties in all the three sites. Variety U-15 had the highest protein content (11.0% at 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 with the control (zero P on variety P-224 eliciting the lowest (4.4% at Kiboko. At Kakamega, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 treatment with U-15 variety had the highest protein content (15.3% while the same variety at 12.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 rate elicited the highest protein content (15.0% at Alupe. Phosphorus application significantly enhanced the nutritional quality of finger millet grains specifically protein, calcium, iron, and zinc. Variety P-224 had the highest calcium content in all sites and highest iron content at Kakamega while the local varieties had the highest zinc content in all sites. The varieties responded differently to each quality component but generally, based on the protein content, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 is recommended.

  10. Effect of different irrigation regimes on the quality attributes of mono varietal virgin olive oil from cv. Cobrancosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Gouveia, J. B.; Vasconcelos, P.; Ferreira, T. C.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies in virgin olive oil (VOO) composition and quality of cv. Cobrancosa, integrated in a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: T2-full irrigation that received a seasonal water equivalent to 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc), T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Irrigation regimes had a minor effect on standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K{sub 2}32 and K{sub 2}70) of VOO and in fatty acid composition. Total polyphenols decreased up to treatment T2, and were strongly related to the water stress integral, suggesting that the effect of irrigation on this variable occurs along the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. A strategy of continuous deficit irrigation with only 30% of maximum ETc may have an advantageous effect, as it increased oil yield to more than double that of rainfed conditions while VOO quality was similar. (Author) 49 refs.

  11. Integrating varietal resistance with Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different rates of X. aethiopica extract significantly interacted with maize varietal resistance and reduced fecundity of S. zeamais and maize seed weight loss due to insect's feeding. Treatment of seeds with extract at 1.0 ml/20 g seed caused significant (above 50%) mortality at 24 h post treatment in all varieties whereas ...

  12. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, ... fed the same diets at 4 to 5 kg/day (48.78% corn, 20.43% bran, 26% corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement and 0.5% salt) for a fattening ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1154 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1154 Section 51.1154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are...

  14. 7 CFR 51.632 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.632 Section 51.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.632 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3202 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3202 Section 51.3202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the onions in any container...

  16. 7 CFR 51.567 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.567 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance and...

  17. 7 CFR 51.694 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.694 Section 51.694 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.694 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  18. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  19. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  20. Physiological studies on photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. I. Varietal difference of abscisic acid content and its relation to the resistance to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Nakamura, H.; Ota, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the abscisic acid relationships in the resistance of the rice plants to ozone, endogeneous abscisic acid content in varieties with different sensitivity to ozone was examined. The cultivars differed in their visible injury to ozone fumigation. Nipponbare and Jinheung were more sensitive than Tongil, Milyang No. 23 and Te-tep. Endogeneous abscisic acid content in the resistant variety (Tongil) was higher than in the sensitive one (Nipponbare). Visible injury caused by ozone fumigation was decreased by application of abscisic acid. Abscisic acid content in rice cultivars was found to increase differently depending on varieties response to ozone fumigation (0.3 ppM for 3 hours). The increase of abscisic acid content caused by ozone fumigation was higher in Nipponbare than in Tongil, although the endogeneous level of abscisic acid was higher in Tongil than Nipponbare.

  1. Diversity for chemical composition in a collection of different varietal types of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), an Andean exotic fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Quezada, P.G.; Raigón Jiménez, Mª Dolores; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García Martínez, María Dolores; Plazas Ávila, María de la O; Burneo, J.I.; Figueroa, Jorge G.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    [EN] We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (P < 0.001) among the materials studied. The high diversity found within S. betaceum for composition traits was matched by a high diversity within each of the cultivar groups. We found that sucrose and citric acid were the most important soluble sugar and organic acid, respectively...

  2. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  3. Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rabah Abou Gabal Mohamed

    1996-01-01

    A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, 13 C-discrimination, total N-yield and 15 N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W 0 as normal irrigation of W 1 as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W 10 , W 100 and W 010 ). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity to recover from drought than the other varieties. Therefore, Bonadur may be considered a possible candidate for programs aimed at breeding wheat for

  4. Varietal differences of wheat for 13C-discrimination and 15N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Final report for the period 1 January 1993 - 31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Gabal Mohamed, Al Rabah [Nuclear Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Plant Research

    1996-01-01

    A Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the varietal differences of wheat for shoot dry weight, {sup 13}C-discrimination, total N-yield and {sup 15}N-uptake as affected by drought and its recovery. Four wheat varieties were exposed to different watering regimes (i.e., W{sub 0} as normal irrigation of W{sub 1} as water stress) during the following growth periods: (i) from 3-leaf stage to third nod stage; (ii) from 3 nod stage to heading; and (iii) from heading to milk-dough stage. For drought recovery study, the experiment included another three water regime treatments induced by varying the irrigation of plants during the selected growth periods (i.e., W{sub 10}, W{sub 100} and W{sub 010}). The results indicated that water stress during the selected growth periods greatly decreased shoot dry weight, nabla value, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. The (i) and (ii) are considered critical growth periods as far as the above-mentioned parameters are considered. Expression of any tested parameter under water stress as percentage of that of the corresponding control indicated that Dalcahue, Sakha-69 and Bonadur were less sensitive to water stress than the other varieties at (i), (ii) and (iii) growth periods, respectively. On the other hand, Bonadur at (i) and (ii) growth periods and Sakha-69 at (iii) growth period were more sensitive than the other varieties. Exposing of wheat varieties to water stress during (i) and (ii) growth periods resulted in severe injury with regard to shoot dry weight, total N-yield and amount of nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Re-irrigation of the stressed wheat varieties, resulted in drought recovery with different magnitude depending on the variety and the growth period in which the plants were exposed to water stress. Generally, the results demonstrated that Bonadur has better capacity than the other varieties for drought recovery. 34 refs, 10 tabs.

  5. Diversity for chemical composition in a collection of different varietal types of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.), an Andean exotic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Quezada, Pablo G; Raigón, María D; Riofrío-Cuenca, Tania; García-Martínez, María D; Plazas, Mariola; Burneo, Juan I; Figueroa, Jorge G; Vilanova, Santiago; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-02-15

    We evaluated 23 tree tomato (Solanum betaceum) accessions from five cultivar groups and one wild relative (Solanum cajanumense) for 26 composition traits. For all traits we found highly significant differences (Ptree tomato. Fruit in the anthocyanin pigmented (purple) group had a carotenoid content similar to that in the yellow-orange cultivar groups. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated (r=0.8607) with antioxidant activity. Analyses of mineral content showed that tree tomato is a good source of K, Mg, and Cu. Multivariate principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed that an important diversity exists within each cultivar group. The results we have obtained indicate that the high diversity found within the tree tomato could be exploited for selection and breeding for developing the tree tomato as a commercial crop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparative evaluation of different ionic liquids for arsenic species separation and determination in wine varietals by liquid chromatography - hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Grijalba, Alexander; Fiorentini, Emiliano F; Martinez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2016-09-02

    The application of different ionic liquids (ILs) as modifiers for chromatographic separation and determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) species in wine samples, by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection (RP-HPLC-HG-AFS) was studied in this work. Several factors influencing the chromatographic separation of the As species, such as pH of the mobile phase, buffer solution concentration, buffer type, IL concentration and length of alkyl groups in ILs were evaluated. The complete separation of As species was achieved using a C18 column in isocratic mode with a mobile phase composed of 0.5% (v/v) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl) and 5% (v/v) methanol at pH 8.5. A multivariate methodology was used to optimize the variables involved in AFS detection of As species after they were separated by HPLC. The ILs showed remarkable performance for the separation of As species, which was obtained within 18min with a resolution higher than 0.83. The limits of detection for As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA were 0.81, 0.89, 0.62 and 1.00μg As L(-1). The proposed method was applied for As speciation analysis in white and red wine samples originated from different grape varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct pathways of neural coupling for different basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Rognoni, Elena; Cafiero, Riccardo; Costa, Tommaso; Galati, Dario; Perani, Daniela

    2012-01-16

    Emotions are complex events recruiting distributed cortical and subcortical cerebral structures, where the functional integration dynamics within the involved neural circuits in relation to the nature of the different emotions are still unknown. Using fMRI, we measured the neural responses elicited by films representing basic emotions (fear, disgust, sadness, happiness). The amygdala and the associative cortex were conjointly activated by all basic emotions. Furthermore, distinct arrays of cortical and subcortical brain regions were additionally activated by each emotion, with the exception of sadness. Such findings informed the definition of three effective connectivity models, testing for the functional integration of visual cortex and amygdala, as regions processing all emotions, with domain-specific regions, namely: i) for fear, the frontoparietal system involved in preparing adaptive motor responses; ii) for disgust, the somatosensory system, reflecting protective responses against contaminating stimuli; iii) for happiness: medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices involved in understanding joyful interactions. Consistently with these domain-specific models, the results of the effective connectivity analysis indicate that the amygdala is involved in distinct functional integration effects with cortical networks processing sensorimotor, somatosensory, or cognitive aspects of basic emotions. The resulting effective connectivity networks may serve to regulate motor and cognitive behavior based on the quality of the induced emotional experience. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  9. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3182 - Varietal types of dried prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Product Description, Varietal Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3182 Varietal types of dried prunes. (a) Type I. French; or Robe; or a mixture of French and Robe. (b) Type II. Italian. (c) Type III. Imperial; or Sugar; or a mixture of Imperial...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1550 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general shape...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1906 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1906 Section 51.1906 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright red...

  13. 7 CFR 51.763 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in shape...

  15. 7 CFR 51.603 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.603 Section 51.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any container have the same character...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2650 Section 51.2650 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in color...

  17. Putative Microsatellite DNA Marker-Based Wheat Genomic Resource for Varietal Improvement and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jaiswal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location. Previously associated markers with different wheat trait are also not available in any database. Limitations of in vitro SSR discovery can be overcome by genome-wide in silico mining of SSR. Triticum aestivum SSR database (TaSSRDb is an integrated online database with three-tier architecture, developed using PHP and MySQL and accessible at http://webtom.cabgrid.res.in/wheatssr/. For genotyping, Primer3 standalone code computes primers on user request. Chromosome-wise SSR calling for all the three sub genomes along with choice of motif types is provided in addition to the primer generation for desired marker. We report here a database of highest number of SSRs (476,169 from complex, hexaploid wheat genome (~17 GB along with previously reported 268 SSR markers associated with 11 traits. Highest (116.93 SSRs/Mb and lowest (74.57 SSRs/Mb SSR densities were found on 2D and 3A chromosome, respectively. To obtain homozygous locus, e-PCR was done. Such 30 loci were randomly selected for PCR validation in panel of 18 wheat Advance Varietal Trial (AVT lines. TaSSRDb can be a valuable genomic resource tool for linkage mapping, gene/QTL (Quantitative trait locus discovery, diversity analysis, traceability and variety identification. Varietal specific profiling and differentiation can supplement DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity, and Stability testing, EDV (Essentially Derived Variety/IV (Initial Variety disputes, seed

  18. Varietal response to lead by lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, M.K.

    1977-06-01

    Nine lettuce varieties were hydroponically grown at six substrate Pb concentrations to 50 ppM in substrate. Top and root tissue Pb concentration, amounts assimilated, and translocation to edible tissue were dependent on the variety as well as substrate lead and exposure duration. Even though Pb in substrate was in a precipitated form, lettuce plants could assimilate and translocate Pb. Differential response of varieties with similar morphology indicated genetical regulated physiological mechanisms of Pb assimilation and translocation. This evidence suggests varietal selection could minimize human and animal dietary intake of Pb via food plants. While early growth of some varieties was stimulated by low concentrations of Pb, and high solution concentrations suppressed growth of several varieties, genetic variation also included non-significant response of growth.

  19. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...... mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.......Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety...

  20. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  2. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape marc distillates on the basis of varietal aroma compound composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Milicević, Borislav; Banović, Mara; Tomas, Srećko; Radeka, Sanja; Persurić, Dordano

    2010-06-23

    To investigate the varietal aroma compound composition of monovarietal grape marc distillates made from six different varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) in the region of Istria (Croatia), 30 samples were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analysis. A total of 73 compounds were identified: 45 monoterpenes, 20 sesquiterpenes, 3 diterpenes, and 5 C(13)-norisoprenoids. The largest number and the highest concentration of monoterpenes were found in Muscat Blanc, followed by Rose Muscat of Porec (Muskat ruza porecki) distillates, which were both characterized as highly aromatic. Lower, but still significant monoterpenol content was determined in distillates made from Istrian Malvasia (Malvazija istarska) grape marc. Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Teran distillates exhibited poorer monoterpene profiles, while Teran distillates contained elevated sesquiterpene concentrations. It was concluded that investigated monovarietal grape marc distillates significantly differ in varietal aroma compound composition. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis provided efficient discrimination models, and extracted various monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and C(13)-norisoprenoids as important differentiators of distillates according to varietal origin.

  3. Distinct Processes Drive Diversification in Different Clades of Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalson, Eric H; Roberts, Wade R

    2016-07-01

    Using a time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis including 768 Gesneriaceae species (out of [Formula: see text]3300 species) and more than 29,000 aligned bases from 26 gene regions, we test Gesneriaceae for diversification rate shifts and the possible proximal drivers of these shifts: geographic distributions, growth forms, and pollination syndromes. Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures analyses found five significant rate shifts in Beslerieae, core Nematanthus, core Columneinae, core Streptocarpus, and Pacific Cyrtandra These rate shifts correspond with shifts in diversification rates, as inferred by Binary State Speciation and Extinction Model and Geographic State Speciation and Extinction model, associated with hummingbird pollination, epiphytism, unifoliate growth, and geographic area. Our results suggest that diversification processes are extremely variable across Gesneriaceae clades with different combinations of characters influencing diversification rates in different clades. Diversification patterns between New and Old World lineages show dramatic differences, suggesting that the processes of diversification in Gesneriaceae are very different in these two geographic regions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  5. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  6. Different bacteriocin activities of Streptococcus mutans reflect distinct phylogenetic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, M; Simmonds, RS; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing Streptococcus mutans strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A-D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism...... described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A (S. mutans strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B (S. mutans strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II......-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against Staph. aureus 46. Seven S. mutans strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited E. faecium TE1...

  7. Common and distinctive approaches to motivation in different disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strombach, T; Strang, S; Park, S Q; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades, a body of theories has emerged that explains when and why people are motivated to act. Multiple disciplines have investigated the origins and consequences of motivated behavior, and have done so largely in parallel. Only recently have different disciplines, like psychology and economics, begun to consolidate their knowledge, attempting to integrate findings. The following chapter presents and discusses the most prominent approaches to motivation in the disciplines of biology, psychology, and economics. Particularly, we describe the specific role of incentives, both monetary and alternative, in various motivational theories. Though monetary incentives are pivotal in traditional economic theory, biological and psychological theories ascribe less significance to monetary incentives and suggest alternative drivers for motivation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different Achilles Tendon Pathologies Show Distinct Histological and Molecular Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the development of chronic tendon pathologies are still under debate and more basic knowledge is needed about the different diseases. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize different acute and chronic Achilles tendon disorders. Achilles tendon samples from patients with chronic tendinopathy (n = 7, chronic ruptures (n = 6, acute ruptures (n = 13, and intact tendons (n = 4 were analyzed. The histological score investigating pathological changes was significantly increased in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to acute ruptures. Inflammatory infiltration was detected by immunohistochemistry in all tendon pathology groups, but was significantly lower in tendinopathy compared to chronic ruptures. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes related to collagens and matrix modeling/remodeling (matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in tendinopathy and chronic ruptures compared to intact tendons and/or acute ruptures. In all three tendon pathology groups markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, IL6, IL10, IL33, soluble ST2, transforming growth factor β1, cyclooxygenase 2, inflammatory cells (cluster of differentaition (CD 3, CD68, CD80, CD206, fat metabolism (fatty acid binding protein 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, adiponectin, and innervation (protein gene product 9.5, growth associated protein 43, macrophage migration inhibitory factor were detectable, but only in acute ruptures significantly regulated compared to intact tendons. The study gives an insight into structural and molecular changes of pathological processes in tendons and might be used to identify targets for future therapy of tendon pathologies.

  9. Epigenetic alterations differ in phenotypically distinct human neuroblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tian, Yufeng; Ostler, Kelly R; Chlenski, Alexandre; Guerrero, Lisa J; Salwen, Helen R; Godley, Lucy A; Cohn, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and apoptosis were analyzed to investigate the role epigenetic alterations play in determining NB phenotype. Two NB cell lines (tumorigenic LA1-55n and non-tumorigenic LA1-5s) that differ in their ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice were used. Quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on seven genes in LA1-5s, LA1-55n and 5-Aza-dC treated LA1-55n NB cell lines. The methylation status around THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1 and CASP8 promoters was examined using methylation specific PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine histone modifications along the THBS-1 promoter. Luciferase assay was used to determine THBS-1 promoter activity. Cell proliferation assay was used to examine the effect of 5-Aza-dC on NB cell growth. The soft agar assay was used to determine the tumorigenicity. Promoter methylation values for THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1, and CASP8 were higher in LA1-55n cells compared to LA1-5s cells. Consistent with the promoter methylation status, lower levels of gene expression were detected in the LA1-55n cells. Histone marks associated with repressive chromatin states (H3K9Me3, H3K27Me3, and H3K4Me3) were identified in the THBS-1 promoter region in the LA1-55n cells, but not the LA1-5s cells. In contrast, the three histone codes associated with an active chromatin state (acetyl H3, acetyl H4, and H3K4Me3) were present in the THBS-1 promoter region in LA1-5s cells, but not the LA1-55n cells, suggesting that an accessible chromatin structure is important for THBS-1 expression. We also show that 5-Aza-dC treatment of LA1-55n cells alters the DNA methylation

  10. Yield Perceptions, Determinants and Adoption Impact of on Farm Varietal Mixtures for Common Bean and Banana in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Nankya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop variety mixtures (different varieties of a crop grown together in a single plot have been successfully deployed in pathogen and pest management for several crops including wheat, common bean and rice. Despite the available evidence, promotion of this approach has remained limited in many countries, including Uganda. The factors that influence farmers’ adoption of varietal mixtures for common bean and banana were assessed, as well as the perceptions of farmers on the effects of mixtures on yields, through household surveys and statistical modelling. A three-year yield increase in both common bean and banana varietal mixtures in farmer fields, of 5.2% and 28.6%, respectively, is realized using robust OLS estimates. The study reveals that accessing knowledge on the importance of crop varietal mixtures and the skills relating to the approach are crucial for their adoption. Location of the farm significantly determined the perceived yield change, which calls for more research into mixtures’ suitability under particular contexts in respect to compatibility of genotypes, management practices and appropriate acreage for maximum impact. The positive effects of mixtures on yields make it an effective bioeconomy strategy. Policies that minimize the adoption barriers could improve the adoption of crop varietal mixtures on a wider scale.

  11. Compactification de la Supergravite 10-D Sur les Varietes de Calabi-Yau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michel

    Les varietes de Calabi-Yau permettent une description relativement simple et assez juste de la realite. Recemment, de nombreuses equipes de recherche s'y sont interessees, en particulier P. Candelas, A. M. Dale, C. A. Lutken et R. Schimmrigk (13) qui ont propose une liste de 7868 configurations distinctes. Toutefois, nous croyons que certaines des techniques qui sont exploitees pour construire cette liste ne sont pas suffisamment justifiees et ont pour effet de soustraire a nos investigations bon nombre de configurations potentiellement interessantes. Ainsi, nous produisons, sans utiliser ces techniques simplificatrices, une liste de 97360 configurations. Ensuite, dans le cadre des modeles a 4 generations, nous appliquons un ensemble de criteres, fondes sur les symetries discretes, pour delimiter le domaine des configurations phenomenologiquement viables. Finalement, apres avoir fixe notre choix sur une configuration particuliere, nous essayons de montrer tout l'interet physique des varietes de Calabi-Yau en exposant certains aspects de la phenomenologie a basse energie, notamment les nombres quantiques, les spectres fermioniques, la brisure intermediaire du groupe de jauge et la duree de vie du proton.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2116 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... blanchable varieties within the “California” Marketing Classification. In addition, Nonpareil or similar... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2116 Section 51.2116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  13. 27 CFR 4.28 - Type designations of varietal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type designations of varietal significance. 4.28 Section 4.28 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... and separated by the required appellation of origin, the name(s) of the grape variety or varieties...

  14. Varietéen på Frederikstorv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud

    The book tells the story of the music hall, The Varieté, in Aalborg from the time of its establishment to the present day, focusing primarily on the years from 1898 to the early 1970s. An effort has been made to contribute both to local history and to the history of popular entertainment....

  15. Small millet farmers increase yields through participatory varietal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... ... their low glycemic index and tolerance of water stress, are in decline in South Asia. ... These are now being taken up by the formal seed supply and varietal ... Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards.

  16. Use of Multispectral Imaging in Varietal Identification of Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven...... obtained provide an opportunity of using multispectral imaging technology as a primary tool in a scientific community for identification/discrimination of plant varieties in regard to genetic purity and plant variety protection/registration.......Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven...... cultivars to study parents and offspring relationship and varietal identification respectively. Normalized canonical discriminant analysis (nCDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze and compare the results for parents and offspring study. Both the results showed clear discrimination...

  17. Studies on varietal radiosensitivity and genetical effect in triticum aestivum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie; Wang Linqing

    1987-09-01

    The Dormand seeds (with 13% water content) of 49 wheat varieties (T riticum aestivum L.) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ ray of various doses, and the varietal radiosensitivities and the genetical effects were studied in experimental plots and laboratories. Significant differences in radiosensitivity were found among the varieties used in present experiment. The varietal radiosensitivity of T riticum aestivum L. manifested a continuous variation, which accords approximately with the normal distribution, from the sensitive to the resistant to 60 Co-γ rays. 49 varieties utilized could be divided into five groups with different radiosensitivity to 60 Co-γ rays: higher resistent, resistant, intermediat respose, sensitive and higher sensitive. It was found that most of the mutant varieties improved by irradiation were more resistant to γ rays than the local varieties which were more resistant than recombination varieties bred by crossbreeding, that is radiation-induced mutant varieties 2 generation. The results showed that mutation frequencies, mutation spectra and variebilities of the quantative traits varied with varieties. Higher mutation frequencies, wider mutation spectra and greater variabilities were observed in the sensitive varieties than in the resistant ones, and it suggested that there is a greater potential for selecting mutants in M 2 generation of more sensitive varieties

  18. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  19. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Alternative SNP detection platforms, HRM and biosensors, for varietal identification in Vitis vinifera L. using F3H and LDOX genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sónia; Castro, Cláudia; Barrias, Sara; Pereira, Leonor; Jorge, Pedro; Fernandes, José R; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2018-04-11

    The wine sector requires quick and reliable methods for Vitis vinifera L. varietal identification. The number of V. vinifera varieties is estimated in about 5,000 worldwide. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most basic and abundant form of genetic sequence variation, being adequate for varietal discrimination. The aim of this work was to develop DNA-based assays suitable to detect SNP variation in V. vinifera, allowing varietal discrimination. Genotyping by sequencing allowed the detection of eleven SNPs on two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, the flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, EC: 1.14.11.9), and the leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, EC 1.14.11.19; synonym anthocyanidin synthase, ANS) in twenty V. vinifera varieties. Three High Resolution Melting (HRM) assays were designed based on the sequencing information, discriminating five of the 20 varieties: Alicante Bouschet, Donzelinho Tinto, Merlot, Moscatel Galego and Tinta Roriz. Sanger sequencing of the HRM assay products confirmed the HRM profiles. Three probes, with different lengths and sequences, were used as bio-recognition elements in an optical biosensor platform based on a long period grating (LPG) fiber optic sensor. The label free platform detected a difference of a single SNP using genomic DNA samples. The two different platforms were successfully applied for grapevine varietal identification.

  1. Tp53 gene mediates distinct dopaminergic neuronal damage in different dopaminergic neurotoxicant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tp53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, whether the neuronal Tp53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA neuronal cell death or neuronal terminal damage in different neurotoxicant models is unknown. In our recent studies, in contrast to the global inhibition of Tp53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional Tp53 knock-out mice, we examined the effects of DA-specific Tp53 gene deletion after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and methamphetamine exposure. Our data suggests that the Tp53 gene might be involved in both neuronal apoptosis and neuronal terminal damage caused by different neurotoxicants. Additional results from other studies also suggest that as a master regulator of many pathways that regulate apoptosis and synaptic terminal damage, it is possible that Tp53 may function as a signaling hub to integrate different signaling pathways to mediate distinctive target pathways. Tp53 protein as a signaling hub might be able to evaluate the microenvironment of neurons, assess the forms and severities of injury incurred, and determine whether apoptotic cell death or neuronal terminal degeneration occurs. Identification of the precise mechanisms activated in distinct neuronal damage caused by different forms and severities of injuries might allow for development of specific Tp53 inhibitors or ways to modulate distinct downstream target pathways involved.

  2. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Different AMPA receptor subtypes mediate the distinct kinetic components of a biphasic EPSC in hippocampal interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd eStincic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CA1 hippocampal interneurons at the border between stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare have AMPA receptor (AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs that consist of two distinct phases: a typical fast component (FC, and a highly unusual slow component (SC that persists for hundreds of milliseconds. To determine whether these kinetically distinct components of the EPSC are mediated by distinct AMPAR subpopulations, we examined the relative contributions of GluA2-containing and –lacking AMPARs to the SC. GluA2-containing AMPARs mediated the majority of the FC whereas GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially generated the SC. When glutamate uptake through the glial glutamate transporter EAAT1 was inhibited, spill over-mediated AMPAR activation recruited an even slower third kinetic component that persisted for several seconds; however, this spillover-mediated current was mediated predominantly by GluA2-containing AMPARs and therefore was clearly distinct from the SC when uptake is intact. Thus, different AMPAR subpopulations that vary in GluA2 content mediate the distinct components of the AMPAR EPSC. The SC is developmentally downregulated in mice, declining after the second postnatal week. This downregulation affects both GluA2-containing and GluA2-lacking AMPARs mediating the SC, and is not accompanied by developmental changes in the GluA2 content of AMPARs underlying the FC. Thus, the downregulation of the SC appears to be independent of synaptic GluA2 expression, suggesting the involvement of another AMPAR subunit or an auxiliary protein. Our results therefore identify GluA2-dependent and GluA2-independent determinants of the SC: GluA2-lacking AMPARs preferentially contribute to the SC, while the developmental downregulation of the SC is independent of GluA2 content.

  4. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  5. Retinal ganglion cells with distinct directional preferences differ in molecular identity, structure, and central projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeremy N; De la Huerta, Irina; Kim, In-Jung; Zhang, Yifeng; Yamagata, Masahito; Chu, Monica W; Meister, Markus; Sanes, Joshua R

    2011-05-25

    The retina contains ganglion cells (RGCs) that respond selectively to objects moving in particular directions. Individual members of a group of ON-OFF direction-selective RGCs (ooDSGCs) detect stimuli moving in one of four directions: ventral, dorsal, nasal, or temporal. Despite this physiological diversity, little is known about subtype-specific differences in structure, molecular identity, and projections. To seek such differences, we characterized mouse transgenic lines that selectively mark ooDSGCs preferring ventral or nasal motion as well as a line that marks both ventral- and dorsal-preferring subsets. We then used the lines to identify cell surface molecules, including Cadherin 6, CollagenXXVα1, and Matrix metalloprotease 17, that are selectively expressed by distinct subsets of ooDSGCs. We also identify a neuropeptide, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), that distinguishes all ooDSGCs from other RGCs. Together, this panel of endogenous and transgenic markers distinguishes the four ooDSGC subsets. Patterns of molecular diversification occur before eye opening and are therefore experience independent. They may help to explain how the four subsets obtain distinct inputs. We also demonstrate differences among subsets in their dendritic patterns within the retina and their axonal projections to the brain. Differences in projections indicate that information about motion in different directions is sent to different destinations.

  6. Distinct transmitter release properties determine differences in short-term plasticity at functional and silent synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Carolina; Buño, Washington

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that functional and silent synapses are not only postsynaptically different but also presynaptically distinct. The presynaptic differences may be of functional importance in memory formation because a proposed mechanism for long-term potentiation is the conversion of silent synapses into functional ones. However, there is little direct experimentally evidence of these differences. We have investigated the transmitter release properties of functional and silent Schaffer collateral synapses and show that on the average functional synapses displayed a lower percentage of failures and higher excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes than silent synapses at +60 mV. Moreover, functional but not silent synapses show paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at +60 mV and thus presynaptic short-term plasticity will be distinct in the two types of synapse. We examined whether intraterminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores influenced the release properties of these synapses. Ryanodine (100 microM) and thapsigargin (1 microM) increased the percentage of failures and decreased both the EPSC amplitude and PPF in functional synapses. Caffeine (10 mM) had the opposite effects. In contrast, silent synapses were insensitive to both ryanodine and caffeine. Hence we have identified differences in the release properties of functional and silent synapses, suggesting that synaptic terminals of functional synapses express regulatory molecular mechanisms that are absent in silent synapses.

  7. One target, different effects: a comparison of distinct therapeutic antibodies against the same targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunbo

    2011-10-31

    To date, more than 30 antibodies have been approved worldwide for therapeutic use. While the monoclonal antibody market is rapidly growing, the clinical use of therapeutic antibodies is mostly limited to treatment of cancers and immunological disorders. Moreover, antibodies against only five targets (TNF-α, HER2, CD20, EGFR, and VEGF) account for more than 80 percent of the worldwide market of therapeutic antibodies. The shortage of novel, clinically proven targets has resulted in the development of many distinct therapeutic antibodies against a small number of proven targets, based on the premise that different antibody molecules against the same target antigen have distinct biological and clinical effects from one another. For example, four antibodies against TNF-α have been approved by the FDA -- infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab pegol -- with many more in clinical and preclinical development. The situation is similar for HER2, CD20, EGFR, and VEGF, each having one or more approved antibodies and many more under development. This review discusses the different binding characteristics, mechanisms of action, and biological and clinical activities of multiple monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, HER-2, CD20, and EGFR and provides insights into the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  8. Distinct molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma respond differently to chemotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Wang, Shuzhen; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Lulu; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Shibai; Zhu, Wan; Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Wenwu; Ji, Shaoping; Guo, Xiangqian

    2017-09-11

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood. Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Next, clinicopathological characters and molecular pathways were analyzed in each subtype to prospect the clinical applications and progression mechanisms of ULMS. Two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS were defined based on different gene expression signatures. Subtype I ULMS recapitulated low-grade ULMS, the gene expression pattern of which resembled normal smooth muscle cells, characterized by overexpression of smooth muscle function genes such as LMOD1, SLMAP, MYLK, MYH11. In contrast, subtype II ULMS recapitulated high-grade ULMS with higher tumor weight and invasion rate, and was characterized by overexpression of genes involved in the pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis, such as CDK6, MAPK13 and HOXA1. We identified two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS responding differently to chemotherapy treatment. Our findings provide a better understanding of ULMS intrinsic molecular subtypes, and will potentially facilitate the development of subtype-specific diagnosis biomarkers and therapy strategies for these tumors.

  9. Phytomeliorative properties of Cannabis sativa L. plants depending on varietal features of the culture

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    В. М. Кабанець

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the varietal characteristics of the hemp plants for improving the quality indices of the soil they grow in, determine the amount of inorganic elements in the soil, level of their accumulation in plant stalkі and seeds. Methods. Field and spectrometric methods were basic. The results were processed using conventional methods in agriculture, crop growing and statistics. Variants of the experiment were as follows: varieties ‘Hliana’, ‘Hlesiia’: 1 soils; 2 stalks; 3 seeds. Schemes of experiments included: a technical maturity of plants, row spacing 45 cm; b tech­nical maturity of plants, row spacing 15 cm; c biological maturity of plants, row spacing 45 cm; d biological maturity of plants, row spacing 15 cm. Results. The amount of the accumulation of alkaline earth metals and their compounds by seeds and stalks of hemp plants depending on their content in vegetation soils was determined. It was found that stalks of the ‘Hlesiia’ plant accumulated strontium (Sr and its compounds far less than that of ‘Hliana’, whereas in the seeds of the ‘Hlesiia’ variety the content of this chemical element was higher comparing with the previous variety by 70 and 78%, respectively. The difference in the accumulation of barium (Ba compounds in seeds of hemp plants was not significant, while the tissues of the plant stalks of the ‘Hlia­na’ variety accumulated its compounds significantly more as compared to the ‘Hlesiia’ variety. The degree of influence of the variety, feeding area and the maturity stage on the processes of magnesium compounds (Mg accumulation by plants was not revealed. Plants of the ‘Hlesiia’ variety accumulated far less calcium (Ca and its compounds in the stalk tissues as compared to the plants of the ‘Hliana’ variety: in variants of the technical maturity stage of plants with row spacing 45 cm (a and d – plants of narrow-row sowing (15 cm in the biological maturity stage 30,94 and 15

  10. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  11. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Wagstaff, Simon C; Wüster, Wolfgang; Cook, Darren A N; Bolton, Fiona M S; King, Sarah I; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Harrison, Robert A

    2014-06-24

    Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that processes acting on gene transcription and translation may have on the production of the venom proteome. Here, we assess the venom composition of six related viperid snakes and compare interspecific changes in the number of toxin genes, their transcription in the venom gland, and their translation into proteins secreted in venom. Our results reveal that multiple levels of regulation are responsible for generating variation in venom composition between related snake species. We demonstrate that differential levels of toxin transcription, translation, and their posttranslational modification have a substantial impact upon the resulting venom protein mixture. Notably, these processes act to varying extents on different toxin paralogs found in different snakes and are therefore likely to be as important as ancestral gene duplication events for generating compositionally distinct venom proteomes. Our results suggest that these processes may also contribute to altering the toxicity of snake venoms, and we demonstrate how this variability can undermine the treatment of a neglected tropical disease, snakebite.

  12. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  13. Promoter or enhancer, what's the difference? Deconstruction of established distinctions and presentation of a unifying model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Gene transcription is strictly controlled by the interplay of regulatory events at gene promoters and gene-distal regulatory elements called enhancers. Despite extensive studies of enhancers, we still have a very limited understanding of their mechanisms of action and their restricted spatio......-temporal activities. A better understanding would ultimately lead to fundamental insights into the control of gene transcription and the action of regulatory genetic variants involved in disease. Here, I review and discuss pros and cons of state-of-the-art genomics methods to localize and infer the activity...... of enhancers. Among the different approaches, profiling of enhancer RNAs yields the highest specificity and may be superior in detecting in vivo activity. I discuss their apparent similarities to promoters, which challenge the established view of enhancers and promoters as distinct entities, and present...

  14. Does the reading of different orthographies produce distinct brain activity patterns? An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Orthographies vary in the degree of transparency of spelling-sound correspondence. These range from shallow orthographies with transparent grapheme-phoneme relations, to deep orthographies, in which these relations are opaque. Only a few studies have examined whether orthographic depth is reflected in brain activity. In these studies a between-language design was applied, making it difficult to isolate the aspect of orthographic depth. In the present work this question was examined using a within-subject-and-language investigation. The participants were speakers of Hebrew, as they are skilled in reading two forms of script transcribing the same oral language. One form is the shallow pointed script (with diacritics), and the other is the deep unpointed script (without diacritics). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while skilled readers carried out a lexical decision task in the two forms of script. A visual non-orthographic task controlled for the visual difference between the scripts (resulting from the addition of diacritics to the pointed script only). At an early visual-perceptual stage of processing (~165 ms after target onset), the pointed script evoked larger amplitudes with longer latencies than the unpointed script at occipital-temporal sites. However, these effects were not restricted to orthographic processing, and may therefore have reflected, at least in part, the visual load imposed by the diacritics. Nevertheless, the results implied that distinct orthographic processing may have also contributed to these effects. At later stages (~340 ms after target onset) the unpointed script elicited larger amplitudes than the pointed one with earlier latencies. As this latency has been linked to orthographic-linguistic processing and to the classification of stimuli, it is suggested that these differences are associated with distinct lexical processing of a shallow and a deep orthography.

  15. Does the reading of different orthographies produce distinct brain activity patterns? An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Bar-Kochva

    Full Text Available Orthographies vary in the degree of transparency of spelling-sound correspondence. These range from shallow orthographies with transparent grapheme-phoneme relations, to deep orthographies, in which these relations are opaque. Only a few studies have examined whether orthographic depth is reflected in brain activity. In these studies a between-language design was applied, making it difficult to isolate the aspect of orthographic depth. In the present work this question was examined using a within-subject-and-language investigation. The participants were speakers of Hebrew, as they are skilled in reading two forms of script transcribing the same oral language. One form is the shallow pointed script (with diacritics, and the other is the deep unpointed script (without diacritics. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while skilled readers carried out a lexical decision task in the two forms of script. A visual non-orthographic task controlled for the visual difference between the scripts (resulting from the addition of diacritics to the pointed script only. At an early visual-perceptual stage of processing (~165 ms after target onset, the pointed script evoked larger amplitudes with longer latencies than the unpointed script at occipital-temporal sites. However, these effects were not restricted to orthographic processing, and may therefore have reflected, at least in part, the visual load imposed by the diacritics. Nevertheless, the results implied that distinct orthographic processing may have also contributed to these effects. At later stages (~340 ms after target onset the unpointed script elicited larger amplitudes than the pointed one with earlier latencies. As this latency has been linked to orthographic-linguistic processing and to the classification of stimuli, it is suggested that these differences are associated with distinct lexical processing of a shallow and a deep orthography.

  16. Gustatory stimuli representing different perceptual qualities elicit distinct patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-04-24

    Taste stimuli that evoke different perceptual qualities (e.g., sweet, umami, bitter, sour, salty) are detected by dedicated subpopulations of taste bud cells that use distinct combinations of sensory receptors and transduction molecules. Here, we report that taste stimuli also elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds that are correlated with those perceptual qualities. We measured tastant-dependent secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) from circumvallate papillae of Tas1r3(+/+), Tas1r3(+/-) and Tas1r3 (-/-) mice. Isolated tongue epithelia were mounted in modified Ussing chambers, permitting apical stimulation of taste buds; secreted peptides were collected from the basal side and measured by specific ELISAs. Appetitive stimuli (sweet: glucose, sucralose; umami: monosodium glutamate; polysaccharide: Polycose) elicited GLP-1 and NPY secretion and inhibited basal glucagon secretion. Sweet and umami stimuli were ineffective in Tas1r3(-/-) mice, indicating an obligatory role for the T1R3 subunit common to the sweet and umami taste receptors. Polycose responses were unaffected by T1R3 deletion, consistent with the presence of a distinct polysaccharide taste receptor. The effects of sweet stimuli on peptide secretion also required the closing of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, as the KATP channel activator diazoxide inhibited the effects of glucose and sucralose on both GLP-1 and glucagon release. Both sour citric acid and salty NaCl increased NPY secretion but had no effects on GLP-1 or glucagon. Bitter denatonium showed no effects on these peptides. Together, these results suggest that taste stimuli of different perceptual qualities elicit unique patterns of neuropeptide secretion from taste buds.

  17. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

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    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  18. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  20. Different HLA-DRB1 allele distributions in distinct clinical subgroups of sarcoidosis patients

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    Nisell Magnus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong genetic influence by the MHC class II region has been reported in sarcoidosis, however in many studies with different results. This may possibly be caused by actual differences between distinct ethnic groups, too small sample sizes, or because of lack of accurate clinical subgrouping. Subjects and methods In this study we HLA typed a large patient population (n = 754 recruited from one single centre. Patients were sub-grouped into those with Löfgren's syndrome (LS (n = 302 and those without (non-Löfgren's (n = 452, and the majority of them were clinically classified into those with recovery within two years (resolving and those with signs of disease for more than two years (non-resolving. PCR was used for determination of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Swedish healthy blood donors (n = 1366 served as controls. Results There was a dramatic difference in the distribution of HLA alleles in LS compared to non-LS patients (p = 4 × 10-36. Most notably, DRB1*01, DRB1*03 and DRB1*14, clearly differed in LS and non-LS patients. In relation to disease course, DRB1*07, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15 generally associated with, while DRB1*01 and DRB1*03 protected against, a non-resolving disease. Interestingly, the clinical influence of DRB1*03 (good prognosis dominated over that of DRB1*15 (bad prognosis. Conclusions We found several significant differences between LS and non-LS patients and we therefore suggest that genetic association studies in sarcoidosis should include a careful clinical characterisation and sub-grouping of patients, in order to reveal true genetic associations. This may be particularly accurate to do in the heterogeneous non-LS group of patients.

  1. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

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    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  2. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

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    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Montserrat Gerez,1–3 Enrique Suárez,2,3 Carlos Serrano,2,3 Lauro Castanedo,2 Armando Tello1,3 1Departamento de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unidad de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes.Purpose: To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD, agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder.Methods: A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1 dysrhythmic patterns, 2 delta, 3 theta, 4 alpha, 5 beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores, 6 event-related potential (ERP combined latency, 7 ERP combined amplitude (z-scores, 8 magnitude, 9 site, and 10 site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large

  3. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas: are their differences attributable to distinct cells of origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Dawn R; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Lawrence, Katherine M; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N; Salamanca, Clara; Cheng, Angela S; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hoang, Lien N; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial epithelium is the presumed tissue of origin for both eutopic and endometriosis-derived clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. We had previously hypothesized that the morphological, biological and clinical differences between these carcinomas are due to histotype-specific mutations. Although some mutations and genomic landscape features are more likely to be found in one of these histotypes, we were not able to identify a single class of mutations that was exclusively present in one histotype and not the other. This lack of genomic differences led us to an alternative hypothesis that these cancers could arise from distinct cells of origin within endometrial tissue, and that it is the cellular context that accounts for their differences. In a proteomic screen, we identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) as a marker for clear cell carcinoma, as it is expressed at high levels in clear cell carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium. In the current study, we analysed normal Müllerian tissues, and found that CTH is expressed in ciliated cells of endometrium (both eutopic endometrium and endometriosis) and fallopian tubes. We then demonstrated that other ciliated cell markers are expressed in clear cell carcinomas, whereas endometrial secretory cell markers are expressed in endometrioid carcinomas. The same differential staining of secretory and ciliated cells was demonstrable in a three-dimensional organoid culture system, in which stem cells were stimulated to differentiate into an admixture of secretory and ciliated cells. These data suggest that endometrioid carcinomas are derived from cells of the secretory cell lineage, whereas clear cell carcinomas are derived from, or have similarities to, cells of the ciliated cell lineage. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Saamaaneh; Asadi, Malek Hossein; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues. A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors. All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

  5. Lineage Reprogramming of Astroglial Cells from Different Origins into Distinct Neuronal Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Chouchane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Astroglial cells isolated from the rodent postnatal cerebral cortex are particularly susceptible to lineage reprogramming into neurons. However, it remains unknown whether other astroglial populations retain the same potential. Likewise, little is known about the fate of induced neurons (iNs in vivo. In this study we addressed these questions using two different astroglial populations isolated from the postnatal brain reprogrammed either with Neurogenin-2 (Neurog2 or Achaete scute homolog-1 (Ascl1. We show that cerebellum (CerebAstro and cerebral cortex astroglia (CtxAstro generates iNs with distinctive neurochemical and morphological properties. Both astroglial populations contribute iNs to the olfactory bulb following transplantation in the postnatal and adult mouse subventricular zone. However, only CtxAstro transfected with Neurog2 differentiate into pyramidal-like iNs after transplantation in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Altogether, our data indicate that the origin of the astroglial population and transcription factors used for reprogramming, as well as the region of integration, affect the fate of iNs.

  6. Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2011-04-01

    A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories.

  7. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  8. Distinct virulence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus strains from different genetic lineages in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.

  9. An international comparison of risk factors between two regions with distinct differences in asthma prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K; Vlaski, E; Rennie, D C; Sears, M; Lawson, J A

    2018-03-24

    Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  11. Different infective forms trigger distinct immune response in experimental Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira

    Full Text Available Although metacyclic and blood trypomastigotes are completely functional in relation to parasite-host interaction and/or target cell invasion, they differ in the molecules present on the surface. Thus, aspects related to the variability that the forms of T. cruzi interacts with host cells may lead to fundamental implications on the immune response against this parasite and, consequently, the clinical evolution of Chagas disease. We have shown that BT infected mice presented higher levels of parasitemia during all the acute phase of infection. Moreover, the infection with either MT or BT forms resulted in increased levels of total leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes, specifically later for MT and earlier for BT. The infection with BT forms presented earlier production of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and later of IFN-γ by both T cells subpopulations. This event was accompanied by an early cardiac inflammation with an exacerbation of this process at the end of the acute phase. On the other hand, infection with MT forms result in an early production of IFN-γ, with subsequent control in the production of this cytokine by IL-10, which provided to these animals an immunomodulatory profile in the end of the acute phase. These results are in agreement with what was found for cardiac inflammation where animals infected with MT forms showed intense cardiac inflammation later at infection, with a decrease in the same at the end of this phase. In summary, our findings emphasize the importance of taking into account the inoculums source of T. cruzi, since vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase that may influence relevant biological aspects of chronic Chagas disease.

  12. Mapping the distinctive populations of lymphatic endothelial cells in different zones of human lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Mul Park

    Full Text Available The lymphatic sinuses in human lymph nodes (LNs are crucial to LN function yet their structure remains poorly defined. Much of our current knowledge of lymphatic sinuses derives from rodent models, however human LNs differ substantially in their sinus structure, most notably due to the presence of trabeculae and trabecular lymphatic sinuses that rodent LNs lack. Lymphatic sinuses are bounded and traversed by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. A better understanding of LECs in human LNs is likely to improve our understanding of the regulation of cell trafficking within LNs, now an important therapeutic target, as well as disease processes that involve lymphatic sinuses. We therefore sought to map all the LECs within human LNs using multicolor immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize the distribution of a range of putative markers. PROX1 was the only marker that uniquely identified the LECs lining and traversing all the sinuses in human LNs. In contrast, LYVE1 and STAB2 were only expressed by LECs in the paracortical and medullary sinuses in the vast majority of LNs studied, whilst the subcapsular and trabecular sinuses lacked these molecules. These data highlight the existence of at least two distinctive populations of LECs within human LNs. Of the other LEC markers, we confirmed VEGFR3 was not specific for LECs, and CD144 and CD31 stained both LECs and blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs; in contrast, CD59 and CD105 stained BECs but not LECs. We also showed that antigen-presenting cells (APCs in the sinuses could be clearly distinguished from LECs by their expression of CD169, and their lack of expression of PROX1 and STAB2, or endothelial markers such as CD144. However, both LECs and sinus APCs were stained with DCN46, an antibody commonly used to detect CD209.

  13. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  14. Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Marziah Mahmood; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

  15. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  16. Different risk-increasing drugs in recurrent versus single fallers: are recurrent fallers a distinct population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Scheffer, Alice C.; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Polypharmacy, and specifically the use of multiple fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRID), have been associated with increased risk of falling in older age. However, it is not yet clear whether the known set of FRIDs can be extrapolated to recurrent fallers, since they form a distinct group of more

  17. Core Competence, Distinctive Competence, and Competitive Advantage: What Is the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Core competence, distinctive competence, and competitive advantage are 3 of the most important business concepts that managers, researchers, and educators rely on for decision making, pedagogy, and research. However, little attention has been paid to defining these concepts. As a result, they have become buzzwords that are used so frequently that…

  18. Two distinct energetic electron populations of different origin in the Earth's magnetotail: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vogiatzis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Energetic electrons (E≥30 keV travelling along and perpendicular to the magnetic field lines have been observed in the magnetotail at L~17:00 and 22:00 MLT during the recovery phase of a storm-time substorm on 7 October 2002. Three-dimensional electron distributions of the full unit sphere obtained from the IES/RAPID sensor system demonstrated a rather complicated and random behavior of the energetic electrons. Occasionally these electrons were appearing to travel parallel, perpendicular, or in both directions, relative to the magnetic field direction, forming in this way bi-directional, perpendicular-peaked, and mixed distributions. The electron enhancements occurred while the Cluster spacecraft were on closed field lines in the central plasma sheet approaching the neutral sheet from the northern tail lobe. Magnetic field and energetic particle measurements have been used from geosynchronous and Cluster satellites, in order to describe the general context of the event and then give a possible interpretation regarding the occurrence of the electron anisotropies observed by the IES/RAPID spectrometer on board Cluster. According to geosynchronous measurements an electron dispersionless ejection is very well correlated with a dipolar re-configuration of the magnetic field. The latter fact supports the idea that electrons and, in general, particle ejections at geosynchronous altitude are directly related to electric fields arising from field dipolarization caused by current disruption. Also, having as a main objective the understanding of the way 3-D electron distributions are formed, we have analyzed electron energy spectra along and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction, demonstrating the fact that the electron population consists of two distinct components acting independently and in a random manner relative to each other. This leads to the conclusion that these two electron populations along and perpendicular to the field are

  19. Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Salloch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians? ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians? conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with re...

  20. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    . Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells...... derived in one condition can be reprogrammed to another developmental state merely by adaptation to another culture condition....

  1. Individual Distinctive Features of Self-Regulation Processes Peculiar to Students of Different Profiles of Lateral Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Svetlana A.; Zherebnenko, Oksana A.; Mukhamedzyanova, Flera G.; Moskalenko, Svetlana V.; Gorelikova, Olga N.

    2016-01-01

    The research paper presents an analysis of the interrelation between the lateral organisation profiles' indicators and self-regulation features. The existence of significant distinctions in the processes of self-regulation among respondents with different variants of lateral profiles of the interhemispheric asymmetry is proved, as well as the…

  2. It is not always tickling: distinct cerebral responses during perception of different laughter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, Diana P; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Alter, Kai; Szameitat, André J; Sterr, Annette; Grodd, Wolfgang; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2010-12-01

    Laughter is highly relevant for social interaction in human beings and non-human primates. In humans as well as in non-human primates laughter can be induced by tickling. Human laughter, however, has further diversified and encompasses emotional laughter types with various communicative functions, e.g. joyful and taunting laughter. Here, it was evaluated if this evolutionary diversification of ecological functions is associated with distinct cerebral responses underlying laughter perception. Functional MRI revealed a double-dissociation of cerebral responses during perception of tickling laughter and emotional laughter (joy and taunt) with higher activations in the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) when emotional laughter was perceived, and stronger responses in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) during appreciation of tickling laughter. Enhanced activation of the arMFC for emotional laughter presumably reflects increasing demands on social cognition processes arising from the greater social salience of these laughter types. Activation increase in the STG for tickling laughter may be linked to the higher acoustic complexity of this laughter type. The observed dissociation of cerebral responses for emotional laughter and tickling laughter was independent of task-directed focusing of attention. These findings support the postulated diversification of human laughter in the course of evolution from an unequivocal play signal to laughter with distinct emotional contents subserving complex social functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Volatile Components of Varietal English Wines Using Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Caven-Quantrill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is an important property of wine and it can be influenced significantly by enological practices. The aim of this work was, by use of stir bar sorptive extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE/GC-MS, to compare semi-quantitative concentrations of the volatile constituents of stainless steel tank-fermented/matured Huxelrebe, Ortega, Schönburger and Siegerrebe varietal wines from a commercial English vineyard, with corresponding wines produced by oak cask (‘barrel’ fermentation/maturation. Aroma profiles of tank and barrel wines were different, with more volatiles detected and net concentrations being higher in barrel wines. Long chain ethyl carboxylate esters were generally more abundant in barrel wines, whereas acetate esters were generally more prominent in tank wines. By conducting a short (~7 month maturation period in secondhand (third or fourth fill casks, it was possible to make wines with more complex aromas, but without obvious oak aroma.

  4. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...

  5. Distinct neurogenomic states in basal ganglia subregions relate differently to singing behavior in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Hilliard

    regions during distinct behavioral states.

  6. Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine

    2016-07-22

    Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians' ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians' conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with regard to morally contentious issues in medicine.A short analysis of the discussions in history and social sciences reveals that professionalism is more than a catchphrase of modern medical debates but has a complex theoretical background which is still not conclusively understood. Whereas professionalism is clearly linked to the honorable aims of providing services to the individual and the society, it potentially entails problematic aspects, such as elitism, monopoly or the maintaining of power and privileges. With regard to morally contentious topics, the professional ethos of physicians must be differentiated from the perspective of ethics which can take a universal standpoint and has the potential to critically assess context-specific moral norms. The example of the current regulation on suicide assistance in German professional law is taken as an example to demonstrate how professional bodies tend to overstep the limits of their expertise and regulatory power with regard to issues which need an ethical evaluation.The article concludes that the narrowing of ethics and professionalism in public discussions and in medical education should be seen as problematic and that morally contentious topics in modern societies should be open to a participatory and inclusive discussion and democratic decision procedures.

  7. Geographically distinct Ceratophyllum demersum populations differ in growth, photosynthetic responses and phenotypic plasticity to nitrogen availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Olesen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    from New Zealand (NZ) and a noninvasive population from Denmark (DK). The populations were compared with a focus on both morphological and physiological traits. The NZ population had higher relative growth rates (RGRs) and photosynthesis rates (Pmax) (range: RGR, 0.06–0.08 per day; Pmax, 200–395 µmol O......2 g–1 dry mass (DM) h–1) compared with the Danish population (range: RGR, 0.02–0.05 per day; Pmax, 88–169 µmol O2 g–1 DM h–1). The larger, faster-growing NZ population also showed higher plasticity than the DK population in response to nitrogen in traits important for growth. Hence, the observed...... differences in growth behaviour between the two populations are a result of genetic differences and differences in their level of plasticity. Here, we show that two populations of the same species from similar climates but different geographical areas can differ in several ecophysiological traits after growth...

  8. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B; Gautam, Priyanka; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Nayak, A K

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November-March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and assimilate

  9. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  10. Two Distinctive Phenotypes of AcMNPV Display Different Immune Abilities and Intracellular Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Guido N; Tavarone, Eugenia; Taboga, Oscar; Molinari, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The budded phenotype (BV) of the baculovirus AcMNPV has been demonstrated to have strong immunostimulatory properties that are relevant for the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies. Although the occluded phenotype (ODV) shares the main structural proteins and its genome with BV, it has been poorly studied in mammals. In this study, we assessed the capacity of ODV to induce immune responses in mice. In contrast to BVs, ODVs failed to promote the secretion of IFN-gamma, IL-6 and Il-12 and to induce antiviral activity against VSV in the short term. Furthermore, ODVs were unable to induce cellular immunity against a coadministered antigen 7 days after inoculation. By analyzing the interaction of ODVs with BMDCs, we observed that although ODVs entered the cells reaching late and acidic endosomes, they did not induce their maturation. Finally, we also analyzed if BVs and ODVs followed different routes in the cell during the infection. BVs, but not ODVs, colocalized with the protein ovalbumin in compartments with the presence of proteases. The results suggest that structural differences could be responsible for their different destinies in the dendritic cell and this could lead to a different impact on the immune response.

  11. Distinct age-related differences in temporal discounting and risk taking in adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Water, E. de; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related differences in temporal discounting (TD) and risk taking, and their association, were examined in adolescents and young adults (n=337) aged 12-27years. Since monetary rewards are typically used in TD and risk-taking tasks, the association between monetary reward valuation and age and

  12. Distinct Bacterial Composition Associated with Different Laboratory-cultured Aiptasia Strains Across Two Thermal Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Hanin

    2018-01-01

    laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify

  13. Glycosylation differences contribute to distinct catalytic properties among bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Magnusson, Per

    2009-11-01

    Three circulating human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms (B1, B2, and B/I) can be distinguished in healthy individuals and a fourth isoform (B1x) has been discovered in patients with chronic kidney disease and in bone tissue. The present study was designed to correlate differing glycosylation patterns of each BALP isoform with their catalytic activity towards presumptive physiological substrates and to compare those properties with two recombinant isoforms of the tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNALP) isozyme, i.e., TNALP-flag, used extensively for mutation analysis of hypophosphatasia mutations and sALP-FcD(10), a chimeric enzyme recently used as therapeutic drug in a mouse model of infantile hypophosphatasia. The BALP isoforms were prepared from human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells and the kinetic properties were evaluated using the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) at pH 7.4 and 9.8, and the three suggested endogenous physiological substrates, i.e., inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and phosphoethanolamine (PEA) at pH 7.4. Qualitative glycosylation differences were also assessed by lectin binding and precipitation. The k(cat)/K(M) was higher for B2 for all the investigated substrates. The catalytic activity towards PEA was essentially undetectable. The kinetic activity for TNALP-flag and sALP-FcD(10) was similar to the activity of the human BALP isoforms. The BALP isoforms differed in their lectin binding properties and dose-dependent lectin precipitation, which also demonstrated differences between native and denatured BALP isoforms. The observed differences in lectin specificity were attributed to N-linked carbohydrates. In conclusion, we demonstrate significantly different catalytic properties among the BALP isoforms due to structural differences in posttranslational glycosylation. Our data also suggests that PEA is not an endogenous substrate for the BALP isoforms or for the recombinant TNALP isoforms. The TNALP

  14. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  15. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0), 10(-2), 10(-4) and 10(-6). Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP

  16. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fatigue in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is associated with distinct differences in immune parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelaar L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauran Vogelaar, 1,* Colin de Haar,2,* Bas RJ Aerts,1 Maikel P Peppelenbosch,1 Reinier Timman,3 Bettina E Hanssen,1 C Janneke van der Woude1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, 2Applied Tumor Immunology, Laboratory of Translational Immunology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, 3Department of Psychiatry, Section of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although it is well recognized that fatigue is an important problem in many of the quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients, it is unknown whether the immune status is different in fatigued versus non-fatigued patients. In this study, we contrasted various characteristics of the immune system in fatigued against non-fatigued patients with IBD in clinical remission.Patients and methods: Patients with IBD in clinical remission were phenotyped according to the Montreal classification, and the checklist individual strength-fatigue (CIS-fatigue was used to assess fatigue (CIS-fatigue ≥ 35. Flow cytometry on peripheral blood samples was used to investigate differences in leukocyte subsets. The expression of various cytokines was determined in stimulated whole blood and serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Differences between fatigued and non-fatigued patients with IBD were assessed.Results: In total, 55 patients were included in the fatigue group (FG and 29 patients in the non-fatigue group (NFG. No differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Flow cytometry data showed a significantly lower percentage of monocytes (p = 0.011 and a higher percentage of memory T-cells (p = 0.005 and neutrophils (p = 0.033 in the FG compared with the NFG. Whole blood stimulation showed increased TNF-α (p = 0.022 and IFN-γ (p = 0.047 in the FG. The median serum level was significantly higher for IL-12 (p < 0.001 and IL-10 (p

  18. Different mutations of the human c-mpl gene indicate distinct haematopoietic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Chen, Zhigang; Jiang, Yangyan; Qiu, Xi; Zhao, Xiaoying

    2013-01-25

    The human c-mpl gene (MPL) plays an important role in the development of megakaryocytes and platelets as well as the self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. However, numerous MPL mutations have been identified in haematopoietic diseases. These mutations alter the normal regulatory mechanisms and lead to autonomous activation or signalling deficiencies. In this review, we summarise 59 different MPL mutations and classify these mutations into four different groups according to the associated diseases and mutation rates. Using this classification, we clearly distinguish four diverse types of MPL mutations and obtain a deep understand of their clinical significance. This will prove to be useful for both disease diagnosis and the design of individual therapy regimens based on the type of MPL mutations.

  19. Variability in the recognition of distinctive immunofluorescence patterns in different brands of HEp-2 cell slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dellavance

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard for the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens. However, the culture conditions, cell fixation and permeabilization processes interfere directly in the preservation and spatial distribution of antigens. Therefore, one can assume that certain peculiarities in the processing of cellular substrate may affect the recognition of indirect immunofluorescence patterns associated with several autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of serum samples representing nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic, mitotic apparatus, and chromosome plate patterns on HEp-2 cell substrates from different suppliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven blinded observers, independent from the three selected reference centers, evaluated 17 samples yielding different nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic and mitotic apparatus patterns on HEp-2 cell slides from eight different brands. The slides were coded to maintain confidentiality of both brands and participating centers. RESULTS: The 17 HEp-2 cell patterns were identified on most substrates. Nonetheless, some slides showed deficit in the expression of several patterns: nuclear coarse speckled/U1-ribonucleoprotein associated with antibodies against RNP (U1RNP, centromeric protein F (CENP-F, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cytoplasmic fine speckled associated with anti-Jo-1 antibodies (histidyl synthetase, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA-1 and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 2 (NuMA-2. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall good quality of the assessed HEp-2 substrates, there was considerable inconsistency in results among different commercial substrates. The variations may be due to the evaluated batches, hence generalizations cannot be made as to the respective brands. It is recommended that each new batch or new brand be tested with a panel of reference sera representing the various patterns.

  20. Age Differences in Self-Referencing: Evidence for Common and Distinct Encoding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H.; Sokal, Rebecca; Coleman, Jennifer A.; Gotthilf, Gina; Grewal, Lauren; Rosa, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Although engagement of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) underlies self-referencing of information for younger and older adults, the region has not consistently been implicated across age groups for the encoding of self-referenced information. We sought to determine whether making judgments about others as well as the self influenced findings in the previous study. During an fMRI session, younger and older adults encoded adjectives using only a self-reference task. For items later remembered compared to those later forgotten, both age groups robustly recruited medial prefrontal cortex, indicating common neural regions support encoding across younger and older adults when participants make only self-reference judgments. Focal age differences emerged in regions related to emotional processing and cognitive control, though these differences are more limited than in tasks in which judgments also are made about others. We conclude that making judgments about another person differently affects the ways that younger and older adults make judgments about the self, with results of a follow-up behavioral study supporting this interpretation. PMID:25223905

  1. Distinct ultrastructural aspects in different biopsies of a single patient with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achilea Lisboa Bittencourt

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the relation between parasites and host-cells in active and regressed lesions of a patient with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, evaluating the frequency of different cell types, and the location and integrity of amastigotes. No correlation was found between parasite integrity and size of parasitophorous vacuoles. They observed ultrastructural findings characterizing a cell mediated immune response: macrophages lysis, parasitic destruction inside macrophages, close contact between parasitized macrophages and lymphocytes and between parasites and lymphocytes, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. They suggest that in DCL there is a limited cellular immune response, although insufficient to control infection.

  2. Distinct Bacterial Composition Associated with Different Laboratory-cultured Aiptasia Strains Across Two Thermal Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Hanin

    2018-05-01

    Coral reefs are crucial for the ecological sustainability of the oceans, yet, increasing sea surface temperature is threatening these ecosystems globally. Microbial communities associated with corals have become a recent research focus, as the associated microbiome may contribute to coral resilience to environmental stressors, e.g., heat stress. However, research in this area is hampered by the difficulty of working with corals. This study aims to use Aiptasia, a sea anemone, as a tractable laboratory model system to study the role of the coral microbiome. Analyses of the bacterial compositions associated with different Aiptasia strains across two temperatures (25 °C and 32 °C), based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study aims also to identify a “core” microbiome associated with heat stress acclimation, as well as host-specific differences. In general, results showed that bacterial composition associated with Aiptasia strains differs significantly with temperature. Higher bacterial diversity and richness were observed when all Aiptasia strains were placed under heat stress. Moreover, results showed an increase in beta diversity and dispersion of bacterial communities in response to heat stress. These changes in the bacterial composition are in line with the recently described “Anna Karenina principle” for animal microbiomes, which suggests that the microbiomes of unhealthy individuals vary more than healthy and stable individuals. This study further shows that while temperature had the greatest effect on structuring the bacterial compositions, there were some variations better attributed to batch and host effects. This suggests that technical aspects have to be carefully addressed in the framework of microbiome studies. Members of a putative “core” microbiome associated with 32 °C Aiptasia have been identified as indicator species of heat stress (i.e., Francisella sp.,). Previous reports have shown that these indicator taxa are associated with

  3. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task.

  5. Distinct spinning patterns gain differentiated loading tolerance of silk thread anchorages in spiders with different ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; van der Meijden, Arie; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-07-26

    Building behaviour in animals extends biological functions beyond bodies. Many studies have emphasized the role of behavioural programmes, physiology and extrinsic factors for the structure and function of buildings. Structure attachments associated with animal constructions offer yet unrealized research opportunities. Spiders build a variety of one- to three-dimensional structures from silk fibres. The evolution of economic web shapes as a key for ecological success in spiders has been related to the emergence of high performance silks and thread coating glues. However, the role of thread anchorages has been widely neglected in those models. Here, we show that orb-web (Araneidae) and hunting spiders (Sparassidae) use different silk application patterns that determine the structure and robustness of the joint in silk thread anchorages. Silk anchorages of orb-web spiders show a greater robustness against different loading situations, whereas the silk anchorages of hunting spiders have their highest pull-off resistance when loaded parallel to the substrate along the direction of dragline spinning. This suggests that the behavioural 'printing' of silk into attachment discs along with spinneret morphology was a prerequisite for the evolution of extended silk use in a three-dimensional space. This highlights the ecological role of attachments in the evolution of animal architectures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Different selection pressures give rise to distinct ethnic phenomena : a functionalist framework with illustrations from the Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena's co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.

  7. Distinct phosphotyrosines on a growth factor receptor bind to specific molecules that mediate different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Martin, G A; Turck, C W; del Rosario, M; McCormick, F; Williams, L T

    1992-05-01

    The receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binds two proteins containing SH2 domains, GTPase activating protein (GAP) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). The sites on the receptor that mediate this interaction were identified by using phosphotyrosine-containing peptides representing receptor sequences to block specifically binding of either PI3-kinase or GAP. These results suggested that PI3-kinase binds two phosphotyrosine residues, each located in a 5 aa motif with an essential methionine at the fourth position C-terminal to the tyrosine. Point mutations at these sites caused a selective elimination of PI3-kinase binding and loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Mutation of the binding site for GAP prevented the receptor from associating with or phosphorylating GAP, but had no effect on PI3-kinase binding and little effect on DNA synthesis. Therefore, GAP and PI3-kinase interact with the receptor by binding to different phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs.

  8. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  9. Distinct Signaling Cascades Elicited by Different Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2 is a remarkably versatile transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family. FPR2 is activated by an array of ligands, which include structurally unrelated lipids and peptide/proteins agonists, resulting in different intracellular responses in a ligand-specific fashion. In addition to the anti-inflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, several other endogenous agonists also bind FPR2, including serum amyloid A, glucocorticoid-induced annexin 1, urokinase and its receptor, suggesting that the activation of FPR2 may result in potent pro- or anti-inflammatory responses. Other endogenous ligands, also present in biological samples, include resolvins, amyloidogenic proteins, such as beta amyloid (Aβ-42 and prion protein (Prp106–126, the neuroprotective peptide, humanin, antibacterial peptides, annexin 1-derived peptides, chemokine variants, the neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27, and mitochondrial peptides. Upon activation, intracellular domains of FPR2 mediate signaling to G-proteins, which trigger several agonist-dependent signal transduction pathways, including activation of phospholipase C (PLC, protein kinase C (PKC isoforms, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, p38MAPK, as well as the phosphorylation of cytosolic tyrosine kinases, tyrosine kinase receptor transactivation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of regulatory transcriptional factors, release of calcium and production of oxidants. FPR2 is an attractive therapeutic target, because of its involvement in a range of normal physiological processes and pathological diseases. Here, we review and discuss the most significant findings on the intracellular pathways and on the cross-communication between FPR2 and tyrosine kinase receptors triggered by different FPR2

  10. Rapid plant invasion in distinct climates involves different sources of phenotypic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Monty

    Full Text Available When exotic species spread over novel environments, their phenotype will depend on a combination of different processes, including phenotypic plasticity (PP, local adaptation (LA, environmental maternal effects (EME and genetic drift (GD. Few attempts have been made to simultaneously address the importance of those processes in plant invasion. The present study uses the well-documented invasion history of Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae in southern France, where it was introduced at a single wool-processing site. It gradually invaded the Mediterranean coast and the Pyrenean Mountains, which have noticeably different climates. We used seeds from Pyrenean and Mediterranean populations, as well as populations from the first introduction area, to explore the phenotypic variation related to climatic variation. A reciprocal sowing experiment was performed with gardens under Mediterranean and Pyrenean climates. We analyzed climatic phenotypic variation in germination, growth, reproduction, leaf physiology and survival. Genetic structure in the studied invasion area was characterized using AFLP. We found consistent genetic differentiation in growth traits but no home-site advantage, so weak support for LA to climate. In contrast, genetic differentiation showed a relationship with colonization history. PP in response to climate was observed for most traits, and it played an important role in leaf trait variation. EME mediated by seed mass influenced all but leaf traits in a Pyrenean climate. Heavier, earlier-germinating seeds produced larger individuals that produced more flower heads throughout the growing season. However, in the Mediterranean garden, seed mass only influenced the germination rate. The results show that phenotypic variation in response to climate depends on various ecological and evolutionary processes associated with geographical zone and life history traits. Seeing the relative importance of EME and GD, we argue that a "local

  11. Distinct patterns of corticogeniculate feedback to different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichida JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Ichida,1 Julia A Mavity-Hudson,2 Vivien A Casagrande1–3 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: In primates, feedforward visual pathways from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are segregated to different layers. These layers also receive strong reciprocal feedback pathways from cortex. The degree to which feedforward streams in primates are segregated from feedback streams remains unclear. Here, we asked whether corticogeniculate cells that innervate the magnocellular (M, parvocellular (P, and koniocellular (K layers of the LGN in the prosimian primate bush baby (Otolemur garnettii can be distinguished based on either the laminar distribution or morphological characteristics of their axons and synaptic contacts in LGN, or on their cell body position, size, and dendritic distribution in cortex. Corticogeniculate axons and synapses were labeled anterogradely with biotinylated dextran injections in layer 6 of cortex. Corticogeniculate cell bodies were first labeled with fluorescent dextran injections limited to individual M, P, or K LGN layers and then filled with biotinylated Lucifer yellow. Results showed that feedback to the M or P LGN layers arises from cells with dendrites primarily confined to cortical layer 6 and axons restricted to either M or P LGN layers, but not both. Feedback to K LGN layers arises from cells: 1 whose dendrites distribute rather evenly across cortical layers 5 and 6; 2 whose dendrites always extend into layer 4; and 3 whose axons are never confined to K layers but always overlap with either P or M layers. Corticogeniculate axons also showed distributions that were retinotopically precise based on known receptive field sizes of layer 6 cells, and these axons mainly made synapses with glutamatergic projection neurons in the LGN in all layers. Taken together with prior

  12. Distinct biological effects of different nanoparticles commonly used in cosmetics and medicine coatings

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    Yu Julia X

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal oxides in nanoparticle form such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide now appear on the ingredient lists of household products as common and diverse as cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpaste, and medicine. Previous studies of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in non-nanoparticle format using animals have found few adverse effects. This has led the FDA to classify zinc oxide as GRAS (generally recognized as safe for use as a food additive. However, there is no regulation specific for the use of these chemicals in nanoparticle format. Recent studies, however, have begun to raise concerns over the pervasive use of these compounds in nanoparticle forms. Unfortunately, there is a lack of easily-adaptable screening methods that would allow for the detection of their biological effects. Results We adapted two image-based assays, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based caspase activation assay and a green fluorescent protein coupled-LC3 assay, to test for the biological effects of different nanoparticles in a high-throughput format. We show that zinc oxide nanoparticles are cytotoxic. We also show that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are highly effective in inducing autophagy, a cellular disposal mechanism that is often activated when the cell is under stress. Conclusion We suggest that these image-based assays provide a method of screening for the biological effects of similar compounds that is both efficient and sensitive as well as do not involve the use of animals.

  13. DIFFERENT SOURCES OF INOCULUM TO THE BOKASHI PROVIDES DISTINCT EFFECTS ON THE SOIL QUALITY

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    Juliana Cristina Scotton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bokashi soil conditioner aims to assist in the resilience of natural microbiota and its associated functions. Currently, there are several formulations of this conditioner, however, little is known about the influence of the sources of inoculum on the quality of the same. This study objective was to evaluate the effects of different sources of bokashi inoculum on microbiological and physical attributes of the soil. The experiment was conducted in tubes designated as microcosms, incubated at 24 °C for 32 days, with 4 treatments and 10 replications: C - control; SI - bokashi bran without inoculum; IN1 - bokashi with forest inoculum; IN2 - bokashi with consortium inoculum. The microbiological parameters of colony forming units of fungi and bacteria, microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic and microbial quotient were evaluated. Among the physical parameters evaluated were dispersed clay, geometric mean diameter and organic carbon. The data were submitted to ANOVA and the measurements compared by the Tukey test at 5%. The fungal density was significantly higher for SI and IN1, as compared to the other treatments. In regards to the bacteria, there was an increase for IN1, in comparison with the control. The IN1 treatment demonstrated higher microbial activity and higher C uptake in the soil. Regarding the physical attributes, there was greater clay dispersion for IN2 and greater GMD for C. The bokashi formulation with forest inoculum and cropping field provides higher microbiological quality to the soil under controlled conditions.

  14. Presence relates to distinct outcomes in two virtual environments employing different learning modalities.

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    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; McCall, Cade; Lachance, Christina; Beall, Andrew C; Blascovich, Jim

    2009-06-01

    Presence in virtual learning environments (VLEs) has been associated with a number of outcome factors related to a user's ability and motivation to learn. The extant but relatively small body of research suggests that a high level of presence is related to better performance on learning outcomes in VLEs. Different configurations of form and content variables such as those associated with active (self-driven, interactive activities) versus didactic (reading or lecture) learning may, however, influence how presence operates and on what content it operates. We compared the influence of presence between two types of immersive VLEs (i.e., active versus didactic techniques) on comprehension and engagement-related outcomes. The findings revealed that the active VLE promoted greater presence. Although we found no relationship between presence and learning comprehension outcomes for either virtual environment, presence was related to information engagement variables in the didactic immersive VLE but not the active environment. Results demonstrate that presence is not uniformly elicited or effective across immersive VLEs. Educational delivery mode and environment complexity may influence the impact of presence on engagement.

  15. Gene Expression Differences in Peripheral Blood of Parkinson's Disease Patients with Distinct Progression Profiles.

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    Raquel Pinho

    Full Text Available The prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders is clinically challenging due to the inexistence of established biomarkers for predicting disease progression. Here, we performed an exploratory cross-sectional, case-control study aimed at determining whether gene expression differences in peripheral blood may be used as a signature of Parkinson's disease (PD progression, thereby shedding light into potential molecular mechanisms underlying disease development. We compared transcriptional profiles in the blood from 34 PD patients who developed postural instability within ten years with those of 33 patients who did not develop postural instability within this time frame. Our study identified >200 differentially expressed genes between the two groups. The expression of several of the genes identified was previously found deregulated in animal models of PD and in PD patients. Relevant genes were selected for validation by real-time PCR in a subset of patients. The genes validated were linked to nucleic acid metabolism, mitochondria, immune response and intracellular-transport. Interestingly, we also found deregulation of these genes in a dopaminergic cell model of PD, a simple paradigm that can now be used to further dissect the role of these molecular players on dopaminergic cell loss. Altogether, our study provides preliminary evidence that expression changes in specific groups of genes and pathways, detected in peripheral blood samples, may be correlated with differential PD progression. Our exploratory study suggests that peripheral gene expression profiling may prove valuable for assisting in prediction of PD prognosis, and identifies novel culprits possibly involved in dopaminergic cell death. Given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigations using independent, well-characterized cohorts will be essential in order to validate our candidates as predictors of PD prognosis and to definitively confirm the value of gene expression

  16. Different types of laughter modulate connectivity within distinct parts of the laughter perception network.

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    Wildgruber, Dirk; Szameitat, Diana P; Ethofer, Thomas; Brück, Carolin; Alter, Kai; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kreifelts, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Laughter is an ancient signal of social communication among humans and non-human primates. Laughter types with complex social functions (e.g., taunt and joy) presumably evolved from the unequivocal and reflex-like social bonding signal of tickling laughter already present in non-human primates. Here, we investigated the modulations of cerebral connectivity associated with different laughter types as well as the effects of attention shifts between implicit and explicit processing of social information conveyed by laughter using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Complex social laughter types and tickling laughter were found to modulate connectivity in two distinguishable but partially overlapping parts of the laughter perception network irrespective of task instructions. Connectivity changes, presumably related to the higher acoustic complexity of tickling laughter, occurred between areas in the prefrontal cortex and the auditory association cortex, potentially reflecting higher demands on acoustic analysis associated with increased information load on auditory attention, working memory, evaluation and response selection processes. In contrast, the higher degree of socio-relational information in complex social laughter types was linked to increases of connectivity between auditory association cortices, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and brain areas associated with mentalizing as well as areas in the visual associative cortex. These modulations might reflect automatic analysis of acoustic features, attention direction to informative aspects of the laughter signal and the retention of those in working memory during evaluation processes. These processes may be associated with visual imagery supporting the formation of inferences on the intentions of our social counterparts. Here, the right dorsolateral precentral cortex appears as a network node potentially linking the functions of auditory and visual associative sensory cortices with those of the

  17. Different types of laughter modulate connectivity within distinct parts of the laughter perception network.

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    Dirk Wildgruber

    Full Text Available Laughter is an ancient signal of social communication among humans and non-human primates. Laughter types with complex social functions (e.g., taunt and joy presumably evolved from the unequivocal and reflex-like social bonding signal of tickling laughter already present in non-human primates. Here, we investigated the modulations of cerebral connectivity associated with different laughter types as well as the effects of attention shifts between implicit and explicit processing of social information conveyed by laughter using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Complex social laughter types and tickling laughter were found to modulate connectivity in two distinguishable but partially overlapping parts of the laughter perception network irrespective of task instructions. Connectivity changes, presumably related to the higher acoustic complexity of tickling laughter, occurred between areas in the prefrontal cortex and the auditory association cortex, potentially reflecting higher demands on acoustic analysis associated with increased information load on auditory attention, working memory, evaluation and response selection processes. In contrast, the higher degree of socio-relational information in complex social laughter types was linked to increases of connectivity between auditory association cortices, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and brain areas associated with mentalizing as well as areas in the visual associative cortex. These modulations might reflect automatic analysis of acoustic features, attention direction to informative aspects of the laughter signal and the retention of those in working memory during evaluation processes. These processes may be associated with visual imagery supporting the formation of inferences on the intentions of our social counterparts. Here, the right dorsolateral precentral cortex appears as a network node potentially linking the functions of auditory and visual associative sensory cortices

  18. Distinctly different behavioral responses of a copepod, Temora longicornis, to different strains of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton responses to toxic algae are highly variable, even towards taxonomically closely related species or different strains of the same species. Here, the individual level feeding behavior of a copepod, Temora longicornis, was examined which offered 4 similarly sized strains of toxic...... of the copepod during 4 h incubations: (i) the ‘normal’ feeding behavior, in which the feeding appendages were beating almost constantly to produce a feeding current and most (90%) of the captured algae were ingested; (ii) the beating activity of the feeding appendages was reduced by ca. 80% during the initial...... may be equally beneficial to the prey and its competitors. These behaviors were not related to lytic activity or overall paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) content and composition and suggest that other cues are responsible for the responses....

  19. Deep-sea seabed habitats: Do they support distinct mega-epifaunal communities that have different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic disturbance?

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    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Leduc, Daniel; Beaumont, Jennifer; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Growing economic interest in seabed resources in the deep-sea highlights the need for information about the spatial distribution and vulnerability to disturbance of benthic habitats and fauna. Categorisation of seabed habitats for management is often based on topographic features such as canyons and seamounts that can be distinguished using regional bathymetry ('mega-habitats'). This is practical but because such habitats are contiguous with others, there is potential for overlap in the communities associated with them. Because concepts of habitat and community vulnerability are based on the traits of individual taxa, the nature and extent of differences between communities have implications for strategies to manage the environmental effects of resource use. Using towed video camera transects, we surveyed mega-epifaunal communities of three topographically-defined habitats (canyon, seamount or knoll, and continental slope) and two physico-chemically defined meso-scale habitats (cold seep and hydrothermal vent) in two regions off New Zealand to assess whether each supports a distinct type of community. Cold seep and hydrothermal vent communities were strongly distinct from those in other habitats. Across the other habitats, however, distinctions between communities were often weak and were not consistent between regions. Dissimilarities among communities across all habitats were stronger and the density of filter-feeding taxa was higher in the Bay of Plenty than on the Hikurangi Margin, whereas densities of predatory and scavenging taxa were higher on the Hikurangi Margin. Substratum diversity at small spatial scales (the general utility of topographically-defined mega-habitats in environmental management, (2) fine-scale survey of individual features is necessary to identify the locations, characteristics, and extents of ecologically important or vulnerable seabed communities, and (3) evaluation of habitat vulnerability to future events should be in the context of

  20. Gender piculiarities and distinctions in physical condition’s self description of different age categories girls and boys

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    O.Yu. Marchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study gender peculiarities and distinctions in physical condition’s self-description of schoolchildren. Material: in the research schoolchildren of 5-11 form (boys -- n=177, girls- n=188 participated. Test-questionnaire “Self description of physical condition” was used. Results: it was found that correlations of indicators of all age categories have gender distinctions. It was determined that boys associate heir health with own self-assessment and physical qualities: coordination of movements, flexibility. Girls connect their health with physical functioning and own physical abilities. Boys connect physical coordination of movements with strength. Girls connect it with appearance. Besides, it was found that boys connect their self-assessment directly with their strength and physical activity. For girls these indicators are not very important. Conclusions: approaches to solution of gender stereotypes and imbalance in adolescents’ physical development are recommended. It is purposeful to work out conception of gender approach to physical education. It would permit: to facilitate development of individual bents and talents of pupils of different sex; to overcome sex-role stereotypes; more effective formation of physical culture values.

  1. Different therapeutic effects of cells derived from human amniotic membrane on premature ovarian aging depend on distinct cellular biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenyue; Li, Hong; Wang, Yun; Wang, Fuxin; Wu, Huihua; Chen, Rulei; Lv, Jinghuan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Boxian

    2017-07-27

    Many reports have shown that various kinds of stem cells have the ability to recover premature ovarian aging (POA) function. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) improves ovarian function damaged by chemotherapy in a mice model. Understanding of how to evaluate the distinct effects of adult stem cells in curing POA and how to choose stem cells in clinical application is lacking. To build a different degrees of POA model, mice were administered different doses of cyclophosphamide: light dose (70 mg/kg, 2 weeks), medium dose (70 mg/kg, 1 week; 120 mg/kg, 1 week), and high dose (120 mg/kg, 2 weeks). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected serum levels of sex hormones, and hematoxylin and eosin staining allowed follicle counting and showed the ovarian tissue structure. DiIC 18 (5)-DS was employed to label human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and hAECs for detecting the cellular retention time in ovaries by a live imaging system. Proliferation of human ovarian granule cells (ki67, AMH, FSHR, FOXL2, and CYP19A1) and immunological rejection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD4, CD11b, CD19, and CD56) were measured by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). Distinction of cellular biological characteristics between hAECs and hAMSCs was evaluated, such as collagen secretory level (collagen I, II, III, IV, and VI), telomerase activity, pluripotent markers tested by western blot, expression level of immune molecules (HLA-ABC and HLA-DR) analyzed by FACS, and cytokines (growth factors, chemotactic factors, apoptosis factors, and inflammatory factors) measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hAMSCs and hAECs were transplanted into a different degrees of POA model, hAMSCs exerted better therapeutic activity on mouse ovarian function in the high-dose administration group, promoting the proliferation rate of ovarian granular cells from premature ovarian failure patients, but also provoking immune

  2. Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior

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    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L. submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e cultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouco entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc.The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. The photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC, working in an open circuit. The absolute photorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.

  3. Visualizing differences in phylogenetic information content of alignments and distinction of three classes of long-branch effects

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    Mayer Christoph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published molecular phylogenies are usually based on data whose quality has not been explored prior to tree inference. This leads to errors because trees obtained with conventional methods suppress conflicting evidence, and because support values may be high even if there is no distinct phylogenetic signal. Tools that allow an a priori examination of data quality are rarely applied. Results Using data from published molecular analyses on the phylogeny of crustaceans it is shown that tree topologies and popular support values do not show existing differences in data quality. To visualize variations in signal distinctness, we use network analyses based on split decomposition and split support spectra. Both methods show the same differences in data quality and the same clade-supporting patterns. Both methods are useful to discover long-branch effects. We discern three classes of long branch effects. Class I effects consist of attraction of terminal taxa caused by symplesiomorphies, which results in a false monophyly of paraphyletic groups. Addition of carefully selected taxa can fix this effect. Class II effects are caused by drastic signal erosion. Long branches affected by this phenomenon usually slip down the tree to form false clades that in reality are polyphyletic. To recover the correct phylogeny, more conservative genes must be used. Class III effects consist of attraction due to accumulated chance similarities or convergent character states. This sort of noise can be reduced by selecting less variable portions of the data set, avoiding biases, and adding slower genes. Conclusion To increase confidence in molecular phylogenies an exploratory analysis of the signal to noise ratio can be conducted with split decomposition methods. If long-branch effects are detected, it is necessary to discern between three classes of effects to find the best approach for an improvement of the raw data.

  4. Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-01-01

    Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range. Resting oxygen consumption was measured at 20°, 25° and 30°C. Plestiodon fasciatus, from the coolest habitats, exhibited greatly elevated oxygen consumption compared to the other species at high ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.10, 0.17 and 0.83 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Yet, P. inexpectatus, from the warmest habitats, exhibited sharply decreased oxygen consumption compared to the other species at lower ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.09, 0.27 and 0.42 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Plestiodon laticeps, from both open and closed microhabitats and intermediate latitudinal range, exhibited oxygen consumptions significantly lower than the other two species (0.057, 0.104 and 0.172 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Overall, Plestiodon showed metabolic temperature sensitivities (Q10s) in the range of 2-3 over the middle of each species' normal temperature range. However, especially P. fasciatus and P. inexpectatus showed highly elevated Q10s (9 to 25) at the extreme ends of their temperature range. While morphologically similar, these skinks are metabolically distinct across the genus' habitat, likely having contributed to their current distribution.

  5. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  6. The two different isoforms of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex play distinct roles in DNA damage responses.

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    Anna L Chambers

    Full Text Available The RSC chromatin remodeling complex has been implicated in contributing to DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in a number of studies. Both survival and levels of H2A phosphorylation in response to damage are reduced in the absence of RSC. Importantly, there is evidence for two isoforms of this complex, defined by the presence of either Rsc1 or Rsc2. Here, we investigated whether the two isoforms of RSC provide distinct contributions to DNA damage responses. First, we established that the two isoforms of RSC differ in the presence of Rsc1 or Rsc2 but otherwise have the same subunit composition. We found that both rsc1 and rsc2 mutant strains have intact DNA damage-induced checkpoint activity and transcriptional induction. In addition, both strains show reduced non-homologous end joining activity and have a similar spectrum of DSB repair junctions, suggesting perhaps that the two complexes provide the same functions. However, the hypersensitivity of a rsc1 strain cannot be complemented with an extra copy of RSC2, and likewise, the hypersensitivity of the rsc2 strain remains unchanged when an additional copy of RSC1 is present, indicating that the two proteins are unable to functionally compensate for one another in DNA damage responses. Rsc1, but not Rsc2, is required for nucleosome sliding flanking a DNA DSB. Interestingly, while swapping the domains from Rsc1 into the Rsc2 protein does not compromise hypersensitivity to DNA damage suggesting they are functionally interchangeable, the BAH domain from Rsc1 confers upon Rsc2 the ability to remodel chromatin at a DNA break. These data demonstrate that, despite the similarity between Rsc1 and Rsc2, the two different isoforms of RSC provide distinct functions in DNA damage responses, and that at least part of the functional specificity is dictated by the BAH domains.

  7. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  8. Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome

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    Beleut Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach. Methods We integrated gene expression data from 97 primary RCC of different pathologic parameters, 15 RCC metastases as well as 34 cancer cell lines for two-way nonsupervised hierarchical clustering using gene groups suggested by the PANTHER Classification System. We depicted the genomic landscape of the resulted tumor groups by means of Single Nuclear Polymorphism (SNP technology. Finally, the achieved results were immunohistochemically analyzed using a tissue microarray (TMA composed of 254 RCC. Results We found robust, genome wide expression signatures, which split RCC into three distinct molecular subgroups. These groups remained stable even if randomly selected gene sets were clustered. Notably, the pattern obtained from RCC cell lines was clearly distinguishable from that of primary tumors. SNP array analysis demonstrated differing frequencies of chromosomal copy number alterations among RCC subgroups. TMA analysis with group-specific markers showed a prognostic significance of the different groups. Conclusion We propose the existence of characteristic and histologically independent genome-wide expression outputs in RCC with potential biological and clinical relevance.

  9. Flexible or leaky attention in creative people? Distinct patterns of attention for different types of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya; Saporta, Arielle; Beeman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Creativity has been putatively linked to distinct forms of attention, but which aspects of creativity and which components of attention remains unclear. Two experiments examined how divergent thinking and creative achievement relate to visual attention. In both experiments, participants identified target letters (S or H) within hierarchical stimuli (global letters made of local letters), after being cued to either the local or global level. In Experiment 1, participants identified the targets more quickly following valid cues (80% of trials) than following invalid cues. However, this smaller validity effect was associated with higher divergent thinking, suggesting that divergent thinking was related to quicker overcoming of invalid cues, and thus to flexible attention. Creative achievement was unrelated to the validity effect. Experiment 2 examined whether divergent thinking (or creative achievement) is related to "leaky attention," so that when cued to one level of a stimulus, some information is still processed, or leaks in, from the non-cued level. In this case, the cued stimulus level always contained a target, and the non-cued level was congruent, neutral, or incongruent with the target. Divergent thinking did not relate to stimulus congruency. In contrast, high creative achievement was related to quicker responses to the congruent than to the incongruent stimuli, suggesting that real-world creative achievement is indeed associated with leaky attention, whereas standard laboratory tests of divergent thinking are not. Together, these results elucidate distinct patterns of attention for different measures of creativity. Specifically, creative achievers may have leaky attention, as suggested by previous literature, whereas divergent thinkers have selective yet flexible attention.

  10. Distinct unfolded protein responses mitigate or mediate effects of nonlethal deprivation of C. elegans sleep in different tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jarred; Scholz, Monika; Merutka, Ilaria; Biron, David

    2017-08-28

    Disrupting sleep during development leads to lasting deficits in chordates and arthropods. To address lasting impacts of sleep deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans, we established a nonlethal deprivation protocol. Deprivation triggered protective insulin-like signaling and two unfolded protein responses (UPRs): the mitochondrial (UPR mt ) and the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR ER ) responses. While the latter is known to be triggered by sleep deprivation in rodent and insect brains, the former was not strongly associated with sleep deprivation previously. We show that deprivation results in a feeding defect when the UPR mt is deficient and in UPR ER -dependent germ cell apoptosis. In addition, when the UPR ER is deficient, deprivation causes excess twitching in vulval muscles, mirroring a trend caused by loss of egg-laying command neurons. These data show that nonlethal deprivation of C. elegans sleep causes proteotoxic stress. Unless mitigated, distinct types of deprivation-induced proteotoxicity can lead to anatomically and genetically separable lasting defects. The relative importance of different UPRs post-deprivation likely reflects functional, developmental, and genetic differences between the respective tissues and circuits.

  11. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  12. Measuring meaning and peace with the FACIT-spiritual well-being scale: distinction without a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amy H; Reeve, Charlie L; Winford, Eboni C; Cotton, Sian; Salsman, John M; McQuellon, Richard; Tsevat, Joel; Campbell, Cassie

    2014-03-01

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp; Peterman, Fitchett, Brady, Hernandez, & Cella, 2002) has become a widely used measure of spirituality; however, there remain questions about its specific factor structure and the validity of scores from its separate scales. Specifically, it remains unclear whether the Meaning and Peace scales denote distinct factors. The present study addresses previous limitations by examining the extent to which the Meaning and Peace scales relate differentially to a variety of physical and mental health variables across 4 sets of data from adults with a number of chronic health conditions. Although a model with separate but correlated factors fit the data better, discriminant validity analyses indicated limited differences in the pattern of associations each scale showed with a wide array of commonly used health and quality-of-life measures. In total, the results suggest that people may distinguish between the concepts of Meaning and Peace, but the observed relations with health outcomes are primarily due to variance shared between the 2 factors. Additional research is needed to better understand the separate and joint role of Meaning and Peace in the quality of life of people with chronic illness. 2014 APA

  13. BMP Sustains Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal through Distinct Functions of Different Krüppel-like Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Masato; Koinuma, Daizo; Mizutani, Anna; Kawasaki, Natsumi; Holmborn, Katarina; Sundqvist, Anders; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Watabe, Tetsuro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Miyazono, Kohei

    2016-01-12

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs); it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs) in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce BMP signals, recognize enhancer regions together with KLF4 and KLF5 in naive mESCs. KLF4 physically interacts with SMAD1 and suppresses its activity. Consistently, a subpopulation of cells with active BMP-SMAD can be ablated without disturbing the naive state of the culture. Moreover, Smad1/5 double-knockout mESCs stay in the naive state, indicating that the BMP-SMAD pathway is dispensable for it. In contrast, the MEK5-ERK5 pathway mediates BMP-4-induced self-renewal of mESCs by inducing Klf2, a critical factor for the ground state pluripotency. Our study illustrates that BMP exerts its self-renewing effect through distinct functions of different Krüppel-like factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct subpopulations of hepatitis C virus infectious cells with different levels of intracellular hepatitis C virus core protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Despite the clear clinical importance of virus-associated HCC, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclarified. Oxidative stress, in particular, DNA lesions associated with oxidative damage, plays a major role in carcinogenesis, and is strongly linked to the development of many cancers, including HCC. However, in identifying hepatocytes with HCV viral RNA, estimates of the median proportion of HCV-infected hepatocytes have been found as high as 40% in patients with chronic HCV infection. In order to explore the gene alternation and association between different viral loads of HCV-infected cells, we established a method to dissect high and low viral load cells and examined the expression of DNA damage-related genes using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction array. We found distinct expression patterns of DNA damage-related genes between high and low viral load cells. This study provides a new method for future study on virus-associated gene expression research.

  15. Gender piculiarities and distinctions in physical condition’s self description of different age categories girls and boys

    OpenAIRE

    O.Yu. Marchenko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to study gender peculiarities and distinctions in physical condition’s self-description of schoolchildren. Material: in the research schoolchildren of 5-11 form (boys -- n=177, girls- n=188) participated. Test-questionnaire “Self description of physical condition” was used. Results: it was found that correlations of indicators of all age categories have gender distinctions. It was determined that boys associate heir health with own self-assessment and physical qualities: coordination...

  16. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  17. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  18. Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roetynck

    Full Text Available Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully.We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for "Th1" type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures.These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the context of infection.

  19. Dopamine receptors play distinct roles in sexual behavior expression of rats with a different sexual motivational tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Bazante, Irma L; Canseco-Alba, Ana; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a central role in the expression of male sexual behavior. The effects of DA-enhancing drugs on copulation seem to vary depending on the dose of the agonist used, the type of DA receptor activated, and the sexual condition of the animals. The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic analysis of the effects of dopaminergic agonists on the expression of male sexual behavior by sexually competent rats in different sexual motivational states, that is when sexually active (sexually experienced) and when temporarily inhibited (sexually exhausted). To this end, the same doses of the nonselective DA receptor agonist apomorphine, the selective D2-like DA receptor agonist quinpirole, and the selective D1-like DA receptor agonist SKF38393 were injected intraperitoneally to sexually experienced or sexually exhausted male rats and their sexual behavior was recorded. Low apomorphine doses induced expression of sexual behavior in sexually satiated rats, but only reduced the intromission latency of sexually experienced rats. SKF38393 facilitated the expression of sexual behavior by sexually exhausted rats, but not that of sexually experienced males and quinpirole did not exert an effect in both types of animal. In line with these results, the apomorphine-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion was blocked by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. The data suggest that DA receptors play distinct roles in the expression of sexual behavior by male rats depending on their motivational state and that activation of D1-like receptors promotes the expression of sexual behavior in satiated rats.

  20. Relations between must clarification and organoleptic attributes of wine varietes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blowdown musts is important operation performed in winemaking, which can have a major impact on the future quality of the wine. Blowdown of the wine removes components that may carry elements that negatively affect the hygienic and sensory quality of the wine. Fining of musts and wines is carried either by a static method or using different fining preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different methods of decanting on the wine quality varieties of Sauvignon. The overall sensory quality was evaluated (100 - points system, and semantic differential and the aromatic profile (profile method. All sensory evaluations were practiced by skilled sensory panel in controled conditions of Faculty sensory lab. Wine samples were clarified by static manner or with the assistance of the preparation applied to the clarification of wine in two different doses. By the results and their visualization of flavour and smell profile by spider plots we could conclude that pure cultures have positive effect on processed wine. Based on the results we found a beneficial effect of clearing by the clarification of the preparation based on cellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, gelatin and mineral adsorbents at 100 g.100 L-1  of the sensory quality of the wine.

  1. Are distinctive risk indicators associated with different stages of caries in children? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Cagetti

    2016-12-01

    , maternal education level (p < 0.01, paternal occupational status (p = 0.03 and use of a sweetened pacifier at night (p < 0.01 were statistically significantly associated. Conclusions Maternal nationality, maternal low level of education, intake of lactose-free milk and low toothbrushing frequency were involved in the change from caries-free status to different caries stages. Gender, paternal unemployment, maternal low educational level and use of a sweetened pacifier were correlated with caries progression, showing how distinctive risk indicators were associated with different caries stages.

  2. Different tumor microenvironments contain functionally distinct subsets of macrophages derived from Ly6C(high) monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Movahedi, Kiavash; Laoui, Damya; Gysemans, Conny; Baeten, Martijn; Stangé, Geert; van den Bossche, Jan; Mack, Matthias; Pipeleers, Daniel; In't Veld, Peter; de Baetselier, Patrick; van Ginderachter, Jo A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) form a major component of the tumor stroma. However, important concepts such as TAM heterogeneity and the nature of the monocytic TAM precursors remain speculative. Here, we show for the first time that mouse mammary tumors contained functionally distinct subsets

  3. Me and my body: the relevance of the distinction for the difference between withdrawing life support and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss David Shaw's claim that the body of a terminally ill person can be conceived as a kind of life support, akin to an artificial ventilator. I claim that this position rests upon an untenable dualism between the mind and the body. Given that dualism continues to be attractive to some thinkers, I attempt to diagnose the reasons why it continues to be attractive, as well as to demonstrate its incoherence, drawing on some recent work in the philosophy of psychology. I conclude that, if my criticisms are sound, Shaw's attempt to deny the distinction between withdrawal and euthanasia fails. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2000-01-01

    Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

  5. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith, 2016, Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p.......Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p....

  7. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  8. Distinct pattern of lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis is associated with different circulating T-helper and helper-like innate lymphoid cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Hanning, Uta; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Schwab, Nicholas; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Distinct lesion topography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) might be due to different antigen presentation and/or trafficking routes of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate whether distinct lesion patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) might be associated with a predominance of distinct circulating T-helper cell subset as well as their innate counterparts. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of patients with exclusively cerebral (n = 20) or predominantly spinal (n = 12) disease manifestation. Patients with exclusively cerebral or preferential spinal lesion manifestation were associated with increased proportions of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing T H 1 cells or interleukin (IL)-17-producing T H 17 cells, respectively. In contrast, proportions of peripheral IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), the innate counterpart of T H 17 cells, were enhanced in RRMS patients with exclusively cerebral lesion topography. Distinct T-helper and T-helper-like innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets are associated with different lesion topography in RRMS.

  9. XRCC1 and PCNA are loading platforms with distinct kinetic properties and different capacities to respond to multiple DNA lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Heinrich

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome integrity is constantly challenged and requires the coordinated recruitment of multiple enzyme activities to ensure efficient repair of DNA lesions. We investigated the dynamics of XRCC1 and PCNA that act as molecular loading platforms and play a central role in this coordination. Results Local DNA damage was introduced by laser microirradation and the recruitment of fluorescent XRCC1 and PCNA fusion proteins was monitored by live cell microscopy. We found an immediate and fast recruitment of XRCC1 preceding the slow and continuous recruitment of PCNA. Fluorescence bleaching experiments (FRAP and FLIP revealed a stable association of PCNA with DNA repair sites, contrasting the high turnover of XRCC1. When cells were repeatedly challenged with multiple DNA lesions we observed a gradual depletion of the nuclear pool of PCNA, while XRCC1 dynamically redistributed even to lesions inflicted last. Conclusion These results show that PCNA and XRCC1 have distinct kinetic properties with functional consequences for their capacity to respond to successive DNA damage events.

  10. XRCC1 and PCNA are loading platforms with distinct kinetic properties and different capacities to respond to multiple DNA lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortusewicz, Oliver; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    Background Genome integrity is constantly challenged and requires the coordinated recruitment of multiple enzyme activities to ensure efficient repair of DNA lesions. We investigated the dynamics of XRCC1 and PCNA that act as molecular loading platforms and play a central role in this coordination. Results Local DNA damage was introduced by laser microirradation and the recruitment of fluorescent XRCC1 and PCNA fusion proteins was monitored by live cell microscopy. We found an immediate and fast recruitment of XRCC1 preceding the slow and continuous recruitment of PCNA. Fluorescence bleaching experiments (FRAP and FLIP) revealed a stable association of PCNA with DNA repair sites, contrasting the high turnover of XRCC1. When cells were repeatedly challenged with multiple DNA lesions we observed a gradual depletion of the nuclear pool of PCNA, while XRCC1 dynamically redistributed even to lesions inflicted last. Conclusion These results show that PCNA and XRCC1 have distinct kinetic properties with functional consequences for their capacity to respond to successive DNA damage events. PMID:17880707

  11. Distinct expression profiles and different functions of odorant binding proteins in Nilaparvata lugens Stål.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice, wing form (long and short wing variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival. CONCLUSIONS: NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.

  12. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  13. Varietal Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Towards the Allelopathy of Different Weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahamdad, K.; Ijaz, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In a laboratory trial three chickpea varieties viz, Karak-I, Karak-III and Shenghar were tested against the phytotoxicity of five weed species: Parthenium hysterophorus L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., Datura alba L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Convolvulus arvensis L.in January 2013. The weed extracts were prepared at the rate of 120 g/L (w/v) after shade dry. The results indicated highly significant inhibitory effect of all the tested weed species on the chickpea varieties. The results also showed that the chickpea variety Karak-III was more susceptible to the phototoxicity of the tested weed extracts. Among the extract, C. arvensis proved much toxic in term of inhibition of germination by giving only 43.33% germination in comparison with control where 97.50% germination was recorded. On the other hand, the effect of P. australis extract was found a little stimulator by speeding the seed germination in all varieties and giving a low (2.21) mean germination time (MGT) value. From the current results it can be concluded that the infestation of C. arvensis can pollute the soil by accumulating toxic chemicals that leads to the germination failure and growth suppression in chickpea. Therefore, the prevention and removal of C. arvensis in the chickpea growing areas could be recommended. In addition, P. australis must be tested against chickpea weeds (chickpea varieties withstand against its phototoxicity), so that it can be popularized as bio herbicide in chickpea if it gave promising results in controlling chickpea weeds. (author)

  14. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also

  15. Varietal differences in the supply chain of two mango varieties in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudha, M.; Kruijssen, F.

    2008-01-01

    India accounts for approximately 38% of the world mango production and is a natural home for over 1,000 cultivars in this species. Among over 20 commercial cultivars, 'Totapuri' has the largest share, accounting for half of the mango area in South India. Due to a specific demand for each of these

  16. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  17. Large-scale expression analysis reveals distinct microRNA profiles at different stages of human neurodevelopment.

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    Brandon Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs predicted to regulate one third of protein coding genes via mRNA targeting. In conjunction with key transcription factors, such as the repressor REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor, miRNAs play crucial roles in neurogenesis, which requires a highly orchestrated program of gene expression to ensure the appropriate development and function of diverse neural cell types. Whilst previous studies have highlighted select groups of miRNAs during neural development, there remains a need for amenable models in which miRNA expression and function can be analyzed over the duration of neurogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed large-scale expression profiling of miRNAs in human NTera2/D1 (NT2 cells during retinoic acid (RA-induced transition from progenitors to fully differentiated neural phenotypes. Our results revealed dynamic changes of miRNA patterns, resulting in distinct miRNA subsets that could be linked to specific neurodevelopmental stages. Moreover, the cell-type specific miRNA subsets were very similar in NT2-derived differentiated cells and human primary neurons and astrocytes. Further analysis identified miRNAs as putative regulators of REST, as well as candidate miRNAs targeted by REST. Finally, we confirmed the existence of two predicted miRNAs; pred-MIR191 and pred-MIR222 associated with SLAIN1 and FOXP2, respectively, and provided some evidence of their potential co-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrate that regulation of miRNAs occurs in precise patterns indicative of their roles in cell fate commitment, progenitor expansion and differentiation into neurons and glia. Furthermore, the similarity between our NT2 system and primary human cells suggests their roles in molecular pathways critical for human in vivo neurogenesis.

  18. Distinct regions of loss of heterozygosity on 22q in different sites of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Reis, Patricia Pintor; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia; dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos

    2002-01-01

    laryngeal, and 31 pharyngeal carcinomas. RESULTS: Two separate regions of LOH were identified in the laryngeal (22q11.2-12.1) and oral cavity (22q13.1-13.31) tumors. When the different anatomical sites were compared, a statistically significant difference was found between the presence of LOH at D22S421 (p......pharyngeal tumors and genes...

  19. Different sets of ER-resident J-proteins regulate distinct polar nuclear-membrane fusion events in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masaya; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Angiosperm female gametophytes contain a central cell with two polar nuclei. In many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, the polar nuclei fuse during female gametogenesis. We previously showed that BiP, an Hsp70 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was essential for membrane fusion during female gametogenesis. Hsp70 function requires partner proteins for full activity. J-domain containing proteins (J-proteins) are the major Hsp70 functional partners. A. thaliana ER contains three soluble J-proteins, AtERdj3A, AtERdj3B, and AtP58(IPK). Here, we analyzed mutants of these proteins and determined that double-mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A or AtERdj3B were defective in polar nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis identified that polar nuclei were in close contact, but no membrane fusion occurred in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A. The polar nuclear outer membrane appeared to be connected via the ER remaining at the inner unfused membrane in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3B. These results indicate that ER-resident J-proteins, AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3A and AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3B, function at distinct steps of polar nuclear-membrane fusion. Similar to the bip1 bip2 double mutant female gametophytes, the aterdj3a atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the outer polar nuclear membrane displayed aberrant endosperm proliferation after fertilization with wild-type pollen. However, endosperm proliferated normally after fertilization of the aterdj3b atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the inner membrane. Our results indicate that the polar nuclear fusion defect itself does not cause an endosperm proliferation defect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Many ways to be small: different environmental regulators of size generate distinct scaling relationships in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Shingleton, Alexander W.; Estep, Chad M.; Driscoll, Michael V.; Dworkin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Static allometries, the scaling relationship between body and trait size, describe the shape of animals in a population or species, and are generated in response to variation in genetic or environmental regulators of size. In principle, allometries may vary with the different size regulators that generate them, which can be problematic since allometric differences are also used to infer patterns of selection on morphology. We test this hypothesis by examining the patterns of scaling in Drosop...

  1. Distinctly different dynamics and kinetics of two steroid receptors at the same response elements in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Z Nenseth

    Full Text Available Closely related transcription factors (TFs can bind to the same response elements (REs with similar affinities and activate transcription. However, it is unknown whether transcription is similarly orchestrated by different TFs bound at the same RE. Here we have compared the recovery half time (t1/2, binding site occupancy and the resulting temporal changes in transcription upon binding of two closely related steroid receptors, the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors (AR and GR, to their common hormone REs (HREs. We show that there are significant differences at all of these levels between AR and GR at the MMTV HRE when activated by their ligands. These data show that two TFs bound at the same RE can have significantly different modes of action that can affect their responses to environmental cues.

  2. Distinct Difference in Absorption Pattern in Pigs of Betaine Provided as a Supplement or Present Naturally in Cereal Dietary Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...

  3. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  4. Two distinct Epichloë species symbiotic with Achnatherum inebrians, drunken horse grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Swoboda, Ginger A; Young, Carolyn A; Sugawara, Koya; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Schardl, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Achnatherum inebrians, colloquially known as drunken horse grass, is associated with livestock toxicity in northern China. Epichloë gansuensis (Eg) was described from endophyte isolates from A. inebrians in Sunan County, Gansu Province, whereas a morphologically distinct variety, E. gansuensis var. inebrians (Ei), was described based on two isolates from A. inebrians seeds collected in Urumqi County, Xinjiang Province. Genome sequencing and alkaloid analyses also distinguish these taxa; the Ei isolates produce neurotropic lysergic acid amides (ergot alkaloids), and an Eg isolate produces paxilline (an indole-diterpene alkaloid). To better elucidate the taxonomic diversity of Epichloë spp. symbiotic with A. inebrians, we surveyed eight populations in Xinjiang, Gansu and Inner Mongolia provinces of China and analyzed their genotypes by multiplex PCR for alkaloid biosynthesis genes and mating-type genes. Genotypes consistent with Ei were present in all eight populations, of which they dominated seven. The Ei isolates were all mating type A and tested positive for the ergot alkaloid gene, dmaW. In contrast Eg isolates were all mating type B and had the indole-diterpene gene, idtG. The genome was sequenced from an Ei isolate from seeds collected in Xiahe County, Gansu, and compared to that of the varietal ex type isolate from Urumqi. Alkaloid genes and four different housekeeping genes were nearly identical between the two sequenced Ei isolates and were distinct from a sequenced Eg isolate. Phylogenetic analysis placed Ei, Eg and Epichloë sibirica into respective subclades of a clade that emanated from the base of the Epichloë phylogeny. Given its chemotypic, genotypic, morphological and phylogenetic distinctiveness, its widespread occurrence in rangelands of northern China, and its importance in livestock toxicity, we propose raising Ei to species rank as Epichloë inebrians. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  6. Non-native western tubenose gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris show distinct site, sex and age-related differences in diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetičková, Lucie; Janáč, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 10 (2014), s. 1-19 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * Gobiidae * Proterorhinus semilunaris * diet * site-effect * sex-differences Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.928, year: 2014

  7. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conifer reproductive development involves B-type MADS-box genes with distinct and different activities in male organ primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Jens; Engström, Peter

    2002-07-01

    The Norway spruce MADS-box genes DAL11, DAL12 and DAL13 are phylogenetically related to the angiosperm B-function MADS-box genes: genes that act together with A-function genes in specifying petal identity and with C-function genes in specifying stamen identity to floral organs. In this report we present evidence to suggest that the B-gene function in the specification of identity of the pollen-bearing organs has been conserved between conifers and angiosperms. Expression of DAL11 or DAL12 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes phenotypic changes which partly resemble those caused by ectopic expression of the endogenous B-genes. In similar experiments, flowers of Arabidopsis plants expressing DAL13 showed a different homeotic change in that they formed ectopic anthers in whorls one, two or four. We also demonstrate the capacity of the spruce gene products to form homodimers, and that DAL11 and DAL13 may form heterodimers with each other and with the Arabidopsis B-protein AP3, but not with PI, the second B-gene product in Arabidopsis. In situ hybridization experiments show that the conifer B-like genes are expressed specifically in developing pollen cones, but differ in both temporal and spatial distribution patterns. These results suggest that the B-function in conifers is dual and is separated into a meristem identity and an organ identity function, the latter function possibly being independent of an interaction with the C-function. Thus, even though an ancestral B-function may have acted in combination with C to specify micro- and megasporangia, the B-function has evolved differently in conifers and angiosperms.

  9. Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Velia; Orfanidou, Eleni; Kästner, Lena; Rönnberg, Jerker; Woll, Bencie; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production.

  10. Different levels of UV-B resistance in Vaccinium corymbosum cultivars reveal distinct backgrounds of phenylpropanoid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Franklin; Acevedo, Patricio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-09-01

    UV-B radiation induces several physiological and biochemical effects that can influence regulatory plant processes. Vaccinium corymbosum responds differently to UV-B radiation depending on the UV-B resistance of cultivars, according to their physiological and biochemical features. In this work, the effect of two levels of UV-B radiation during long-term exposure on the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the expression of genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis as well as the absolute quantification of secondary metabolites were studied in two contrasting UV-B-resistant cultivars (Legacy, resistant and Bluegold, sensitive). Multivariate analyses were performed to understand the role of phenylpropanoids in UV-B defense mechanisms. The amount of phenylpropanoid compounds was generally higher in Legacy than in Bluegold. Different expression levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes for both cultivars were transiently induced, showing that even in longer period of UV-B exposure; plants are still adjusting their phenylpropanoids at the transcription levels. Multivariate analysis in Legacy indicated no significant correlation between gene expression and the levels of the flavonoids and phenolic acids. By contrast, in the Bluegold cultivar higher number of correlations between secondary metabolite and transcript levels was found. Taken together, the results indicated different adjustments between the cultivars for a successful UV-B acclimation. While the sensitive cultivar depends on metabolite adjustments to respond to UV-B exposure, the resistant cultivar also possesses an intrinsically higher antioxidant and UV-B screening capacity. Thus, we conclude that UV-B resistance involves not only metabolite level adjustments during the acclimation period, but also depends on the intrinsic metabolic status of the plant and metabolic features of the phenylpropanoid compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct genetic differentiation and species diversification within two marine nematodes with different habitat preference in Antarctic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauquier, Freija; Leliaert, Frederik; Rigaux, Annelien; Derycke, Sofie; Vanreusel, Ann

    2017-05-30

    Dispersal ability, population genetic structure and species divergence in marine nematodes are still poorly understood, especially in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean. We investigated genetic differentiation of species and populations of the free-living endobenthic nematode genera Sabatieria and Desmodora using nuclear 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. Specimens were collected at continental shelf depths (200-500 m) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Scotia Arc and eastern side of the Weddell Sea. The two nematode genera co-occurred at all sampled locations, but with different vertical distribution in the sediment. A combination of phylogenetic (GMYC, Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood) and population genetic (AMOVA) analyses were used for species delimitation and assessment of gene flow between sampling locations. Sequence analyses resulted in the delimitation of four divergent species lineages in Sabatieria, two of which could not be discriminated morphologically and most likely constitute cryptic species. Two species were recognised in Desmodora, one of which showed large intraspecific morphological variation. Both genera comprised species that were restricted to one side of the Weddell Sea and species that were widely spread across it. Population genetic structuring was highly significant and more pronounced in the deeper sediment-dwelling Sabatieria species, which are generally less prone to resuspension and passive dispersal in the water column than surface Desmodora species. Our results indicate that gene flow is restricted at large geographic distance in the Southern Ocean, which casts doubt on the efficiency of the Weddell gyre and Antarctic Circumpolar Current in facilitating circum-Antarctic nematode species distributions. We also show that genetic structuring and cryptic speciation can be very different in nematode species isolated from the same geographic area, but with

  12. Distinction between externally vs. internally guided decision-making: Operational differences, meta-analytical comparisons and their theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making. Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e. internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e. circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using MKDA, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  13. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  14. Distinct energetics and closing pathways for DNA polymerase β with 8-oxoG template and different incoming nucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG is a common oxidative lesion frequently encountered by DNA polymerases such as the repair enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β. To interpret in atomic and energetic detail how pol β processes 8-oxoG, we apply transition path sampling to delineate closing pathways of pol β 8-oxoG complexes with dCTP and dATP incoming nucleotides and compare the results to those of the nonlesioned G:dCTP and G:dATPanalogues. Results Our analyses show that the closing pathways of the 8-oxoG complexes are different from one another and from the nonlesioned analogues in terms of the individual transition states along each pathway, associated energies, and the stability of each pathway's closed state relative to the corresponding open state. In particular, the closed-to-open state stability difference in each system establishes a hierarchy of stability (from high to low as G:C > 8-oxoG:C > 8-oxoG:A > G:A, corresponding to -3, -2, 2, 9 kBT, respectively. This hierarchy of closed state stability parallels the experimentally observed processing efficiencies for the four pairs. Network models based on the calculated rate constants in each pathway indicate that the closed species are more populated than the open species for 8-oxoG:dCTP, whereas the opposite is true for 8-oxoG:dATP. Conclusion These results suggest that the lower insertion efficiency (larger Km for dATP compared to dCTP opposite 8-oxoG is caused by a less stable closed-form of pol β, destabilized by unfavorable interactions between Tyr271 and the mispair. This stability of the closed vs. open form can also explain the higher insertion efficiency for 8-oxoG:dATP compared to the nonlesioned G:dATP pair, which also has a higher overall conformational barrier. Our study offers atomic details of the complexes at different states, in addition to helping interpret the different insertion efficiencies of dATP and dCTP opposite 8-oxoG and G.

  15. Inter-varietal interactions among plants in genotypically diverse mixtures tend to decrease herbivore performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F

    2016-09-01

    Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems.

  16. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera ( Macrotermes , Odontotermes , and Trinervitermes ) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes ) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn ( Digitaria longiflora ) and a bunch ( Sporobolus pyramidalis ) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes ) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  17. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  18. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Jeffrey S; Kaufman, Matthew T; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Cunningham, John P; Churchland, Mark M

    2016-11-01

    Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1) and primary motor cortex (M1). All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom) along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  19. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  20. Distinct work-related, clinical and psychological factors predict return to work following treatment in four different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alethea F; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Many factors influence return to work (RTW) following cancer treatment. However specific factors affecting RTW across different cancer types are unclear. This study examined the role of clinical, sociodemographic, work and psychological factors in RTW following treatment for breast, gynaecological, head and neck, and urological cancer. A 12-month prospective questionnaire study was conducted with 290 patients. Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for time to RTW. Between 89-94% of cancer survivors returned to work. Breast cancer survivors took the longest to return (median 30 weeks), and urology cancer survivors returned the soonest (median 5 weeks). Earlier return among breast cancer survivors was predicted by a greater sense of control over their cancer at work (HR 1.2; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37) and by full-time work (HR 2.1; CI: 1.24-3.4). Predictive of a longer return among gynaecological cancer survivors was a belief that cancer treatment may impair ability to work (HR 0.75; CI: 0.62-0.91). Among urological cancer survivors constipation was predictive of longer RTW (HR 0.99; CI: 0.97-1.00), whereas undertaking flexible working was predictive of returning sooner (HR 1.70; CI: 1.07-2.7). Head and neck cancer survivors who perceived greater negative consequences of their cancer took longer to return (HR 0.27; CI: 0.11-0.68). Those reporting better physical functioning returned sooner (HR1.04; CI: 1.01-1.08). A different profile of predictive factors emerged for the four cancer types. In addition to optimal symptom management and workplace adaptations, the findings suggest that eliciting and challenging specific cancer and treatment-related perceptions may facilitate RTW. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Seely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1 and primary motor cortex (M1. All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  2. Two distinctive β subunits are separately involved in two binding sites of imidacloprid with different affinities in Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Zewen

    2017-08-01

    Due to great diversity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, one β subunit may be contained in numerous nAChR subtypes. In the locust Locusta migratoria, a model insect species with agricultural importance, the third β subunits (Locβ3) was identified in this study, which reveals at least three β subunits in this insect species. Imidacloprid was found to bind nAChRs in L. migratoria central nervous system at two sites with different affinities, with K d values of 0.16 and 10.31nM. The specific antisera (L1-1, L2-1 and L3-1) were raised against fusion proteins at the large cytoplasmic loop of Locβ1, Locβ2 and Locβ3 respectively. Specific immunodepletion of Locβ1 with antiserum L1-1 resulted in the selective loss of the low affinity binding site for imidacloprid, whereas the immunodepletion of Locβ3 with L3-1 caused the selective loss of the high affinity site. Dual immunodepletion with L1-1 and L3-1 could completely abolish imidacloprid binding. In contrast, the immunodepletion of Locβ2 had no significant effect on the specific [ 3 H]imidacloprid binding. Taken together, these data indicated that Locβ1 and Locβ3 were respectively contained in the low- and high-affinity binding sites for imidacloprid in L. migratoria, which is different to the previous finding in Nilaparvata lugens that Nlβ1 was in two binding sites for imidacloprid. The involvement of two β subunits separately in two binding sites may decrease the risk of imidacloprid resistance due to putative point mutations in β subunits in L. migratoria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carrying the past to the future: Distinct brain networks underlie individual differences in human spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Poh, Jia-Hou; Koh, Hui Li; Ng, Kwun Kei; Loke, Yng Miin; Lim, Joseph Kai Wei; Chong, Joanna Su Xian; Zhou, Juan

    2018-08-01

    Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels. To a subset of participants (N = 28) that performed the task properly and had artefact-free fMRI and EEG data, we employed a novel temporo-spatial principal component analysis to derive load-dependent negative slow wave (NSW) from retention-related event-related potentials. The associations between NSW responses with SWM capacity were divergent in the higher (N = 14) and lower (N = 14) SWM capacity groups. Specifically, larger load-related increase in NSW amplitude was associated with greater SWM capacity for the higher capacity group but lower SWM capacity for the lower capacity group. Furthermore, for the higher capacity group, larger NSW amplitude was related to greater activation in bilateral parietal areas of the fronto-parietal network (FPN) and greater deactivation in medial frontal gyrus and posterior mid-cingulate cortex of the default mode network (DMN) during retention. In contrast, the lower capacity group did not show similar pattern. Instead, greater NSW was linked to higher deactivation in right posterior middle temporal gyrus. Our findings shed light on the possible differential EEG-informed neural network mechanism during memory maintenance underlying individual differences in SWM capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in social behavior and emotionality at different developmental ages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Antonia; Morena, Maria; Campolongo, Patrizia; Servadio, Michela; Palmery, Maura; Trabace, Luigia; Hill, Matthew N; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    To date, our understanding of the relative contribution and potential overlapping roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of brain function and behavior is still limited. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of JZL195, that simultaneously increases AEA and 2-AG signaling by inhibiting their hydrolysis, in the regulation of socio-emotional behavior in adolescent and adult rats. JZL195, administered at the dose of 0.01mg/kg, increased social play behavior, that is the most characteristic social activity displayed by adolescent rats, and increased social interaction in adult animals. At both ages, these behavioral effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A and were associated with increased brain levels of 2-AG, but not AEA. Conversely, at the dose of 1mg/kg, JZL195 decreased general social exploration in adolescent rats without affecting social play behavior, and induced anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test both in adolescent and adult animals. These effects, mediated by activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, were paralleled by simultaneous increase in AEA and 2-AG levels in adolescent rats, and by an increase of only 2-AG levels in adult animals. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of 2-AG in social behavior, highlight the different contributions of AEA and 2-AG in the modulation of emotionality at different developmental ages and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of AEA and 2-AG hydrolysis is a useful approach to investigate the role of these endocannabinoids in neurobehavioral processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Is stress affecting our ability to tune into others? Evidence for gender differences in the effects of stress on self-other distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, L; von Dawans, B; Heinrichs, M; Silani, G; Lamm, C

    2014-05-01

    Stress is a ubiquitous challenge in society as we consistently interact with others under the influence of stress. Distinguishing self- from other-related mental representations plays an important role for social interactions, and is a prerequisite for crucial social skills such as action understanding, empathy, and mentalizing. Little is known, however, about the effects of stress on self-other distinction. We assessed how acute stress impacts self-other distinction in the perceptual-motor, the affective, and the cognitive domain, in a male and female sample. In all domains, the results show opposing effects of stress on the two genders: while women showed increases in self-other distinction, men showed decreases. Our findings suggest that women flexibly disambiguate self and other under stress, enabling accurate social responses, while men respond with increased egocentricity and less adaptive regulation. This has crucial implications for explaining gender differences in social skills such as empathy and prosociality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipidomic profiling reveals distinct differences in plasma lipid composition in healthy, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huanzi; Fang, Chao; Fan, Yanqun; Lu, Yan; Wen, Bo; Ren, Huahui; Hou, Guixue; Yang, Fangming; Xie, Hailiang; Jie, Zhuye; Peng, Ye; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jiegen; Zi, Jin; Zhao, Guoqing; Chen, Jiayu; Bao, Xiao; Hu, Yihe; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been extensively reported, but the global lipid profiles, especially in the East Asia population, associated with the development of T2D remain to be characterized. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect the global lipidome in the fasting plasma of 293 Chinese individuals, including 114 T2D patients, 81 prediabetic subjects, and 98 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed a gradual change in plasma lipid features with T2D patients exhibiting characteristics close to those of prediabetic individuals, whereas they differed significantly from individuals with NGT. We constructed and validated a random forest classifier with 28 lipidomic features that effectively discriminated T2D from NGT or prediabetes. Most of the selected features significantly correlated with diabetic clinical indices. Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Lysophosphatidylcholines such as lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (18:1), and lysophosphatidylcholine (18:2) were all negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. The altered plasma lipidome in Chinese T2D and prediabetic subjects suggests that lipid features may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D and that such features may provide a basis for evaluating risk and monitoring disease development. PMID:28505362

  7. Microcystin Biosynthesis and mcyA Expression in Geographically Distinct Microcystis Strains under Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Boron Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roles of nutrients and other environmental variables in development of cyanobacterial bloom and its toxicity are complex and not well understood. We have monitored the photoautotrophic growth, total microcystin concentration, and microcystins synthetase gene (mcyA expression in lab-grown strains of Microcystis NIES 843 (reference strain, KW (Wangsong Reservoir, South Korea, and Durgakund (Varanasi, India under different nutrient regimes (nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron. Higher level of nitrogen and boron resulted in increased growth (avg. 5 and 6.5 Chl a mg/L, resp., total microcystin concentrations (avg. 1.185 and 7.153 mg/L, resp., and mcyA transcript but its expression was not directly correlated with total microcystin concentrations in the target strains. Interestingly, Durgakund strain had much lower microcystin content and lacked microcystin-YR variant over NIES 843 and KW. It is inferred that microcystin concentration and its variants are strain specific. We have also examined the heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacterial bloom in Durgakund Pond and Wangsong Reservoir which were found to be enriched in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and that could influence the bloom dynamics.

  8. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  9. Liver Proteome of Mice with Distinct Genetic Susceptibilities to Fluorosis Treated with Different Concentrations of F in the Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib Nisar; Sabino, Isabela Tomazini; de Souza Melo, Carina Guimarães; Martini, Tatiana; da Silva Pereira, Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2018-04-29

    Appropriate doses of fluoride (F) have therapeutic action against dental caries, but higher levels can cause disturbances in soft and mineralized tissues. Interestingly, the susceptibility to the toxic effects of F is genetically determined. This study evaluated the effects of F on the liver proteome of mice susceptible (A/J) or resistant (129P3/J) to the effects of F. Weanling male A/J (n = 12) and 129P3/J (n = 12) mice were housed in pairs and assigned to two groups given low-F food and drinking water containing 15 or 50 ppm F for 6 weeks. Liver proteome profiles were examined using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Difference in expression among the groups was determined using the PLGS software. Treatment with the lower F concentration provoked more pronounced alterations in fold change in liver proteins in comparison to the treatment with the higher F concentration. Interestingly, most of the proteins with fold change upon treatment with 15 ppm F were increased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, suggesting an attempt of the former to fight the deleterious effects of F. However, upon treatment with 50 ppm F, most proteins with fold change were decreased in the A/J mice compared with their 129P3/J counterparts, especially proteins related to oxidative stress and protein folding, which might be related to the higher susceptibility of the A/J animals to the deleterious effects of F. Our findings add light into the mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to fluorosis.

  10. Distinct adiponectin profiles might contribute to differences in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkest, K R; Rand, J S; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Richards, A A; Rose, F J; Whitehead, J P

    2011-08-01

    Dogs develop obesity-associated insulin resistance but not type 2 diabetes mellitus. Low adiponectin is associated with progression to type 2 diabetes in obese humans. The aims of this study were to compare total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin (S(A)) between dogs and humans and to examine whether total or HMW adiponectin or both are associated with insulin resistance in naturally occurring obese dogs. We compared adiponectin profiles between 10 lean dogs and 10 lean humans and between 6 lean dogs and 6 age- and sex-matched, client-owned obese dogs. Total adiponectin was measured with assays validated in each species. We measured S(A) with velocity centrifugation on sucrose gradients. The effect of total and HMW adiponectin concentrations on MINMOD-estimated insulin sensitivity was assessed with linear regression. Lean dogs had total and HMW adiponectin concentrations three to four times higher than lean humans (total: dogs 32 ± 5.6 mg/L, humans 10 ± 1.3 mg/L, Pobese dogs (0.76 ± 0.05 in both groups; P=1). Total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and S(A) were not associated with insulin sensitivity in dogs. We propose that differences in adiponectin profiles between humans and dogs might contribute to the propensity of humans but not dogs to develop type 2 diabetes. Dogs with chronic, naturally occurring obesity do not have selectively reduced HMW adiponectin, and adiponectin does not appear to be important in the development of canine obesity-associated insulin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF. Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1 are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90, we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ, which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  12. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yuan, Zhangqin; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yizhen; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF). Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1) are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90), we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ), which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  13. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Segerman, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum (group III), Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  14. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Skarin

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  15. Characterizing the genetic differences between two distinct migrant groups from Indo-European and Dravidian speaking populations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Liu, Xuanyao; Pillai, Esakimuthu Nisha; Chen, Peng; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-07-22

    India is home to many ethnically and linguistically diverse populations. It is hypothesized that history of invasions by people from Persia and Central Asia, who are referred as Aryans in Hindu Holy Scriptures, had a defining role in shaping the Indian population canvas. A shift in spoken languages from Dravidian languages to Indo-European languages around 1500 B.C. is central to the Aryan Invasion Theory. Here we investigate the genetic differences between two sub-populations of India consisting of: (1) The Indo-European language speaking Gujarati Indians with genome-wide data from the International HapMap Project; and (2) the Dravidian language speaking Tamil Indians with genome-wide data from the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented three population genetics measures to identify genomic regions that are significantly differentiated between the two Indian populations originating from the north and south of India. These measures singled out genomic regions with: (i) SNPs exhibiting significant variation in allele frequencies in the two Indian populations; and (ii) differential signals of positive natural selection as quantified by the integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH). One of the regions that emerged spans the SLC24A5 gene that has been functionally shown to affect skin pigmentation, with a higher degree of genetic sharing between Gujarati Indians and Europeans. Our finding points to a gene-flow from Europe to north India that provides an explanation for the lighter skin tones present in North Indians in comparison to South Indians.

  16. Linear and branched glyco-lipopeptide vaccines follow distinct cross-presentation pathways and generate different magnitudes of antitumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Renaudet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-lipopeptides, a form of lipid-tailed glyco-peptide, are currently under intense investigation as B- and T-cell based vaccine immunotherapy for many cancers. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of glyco-lipopeptides (GLPs immunogenicity and the position of the lipid moiety on immunogenicity and protective efficacy of GLPs remain to be determined.We have constructed two structural analogues of HER-2 glyco-lipopeptide (HER-GLP by synthesizing a chimeric peptide made of one universal CD4(+ epitope (PADRE and one HER-2 CD8(+ T-cell epitope (HER(420-429. The C-terminal end of the resulting CD4-CD8 chimeric peptide was coupled to a tumor carbohydrate B-cell epitope, based on a regioselectively addressable functionalized templates (RAFT, made of four alpha-GalNAc molecules. The resulting HER glyco-peptide (HER-GP was then linked to a palmitic acid moiety, attached either at the N-terminal end (linear HER-GLP-1 or in the middle between the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes (branched HER-GLP-2. We have investigated the uptake, processing and cross-presentation pathways of the two HER-GLP vaccine constructs, and assessed whether the position of linkage of the lipid moiety would affect the B- and T-cell immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization of mice revealed that the linear HER-GLP-1 induced a stronger and longer lasting HER(420-429-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8(+ T cell response, while the branched HER-GLP-2 induced a stronger tumor-specific IgG response. The linear HER-GLP-1 was taken up easily by dendritic cells (DCs, induced stronger DCs maturation and produced a potent TLR- 2-dependent T-cell activation. The linear and branched HER-GLP molecules appeared to follow two different cross-presentation pathways. While regression of established tumors was induced by both linear HER-GLP-1 and branched HER-GLP-2, the inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher in HER-GLP-1 immunized mice (p<0.005.These findings have

  17. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

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    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico

  18. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  19. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

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    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  20. Knowing where is different from knowing what: Distinct response time profiles and accuracy effects for target location, orientation, and color probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-11-01

    When a location is cued, targets appearing at that location are detected more quickly. When a target feature is cued, targets bearing that feature are detected more quickly. These attentional cueing effects are only superficially similar. More detailed analyses find distinct temporal and accuracy profiles for the two different types of cues. This pattern parallels work with probability manipulations, where both feature and spatial probability are known to affect detection accuracy and reaction times. However, little has been done by way of comparing these effects. Are probability manipulations on space and features distinct? In a series of five experiments, we systematically varied spatial probability and feature probability along two dimensions (orientation or color). In addition, we decomposed response times into initiation and movement components. Targets appearing at the probable location were reported more quickly and more accurately regardless of whether the report was based on orientation or color. On the other hand, when either color probability or orientation probability was manipulated, response time and accuracy improvements were specific for that probable feature dimension. Decomposition of the response time benefits demonstrated that spatial probability only affected initiation times, whereas manipulations of feature probability affected both initiation and movement times. As detection was made more difficult, the two effects further diverged, with spatial probability disproportionally affecting initiation times and feature probability disproportionately affecting accuracy. In conclusion, all manipulations of probability, whether spatial or featural, affect detection. However, only feature probability affects perceptual precision, and precision effects are specific to the probable attribute.

  1. Distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes in bladder cancer from different Chinese sub-populations and its implication in cancer detection using voided urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Joanna HM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world and the incidence is particularly high in southwestern Taiwan. Previous studies have identified several tumor-related genes that are hypermethylated in bladder cancer; however the DNA methylation profile of bladder cancer in Taiwan is not fully understood. Methods In this study, we compared the DNA methylation profile of multiple tumor suppressor genes (APC, DAPK, E-cadherin, hMLH1, IRF8, p14, p15, RASSF1A, SFRP1 and SOCS-1 in bladder cancer patients from different Chinese sub-populations including Taiwan (104 cases, Hong Kong (82 cases and China (24 cases by MSP. Two normal human urothelium were also included as control. To investigate the diagnostic potential of using DNA methylation in non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, degree of methylation of DAPK, IRF8, p14, RASSF1A and SFRP1 was also accessed by quantitative MSP in urine samples from thirty bladder cancer patients and nineteen non-cancer controls. Results There were distinct DNA methylation epigenotypes among the different sub-populations. Further, samples from Taiwan and China demonstrated a bimodal distribution suggesting that CpG island methylator phentotype (CIMP is presented in bladder cancer. Moreover, the number of methylated genes in samples from Taiwan and Hong Kong were significantly correlated with histological grade (P SFRP1, IRF8, APC and RASSF1A were significantly associated with increased tumor grade, stage. Methylation of RASSF1A was associated with tumor recurrence. Patients with methylation of APC or RASSF1A were also significantly associated with shorter recurrence-free survival. For methylation detection in voided urine samples of cancer patients, the sensitivity and specificity of using any of the methylated genes (IRF8, p14 or sFRP1 by qMSP was 86.7% and 94.7%. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are distinct methylation epigenotypes among different Chinese sub

  2. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Selina; Bijker, Martijn S; Weterings, Jimmy J; Tanke, Hans J; Adema, Gosse J; van Hall, Thorbald; Drijfhout, Jan W; Melief, Cornelis J M; Overkleeft, Hermen S; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2007-07-20

    Covalent conjugation of Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides strongly improves antigen presentation in vitro and T lymphocyte priming in vivo. These molecularly well defined TLR-L-peptide conjugates, constitute an attractive vaccination modality, sharing the peptide antigen and a defined adjuvant in one single molecule. We have analyzed the intracellular trafficking and processing of two TLR-L conjugates in dendritic cells (DCs). Long synthetic peptides containing an ovalbumin cytotoxic T-cell epitope were chemically conjugated to two different TLR-Ls the TLR2 ligand, Pam(3)CysSK(4) (Pam) or the TLR9 ligand CpG. Rapid and enhanced uptake of both types of TLR-L-conjugated peptide occurred in DCs. Moreover, TLR-L conjugation greatly enhanced antigen presentation, a process that was dependent on endosomal acidification, proteasomal cleavage, and TAP translocation. The uptake of the CpG approximately conjugate was independent of endosomally-expressed TLR9 as reported previously. Unexpectedly, we found that Pam approximately conjugated peptides were likewise internalized independently of the expression of cell surface-expressed TLR2. Further characterization of the uptake mechanisms revealed that TLR2-L employed a different uptake route than TLR9-L. Inhibition of clathrin- or caveolin-dependent endocytosis greatly reduced uptake and antigen presentation of the Pam-conjugate. In contrast, internalization and antigen presentation of CpG approximately conjugates was independent of clathrin-coated pits but partly dependent on caveolae formation. Importantly, in contrast to the TLR-independent uptake of the conjugates, TLR expression and downstream TLR signaling was required for dendritic cell maturation and for priming of naïve CD8(+) T-cells. Together, our data show that targeting to two distinct TLRs requires distinct uptake mechanism but follows similar trafficking and intracellular processing pathways leading to optimal antigen

  3. Transcriptomic analysis identifies gene networks regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ that control distinct effects of different botanical estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Helferich, William G.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2014-01-01

    gene regulations than E2. The distinctive patterns of gene regulation by the individual BEs and E2 may underlie differences in the activities of these soy and licorice-derived BEs in estrogen target cells containing different levels of the two ERs. PMID:25363786

  4. Genetic Diversity of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in Iron and Zinc Content as Impacted by Farmers' Varietal Selection in Northern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kumar, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Yadvac, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and

  5. Distinct genetic difference between the Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) of Plasmodium knowlesi clinical isolates from North Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun-Yik; Rashdi, Sarah A A; Yusof, Ruhani; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2015-02-21

    Plasmodium knowlesi is one of the monkey malaria parasites that can cause human malaria. The Duffy binding protein of P. knowlesi (PkDBPαII) is essential for the parasite's invasion into human and monkey erythrocytes. A previous study on P. knowlesi clinical isolates from Peninsular Malaysia reported high level of genetic diversity in the PkDBPαII. Furthermore, 36 amino acid haplotypes were identified and these haplotypes could be separated into allele group I and allele group II. In the present study, the PkDBPαII of clinical isolates from the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah in North Borneo was investigated, and compared with the PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysia isolates. Blood samples from 28 knowlesi malaria patients were used. These samples were collected between 2011 and 2013 from hospitals in North Borneo. The PkDBPαII region of the isolates was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The genetic diversity, natural selection and phylogenetics of PkDBPαII haplotypes were analysed using MEGA5 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.00 programmes. Forty-nine PkDBPαII sequences were obtained. Comparison at the nucleotide level against P. knowlesi strain H as reference sequence revealed 58 synonymous and 102 non-synonymous mutations. Analysis on these mutations showed that PkDBPαII was under purifying (negative) selection. At the amino acid level, 38 different PkDBPαII haplotypes were identified. Twelve of the 28 blood samples had mixed haplotype infections. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the haplotypes were in allele group I, but they formed a sub-group that was distinct from those of Peninsular Malaysia. Wright's FST fixation index indicated high genetic differentiation between the North Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia haplotypes. This study is the first to report the genetic diversity and natural selection of PkDBPαII of P. knowlesi from Borneo Island. The PkDBPαII haplotypes found in this study were distinct from those from

  6. Application of a partitioning procedure based on Rao quadratic entropy index to characterize the temporal evolution of in situ varietal and genetic diversity of bread wheat in France over the period 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronne, Rémi; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    We present and highlight a partitioning procedure based on the Rao quadratic entropy index to assess temporal in situ inter-annual varietal and genetic changes of crop diversity. For decades, Western-European agroecosystems have undergone profound changes, among which a reduction of crop genetic diversity. These changes have been highlighted in numerous studies, but no unified partitioning procedure has been proposed to compute the inter-annual variability in both varietal and genetic diversity. To fill this gap, we tested, adjusted and applied a partitioning procedure based on the Rao quadratic entropy index that made possible to describe the different components of crop diversity as well as to account for the relative acreages of varieties. To emphasize the relevance of this procedure, we relied on a case study focusing on the temporal evolution of bread wheat diversity in France over the period 1981-2006 at both national and district scales. At the national scale, we highlighted a decrease of the weighted genetic replacement indicating that varieties sown in the most recent years were more genetically similar than older ones. At the district scale, we highlighted sudden changes in weighted genetic replacement in some agricultural regions that could be due to fast shifts of successive leading varieties over time. Other regions presented a relatively continuous increase of genetic similarity over time, potentially due to the coexistence of a larger number of co-leading varieties that got closer genetically. Based on the partitioning procedure, we argue that a tendency of in situ genetic homogenization could be compared to some of its potential causes, such as a decrease in the speed of replacement or an increase in between-variety genetic similarity over time.

  7. Distribution of Vascular Patterns in Different Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Morphometric Study in Two Distinct Types of Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; García-Bustos, V; Granero, E; Cuesta, S; Sales, M A; Marcos, V; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the presence of mature and immature vessels as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma and propose a classification of renal cancer tumor blood vessels according to morphometric parameters. Tissue samples were obtained from 121 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. Staining with CD31 and CD34 was used to differentiate between immature (CD31+) and mature (CD34+) blood vessels. We quantified the microvascular density, microvascular area and different morphometric parameters: maximum diameter, minimum diameter, major axis, minor axis, perimeter, radius ratio and roundness. We found that the microvascular density was higher in CD31+ than CD34+ vessels, but CD34+ vessels were larger than CD31+ vessels, as well as being strongly correlated with the ISUP tumor grade. We also identified four vascular patterns: pseudoacinar, fascicular, reticular and diffuse. Pseudoacinar and fascicular patterns were more frequent in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (37.62 and 35.64% respectively), followed by reticular pattern (21.78%), while in chromophobe tumors the reticular pattern predominated (90%). The isolated pattern was present in all papillary tumors (100%). In healthy renal tissue, the pseudoacinar and isolated patterns were differentially found in the renal cortex and medulla respectively. We defined four distinct vascular patterns significantly related with the ISUP tumor grade in renal cell carcinomas. Further studies in larger series are needed in order to validate these results. Analysis of both mature and immature vessels (CD34+ and CD31+) provides additional information when evaluating microvascular density.

  8. Oilseed rape grain yield productivity increases with hybrid varietal types: a first balance sheet with post registration tests in France and in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinochet Xavier

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 several oilseed rape hybrid types were proposed to farmers. Following registration experiments, Cetiom and different equivalent institutions in European Union have tested them in different post registration national networks. Grain yield productivity increases were demonstrated and a first synthesis could be done to check avantages and difficulties which had occurred. For winter types, Hybrid Composits were widely used, mainly in France and in the United Kingdom. Grain yield increases were important in the South and West part of France where their market shares increased up to 50-80%. Nevertheless, many fecondation problems occurred in several places all over Europe. Reasons of such problems were difficult to identify. Several factors, as cold temperatures, nutritionnal competitions, pollen avaibility may be involved to explain low seed sets. Restored Hybrids made with the NPZ hybridation system were successfully tested widely, and has reached significative market shares during 1999-2000 season. Less experiments were carried out with others hybrid types (Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids, Mixed Hybrids. Ogu-INRA Restored Hybrids reached the highest grain yield levels but users are waiting for lower glucosinolates seed content hybrids which would come in the next future. Performances comparisons among countries have to be done carefully. Productivity increases with hybrid types could have been over estimated depending of pollinic environments or plot size and possible neighbouring effects. For France, results from field trials networks are coherent with results coming from postal surveys. For spring varieties, Polima restored hybrids and varietal associations have demonstrated a significative advantage compared to classical lines.

  9. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct steps of neural induction revealed by Asterix, Obelix and TrkC, genes induced by different signals from the organizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pinho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The amniote organizer (Hensen's node can induce a complete nervous system when grafted into a peripheral region of a host embryo. Although BMP inhibition has been implicated in neural induction, non-neural cells cannot respond to BMP antagonists unless previously exposed to a node graft for at least 5 hours before BMP inhibitors. To define signals and responses during the first 5 hours of node signals, a differential screen was conducted. Here we describe three early response genes: two of them, Asterix and Obelix, encode previously undescribed proteins of unknown function but Obelix appears to be a nuclear RNA-binding protein. The third is TrkC, a neurotrophin receptor. All three genes are induced by a node graft within 4-5 hours but they differ in the extent to which they are inducible by FGF: FGF is both necessary and sufficient to induce Asterix, sufficient but not necessary to induce Obelix and neither sufficient nor necessary for induction of TrkC. These genes are also not induced by retinoic acid, Noggin, Chordin, Dkk1, Cerberus, HGF/SF, Somatostatin or ionomycin-mediated Calcium entry. Comparison of the expression and regulation of these genes with other early neural markers reveals three distinct "epochs", or temporal waves, of gene expression accompanying neural induction by a grafted organizer, which are mirrored by specific stages of normal neural plate development. The results are consistent with neural induction being a cascade of responses elicited by different signals, culminating in the formation of a patterned nervous system.

  11. The use of P-32 for determining varietal resistance of rice to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens stal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswadi, Achmad Nasroh

    1981-01-01

    The resistance was assessed uased on the feeding activities of the insect on 15-day old seedling of six test varietes namely TN 1, Asahan, Brantas, Citarum, Serayu and Mudgo. A level of 175 μCi per seedling appeared to give sufficiently high absorption of radiophosphorus by the brown planthoppers. The level of radioactivity in the brown planthopper fed for 24 hours on labelled rice plants appeared to be correlated with the susceptibility of the rice plant to brown planthopper. The radioactivity in the honeydew of those hoppers was less correlated with the rice susceptibility. The promising resistance screening method using P-32 tracer is thus more reliable when the radioactivity is detected in the insect rather than in the honeydew. (author)

  12. The Distinct Transcriptional Response of the Midgut of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma aureolatum Ticks to Rickettsia rickettsii Correlates to Their Differences in Susceptibility to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa C. Fogaça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia rickettsii is a tick-borne obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF. In Brazil, two species of ticks in the genus Amblyomma, A. sculptum and A. aureolatum, are incriminated as vectors of this bacterium. Importantly, these two species present remarkable differences in susceptibility to R. rickettsii infection, where A. aureolatum is more susceptible than A. sculptum. In the current study, A. aureolatum and A. sculptum ticks were fed on suitable hosts previously inoculated with R. rickettsii, mimicking a natural infection. As control, ticks were fed on non-infected animals. Both midgut and salivary glands of all positively infected ticks were colonized by R. rickettsii. We did not observe ticks with infection restricted to midgut, suggesting that important factors for controlling rickettsial colonization were produced in this organ. In order to identify such factors, the total RNA extracted from the midgut (MG was submitted to next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The majority of the coding sequences (CDSs of A. sculptum differentially expressed by infection were upregulated, whereas most of modulated CDSs of A. aureolatum were downregulated. The functional categories that comprise upregulated CDSs of A. sculptum, for instance, metabolism, signal transduction, protein modification, extracellular matrix, and immunity also include CDSs of A. aureolatum that were downregulated by infection. This is the first study that reports the effects of an experimental infection with the highly virulent R. rickettsii on the gene expression of two natural tick vectors. The distinct transcriptional profiles of MG of A. sculptum and A. aureolatum upon infection stimulus strongly suggest that molecular factors in this organ are responsible for delineating the susceptibility to R. rickettsii. Functional studies to determine the role played by proteins encoded by differentially expressed CDSs in the acquisition of R

  13. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g -1 levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the μg g -1 levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g -1 levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple Leaves, INCT-TL-1 Tea

  14. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestue, Siver A; Borgan, Eldrid; Huuse, Else M; Lindholm, Evita M; Sitter, Beathe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Engebraaten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-01-01

    concentrations corresponded well with differences in gene expression, demonstrating distinct metabolic profiles in the xenograft models representing basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer. The same characteristics of choline metabolite profiles were also observed in patient material from ER+/PgR+ and triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that the xenografts are relevant model systems for studies of choline metabolism in luminal-like and basal-like breast cancer

  15. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qian

    Full Text Available Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat, whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and

  16. The Different Faces of Controlling Teaching: Implications of a Distinction between Externally and Internally Controlling Teaching for Students' Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jotie; Soenens, Bart; Aelterman, Nathalie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Haerens, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a well-validated macro-theory on human motivation, a distinction is made between internally controlling teaching practices (e.g. guilt-induction and shaming) and externally controlling practices (e.g. threats and punishments, commands). While both practices are said to undermine students' motivation,…

  17. Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilon, Tali; Barash, Itamar

    2008-01-01

    Deregulation of Stat5 in the mammary gland of transgenic mice causes tumorigenesis. Poorly differentiated carcinoma and highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma tumors evolve. To distinguish the genes and elucidate the cellular processes and metabolic pathways utilized to preserve these phenotypes, gene-expression profiles were analyzed. Mammary tumors were excised from transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active variant of Stat5, or a Stat5 variant lacking s transactivation domain. These tumors displayed either the carcinoma or the papillary adenocarcinoma phenotypes. cRNAs, prepared from each tumor were hybridized to an Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. Gene-ontology analysis, hierarchical clustering and biological-pathway analysis were performed to distinct the two types of tumors. Histopathology and immunofluorescence staining complemented the comparison between the tumor phenotypes. The nucleus-cytoskeleton-plasma membrane axis is a major target for differential gene expression between phenotypes. In the carcinoma, stronger expression of genes coding for specific integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and calcium-binding proteins highlight cell-adhesion and motility features of the tumor cells. This is supported by the higher expression of genes involved in O-glycan synthesis, TGF-β, activin, their receptors and Smad3, as well as the Notch ligands and members of the γ-secretase complex that enable Notch nuclear localization. The Wnt pathway was also a target for differential gene expression. Higher expression of genes encoding the degradation complex of the canonical pathway and limited TCF expression in the papillary adenocarcinoma result in membranal accumulation of β-catenin, in contrast to its nuclear translocation in the carcinoma. Genes involved in cell-cycle arrest at G1 and response to DNA damage were more highly expressed in the papillary adenocarcinomas, as opposed to favored G2/M regulation in the carcinoma tumors. At least

  18. Indications of the prominent role of elemental sulfur in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol in Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Leandro Dias; Vannevel, Sebastian; Buica, Astrid; Callerot, Suzanne; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A; du Toit, Wessel J

    2017-08-01

    Elemental sulfur is a fungicide traditionally used to control Powdery Mildew in the production of grapes. The presence of sulfur residues in grape juice has been associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation, which could take part in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol. This work examines whether elemental sulfur additions to Sauvignon blanc juice can increase the levels of sought-after varietal thiols. Initial trials were performed in South Africa and indicated a positive impact of sulfur on the levels of thiols. Further experiments were then carried out with New Zealand Sauvignon blanc and confirmed a positive relationship between elemental sulfur additions and wine varietal thiols. The formation of hydrogen sulfide was observed when the addition of elemental sulfur was made to clarified juice, along with an increase in further reductive sulfur compounds. When the addition of sulfur was made to pressed juice, prior to clarification, the production of reductive sulfur compounds was drastically decreased. Some mechanistic considerations are also presented, involving the reduction of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Two Silene vulgaris copper transporters residing in different cellular compartments confer copper hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbang; Iqbal, Mazhar; Zhang, Qianqian; Spelt, Cornelis; Bliek, Mattijs; Hakvoort, Henk W J; Quattrocchio, Francesca M; Koes, Ronald; Schat, Henk

    2017-08-01

    Silene vulgaris is a metallophyte of calamine, cupriferous and serpentine soils all over Europe. Its metallicolous populations are hypertolerant to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) or nickel (Ni), compared with conspecific nonmetallicolous populations. These hypertolerances are metal-specific, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of HMA5 copper transporters in Cu-hypertolerance of a S. vulgaris copper mine population. Cu-hypertolerance in Silene is correlated and genetically linked with enhanced expression of two HMA5 paralogs, SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, each of which increases Cu tolerance when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Most Spermatophytes, except Brassicaceae, possess homologs of SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, which originate from an ancient duplication predating the appearance of spermatophytes. SvHMA5II and the A. thaliana homolog AtHMA5 localize in the endoplasmic reticulum and upon Cu exposure move to the plasma membrane, from where they are internalized and degraded in the vacuole. This resembles trafficking of mammalian homologs and is apparently an extremely ancient mechanism. SvHMA5I, instead, neofunctionalized and always resides on the tonoplast, likely sequestering Cu in the vacuole. Adaption of Silene to a Cu-polluted soil is at least in part due to upregulation of two distinct HMA5 transporters, which contribute to Cu hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica, within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Results Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers. Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. Conclusions We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary unit within these traditional agroecosystems. Core collections, however useful, are museums and hence cannot serve the same functions as traditional agroecosystems.

  1. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  2. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii induce distinct levels of dendritic cell cytokine secretion and significantly different T cell responses In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily...... driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic...... of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii...

  3. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Bai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2 techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai, an Oxisol (Leizhou, and an Ultisol (Taoyuan along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria, β-proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and

  4. Microbial Community and Functional Structure Significantly Varied among Distinct Types of Paddy Soils But Responded Differently along Gradients of Soil Depth Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ren; Wang, Jun-Tao; Deng, Ye; He, Ji-Zheng; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Paddy rice fields occupy broad agricultural area in China and cover diverse soil types. Microbial community in paddy soils is of great interest since many microorganisms are involved in soil functional processes. In the present study, Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing and functional gene array (GeoChip 4.2) techniques were combined to investigate soil microbial communities and functional gene patterns across the three soil types including an Inceptisol (Binhai), an Oxisol (Leizhou), and an Ultisol (Taoyuan) along four profile depths (up to 70 cm in depth) in mesocosm incubation columns. Detrended correspondence analysis revealed that distinctly differentiation in microbial community existed among soil types and profile depths, while the manifest variance in functional structure was only observed among soil types and two rice growth stages, but not across profile depths. Along the profile depth within each soil type, Acidobacteria , Chloroflexi , and Firmicutes increased whereas Cyanobacteria , β -proteobacteria , and Verrucomicrobia declined, suggesting their specific ecophysiological properties. Compared to bacterial community, the archaeal community showed a more contrasting pattern with the predominant groups within phyla Euryarchaeota , Thaumarchaeota , and Crenarchaeota largely varying among soil types and depths. Phylogenetic molecular ecological network (pMEN) analysis further indicated that the pattern of bacterial and archaeal communities interactions changed with soil depth and the highest modularity of microbial community occurred in top soils, implying a relatively higher system resistance to environmental change compared to communities in deeper soil layers. Meanwhile, microbial communities had higher connectivity in deeper soils in comparison with upper soils, suggesting less microbial interaction in surface soils. Structure equation models were developed and the models indicated that pH was the most representative characteristics of soil type and

  5. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ABLATION OF DISTINCT HEMATOPOIETIC-CELL SUBSETS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DONOR BONE-MARROW ENGRAFTMENT FOLLOWING RECIPIENT PRETREATMENT WITH DIFFERENT ALKYLATING DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOWN, JD; BOUDEWIJN, A; DILLINGH, JH; FOX, BW; PLOEMACHER, RE

    1994-01-01

    A number of different alkylating chemotherapeutic agents - busulphan, dimethylbusulphan (DMB), isopropylmethane sulphonate (IMS), melphalan, cyclophosphamide (CY) and bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU)- were investigated for their cytotoxic effects on different haemopoietic cell populations in host

  7. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share...... epitopes and sequence identity with two other proteins, isoelectric focusing sample spot numbers 2222 (37.6 kDa; pI 6.5) and 2326 (39.5 kDa; pI 6.6), indicating that the subfamily may contain additional members. The identity between hnRNPs H and H' is 96%, between H and F 78%, and between H' and F 75......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  8. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  10. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhai

    Full Text Available Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  11. Do species differ in their ability to coexist with the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus? A comparison between two distinct invaded ranges and a native range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hejda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The community-level impacts of invasive plants are likely to vary depending on the character of native species of the target communities and their ability to thrive within the stands of the dominant alien invader. Therefore, I examined the response of native species richness to the cover of the dominant alien Lupinus polyphyllus in two distinct invaded ranges: Czech Republic (Central Europe and New Zealand. I compared the relation between native species richness and the cover of the dominant alien L. polyphyllus with that in its native range, Pacific Northwest, USA.In the native range, I found no response of native species richness to the cover of L. polyphyllus. In the Czech Republic (central Europe, the richness of native species related to it negativelly, but the relation was only marginally significant. Contrary to that, the richness of species native to New Zealand related to the cover of L. polyphyllus strongly negatively and the negative relation was significantly stronger than that of species native to Europe.Of the two invaded ranges, species native to New Zealand have been documented to be much more vulnerable to the conditions associated with the invasion and dominance of L. polyphyllus, compared to species native to central Europe. This principle has been shown both across these two invaded ranges and in New Zealand, where the aliens of european origin successfully coexist with the dominant invasive alien L. polyphyllus. Similarly, species in the native range of L. polyphyllus showed no relation to its cover, indicating their ability to thrive even in dense stands of this dominant species.

  12. Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection.

  13. Shutting down or powering up a (U)LIRG? Merger components in distinctly different evolutionary states in IRAS 19115-2124 (the Bird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Cañizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2017-10-01

    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). The NIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.

  14. Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarina Pena DaMata

    Full Text Available Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6, whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection.

  15. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Distinct Apoptotic Pathways in Cancer Cells Activated in Response to Treatment with Different Anti-Cancer Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    caspases precursors in different cell type induce apoptosis (Miura et al. 1993; Fernandes- 3 Alnemri et al. 1994; Kumar et al. 1994; Wang et al. 1994; Boldin ...association of ribosomes with mRNA. The lysates were sedimented through a linear sucrose gradient and fractions were collected. RNA was extracted from...precursors in different cell type induces apoptosis (Miura et al. 1993; Fernandes- Alnemri et al. 1994; Kumar et al. 1994; Wang et al. 1994; Boldin et al

  17. Monitoring the Short-Term Response to Salt Exposure of Two Genetically Distinct Phragmites australis Clones with Different Salinity Tolerance Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    work was conducted at the laboratory of the Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark. Methods: The light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax), stomata conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were measured over different periods of salt exposure (15, 70 and 240 minutes) and at different...... in the 15-minute experiment. The Greeny-type also recovered after the 70-minute exposure, but not the Land-type. We conclude that the response to osmotic stress is genotype-dependent and that the salt-tolerant clone possesses very efficient signaling pathways to detect changes in the soil water potential...

  18. There are differences in cerebral activation between females in distinct menstrual phases during viewing of erotic stimuli: A fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Karama, Sherif; Baars, Anneke; Senf, Wolfgang; Forsting, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that men experience more sexual arousal than women but also that women in mid-luteal phase experience more sexual arousal than women outside this phase. Recently, a few functional brain imaging studies have tackled the issue of gender differences as pertaining to reactions to erotica. The question of whether or not gender differences in reactions to erotica are maintained with women in different phases has not yet been answered from a functional brain imaging perspective. In order to examine this issue, functional MRI was performed in 22 male and 22 female volunteers. Subjects viewed erotic film excerpts alternating with emotionally neutral excerpts in a standard block-design paradigm. Arousal to erotic stimuli was evaluated using standard rating scales after scanning. Two-sample t-test with uncorrected P erotic stimuli and with corrected P erotic stimuli. Furthermore, gender differences with women in mid-luteal phases are similar to those in females outside the mid-luteal phase.

  19. DISTINCTION OF SOUTH-AMERICAN HAPLOGLOIA-ANDERSONII AND CHORDARIA-LINEARIS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) BASED ON DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL REPRODUCTION, MORPHOLOGY, ECOPHYSIOLOGY, AND DISTRIBUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, AF

    1992-01-01

    Haplogloia andersonii (Farlow) Levring is an anti-tropical species that occurs on cold and warm-temperate Pacific coasts of both Americas. In its habit it resembles the subantarctic species Chordaria linearis (Hooker et Harvey) Cotton. Culture studies show that the species differ in morphology and

  20. Exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to different classes of insecticides exhibit distinct molecular effect patterns at concentrations that mimic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds. Our targeted gene expression concept focused on several transcripts, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α 1 and α 2 (nAChRα1, nAChRα2) subunits, the multifunctional gene vitellogenin, immune system related genes of three immune system pathways, genes belonging to the detoxification system and ER stress genes. Our data indicate a dynamic pattern of expressional changes at different exposure times. All four insecticides induced strong alterations in the expression of immune system related genes suggesting negative implications for honey bee health, as well as cytochrome P450 enzyme transcripts suggesting an interference with metabolism. Exposure to neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, malathion and cypermethrin resulted in up-regulation of nAChRα1 and nAChRα2. Moreover, alterations in the expression of vitellogenin occurred, which suggests implications on foraging activity. Chlorantraniliprole induced ER stress which may be related to toxicity. The comparison of all transcriptional changes indicated that the expression pattern is rather compound-specific and related to its mode of action, but clusters of common transcriptional changes between different compounds occurred. As transcriptional alterations occurred at environmental concentrations our data provide a molecular basis for observed

  1. Distinct attitudes of professionals from different medical specialties toward autonomy and legal instruments in the assessment of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Maringolo Pioltini

    Full Text Available Abstract The evaluation of competence of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients to assume personal or collective responsibilities and the resulting legal implications is a relevant issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of different medical specialists towards the disability of patients with Alzheimer's disease and practitioners' competence to interfere with decision-making autonomy. Methods: Professionals from different areas (Neurology, Psychiatry, Geriatrics, and General Practice were interviewed by one of the authors, after being presented a fictitious clinical case which raised several topics, namely: [1] Critical judgment and capacity of the patient to take decisions related to daily activities; [2] The role of family physicians in nominating trustees and caregivers. Results: Answers to the first question did not differ regarding degree of preservation of awareness but at least 25% stressed that the patient must be carefully listened to, independent of caregiver or legal representative opinion. There were significant knowledge gaps in responses to the second question. Half of the physicians interviewed did not have adequate information about the legal aspects of caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: Legal aspects is a topic that must be incorporated into professional training in order to improve attitudes toward the long-term management of patients with dementia.

  2. PredictSNP2: A Unified Platform for Accurately Evaluating SNP Effects by Exploiting the Different Characteristics of Variants in Distinct Genomic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Musil, Miloš; Štourač, Jan; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Damborský, Jiří; Brezovský, Jan

    2016-05-01

    An important message taken from human genome sequencing projects is that the human population exhibits approximately 99.9% genetic similarity. Variations in the remaining parts of the genome determine our identity, trace our history and reveal our heritage. The precise delineation of phenotypically causal variants plays a key role in providing accurate personalized diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of inherited diseases. Several computational methods for achieving such delineation have been reported recently. However, their ability to pinpoint potentially deleterious variants is limited by the fact that their mechanisms of prediction do not account for the existence of different categories of variants. Consequently, their output is biased towards the variant categories that are most strongly represented in the variant databases. Moreover, most such methods provide numeric scores but not binary predictions of the deleteriousness of variants or confidence scores that would be more easily understood by users. We have constructed three datasets covering different types of disease-related variants, which were divided across five categories: (i) regulatory, (ii) splicing, (iii) missense, (iv) synonymous, and (v) nonsense variants. These datasets were used to develop category-optimal decision thresholds and to evaluate six tools for variant prioritization: CADD, DANN, FATHMM, FitCons, FunSeq2 and GWAVA. This evaluation revealed some important advantages of the category-based approach. The results obtained with the five best-performing tools were then combined into a consensus score. Additional comparative analyses showed that in the case of missense variations, protein-based predictors perform better than DNA sequence-based predictors. A user-friendly web interface was developed that provides easy access to the five tools' predictions, and their consensus scores, in a user-understandable format tailored to the specific features of different categories of variations. To

  3. Small proportions of silt linked to distinct and predictable differences in marine macrofaunal assemblages on the continental shelf of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S. K.; Politano, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Increasing interest in offshore development has motivated intensified efforts to map the seafloor for marine spatial planning. However, surficial geologic maps do not accurately represent habitats for various species groups of concern. This study used a bottom-up approach to integrate macrofaunal densities and benthic conditions on the Pacific Northwest shelf to identify macrofaunal assemblages and associated habitat features. Benthic cores and water-column profiles were collected from 137 stations from 50 to 110 m depth. Analyses grouping stations based on both similar species abundances and benthic conditions resulted in six broad habitats. Within the sampled depth and latitudinal range, sediment characteristics were the primary structuring variable. A major break in assemblages was detected between sediment that had less than 1% silt/clay and those containing more than 1% silt/clay. Assemblages differed primarily in the bivalve species present and secondarily in polychaete species. Within the greater than and less than 1% silt/clay habitats, further discretization of assemblages was based mostly on differing abundances of characteristic bivalves and polychaetes associated with differing median grain sizes, which did not correspond to traditional definitions of fine or medium sand. These data show that a bottom-up methodology is necessary to discern habitats for macrofauna and that site-specific physical sampling is necessary to predict macrofaunal assemblage composition. However, if detailed sediment characteristics are known, macrofaunal assemblages may be predicted without time-intensive biological sampling and processing. These results also indicate that seemingly small sedimentary changes due to offshore installations may have measureable effects on the relative abundances and even the species composition of macrofauna.

  4. Etiology, effect of soil pH and sweetpotato varietal reaction to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathogenicity and virulence of different isolates of A. bataticola and A. alternata were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Within 4 - 6 days following artificial inoculation, and depending on sweetpotato cultivar, the fungus produced characteristic symptoms typical of Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight. All the ...

  5. Different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus are involved in chromosomal translocations in distinct pathogenic forms of Burkitt lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, A.; Barriga, F.; Knowles, D.M.; Magrath, I.T.; Dalla-Favera, R.

    1988-04-01

    The authors show that endemic (eBL), sporadic (sBL), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated (AIDS-BL) forms of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) carrying t(8; 14) chromosomal translocations display different breakpoints within the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IGH) on chromosome 14. In sBL (7 out of 11) and AIDS-BL (5 out of 6), the breakpoints occurred within or near the IGH ..mu.. switch (S/sub mu/) region on chromosome 14 and within the c-myc locus (MYC) on chromosome 8. In most eBL (13 out of 16) the breakpoints were mapped within or 5' to the IGH joining J/sub H/ region on chromosome 14 and outside the MYC locus on chromosome 8. Cloning and sequencing of the (8; 14) chromosomal junctions from two eBL cell lines and one eBL biopsy sample show that the recombination do not involve IGH-specific recombination signals on chromosome 14 or homologous sequences on chromosome 8, suggesting that these events are not likely to be mediated by the same mechanisms or enzymes as in IGH rearrangements. In general, these data have implications for the timing of occurrence of chromosomal translocations during B-cell differentiation in different BL types.

  6. Analytical Evaluation and Antioxidant Properties of Some Secondary Metabolites in Northern Italian Mono- and Multi-Varietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs) from Early and Late Harvested Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Domenico; Smeriglio, Antonella; Marcoccia, Daniele; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Toscano, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Fabio; Giovanazzi, Angelo; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2017-04-11

    The antioxidant activity and the phenolic and α-tocopherol content of 10 Northern Italian mono- and multi-varietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs), after early and late olive harvests, was analyzed. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to evaluate sample similarity. Secoiridoids (SIDs), lignans and flavonoids were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified. The organic Casaliva (among mono-cultivar) and the organic multi-varietal (among blended oils) EVOOs had the higher total phenol content both in early (263.13 and 326.19 mg/kg, respectively) and late harvest (241.88 and 292.34 mg/kg, respectively) conditions. In comparison to late harvest EVOOs, early harvest EVOOs, in particular the organic mono-cultivar Casaliva, showed both higher antioxidant capacity (up to 1285.97 Oxygen Radicals Absorbance Capacity/ORAC units), probably due to the higher SID fraction (54% vs. 40%), and higher α-tocopherol content (up to 280.67 mg/kg). Overall, these results suggest that SIDs and α-tocopherol mainly contribute to antioxidant properties of the studied EVOOs. In light of this, the authors conclude that early harvest, organic mono-cultivar Casaliva EVOO represents the most interesting candidate to explicate healthy effects ascribed to these functional constituents, particularly regarding oxidative stress-related pathologies.

  7. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

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    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  8. A novel method for measuring cellular antibody uptake using imaging flow cytometry reveals distinct uptake rates for two different monoclonal antibodies targeting L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, John; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Altevogt, Peter; Brady, Nathan R

    2015-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy. Differing approaches utilize mAbs to either deliver a drug to the tumor cells or to modulate the host's immune system to mediate tumor kill. The rate by which a therapeutic antibody is being internalized by tumor cells is a decisive feature for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. We herein present a novel method to effectively quantitate antibody uptake of tumor cells by using image-based flow cytometry, which combines image analysis with high throughput of sample numbers and sample size. The use of this method is established by determining uptake rate of an anti-EpCAM antibody (HEA125), from single cell measurements of plasma membrane versus internalized antibody, in conjunction with inhibitors of endocytosis. The method is then applied to two mAbs (L1-9.3, L1-OV52.24) targeting the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) at two different epitopes. Based on median cell population responses, we find that mAb L1-OV52.24 is rapidly internalized by the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip while L1 mAb 9.3 is mainly retained at the cell surface. These findings suggest the L1 mAb OV52.24 as a candidate to be further developed for drug-delivery to cancer cells, while L1-9.3 may be optimized to tag the tumor cells and stimulate immunogenic cancer cell killing. Furthermore, when analyzing cell-to-cell variability, we observed L1 mAb OV52.24 rapidly transition into a subpopulation with high-internalization capacity. In summary, this novel high-content method for measuring antibody internalization rate provides a high level of accuracy and sensitivity for cell population measurements and reveals further biologically relevant information when taking into account cellular heterogeneity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. PMID:25657007

  10. Distinct mechanisms of recognizing endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) protein IST1 by different microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Emily Z; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-03-27

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is responsible for membrane remodeling in a number of biological processes including multivesicular body biogenesis, cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. In mammalian cells, efficient abscission during cytokinesis requires proper function of the ESCRT-III protein IST1, which binds to the microtubule interacting and trafficking (MIT) domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin via its C-terminal MIT-interacting motif (MIM). Here, we studied the molecular interactions between IST1 and the three MIT domain-containing proteins to understand the structural basis that governs pairwise MIT-MIM interaction. Crystal structures of the three molecular complexes revealed that IST1 binds to the MIT domains of VPS4, LIP5, and Spartin using two different mechanisms (MIM1 mode versus MIM3 mode). Structural comparison revealed that structural features in both MIT and MIM contribute to determine the specific binding mechanism. Within the IST1 MIM sequence, two phenylalanine residues were shown to be important in discriminating MIM1 versus MIM3 binding. These observations enabled us to deduce a preliminary binding code, which we applied to provide CHMP2A, a protein that normally only binds the MIT domain in the MIM1 mode, the additional ability to bind the MIT domain of Spartin in the MIM3 mode. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

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    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  13. Different receptors binding to distinct interfaces on herpes simplex virus gD can trigger events leading to cell fusion and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, Patricia G.; Manoj, Sharmila; Yoon, Miri; Jogger, Cheryl R.; Zago, Anna; Myscofski, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    One of the herpes simplex virus envelope glycoproteins, designated gD, is the principal determinant of cell recognition for viral entry. Other viral glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL, cooperate with gD to mediate the membrane fusion that is required for viral entry and cell fusion. Membrane fusion is triggered by the binding of gD to one of its receptors. These receptors belong to three different classes of cell surface molecules. This review summarizes recent findings on the structure and function of gD. The results presented indicate that gD may assume more than one conformation, one in the absence of receptor, another when gD is bound to the herpesvirus entry mediator, a member of the TNF receptor family, and a third when gD is bound to nectin-1, a cell adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Finally, information and ideas are presented about a membrane-proximal region of gD that is required for membrane fusion, but not for receptor binding, and that may have a role in activating the fusogenic activity of gB, gH and gL

  14. Distinct enzyme profiles in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis reflect heterogeneous causes with different outcomes after liver transplantation (OLT): a long-term documentation before and after OLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas; Neuhaus, Ruth; Klein, Reinhild; Leder, Korinna; Lobeck, Hartmut; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Müller, Andrea R; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Hopf, Uwe; Berg, Peter A; Neuhaus, Peter

    2002-09-27

    Sound information is lacking about the clinical presentation of cryptogenic cirrhosis and its outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Among 856 patients who have been transplanted at our center, 40 patients had no evidence of any known etiologies and were therefore defined as suffering from cryptogenic cirrhosis. Their median follow-up period before OLT was 78 months (range, 1-264), and after OLT 97 months (range, 1-132). Laboratory and histological data were evaluated according to features being compatible either with a toxic, hepatitic, or cholestatic condition. The clinical and histological findings differed specifically between these three groups. The toxic-like group (GGT 4-18 x upper limit of normal [ULN]) expressed significantly higher IgA levels, had histologically more often fatty liver changes, and risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis predominated (56% compared with 3% in the other groups, P=0.01). The hepatitic-like group (ALT 2-18 x ULN) showed histologically features of chronic hepatitis or hepatitic cirrhosis, and only among these patients a median International Autoimmune Hepatitis (IAH) score of 13 was found suggesting autoimmune hepatitis (AiH). In the cholestatic group (AP 2-8 x ULN) histology was compatible with a non-toxic inflammatory process but IAH score excluded AiH in all. After OLT, actuarial graft and patients survival was 90% at 5 years. Mild or moderate graft hepatitis occurred in 9 patients (23%) and was significantly associated with a pre-OLT IAH score >or= 10 (P =0.008). This study provides arguments that cryptogenic cirrhosis is a heterogeneous disease in which autoimmune mechanisms might be predominately involved and being responsible for recurrence of chronic liver disease observed in some instances after OLT.

  15. Species differences in the biotransformation of an alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist: the effects of distinct glucuronide metabolites on overall compound disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Gunduz, Mithat; Ryder, Tim F; O'Connell, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    The metabolism and disposition of (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzazepine (1), an alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys receiving (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-4[(14)C]-3- benzazepine hydrochloride ([(14)C]1) orally. Although both species chiefly (>or=62%) cleared 1 metabolically, species-specific dispositional profiles were observed for both 1 and total radioactivity. Radioactivity was excreted equally in the urine and feces of intact rats but largely (72%) in bile in bile duct-cannulated animals. In monkeys, radioactivity recoveries were 50-fold greater in urine than feces and minimal (<5%) in bile. Both species metabolized 1 similarly: four-electron oxidation to one of four amino acids or two lactams (minor) and glucuronide formation (major). In rats, the latter pathway predominantly formed an N-carbamoyl glucuronide (M6), exclusively present in bile (69% of dose), whereas in monkeys it afforded an N-O-glucuronide (M5), a minor biliary component (4%) but the major plasma (62%) and urinary (42%) entity. In rats, first-pass hepatic conversion of 1 to M6, which was confirmed in rat hepatocytes, and its biliary secretion resulted in the indirect enterohepatic cycling of 1 via M6 and manifested in double-humped plasma concentration-time curves and long t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity. In monkeys, in which only M5 was formed, double-humped plasma concentration-time curves were absent, and moderate t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity were observed. A seemingly subtle, yet critical, difference in the chemical structures of these two glucuronide metabolites considerably affected the overall disposition of 1 in rats versus monkeys.

  16. Epidemiological study of phylogenetic transmission clusters in a local HIV-1 epidemic reveals distinct differences between subtype B and non-B infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmet, Kristen; Staelens, Delfien; Blot, Stijn; Dinakis, Sylvie; Pelgrom, Jolanda; Plum, Jean; Vogelaers, Dirk; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Verhofstede, Chris

    2010-09-07

    The number of HIV-1 infected individuals in the Western world continues to rise. More in-depth understanding of regional HIV-1 epidemics is necessary for the optimal design and adequate use of future prevention strategies. The use of a combination of phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences, with data on patients' demographics, infection route, clinical information and laboratory results, will allow a better characterization of individuals responsible for local transmission. Baseline HIV-1 pol sequences, obtained through routine drug-resistance testing, from 506 patients, newly diagnosed between 2001 and 2009, were used to construct phylogenetic trees and identify transmission-clusters. Patients' demographics, laboratory and clinical data, were retrieved anonymously. Statistical analysis was performed to identify subtype-specific and transmission-cluster-specific characteristics. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences between the 59.7% of individuals with subtype B infection and the 40.3% non-B infected individuals, with regard to route of transmission, origin, infection with Chlamydia (p = 0.01) and infection with Hepatitis C virus (p = 0.017). More and larger transmission-clusters were identified among the subtype B infections (p HIV (p = 0.017). Combination of phylogenetics with demographic information, laboratory and clinical data, revealed that HIV-1 subtype B infected Caucasian men-who-have-sex-with-men with high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, account for the majority of local HIV-transmissions. This finding elucidates observed epidemiological trends through molecular analysis, and justifies sustained focus in prevention on this high risk group.

  17. Crown sheath rot of rice: host-range and varietal resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis

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    Cecília do Nascimento Peixoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several gramineous plants occurring in rice fields show symptoms of crown sheath rot of rice, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis (Ggg, under natural conditions of infection. The pathogenicity of the Ggg-a 01 isolate, collected from rice, was tested on seven grass species and eight cereals, under greenhouse conditions, in order to get information on host-range and resistance of rice genotypes to crown sheath rot. The inoculation tests showed that the rice isolate was pathogenic to weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Pennisetum setosum, Brachiaria sp., Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Eleusine indica and Cenchrus echinatus, and that these species are potential hosts to the pathogen. Winter cereals such as wheat, oat, rye, barley and triticale, as well as sorghum, maize and millet, presented different degrees of susceptibility to the Ggg-a isolate. Significant differences were observed in relation to lesion height and production of hyphopodia and perithecia on culms. Perithecia were not observed on millet, sorghum, southern sandbur and maize. The resistance of 58 upland rice genotypes was tested, and the SCIA16 and SCIA08 genotypes presented lesion height significantly smaller, being considered resistant, when compared to the highly susceptible CNAS10351 genotype.

  18. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Conclusion Our data

  19. Differences in Contractile Function of Myofibrils within Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes vs. Adult Ventricular Myofibrils Are Related to Distinct Sarcomeric Protein Isoforms

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    Bogdan Iorga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the contractile function of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs is key for advancing their utility for cellular disease models, promoting cell based heart repair, or developing novel pharmacological interventions targeting cardiac diseases. The aim of the present study was to understand whether steady-state and kinetic force parameters of β-myosin heavy chain (βMyHC isoform-expressing myofibrils within human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs differentiated in vitro resemble those of human ventricular myofibrils (hvMFs isolated from adult donor hearts. Contractile parameters were determined using the same micromechanical method and experimental conditions for both types of myofibrils. We identified isoforms and phosphorylation of main sarcomeric proteins involved in the modulation of force generation of both, chemically demembranated hESC-CMs (d-hESC-CMs and hvMFs. Our results indicate that at saturating Ca2+ concentration, both human-derived contractile systems developed forces with similar rate constants (0.66 and 0.68 s−1, reaching maximum isometric force that was significantly smaller for d-hESC-CMs (42 kPa than for hvMFs (94 kPa. At submaximal Ca2+-activation, where intact cardiomyocytes normally operate, contractile parameters of d-hESC-CMs and hvMFs exhibited differences. Ca2+ sensitivity of force was higher for d-hESC-CMs (pCa50 = 6.04 than for hvMFs (pCa50 = 5.80. At half-maximum activation, the rate constant for force redevelopment was significantly faster for d-hESC-CMs (0.51 s−1 than for hvMFs (0.28 s−1. During myofibril relaxation, kinetics of the slow force decay phase were significantly faster for d-hESC-CMs (0.26 s−1 than for hvMFs (0.21 s−1, while kinetics of the fast force decay were similar and ~20x faster. Protein analysis revealed that hESC-CMs had essentially no cardiac troponin-I, and partially non-ventricular isoforms of some other sarcomeric proteins

  20. Mapping QTLs controlling kernel dimensions in a wheat inter-varietal RIL mapping population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruiru; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Liwei; Xie, Quan; Jia, Haiyan; Yu, Dong; Huang, Yulong; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2017-07-01

    Seven kernel dimension QTLs were identified in wheat, and kernel thickness was found to be the most important dimension for grain weight improvement. Kernel morphology and weight of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affect both yield and quality; however, the genetic basis of these traits and their interactions has not been fully understood. In this study, to investigate the genetic factors affecting kernel morphology and the association of kernel morphology traits with kernel weight, kernel length (KL), width (KW) and thickness (KT) were evaluated, together with hundred-grain weight (HGW), in a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai, with data from five trials (two different locations over 3 years). The results showed that HGW was more closely correlated with KT and KW than with KL. A whole genome scan revealed four QTLs for KL, one for KW and two for KT, distributed on five different chromosomes. Of them, QKl.nau-2D for KL, and QKt.nau-4B and QKt.nau-5A for KT were newly identified major QTLs for the respective traits, explaining up to 32.6 and 41.5% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Increase of KW and KT and reduction of KL/KT and KW/KT ratios always resulted in significant higher grain weight. Lines combining the Nanda 2419 alleles of the 4B and 5A intervals had wider, thicker, rounder kernels and a 14% higher grain weight in the genotype-based analysis. A strong, negative linear relationship of the KW/KT ratio with grain weight was observed. It thus appears that kernel thickness is the most important kernel dimension factor in wheat improvement for higher yield. Mapping and marker identification of the kernel dimension-related QTLs definitely help realize the breeding goals.

  1. SUSCETIBILIDADE VARIETAL DE FRUTOS DE BANANEIRA AO FRIO COLD DAMAGE IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ALBERTO LICHTEMBERG

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Sul do Brasil, os danos causados pelo frio depreciam a qualidade da banana que permanece no campo durante o outono e inverno, dificultando a sua comercialização. Visando a verificar diferenças entre cultivares quanto à resistência ao frio no campo e em pós-colheita, foram realizados três experimentos em Itajaí-SC. No primeiro, foram avaliados os danos de frio em 13 cultivares do grupo AAA, 7 cultivares do grupo AAB, 6 híbridos do grupo AAAB e 1 cultivar do grupo ABB, em cachos colhidos em outubro de 1997. No segundo experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em cultivares dos grupos AAA, AAB, ABB e AAAB, em cachos colhidos de 07-05-99 a 27-08-99. No terceiro experimento, foram avaliados danos de frio em bananas de quatro cultivares, armazenadas a 10°C, durante 5, 10 e 20 dias. O genoma B conferiu maior resistência da fruta às baixas temperaturas, tanto a campo quanto na armazenagem. Verificaram-se diferenças quanto a danos de frio tanto entre grupos genômicos, quanto entre cultivares do mesmo grupo. A maior resistência às baixas temperaturas pode permitir o transporte de bananas dos grupos AAB, ABB e AAAB a longas distâncias, em temperaturas inferiores a 12°C.In Southern Brazil, banana bunches that remain in the field during the Fall and Winter are subject to cold damage. Three experiments were carried out in Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with the purpose of investigating the differences among banana cultivars as to their resistance to cold damage. In the first experiment, 13 AAA group cultivars, 7 AAB group cultivars, 6 AAAB hybrids and 1 ABB group cultivar were evaluated as to the level of cold damage. The second experiment evaluated banana bunches of cultivars of AAA, AAB, ABB, and AAAB groups, harvested from May 07/99 to August 27/99. The third experiment examined cold damage to banana clusters stored at 10°C during 5, 10 and 20 days. The B genome appeared to confer the greatest cold resistance to banana fruits, both in the

  2. Characterization of yields for Pinus taeda genotypes at the half-sib, full-sib, and varietal levels of genetic improvement at two planting densities at age 5 in the upper coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Dougherty; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Jeff Wright

    2012-01-01

    Seedling deployment options for the establishment of operational Pinus taeda plantations in the Southeastern U.S. now include half-sib families, full-sib crosses, and varietals. In 2005, a study to evaluate the effects of genotype and density on yield and quality was established on a moderately well-drained upland site in the Upper Coastal Plain in...

  3. Varietal performance of potato on induction and development of microtuber in response to sucrose

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    Md. Sadek Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques are the most momentous and extensively method to produce disease-free quality plantlets and microtubers in potato. In spite of this, there has been a lack of research information into in vitro microtuberization for seed tuber production program in Bangladesh. In this experiment, we assessed the appropriateness of different concentrations of sucrose with especial accent on their effects for induction and development of microtuber in potato varieties. In vitro plantlets of three potato varieties; Asterix, Granola, and Diamant were treated with eight level of sucrose as 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14% for 70 days of incubation producing microtuber. Asterix induces microtuber after 10.69 days, it was statistically shorter duration than other two varieties. Tuberization did not occur without sucrose and were required a minimum (8.92 days with 8% sucrose, while it delayed with either increasing or decreasing rate of sucrose concentration. A single number of microtuber was not formed in absence of sucrose after 28 days of incubation. Microtuber plantlet−1 was the highest more or less in all varieties at harvest with 8% sucrose concentration. Hundred percent of microtuber below 250 mg induced in 3% sucrose concentration and from then the microtuber grade induction decreased with the increase of sucrose concentration. >500 mg grade microtuber produced by Granola (47.95% with 10% sucrose while Diamant produced 50.15% above 500 mg grade microtuber with 14% sucrose. It is also noticeable by Astrerix variety where >500 mg microtuber were produced about 46.95% with 8% sucrose.

  4. The N- and C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains of Haemonchus contortus galectin bind to distinct receptors of goat PBMC and contribute differently to its immunomodulatory functions in host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, MingMin; Tian, XiaoWei; Yang, XinChao; Yuan, Cheng; Ehsan, Muhammad; Liu, XinChao; Yan, RuoFeng; Xu, LiXin; Song, XiaoKai; Li, XiangRui

    2017-09-05

    Hco-gal-m is a tandem-repeat galectin isolated from the adult worm of Haemonchus contortus. A growing body of studies have demonstrated that Hco-gal-m could exert its immunomodulatory effects on host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to facilitate the immune evasion. Our previous work revealed that C-terminal and N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) of Hco-gal-m had different sugar binding abilities. However, whether different domains of Hco-gal-m account differently for its multiple immunomodulatory functions in the host-parasite interaction remains to be elucidated. We found that the N-terminal CRD of Hco-gal-m (MNh) and the C-terminal CRD (MCh) could bind to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells by distinct receptors: transmembrane protein 63A (TMEM63A) was a binding receptor of MNh, while transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147) was a binding receptor of MCh. In addition, MCh was much more potent than MNh in inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, while MNh was much more effective in inhibiting NO production. Moreover, MNh could suppress the transcription of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but MCh not. Our data suggested that these two CRDs of Hco-gal-m bind to distinct receptors and contributed differently to its ability to downregulate host immune response. These results will improve our understanding of galectins from parasitic nematodes contributing to the mechanism of parasitic immune evasion and continue to illustrate the diverse range of biological activities attributable to the galectin family.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the diacylglycerol kinase family of proteins and identification of multiple highly-specific conserved inserts and deletions within the catalytic domain that are distinctive characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey S Gupta

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK family of proteins, which phosphorylates diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, play important role in controlling diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Most vertebrate species contain 10 different DGK isozymes, which are grouped into 5 different classes based on the presence or absence of specific functional domains. However, the relationships among different DGK isozymes or how they have evolved from a common ancestor is unclear. The catalytic domain constitutes the single largest sequence element within the DGK proteins that is commonly and uniquely shared by all family members, but there is limited understanding of the overall function of this domain. In this work, we have used the catalytic domain sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for the DGK family members from representatives of the main vertebrate classes and have also examined the distributions of various DGK isozymes in eukaryotic phyla. In a tree based on catalytic domain sequences, the DGK homologs belonging to different classes formed strongly supported clusters which were separated by long branches, and the different isozymes within each class also generally formed monophyletic groupings. Further, our analysis of the sequence alignments of catalytic domains has identified >10 novel sequence signatures consisting of conserved signature indels (inserts or deletions, CSIs that are distinctive characteristics of either particular classes of DGK isozymes, or are commonly shared by members of two or more classes of DGK isozymes. The conserved indels in protein sequences are known to play important functional roles in the proteins/organisms where they are found. Thus, our identification of multiple highly specific CSIs that are distinguishing characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs points to the existence of important differences in the catalytic domain function among the DGK isozymes. The identified CSIs in conjunction with

  6. Effect of Protein Molecular Weight Distribution on Kernel and Baking Characteristics and Intra-varietal Variation in Hard Spring Wheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific wheat protein fractions are known to have distinct associations with wheat quality traits. Research was conducted on 10 hard spring wheat cultivars grown at two North Dakota locations to identify protein fractions that affected wheat kernel characteristics and breadmaking quality. SDS ext...

  7. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  9. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  10. MiSNPDb: a web-based genomic resources of tropical ecology fruit mango (Mangifera indica L.) for phylogeography and varietal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iquebal, M A; Jaiswal, Sarika; Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Jayaswal, Pawan K; Angadi, U B; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Anand K; Srivastav, Manish; Prakash, Jai; Singh, S K; Khan, Kasim; Mishra, Rupesh K; Rajan, Shailendra; Bajpai, Anju; Sandhya, B S; Nischita, Puttaraju; Ravishankar, K V; Dinesh, M R; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R; Singh, Nagendra K

    2017-11-02

    Mango is one of the most important fruits of tropical ecological region of the world, well known for its nutritive value, aroma and taste. Its world production is >45MT worth >200 billion US dollars. Genomic resources are required for improvement in productivity and management of mango germplasm. There is no web-based genomic resources available for mango. Hence rapid and cost-effective high throughput putative marker discovery is required to develop such resources. RAD-based marker discovery can cater this urgent need till whole genome sequence of mango becomes available. Using a panel of 84 mango varieties, a total of 28.6 Gb data was generated by ddRAD-Seq approach on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 1.25 million SNPs were discovered. Phylogenetic tree using 749 common SNPs across these varieties revealed three major lineages which was compared with geographical locations. A web genomic resources MiSNPDb, available at http://webtom.cabgrid.res.in/mangosnps/ is based on 3-tier architecture, developed using PHP, MySQL and Javascript. This web genomic resources can be of immense use in the development of high density linkage map, QTL discovery, varietal differentiation, traceability, genome finishing and SNP chip development for future GWAS in genomic selection program. We report here world's first web-based genomic resources for genetic improvement and germplasm management of mango.

  11. Assessing the varietal origin of extra-virgin olive oil using liquid chromatography fingerprints of phenolic compound, data fusion and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Gómez-Romero, María; Ajal, El Amine; Bagur-González, María Gracia; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2017-01-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with diode array (DAD) and fluorescence (FLD) detection was used to acquire the fingerprints of the phenolic fraction of monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (extra-VOOs) collected over three consecutive crop seasons (2011/2012-2013/2014). The chromatographic fingerprints of 140 extra-VOO samples processed from olive fruits of seven olive varieties, were recorded and statistically treated for varietal authentication purposes. First, DAD and FLD chromatographic-fingerprint datasets were separately processed and, subsequently, were joined using "Low-level" and "Mid-Level" data fusion methods. After the preliminary examination by principal component analysis (PCA), three supervised pattern recognition techniques, Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) were applied to the four chromatographic-fingerprinting matrices. The classification models built were very sensitive and selective, showing considerably good recognition and prediction abilities. The combination "chromatographic dataset+chemometric technique" allowing the most accurate classification for each monovarietal extra-VOO was highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herman BEHRENS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and

  13. Stable MSAP markers for the distinction of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction.

  14. MHTGR product distinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    Commercial power reactor operating experience and regulatory practice in the United States is dominated by Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology. This experience base and regulatory structure is a point of departure for the development of any future nuclear option, and must be understood and utilized as appropriate. This report discusses experience with current generation plants considered relevant to MHTGR development, as well as the fundamental differences between the MHTGR and LWR technology, and quantifies avoided business risks relative to current generation plants. It does not attempt to compare the MHTGR with other advanced nuclear options, LWR or other technologies, which are also under development and must relate to the historical framework in accordance with their own unique characteristics. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol) modulate expression of two distinct cytochrome P450 aromatase genes differently in gender types of the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-06-30

    To understand the effect of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 aromatase (rm-cyp19) gene expression between gender types in the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus, we cloned two distinct rm-cyp19 genes using RT-PCR with degenerative primers, obtained full-length cDNAs using 5'- and 3'-RACE-PCR methods, and completely sequenced them. The brain aromatase (rm-cyp19b) cDNA consisted of 2,124 bp including the open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The ovarian aromatase (rm-cyp19a) cDNA consisted of 2,075 bp, including the ORF encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. Expression patterns of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a mRNAs were investigated in embryos of different developmental stages and in seven different tissues of adult fish. The rm-cyp19b gene in hermaphrodite and secondary male R. marmoratus was predominantly expressed in the brain, while the rm-cyp19a gene was expressed gender-specifically in the gonad. The expression of rm-cyp19b mRNA increased from stage 1 (2 d post fertilization) to stage 4 (12 d post fertilization) in a developmental stage-dependent manner but steeply decreased in the hatching stage. Compared to the rm-cyp19b gene, the abundance of ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a transcripts was very low, and its expression was first detected at stage 3 and then decreased gradually to the hatching stage. Alteration of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a gene expression was further analyzed in the brain and gonad by real-time RT-PCR 96 h after EDC exposure in hermaphrodites and secondary males. The brain aromatase rm-cyp19b gene was up-regulated in the brain after 4-nonylphenol (4-NP)-exposure, while the ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a gene was significantly down-regulated in the gonad. In 300 microg/L 4-tert octylphenol (4-tert-OP), or 600 microg/L bisphenol A-exposed brain and gonad, both rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a genes were up-regulated. In the case of secondary males, the rm-cyp19b gene was highly expressed in

  16. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  17. Diferenças Varietais nas Características Fotossintéticas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum Varietal Differences in the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum, Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos, a massa foliar específica (MFE e as curvas de eficiência fotossintética em resposta a luz solar em oito genótipos de capim-elefante (cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 e CNPGL 91-10-2 selecionados de acordo com o nível de produtividade estabelecido na época das águas. As concentrações de clorofila a (CHA, clorofila b (CHB e carotenóides (CRT mostraram relação altamente positiva, bem como as relações de clorofilas a/b (RAB e de clorofila total/carotenóides (RCC. Os teores de CHA e CHB foram mais altos no genótipo taiwan A-146. Os valores de MFE observados indicaram menor acúmulo de matéria seca por unidade de área foliar para os genótipos CNPGL 91-27-5 e CNPGL 91-27-1. O estudo das curvas de eficiência fotossintética dos genótipos possibilitou a determinação da taxa respiratória no escuro (Rd, da irradiância de compensação (Ic, do rendimento quântico (f e da assimilação fotossintética do carbono (Amax na saturação luminosa. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e mineiro apresentaram, respectivamente, cerca de 18 e 11% mais capacidade carboxilativa que os demais genótipos avaliados. Os genótipos taiwan A-146 e CNPGL 91-27-5 apresentaram valores de rendimento quântico (f próximos aos valores médios citados para plantas C4. A Rd oscilou entre 1,64 e 3,48 mmol m-2 s-1 e o Ic, entre 26,39 e 54,97 µmol m-2 s-1 nos oito genótipos. Constatou-se que, sob condições de irradiância e temperatura não-limitantes, o genótipo taiwan A-146 apresentou maior potencial fotossintético.Photosynthetic pigment content, specific leaf mass (SLM and carboxilative efficiency curves were obtained in response to sunlight in eight genotypes of elephantgrass selected according to productivities during the rainy season: cv. mineiro, CNPGL 91-01-2, CNPGL 91-02-4, CNPGL 91-19-1, cv. taiwan A-146, CNPGL 91-27-5, CNPGL 91-27-1 and CNPGL 91-10-2. Photosynthetic pigments were highly correlated, as well as chlorophyll a/b ratio (ABR and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (CCR. Chlorophyll a and b contents were highest in taiwan A-146 genotype. SLM values indicated smaller dry matter accumulation by unit area for CNPGL 91-27-5 and CNPGL 91-27-1. Establishment of carboxilative efficiency curves of the genotypes allowed the determination of dark respiration rate (Rd, light compensation point (Ic, quantum yield (f and maximum carbon photosynthetic assimilation (Amax in light saturation. The taiwan A-146 and mineiro genotypes presented, respectively, about 18% and 11% more carboxilative capacity that the other genotypes. Genotypes taiwan A-146 and CNPGL 91-27-5 showed values of quantum yield (f close to the average values reported for plants C4. Dark respiration rates varied between 1.64 and 3.38 µmol m-2 s-1 and Ic varied from 26.39 to 54.97 µmol m-2 s-1 in the eight genotypes. This study revealed that, under non limiting irradiance and temperature conditions, genotype taiwan A-146 presented highest photosynthetic rates.

  18. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  19. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  20. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in children and antagonize the growth-promoting action of GH in peripheral tissues. Recently, they have been shown to decrease GH binding. In this study we examine the molecular mechanisms by which the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and the phorbol ester phorbol...... of GH binding are also observed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably transfected with a rat liver GHR cDNA, further arguing that DEX and PMA act post-translationally on GHR. Using mutant GHRs stably expressed in CHO cells, amino acids 455-506 and tyrosines 333 and/or 338 of GHR were shown...... to be required for maximal DEX-induced inhibition of GH binding. DEX decreased GH binding to a GHR mutant F346A, which is reported to be deficient in ligand-induced internalization, suggesting that DEX decreases GH binding by a mechanism distinct from that of ligand-induced GHR internalization. PMA reduced GH...

  1. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  2. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  3. Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction for High Sensitivity Detection of Roundup Ready™ Soybean Seeds and Grains in Varietal Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong increase in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs observed over the years has led to a consolidation of transgenic seed industries worldwide. The dichotomy between the evaluated risk and the perceived risk of transgenic use has defined their level of acceptability among different global societies. GMOs have been widely applied to agricultural commodities, among them the Roundup Ready™ (RR™ soybean line GTS 40-3-2 has become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world. This variety was developed to confer plant tolerance against glyphosate-based agricultural herbicide Roundup Ready™. Issues related to detection and traceability of GMOs have gained worldwide interest due to their increasing global diffusion and the related socioeconomic and health implications. Also, due to the widespread use of GMOs in food production, labelling regulations have been established in some countries to protect the right of consumers and producers. Besides regulatory demand, consumer concern issues have resulted in the development of several methods of detecting and quantifying foods derived from genetically engineered crops and their raw materials. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been proven to be the method of choice to detect the presence or absence of the introduced genes of GMOs at DNA level. The present paper aims to verify whether the PCR technique can detect RR™ soybean seeds among conventional ones to further certification as non-GM soybean seeds and grains. This analysis could be accomplished through the development of new methodology called 'intentional contamination' of soybean conventional seeds or grains with the respective RR™ soybeans. The results show that the PCR method can be applied with high sensitivity in order to certify conventional soybean seeds and grains.

  4. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  5. PERFORMANCES AGRONOMIQUES DE QUELQUES VARIETES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    l'EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa. Agropecuaria). Selon Ikotun et al., (1990), des acariens appartenant à la famille des. Phytoséiides sont utilisés comme principaux agents de lutte contre les acariens verts. CONCLUSION. En définitive, pour la région d'Abengourou, les variétés améliorées IM84 et IM89, qui ont ...

  6. Shining Light on the Differences in Molecular Structural Chemical Makeup and the Cause of Distinct Degradation Behavior Between Malting- and Feed- Type Barley Using Synchrotorn FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.; Doiron, K.; Liu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein a-helix and β-sheet, but lower in the others (β-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  7. Thermal neutron activation analysis of different varieties of mustard and sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhamare, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na and K in different varietes of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a 252 Cf source with neutron flux of ∼10 9 n s -1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  8. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    -scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...

  9. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  11. Distinct difference in relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons for the induction of mitotic crossing over and intragenic reversion of the white-ivory allele in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Mituo

    1996-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 252 Cf neutrons was determined for two different types of somatic mutations, i.e., loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations and reversion of the mutant white-ivory eye-color, in Drosophila melanogaster. Loss of heterozygosity for wing-hair mutations results predominantly from mitotic crossing over induced in wing anlage cells of larvae, while the reverse mutation of eye-color is due to an intragenic structural change in the white locus on the X-chromosome. For a quantitative comparison of RBE values for these events, we have constructed a combined mutation assay system so that induced mutant wing-hair clones as well as revertant eye-color clones can be detected simultaneously in the same individuals. Larvae were irradiated at the age of 80±4 h post-oviposition with 252 Cf neutrons or 137 Cs γ-rays, and male adult flies were examined under the microscope for the presence of the two types of clonal mosaic spots appearing. The induction of wing-hair spots per dose unit was much greater for 252 Cf neutrons than for 137 Cs γ -rays, whereas the frequencies of eye-color reversion were similar for neutrons and γ-rays. The estimated RBE values of neutrons were 8.5 and 1.2 for the induction of mutant wing-hair spots and revertant eye-color spots, respectively. These results indicate that the RBE of neutrons is much greater for mitotic crossing over in comparison to the intragenic white-ivory reversion events. Possible causes for the difference in RBE are discussed

  12. FSHD myotubes with different phenotypes exhibit distinct proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Alexandra; Leroy, Baptiste; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Wauters, Armelle; Vanderplanck, Céline; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Coppée, Frédérique; Wattiez, Ruddy; Belayew, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscle disorder linked to a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array in the 4q35 subtelomeric region. This deletion induces epigenetic modifications that affect the expression of several genes located in the vicinity. In each D4Z4 element, we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene. DUX4 expresses a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of FSHD through the initiation of a large gene dysregulation cascade that causes myogenic differentiation defects, atrophy and reduced response to oxidative stress. Because miRNAs variably affect mRNA expression, proteomic approaches are required to define the dysregulated pathways in FSHD. In this study, we optimized a differential isotope protein labeling (ICPL) method combined with shotgun proteomic analysis using a gel-free system (2DLC-MS/MS) to study FSHD myotubes. Primary CD56(+) FSHD myoblasts were found to fuse into myotubes presenting various proportions of an atrophic or a disorganized phenotype. To better understand the FSHD myogenic defect, our improved proteomic procedure was used to compare predominantly atrophic or disorganized myotubes to the same matching healthy control. FSHD atrophic myotubes presented decreased structural and contractile muscle components. This phenotype suggests the occurrence of atrophy-associated proteolysis that likely results from the DUX4-mediated gene dysregulation cascade. The skeletal muscle myosin isoforms were decreased while non-muscle myosin complexes were more abundant. In FSHD disorganized myotubes, myosin isoforms were not reduced, and increased proteins were mostly involved in microtubule network organization and myofibrillar remodeling. A common feature of both FSHD myotube phenotypes was the disturbance of several caveolar proteins, such as PTRF and MURC. Taken together, our data suggest changes in trafficking and in the membrane microdomains of FSHD myotubes. Finally, the adjustment of a nuclear fractionation compatible with mass spectrometry allowed us to highlight alterations of proteins involved in mRNA processing and stability.

  13. FSHD myotubes with different phenotypes exhibit distinct proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tassin

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a progressive muscle disorder linked to a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array in the 4q35 subtelomeric region. This deletion induces epigenetic modifications that affect the expression of several genes located in the vicinity. In each D4Z4 element, we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4 gene. DUX4 expresses a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of FSHD through the initiation of a large gene dysregulation cascade that causes myogenic differentiation defects, atrophy and reduced response to oxidative stress. Because miRNAs variably affect mRNA expression, proteomic approaches are required to define the dysregulated pathways in FSHD. In this study, we optimized a differential isotope protein labeling (ICPL method combined with shotgun proteomic analysis using a gel-free system (2DLC-MS/MS to study FSHD myotubes. Primary CD56(+ FSHD myoblasts were found to fuse into myotubes presenting various proportions of an atrophic or a disorganized phenotype. To better understand the FSHD myogenic defect, our improved proteomic procedure was used to compare predominantly atrophic or disorganized myotubes to the same matching healthy control. FSHD atrophic myotubes presented decreased structural and contractile muscle components. This phenotype suggests the occurrence of atrophy-associated proteolysis that likely results from the DUX4-mediated gene dysregulation cascade. The skeletal muscle myosin isoforms were decreased while non-muscle myosin complexes were more abundant. In FSHD disorganized myotubes, myosin isoforms were not reduced, and increased proteins were mostly involved in microtubule network organization and myofibrillar remodeling. A common feature of both FSHD myotube phenotypes was the disturbance of several caveolar proteins, such as PTRF and MURC. Taken together, our data suggest changes in trafficking and in the membrane microdomains of FSHD myotubes. Finally, the adjustment of a nuclear fractionation compatible with mass spectrometry allowed us to highlight alterations of proteins involved in mRNA processing and stability.

  14. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  15. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  16. Distribuição geográfica e diversidade varietal de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado no Estado de São Paulo Geographic distribution and varietal diversity of temperate fruits and nuts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se, de 1998 a 2002, os locais e as áreas de cultivo, o número de plantas e as principais espécies e cultivares comerciais de frutíferas e nozes de clima temperado do Estado de São Paulo. Para tanto, analisaram-se os dados do Projeto LUPA (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agrícola do Estado de São Paulo e de consultas aos fruticultores de diversas regiões paulistas. Verificou-se a existência de 6 famílias botânicas, 11 gêneros e 12 principais espécies de frutíferas e uma de noz de clima temperado. São elas, em ordem decrescente do número de plantas: videira rústica, videira fina, pessegueiro (incluindo nectarineira, figueira, caquizeiro, nogueira-macadâmia, macieira, ameixeira, pereira européia, pereira asiática, nespereira, quivizeiro e marmeleiro, sendo as duas primeiras responsáveis por 51% de toda a área ocupada com as referidas culturas de clima temperado. Constatou-se que esse segmento da fruticultura está sendo praticado em 9.510 propriedades de 65% dos municípios paulistas, englobando todas as 40 regionais agrícolas da CATI (Coordenadoria de Assistência Técnica e Integral, existentes no Estado. A videira e a pereira foram as únicas culturas que apresentaram mais de uma espécie botânica sendo cultivada comercialmente. Foram detectadas 53 principais cultivares, sendo a cultura do pessegueiro responsável pela maior fonte de diversidade varietal. Considerando as épocas de colheita das frutíferas e nozes pesquisadas, observaram-se produções de frutos em todos os meses do ano, especialmente entre outubro e abril. Registraram-se novos e importantes nichos de cultivo nas regiões de Jales, Presidente Prudente, Barretos e Jaú, com predominância das uvas finas, das pêras asiáticas, dos pêssegos adaptados e da nogueira-macadâmia, respectivamente.During the period of 1998 to 2002 it was investigated, through the LUPA census (Levantamento Censitário de Unidades de Produção Agr

  17. 10 distinct stellar populations in omega Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cool, Adrienne; King, Ivan R.; van der marel, roeland p.

    2015-08-01

    We are constructing the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster. The core of omega Centauri has been imaged over 600 times through WFC3’s UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist ~30 exposures each for 26 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 12-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than triple both the accuracy and the number of well-measured stars compared to previous studies.This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 400,000 stars, from the red-giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any globular cluster. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify 10 distinct sequences.

  18. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  19. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  20. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  1. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  2. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  3. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  4. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  6. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  8. Genotypic difference in "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of "1"3"7Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg"−"1 dry weight ("1"3"7Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed "1"3"7Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less "1"3"7Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the "1"3"7Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. - Highlights: • Varietal difference in the biomass, "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer factor was found in azuki. • "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the azuki bean accessions by as much as 10 folds. • Different accumulation patterns among the azuki bean accessions depends on their growth performance.

  9. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  10. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  12. An Objective Approach to Identify Spectral Distinctiveness for Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the process of developing speech perception, speech-language pathologists have to teach a subject with hearing loss the differences between two syllables by manually enhancing acoustic cues of speech. However, this process is time consuming and difficult. Thus, this study proposes an objective approach to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness between two syllables, which is used for speech-perception training. To accurately represent the characteristics of speech, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients are selected as analytical parameters. The mismatch between two syllables in time domain is handled by dynamic time warping. Further, a filter bank is adopted to estimate the components in different frequency bands, which are also represented as mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients. The spectral distinctiveness in different frequency bands is then easily estimated by using Euclidean metrics. Finally, a morphological gradient operator is applied to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness. To evaluate the proposed approach, the identified regions are manipulated and then the manipulated syllables are measured by a close-set based speech-perception test. The experimental results demonstrated that the identified regions of spectral distinctiveness are very useful in speech perception, which indeed can help speech-language pathologists in speech-perception training.

  13. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  14. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  15. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  16. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  17. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  18. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  19. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  20. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  1. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  2. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  3. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  6. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  8. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  9. Efecto del riego y la poda en el contenido de componentes menores y ácidos grasos del aceite de oliva virgen varietal Farga

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Julieta; Zuritz, Carlos Alberto; Gascón, Alejandro David; Morábito, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different irrigation and pruning strategies on the amount of substances related to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils of the variety Farga (polyphenols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and fatty acids), was analyzed. Four treatments were used: T100%SP (irrigation supplying 100% of the plants' evaporative transpiration demand (Etc) during the entire cycle, without winter pruning); T50%SP (irrigation supplying 50% of the plants' Etc from pit hardening to harvest, without winte...

  10. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  11. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  12. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  13. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  14. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  15. Caracterização Agronômica E Fenológica De Genótipos De Arroz Irrigado Para Determinação De Mistura Varietal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiza Francisca Ribeiro Chagas

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar genótipos semelhantes quanto à características agronômicas e fenológicas para a formação de uma mistura varietal. O experimento foi realizado no campus de Gurupi, Universidade Federal do Tocantins. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado (DIC com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de 37 genótipos de arroz irrigado. As características avaliadas foram germinação, floração, altura da planta, peso das panículas, comprimento das panículas, peso de 100 grãos, forma do grão, classe do grão, presença da arista e cor das glumelas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias avaliadas pelo teste de agrupamento de Scott-Knott, ao nível de 5 % de probabilidade e análise multivariada. Evidenciou-se diferença significativa para a maioria das características estudadas, indicando variabilidade entre os genótipos. O genótipo Irri 344 chegou a floração aos 74 dias após o plantio, seguido dos cultivares Javaé e Irga 417 com 79 dias. O genótipo Eloni e o Mutante Multiespigueta da Embrapa foram os que apresentaram o ciclo mais tardio. Os genótipos com maior altura foram: Tetep com 131,3 cm e o Basmati com 128,3 cm. Para a classe do grão a maioria dos genótipos foi classificada como longo fino. Na análise multivariada houve a formação de 7 grupos. A floração foi à característica que mais influenciou na determinação dos grupos, exceto para o grupo 1 composto pelos genótipos Tetep e Basmati, que se distanciaram também em relação à altura. Os genótipos CNAI 5287, CNAI 9930 e Irri 344 não foram incluídos em nenhuma dos grupos, sendo a característica classe de grãos que determinou a maior dissimilaridade em relação aos demais grupos.  Palavras-chave: Oryza sativa, descritores morfológicos, brusone, mistura de cultivares.

  16. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  17. Evaluation of Varietal Resistance as a Management Strategy for Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) Trybom and Frankliniella Occidentals Peragande) on French Bean (Phaseolus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambua, E.M

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of 9 French bean varieties was undertaken during the period of November 2001 to April 2002 to evaluate the resistance of these varieties to thrips (Megaluthrothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis). This was done in two planting phases using randomised complete block design with four replicates in each phase. It was evident from the study that there are significant differences in resistance to thrips by these varieties. Monel variety was found to be the most susceptible and Impala the least. Frankliniella was more abundant than Megalurothrips sjostedti during the study period. The ratio of M. sjostedti to F. occidentalis on flowers was 1:5 and 1:7 during 1 s t and 2 n d planting respectively

  18. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae among Eggplant Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Tayeb Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB. The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL, JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ, DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ, QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ, and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values than to the bright green leaves (medium G value, but the short wavelength light (higher B value had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  20. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  2. L'impact de l'enseignement de la biologie sur la construction de la distinction entre normal et pathologique chez les eleves du secondaire Marocain (The Impact of Teaching Biology on the Way Moroccan High School Students Construe the Difference between Normal and Pathological).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khzami, Salah-Eddine; Favre, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Study of the distinction between the notions of the normal and the pathological among Moroccan high school students and their teachers of biology found that students confused the registers of the normal/abnormal with the healthy/pathological, a fact that is at odds with current teaching in biology. It also found a possible link to the values held…

  3. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  4. What Makes Counsellors Working in Primary Care Distinct from Counsellors Working in Other Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Allez, Glyn

    2000-01-01

    Counseling in primary care can be considered a fast-evolving profession that is distinct from counseling in the private sector. Differences in counselor roles, specifically confidentiality ethics and working hours, are discussed. Referrals and attrition are also discussed. The distinctiveness of primary care counseling versus working in more…

  5. Efecto del riego y la poda en el contenido de componentes menores y ácidos grasos del aceite de oliva virgen varietal Farga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteleone, J. I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different irrigation and pruning strategies on the amount of substances related to the oxidative stability of virgin olive oils of the variety Farga (polyphenols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and fatty acids, was analyzed. Four treatments were used: T100%SP (irrigation supplying 100% of the plants’ evaporative transpiration demand (Etc during the entire cycle, without winter pruning; T50%SP (irrigation supplying 50% of the plants’ Etc from pit hardening to harvest, without winter pruning; T100%CP (irrigation supplying 100%, with pruning and T50%CP (irrigation supplying 50%, with pruning. The plants’ hydric status was monitored through the stem hydric potential (SHP at noon, and the soil moisture content and the photosynthetically active incident radiation within the tree branches were determined. The olive sampling was taken from pre-ripening to full maturity. The oil was extracted from the olives by grinding them in a laboratory screw type mill with thermo-kneading. The separation of solid and liquid phases was performed using a hand press and decanter to remove the oil. Chlorophylls and carotenoids (absorbance at 670 nm and 472 nm and total polyphenols (at 725 nm, were determined by spectrophotometry on the mechanically extracted oil. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography (CGC. Oil yield data show no statistical differences between deficit irrigation covering 50% of the ETc and the control treatment, both in plants with or without pruning. The contents of polyphenols, chlorophylls and carotenoids in the oils decrease with fruit ripening, regardless of the initial content and treatment. Deficit irrigation treatments (T 50% have higher contents of polyphenols (except for pre-envero sampling, chlorophylls and carotenoids. There are no statistically significant differences between treatments with and without pruning.Se analizó el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego y poda, sobre el contenido de

  6. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  7. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  8. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  9. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  10. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  11. Morphological distinctiveness of Javan Tupaia hypochrysa (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, represents a species complex with a complicated taxonomic history. It is distributed mostly south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. In our recent revision of a portion of this species complex, we did not fully assess the population from Java (T. “glis” hypochrysa) because of our limited sample. Herein, we revisit this taxon using multivariate analyses in comparisons with T. glis, T. chrysogaster of the Mentawai Islands, and T. ferruginea from Sumatra. Analyses of both the manus and skull of Javan T. “glis” hypochrysa show it to be most similar to T. chrysogaster and distinct from both T. glis and T. ferruginea. Yet, the Javan population and T. chrysogaster have different mammae counts, supporting recognition of T. hypochrysa as a distinct species. The change in taxonomic status of T. hypochrysa has conservation implications for both T. glis and this Javan endemic.

  12. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  13. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  14. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa diversity in distinct paediatric patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    the other groups. A group of clonal isolates was observed among patients from the CF-chronic and CF-1 groups. These or different clonal isolates were not encountered among the three other patient groups. No characteristic resistance pattern could be identified among isolates from the distinct patient groups......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that often infects patients who are either immunocompromised or have local defects in host defences. It is known that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are sometimes infected with certain clonal isolates. It is not clear whether these clonal isolates also infect non......-CF patients and whether clonality of isolates occurs in other patient groups. The aim of this study was to investigate P. aeruginosa diversity and the occurrence of clones within five distinct paediatric patient groups susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection. P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured from 157...

  16. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  17. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN...) Dipped Seedless includes all raisins produced by artificial dehydration of seedless grapes that possess...

  18. Rice varietal screening: Relationship between certain Agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... between September 1994 and June 1996 to study the relationship between iron toxicity and some agronomic parameters, with the objective of improving the method of screening. Twenty eight varieties (treatments) were transplanted, 21 days after sowing, into adjacent iron toxic and non-toxic fields in Korhogo in northern ...

  19. evaluation et selection participative des varietes ameliorees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Le manque de semences de variétés performantes constitue au Bénin l'une des contraintes au développement de la production de ... Quatre variétés, comportant trois variétés améliorées du Burkina-Faso et ... Il est suivi du Niger avec 650.

  20. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  1. Mistakes To Avoid In Attacking The Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experimental critique of the moral/conventional (M/C distinction, Kelly et al. (2007 present new experimental data about responses to transgressions involving harm, where the novelty is that transgressors are grown-ups, rather than children. Their data do not support the moral/conventional distinction. The contrast between grown-up and schoolyard transgressions does not seem, however, to explain their results: they also use two schoolyard transgressions with similar negative results for the M/C distinction.I here attempt to explain away their results by calling attention to two mistakes in their experimental design. One refers to the use of questionnaire-items of the type that Turiel and collaborators have called mixed-domain situations, which extend over both a moral and a conventional domain. Participants respond to these cases differently than to prototypical moral situations, because some allow the authority rule to override the moral rule. The second mistake emerges in the grown-up transgressions labeled as Whipping/temporal, Whipping/Authority, Spanking/Authority, Prisoner abuse/Authority. These are not the typical transgressions unambiguously “involving a victim who has been harmed, whose rights have been violated, or who has been subject to an injustice”. The victims are also transgressors and harm is inflicted on them as punishment. Plausibly, rules about corporal punishment depend on authority in a way that rules about harming the innocent do not.

  2. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Distinct Evening Fatigue Profiles in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Chen, Lee-May; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kober, Kord M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom experienced by oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Fatigue severity demonstrates a large amount of inter-individual and diurnal variability. Purpose Study purposes were to evaluate for subgroups of patients with distinct evening fatigue profiles and evaluate how these subgroups differed on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=1332) completed questionnaires six times over two cycles of CTX. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) evaluated evening fatigue severity. Latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct evening fatigue profiles. Results Four distinct evening fatigue classes (i.e., Low (14.0%), Moderate (17.2%), High (36.0%), Very High (32.8%)) were identified. Compared to the Low class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were: younger, female, had childcare responsibilities, had more years of education, had a lower functional status, had a higher comorbidity burden, and were diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients in the Very High class reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusions Findings provide new insights into modifiable risk factors for higher levels of evening fatigue. Clinicians can use this information to identify higher risk patients and plan appropriate interventions. PMID:29725554

  4. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  5. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  6. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  7. The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2018-05-01

    Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases? This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person's relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.

  8. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  9. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q-γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2 for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  10. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  12. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.

  13. Natural Microbial Assemblages Reflect Distinct Organismal and Functional Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    also highlights the importance of strain heterogeneity for the maintenance of community structure and function. These findings explain the importance of genetic diversity in facilitating the stable performance of complex microbial processes. Furthermore, although very different in terms of habitat, both microbial communities exhibit distinct functional compartmentalization and demonstrate its role in sustaining microbial community structure.

  14. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  15. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  16. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  17. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. Timing the Generation of Distinct Retinal Cells by Homeobox Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Sarah; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Vignali, Robert; Barsacchi, Giuseppina; Cremisi, Federico

    2006-01-01

    The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of “sensors” in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), we found that the 3′ UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities. PMID:16903786

  19. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decembrini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of "sensors" in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3' untranslated region (UTR, we found that the 3' UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities.

  20. Distribution of assimilates derived from canopy leaves at different milky stage of intergeneric high-yielding hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianjun

    1997-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of assimilates derived from 14 C-glucose fed on different canopy leaves of the high-yielding intergeneric hybrid rice Yuanyou 1 and GER-1, intra-varietal 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63, maternal and paternal parents of intergeneric hybrid rice at various ripening stage from flowering stage to late milky stage were studied with pot experiments under greenhouse in 1993 and 1994 in Guangzhou. The results indicates that there exists a significant difference in exportation of radioactivity from the leaf fed, partitioning of radioactivity exported into different organs and importation accumulation percent of total radioactivity in the rice panicle Yuanyou 1 has a high average exportation percent, importation accumulation percent and a stable and sustainable grain-filling process, which results in a high seed-setting rate with large spikelet population

  1. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  2. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  3. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2011-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients’ cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  4. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  5. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  6. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  7. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  8. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (Ppermanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  9. Branchial Cilia and Sperm Flagella Recruit Distinct Axonemal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Alu; Shiba, Kogiku; Cai, Chunhua; Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1) Isoforms of α- and β-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2) Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3) Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation. PMID:25962172

  10. Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia; Joo, Brian W; Hu, Jimmy K; Tran, Pamela V; Calicchio, Monica L; O'Connell, Daniel J; Maas, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-10-27

    We conducted a genetic analysis of the developing temporo-mandibular or temporomandi-bular joint (TMJ), a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mammalian jaw. First, we used laser capture microdissection to perform a genome-wide expression analysis of each of its developing components. The expression patterns of genes identified in this screen were examined in the TMJ and compared with those of other synovial joints, including the shoulder and the hip joints. Striking differences were noted, indicating that the TMJ forms via a distinct molecular program. Several components of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are among the genes identified in the screen, including Gli2, which is expressed specifically in the condyle and in the disk of the developing TMJ. We found that mice deficient in Gli2 display aberrant TMJ development such that the condyle loses its growth-plate-like cellular organization and no disk is formed. In addition, we used a conditional strategy to remove Smo, a positive effector of the Hh signaling pathway, from chondrocyte progenitors. This cell autonomous loss of Hh signaling allows for disk formation, but the resulting structure fails to separate from the condyle. Thus, these experiments establish that Hh signaling acts at two distinct steps in disk morphogenesis, condyle initiation, and disk-condyle separation and provide a molecular framework for future studies of the TMJ.

  11. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  12. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  13. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  14. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  15. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  16. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  18. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  19. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  20. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing/technology relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    I consider the discursive practices that have served conceptually and ontologically to trouble the boundaries between nursing and technology: between nurse/human/subject and machine/non-human/object. Nursing and technology have been semiotically related largely by two processes: (a) by the metaphor that depicts nursing as technology and (b) by opposition, or as not like and even in conflict with technology. Less frequently but no less significantly, nursing and technology have been semiotically linked (c) by the metaphor that depicts technology as nursing and (d) by metonymy, or by word or picture juxtapositions of nursing with technology. The troubling distinctions between nursing and technology suggest yet another reason why the construction of difference continues to elude nursing.

  1. Distinctive Facial Cues Predict Leadership Rank and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Facial appearance correlates with leadership, both in terms of who is chosen (leader selection) and how they do (leader success). Leadership theories suggest that exceptional individuals acquire positions as leaders. Exceptional traits can differ between domains, however, and so the qualities valued in leaders in one occupation may not match those valued among leaders in another. To test this, we compared the relationship between facial appearance and leadership across two domains: law firms and mafia families. Perceptions of power correlated with leadership among law executives whereas social skill correlated with leadership in organized crime. Critically, these traits were distinctive within their respective groups. Furthermore, an experimental test showed that the relative frequency of facial traits in a group can render them either an asset or liability. Perceived leadership ability is therefore enhanced by characteristics that appear unique among individuals who satisfy the basic criteria for their group.

  2. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-29

    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.

  4. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  5. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2012-04-20

    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  6. Culture and the distinctiveness motive: constructing identity in individualistic and collectivistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matt; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, M Cristina; Koller, Silvia H; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Wang, Qian; Bond, Michael Harris; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Valk, Aune; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Nizharadze, George; Fülöp, Marta; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Harb, Charles; Aldhafri, Said; Martin, Mariana; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Chybicka, Aneta; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Ozgen, Emre; Güner, Ulkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil

    2012-04-01

    The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achieve feelings of distinctiveness, rather than influence the strength of their motivation to do so. We measured the distinctiveness motive using an indirect technique to avoid cultural response biases. Analyses showed that the distinctiveness motive was not weaker-and, if anything, was stronger-in more collectivistic nations. However, individualism-collectivism was found to moderate the ways in which feelings of distinctiveness were constructed: Distinctiveness was associated more closely with difference and separateness in more individualistic cultures and was associated more closely with social position in more collectivistic cultures. Multilevel analysis confirmed that it is the prevailing beliefs and values in an individual's context, rather than the individual's own beliefs and values, that account for these differences. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  8. The Role of Techne in the Authenticity-Inauthenticity Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lebedeva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose to do the following: I will discuss the notions of intentionality and self-understanding of Dasein as developed in Heidegger's Basic Problems of Phenomenology. In doing so, I will try to show the interrelation of Dasein's always being intentionally directed towards something and its self-interpretation. As we will see, the everyday world has, for Heidegger, a character of "equipmental contexture." This means that Dasein returns to itself from out of things, equipment, tools, or - quite differently - the work of art. In a word, Dasein is mirrored back toward itself from the things made, from the products of techne. From this will follow the important distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity. There is a sense in which the following pairings could be discerned: tools or pieces of equipment link up with inauthenticity, while the work of art links up with authenticity. I will say more on the subject of tools a bit later in the essay. Both kinds of things are things insofar as they are entrenched in techne. The common root seems almost inexplicable in the light of the vast difference between tools and the artwork. Moreover, both Dasein and techne seem to have another equally enigmatic common root: that of temporality. Temporality is the essential bond between Dasein and the double sense of techne, which suggests the double-sidedness of temporality itself. It is precisely this doublesidedness that I would like to have as the backdrop to my discussion as a whole. Finally, I will turn to a few pages of Heidegger's Being and Time and Bernard Stiegler's book Technics and Time I in order to complicate this notion of the two senses of temporality, the owned and disowned, originary and everyday, and its relation to work and techne. The overarching question here will be: Can the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity be sustained?

  9. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Nagendra K

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India's huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon , and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated 'Pro-Indica,' 'Pro-Aus,' and 'Mid-Gangetic,' which showed poor correspondence with the morpho - taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the 'Pro-Indica' and 'Pro-Aus' sub-populations across agro-climatic zones, indicating a more

  10. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P.; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Nagendra K.

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro-climatic zones

  11. Peer Group, Educational Distinction and Educational Biographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Heinz-Hermann; Kohler, Sina-Mareen; Pfaff, Nicolle; Zschach, Maren

    2011-01-01

    The article presents selected results of a reconstructive study on the significance of the peer group for children's educational biography. Based on the analysis of qualitative interviews and group discussions with c. 11-year-old children from different educational milieus in Germany it is first shown how, in general, groups of friends in…

  12. Developmental Invariance in Distinctiveness Effects in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    Improvements in 5- and 7-year-olds' acquisition and retention of related concept pairings were examined when additional similarities and differences between pair members were provided. Using a standard paired-associate learning paradigm, children learned 18 related picture pairs; some of the children either were given or produced additional…

  13. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood, involving more complex mechanisms than those in the stomach and proximal duodenum. There is clear evidence for important contributions to NSAID enteropathy of enteric bacteria, bile and enterohepatic recirculation of the NSAID. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. Indeed, clinical data suggest little, if any, benefit. Animal studies suggest a significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy when proton pump inhibitors are co-administered with the NSAID. This worsening of damage appears to be linked to changes in the number and types of bacteria in the small intestine during proton pump inhibitor therapy. The distinct mechanisms of NSAID-induced injury in the stomach/proximal duodenum versus the more distal small intestine likely dictate distinct strategies for prevention. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. The distinct nature of hematopoietic stem cell subpopulations studied in long-term stroma-associated culture in the mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van der Sluijs

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis a number of experiments is described which give evidence for the notion of a distinct nature of CFU-S and cells with LTRA in the mouse. The distinct nature is illustrated by the difference in growth characteristics of CFU-S and LTRA cells on preestablished bone

  15. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  16. Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, K A; Pascual-Leone, A; Mottaghy, F M; Gangitano, M; Caramazza, A

    2001-08-15

    Selective deficits in producing verbs relative to nouns in speech are well documented in neuropsychology and have been associated with left hemisphere frontal cortical lesions resulting from stroke and other neurological disorders. The basis for these impairments is unresolved: Do they arise because of differences in the way grammatical categories of words are organized in the brain, or because of differences in the neural representation of actions and objects? We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to suppress the excitability of a portion of left prefrontal cortex and to assess its role in producing nouns and verbs. In one experiment subjects generated real words; in a second, they produced pseudowords as nouns or verbs. In both experiments, response latencies increased for verbs but were unaffected for nouns following rTMS. These results demonstrate that grammatical categories have a neuroanatomical basis and that the left prefrontal cortex is selectively engaged in processing verbs as grammatical objects.

  17. Two distinct ballistic processes in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewkowicz, M; Rosenstein, B; Nghiem, D

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to ballistic transport in mesoscopic graphene samples of finite length Land contact potential difference with leads U is developed. It is shown that at ballistic times shorter than both relevant time scales, t L = L/v g (v g - Fermi velocity) and t u = ħ/(eU), the major effect of electric field is to creates the electron - hole pairs, namely causes interband transitions. At ballistic times lager than the two scales the mechanism is very different. The conductivity has its “nonrelativistic” or intraband value equal to the one obtained within the Landauer-Butticker approach for the barrier Uresulting from evanescent waves tunneling through the barrier.

  18. Pornographic addiction: Is it a distinct entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kadiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all the different types of behavioral addictions, the one related to sexual activity is probably the most difficult to treat as we are reluctant to discuss issues related to sex. From innocuous viewing of pornographic content in adolescence, a 34-year-old married male for 6 years becomes addicted to it. The case highlights the importance of recognizing pornographic addiction as a disorder and the difficulties encountered in its management.

  19. Rational emotive behaviour therapy: distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2008-01-01

    Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook.\\ud \\ud This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approac...

  20. Distinct timing mechanisms produce discrete and continuous movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Huys

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of discrete and continuous movement is one of the pillars of motor behavior classification. Discrete movements have a definite beginning and end, whereas continuous movements do not have such discriminable end points. In the past decade there has been vigorous debate whether this classification implies different control processes. This debate up until the present has been empirically based. Here, we present an unambiguous non-empirical classification based on theorems in dynamical system theory that sets discrete and continuous movements apart. Through computational simulations of representative modes of each class and topological analysis of the flow in state space, we show that distinct control mechanisms underwrite discrete and fast rhythmic movements. In particular, we demonstrate that discrete movements require a time keeper while fast rhythmic movements do not. We validate our computational findings experimentally using a behavioral paradigm in which human participants performed finger flexion-extension movements at various movement paces and under different instructions. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system employs different timing control mechanisms (presumably via differential recruitment of neural subsystems to accomplish varying behavioral functions such as speed constraints.

  1. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  2. Topic Modeling Reveals Distinct Interests within an Online Conspiracy Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories play a troubling role in political discourse. Online forums provide a valuable window into everyday conspiracy theorizing, and can give a clue to the motivations and interests of those who post in such forums. Yet this online activity can be difficult to quantify and study. We describe a unique approach to studying online conspiracy theorists which used non-negative matrix factorization to create a topic model of authors' contributions to the main conspiracy forum on Reddit.com. This subreddit provides a large corpus of comments which spans many years and numerous authors. We show that within the forum, there are multiple sub-populations distinguishable by their loadings on different topics in the model. Further, we argue, these differences are interpretable as differences in background beliefs and motivations. The diversity of the distinct subgroups places constraints on theories of what generates conspiracy theorizing. We argue that traditional “monological” believers are only the tip of an iceberg of commenters. Neither simple irrationality nor common preoccupations can account for the observed diversity. Instead, we suggest, those who endorse conspiracies seem to be primarily brought together by epistemological concerns, and that these central concerns link an otherwise heterogenous group of individuals.

  3. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca2+ channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  4. Everyday distinction and omnivorous orientation: An analysis of food choice, attitudinal dispositions and social background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Caroline A; Piasini, Eugenio; Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D

    2017-08-03

    The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions. Here we show that population codes can be essential to achieve long coding timescales. Furthermore, we find that the properties of population codes differ between sensory and association cortices. We compared coding for sensory stimuli and behavioural choices in auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex as mice performed a sound localization task. Auditory stimulus information was stronger in auditory cortex than in posterior parietal cortex, and both regions contained choice information. Although auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex coded information by tiling in time neurons that were transiently informative for approximately 200 milliseconds, the areas had major differences in functional coupling between neurons, measured as activity correlations that could not be explained by task events. Coupling among posterior parietal cortex neurons was strong and extended over long time lags, whereas coupling among auditory cortex neurons was weak and short-lived. Stronger coupling in posterior parietal cortex led to a population code with long timescales and a representation of choice that remained consistent for approximately 1 second. In contrast, auditory cortex had a code with rapid fluctuations in stimulus and choice information over hundreds of milliseconds. Our results reveal that population codes differ across cortex

  6. Similarities and distinctions of CIR and Sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yuri; Lodkina, Irina; Nikolaeva, Nadezhda; Yermolaev, Michael

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of OMNI data and our catalog of large scale solar wind (SW) streams during 1976-2000 [Yermolaev et al., 2009] we study the average temporal profiles for two types of compressed regions: CIR (corotating interaction region - compressed region before High Speed Stream (HSS)) and Sheath (compressed region before fast Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), including Magnetic Cloud (MC) and Ejecta). As have been shown by Nikolaeva et al, [2015], the efficiency of magnetic storm generation is ~50% higher for Sheath and CIR than for ICME (MC and Ejecta), i.e. reaction magnetosphere depends on type of driver. To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: rescaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide [Yermolaev et al., 2010; 2015]. Obtained data allows us to suggest that the formation of all types of compression regions has the same physical mechanism irrespective of piston (HSS or ICME) type and differences are connected with geometry and full jumps of speed in edges of compression regions. If making the natural assumption that the gradient of speed is directed approximately on normal to the piston, CIR has the largest angle between the gradient of speed and the direction of average SW speed, and ICME - the smallest angle. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, projects 13-02-00158, 16-02-00125 and by Program of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. References: Nikolaeva, N. S. , Yu. I. Yermolaev, and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the Corrected Dst* Index Temporal Profile on the Main Phase of the Magnetic Storms Generated by Different Types of Solar Wind, Cosmic Research, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 119-127. Yermolaev, Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Research

  7. Distinct modes of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, L da Rocha; Troleis, J; Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E A; Fett-Neto, A G

    2012-01-01

    The literature describes different rooting protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana as models to study adventitious rooting, and results are generally perceived as comparable. However, there is a lack of investigations focusing on the distinct features, advantages and limitations of each method in the study of adventitious rooting with both wild-type (WT) ecotypes and their respective mutants. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adventitious rooting process in three different experimental systems, all using A. thaliana, analysing the same rooting parameters after transient exposure to auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and control conditions: excised leaves, de-rooted plants and etiolated seedlings. The founding tissues and sites of origin of roots differed depending on the system used, whereas all rooting patterns were of the direct type (i.e., without callus formation). None of the systems had an absolute requirement for exogenous auxin, although rooting was enhanced by this phytohormone, with the exception of de-rooted plants, which had adventitious rooting strongly inhibited by exogenous auxin. Root elongation was much favoured in isolated leaves. Auxin-overproducing mutants could not be used in the detached leaf system due to precocious senescence; in the de-rooted plant system, these mutants had a WT-like rooting response, whereas the expression of the 'rooty' phenotype was only evident in the etiolated seedling system. Adventitious rooting of etiolated WT seedlings in the presence of exogenous auxin was inhibited by exogenous flavonoids, which act as auxin transport inhibitors; surprisingly, the flavonoid-deficient mutant chs had a lower rooting response compared to WT. Although Arabidopsis is an excellent model system to study adventitious rooting, physiological and developmental responses differed significantly, underlining the importance of avoiding data generalisation on rooting responses derived from different experimental systems with this species.

  8. Concurrent topological design of composite structures and materials containing multiple phases of distinct Poisson's ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kai; Yuan, Philip F.; Xu, Shanqing; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-04-01

    Most studies on composites assume that the constituent phases have different values of stiffness. Little attention has been paid to the effect of constituent phases having distinct Poisson's ratios. This research focuses on a concurrent optimization method for simultaneously designing composite structures and materials with distinct Poisson's ratios. The proposed method aims to minimize the mean compliance of the macrostructure with a given mass of base materials. In contrast to the traditional interpolation of the stiffness matrix through numerical results, an interpolation scheme of the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using different parameters is adopted. The numerical results demonstrate that the Poisson effect plays a key role in reducing the mean compliance of the final design. An important contribution of the present study is that the proposed concurrent optimization method can automatically distribute base materials with distinct Poisson's ratios between the macrostructural and microstructural levels under a single constraint of the total mass.

  9. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  10. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne L. Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1 to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2 and Rhizophora mangle (S3. Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  11. Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed.

  12. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-05

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats. This secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A). We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic origin (Figure 1A, Tables S1 ans S2 in the Supplemental Data available online). We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished N. n. nebulosa from N. n. diardi. Along with fixed subspecies-specific chromosomal differences, this degree of differentiation is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among five recognized Panthera species (lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard). These distinctions increase the urgency of clouded leopard conservation efforts, and if affirmed by morphological analysis and wider sampling of N. n. diardi in Borneo and Sumatra, would support reclassification of N. n. diardi as a new species (Neofelis diardi).

  13. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Lidianne L.; Colares, Geórgia B.; Nogueira, Vanessa L. R.; Paes, Fernanda A.; Melo, Vânia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole. PMID:26989418

  14. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  15. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  16. Refractory versus resistant hypertension: Novel distinctive phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Gharpure, Nitin; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg treated with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, if tolerated. Refractory hypertension is a novel phenotype of severe antihypertensive treatment failure. The proposed definition for refractory hypertension, i.e. BP >140/90 mmHg with use of ≥5 different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) has been applied inconsistently. In comparison to RHTN, refractory hypertension seems to be less prevalent than RHTN. This review focuses on current knowledge about this novel phenotype compared with RHTN including definition, prevalence, mechanisms, characteristics and comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk. In patients with RHTN excess fluid retention is thought to be a common mechanism for the development of RHTN. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that refractory hypertension may be more of neurogenic etiology due to increased sympathetic activity as opposed to excess fluid retention. Treatment recommendations for RHTN are generally based on use and intensification of diuretic therapy, especially with the combination of a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic and an MRA. Based on findings from available studies, such an approach does not seem to be a successful strategy to control BP in patients with refractory hypertension and effective sympathetic inhibition in such patients, either with medications and/or device based approaches may be needed. PMID:29034321

  17. Shaping distinct magnetic interactions in molecular compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filoti, George; Bartolome, Juan; Palade, Petru; Prisecaru, Ion; Valsangiacom, Cristina; Kuncser, Victor; Mindru, Ioana; Patron, Luminita

    2011-01-01

    Oxalates containing various 3d transitional elements and positive NH 4 or negative OH groups were newly synthesized. Each above-mentioned component has directly influenced the structure, the electronic or interaction properties, while some unexpected behaviors were revealed by various magnetic and Moessbauer measurements. The main magnetic parameters, the long-range anti-ferromagnetic couplings observed at very low temperature and, particularly the uncompensated moment are discussed in detail. The induced lower spin states for bivalent ions and especially the anti-parallel arrangement of the spins belonging to trivalent and bivalent iron inside the molecule are also emphasized. - Research highlights: → Nine new oxalates, with 3d elements, showing interesting characteristics were synthesized. →The oxalate units and the positive or negative groups have induced various magnetic properties. → The Moessbauer data revealed two different positions for each valence state of iron in molecule. → There is a competition of anti-ferromagnetic couplings inside the magnetic units and between them. → An overall ferri-magnetic long range ordering was demonstrated unambiguously.

  18. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  19. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  20. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  1. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  2. Women with preterm birth have a distinct cervicovaginal metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartey, Jeny; Bastek, Jamie A; Brown, Amy G; Anglim, Laura; Elovitz, Michal A

    2015-06-01

    Metabolomics has the potential to reveal novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the cervicovaginal (CV) metabolome was different in asymptomatic women destined to have a PTB compared with term birth. A nested case-control study was performed using CV fluid collected from a larger prospective cohort. The CV fluid was collected between 20-24 weeks (V1) and 24-28 weeks (V2). The metabolome was compared between women with a spontaneous PTB (n = 10) to women who delivered at term (n = 10). Samples were extracted and prepared for analysis using a standard extraction solvent method. Global biochemical profiles were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. An ANOVA was used to detect differences in biochemical compounds between the groups. A false discovery rate was estimated to account for multiple comparisons. A total of 313 biochemicals were identified in CV fluid. Eighty-two biochemicals were different in the CV fluid at V1 in those destined to have a PTB compared with term birth, whereas 48 were different at V2. Amino acid, carbohydrate, and peptide metabolites were distinct between women with and without PTB. These data suggest that the CV space is metabolically active during pregnancy. Changes in the CV metabolome may be observed weeks, if not months, prior to any clinical symptoms. Understanding the CV metabolome may hold promise for unraveling the pathogenesis of PTB and may provide novel biomarkers to identify women most at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Convergent Metabolic Specialization through Distinct Evolutionary Paths in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2018-04-10

    Evolution by natural selection under complex and dynamic environmental conditions occurs through intricate and often counterintuitive trajectories affecting many genes and metabolic solutions. To study short- and long-term evolution of bacteria in vivo , we used the natural model system of cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. In this work, we investigated how and through which trajectories evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when migrating from the environment to the airways of CF patients, and specifically, we determined reduction of growth rate and metabolic specialization as signatures of adaptive evolution. We show that central metabolic pathways of three distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineages coevolving within the same environment become restructured at the cost of versatility during long-term colonization. Cell physiology changes from naive to adapted phenotypes resulted in (i) alteration of growth potential that particularly converged to a slow-growth phenotype, (ii) alteration of nutritional requirements due to auxotrophy, (iii) tailored preference for carbon source assimilation from CF sputum, (iv) reduced arginine and pyruvate fermentation processes, and (v) increased oxygen requirements. Interestingly, although convergence was evidenced at the phenotypic level of metabolic specialization, comparative genomics disclosed diverse mutational patterns underlying the different evolutionary trajectories. Therefore, distinct combinations of genetic and regulatory changes converge to common metabolic adaptive trajectories leading to within-host metabolic specialization. This study gives new insight into bacterial metabolic evolution during long-term colonization of a new environmental niche. IMPORTANCE Only a few examples of real-time evolutionary investigations in environments outside the laboratory are described in the scientific literature. Remembering that biological evolution, as it has progressed in nature, has not taken place in test tubes, it is not

  4. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  5. Unique prokaryotic consortia in geochemically distinct sediments from Red Sea Atlantis II and discovery deep brine pools.

    KAUST Repository

    Siam, Rania; Mustafa, Ghada A; Sharaf, Hazem; Moustafa, Ahmed; Ramadan, Adham R; Antunes, Andre; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Marsis, Nardine G R; Coolen, Marco J L; Sogin, Mitchell; Ferreira, Ari J S; Dorry, Hamza El

    2012-01-01

    )-rich Atlantis II and one nitrogen (N)-rich Discovery Deep section contained distinct microbial populations that differed from those found in the other sediment samples examined. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Euryarchaeota

  6. Your Divided Attention, Please! The Maintenance of Multiple Attentional Control Sets over Distinct Regions in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Maha; Pun, Carson; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    When non-informative peripheral cues precede a target defined by a specific feature, cues that share the critical feature will capture attention while cues that do not will be effectively ignored. We tested whether different attentional control sets can be simultaneously maintained over distinct regions of space. Participants were instructed to…

  7. AUDITORY NUCLEI: DISTINCTIVE RESPONSE PATTERNS TO WHITE NOISE AND TONES IN UNANESTHETIZED CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALIN, D

    1964-10-09

    Electrical responses to "white" noise and tonal stimuli were recorded from unanesthetized cats with permanently implanted bipolar electrodes. The cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate each showed distinctive patterns of evoked activity. White noise and tones produced qualitatively different types of response. A decrease in activity characterized the response of the inferior colliculus to tonal stimuli.

  8. Gene regulatory and signaling networks exhibit distinct topological distributions of motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gustavo Rodrigues; Nakaya, Helder Imoto; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2018-04-01

    The biological processes of cellular decision making and differentiation involve a plethora of signaling pathways and gene regulatory circuits. These networks in turn exhibit a multitude of motifs playing crucial parts in regulating network activity. Here we compare the topological placement of motifs in gene regulatory and signaling networks and observe that it suggests different evolutionary strategies in motif distribution for distinct cellular subnetworks.

  9. Distinction between the model of vector dominance and the model of oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between the model of vector dominance and the model of oscillations is considered on the example of γ→ρ 0 transitions. It is shown that transition probabilities in these cases differ by a factor of 2. The physical reason of these transition schemes is also discussed

  10. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  11. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  12. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper......, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  13. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  14. Genetically distinct isolates of Spirocerca sp. from a naturally infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    sugar-salt solu-tion, and sieving failed to detect eggs of Spirocerca sp. in feces collected from the colon.This is the first report of spirocercosis in Denmark, and may have been caused by a recentintroduction by migrating paratenic or definitive host. Analysis of two overlapping par-tial sequences...... of the cox1 gene, from individual worms, revealed distinct genetic variation(7–9%) between the Danish worms and isolates of S. lupi from Europe, Asia and Africa.This was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis that clearly separated the Danish worms fromother isolates of S. lupi. The distinct genetic differences...

  15. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Warshaw, Johanna; Berger, Lee R

    2015-10-15

    Studies of facial ontogeny in immature hominins have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution of human growth and development. The recently discovered hominin species Autralopithecus sediba is represented by a well-preserved and nearly complete facial skeleton of a juvenile (MH1) which shows a derived facial anatomy. We examined MH1 using high radiation synchrotron to interpret features of the oronasal complex pertinent to facial growth. We also analyzed bone surface microanatomy to identify and map fields of bone deposition and bone resorption, which affect the development of the facial skeleton. The oronasal anatomy (premaxilla-palate-vomer architecture) is similar to other Australopithecus species. However surface growth remodeling of the midface (nasomaxillary complex) differs markedly from Australopithecus, Paranthropus, early Homo and from KNM-WT 15000 (H. erectus/ergaster) showing a distinct distribution of vertically disposed alternating depository and resorptive fields in relation to anterior dental roots and the subnasal region. The ontogeny of the MH1 midface superficially resembles some H. sapiens in the distribution of remodeling fields. The facial growth of MH1 appears unique among early hominins representing an evolutionary modification in facial ontogeny at 1.9 my, or to changes in masticatory system loading associated with diet.

  16. Distinctive fingerprints of erosional regimes in terrestrial channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite imagery and digital elevation maps capture the large scale morphology of channel networks attributed to long term erosional processes, such as fluvial, glacial, groundwater sapping and subglacial erosion. Characteristic morphologies associated with each of these styles of erosion have been studied in detail, but there exists a knowledge gap related to their parameterization and quantification. This knowledge gap prevents a rigorous analysis of the dominant processes that shaped a particular landscape, and a comparison across styles of erosion. To address this gap, we use previous morphological descriptions of glaciers, rivers, sapping valleys and tunnel valleys to identify and measure quantitative metrics diagnostic of these distinctive styles of erosion. From digital elevation models, we identify four geometric metrics: The minimum channel width, channel aspect ratio (longest length to channel width at the outlet), presence of undulating longitudinal profiles, and tributary junction angle. We also parameterize channel network complexity in terms of its stream order and fractal dimension. We then perform a statistical classification of the channel networks using a Principal Component Analysis on measurements of these six metrics on a dataset of 70 channelized systems. We show that rivers, glaciers, groundwater seepage and subglacial meltwater erode the landscape in rigorously distinguishable ways. Our methodology can more generally be applied to identify the contributions of different processes involved in carving a channel network. In particular, we are able to identify transitions from fluvial to glaciated landscapes or vice-versa.

  17. Heavy water: a distinctive and essential component of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; van Alstyne, H.M.

    1994-06-01

    The exceptional properties of heavy water as a neutron moderator provide one of the distinctive features of CANDU reactors. Although most of the chemical and physical properties of deuterium and protium (mass 1 hydrogen) are appreciably different, the low terrestrial abundance of deuterium makes the separation of heavy water a relatively costly process, and so of considerable importance to the CANDU system. World heavy-water supplies are currently provided by the Girdler-Sulphide process or processes based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange. Due to cost and hazard considerations, new processes will be required for the production of heavy water in and beyond the next decade. Through AECL's development and refinement of wetproofed catalysts for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen, a family of new processes is expected to be deployed. Two monothermal processes, CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange, using water-to-hydrogen conversion by electrolysis) and CIRCE (Combined Industrially Reformed hydrogen and Catalytic Exchange, based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons), are furthest advanced. Besides its use for heavy-water production, the CECE process is a highly effective technology for heavy-water upgrading and for tritium separation from heavy (or light) water. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  18. Excitations Partition into Two Distinct Populations in Bulk Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Brawand, Nicholas P. [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Vörös, Márton [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Dahlberg, Peter D. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Otto, John P. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Williams, Nicholas E. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Tiede, David M. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Galli, Giulia [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2018-01-09

    Organolead halide perovskites convert optical excitations to charge carriers with remarkable efficiency in optoelectronic devices. Previous research predominantly documents dynamics in perovskite thin films; however, extensive disorder in this platform may obscure the observed carrier dynamics. Here, carrier dynamics in perovskite single-domain single crystals is examined by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a transmissive geometry. Two distinct sets of carrier populations that coexist at the same radiation fluence, but display different decay dynamics, are observed: one dominated by second-order recombination and the other by third-order recombination. Based on ab initio simulations, this observation is found to be most consistent with the hypothesis that free carriers and localized carriers coexist due to polaron formation. The calculations suggest that polarons will form in both CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystals, but that they are more pronounced in CH3NH3PbBr3. Single-crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 could represent the key to understanding the impact of polarons on the transport properties of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  19. Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Finzi, Rebecca Dawn; Drew, Daniel; Husain, Masud

    2017-07-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined. Eye movements were faster when the cue indicated that monetary rewards would be contingent on performance than when the cue indicated that rewards would be random. But even when the cue indicated that a reward was guaranteed regardless of speed, movement was still faster than when no reward was available. Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Contingent motivation generated autonomic arousal, and unlike noncontingent motivation, was effective with penalties as well as rewards.

  20. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and related complications are associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. The line of demarcation between the pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and differing responses to therapeutic interventions is blurred. Diabetes induces changes in the microvasculature, causing extracellular matrix protein synthesis, and capillary basement membrane thickening which are the pathognomic features of diabetic microangiopathy. These changes in conjunction with advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, and neovascularization of vasa vasorum can lead to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycemia is the principal cause of microvasculopathy but also appears to play an important role in causation of macrovasculopathy. There is thought to be an intersection between micro and macro vascular complications, but the two disorders seem to be strongly interconnected, with micro vascular diseases promoting atherosclerosis through processes such as hypoxia and changes in vasa vasorum. It is thus imperative to understand whether microvascular complications distinctly precede macrovascular complications or do both of them progress simultaneously as a continuum. This will allow re-focusing on the clinical issues with a unifying perspective which can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes.

  1. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Segmental stiff skin syndrome (SSS): A distinct clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathryn L; Mir, Adnan; Schaffer, Julie V; Meehan, Shane A; Orlow, Seth J; Brinster, Nooshin K

    2016-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a noninflammatory, fibrosing condition of the skin, often affecting the limb girdles. We present 4 new patients with SSS with largely unilateral, segmental distribution. To date, reported cases of SSS have been grouped based on generally accepted clinical and histopathologic findings. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and histopathologic findings between previously reported SSS cases. This is a retrospective review of 4 new cases and 48 previously published cases of SSS obtained from PubMed search. Of 52 total cases, 18 (35%) were segmentally distributed and 34 (65%) were widespread. The average age of onset was 4.1 years versus 1.6 years for segmental versus widespread SSS, respectively. Limitation in joint mobility affected 44% of patients with segmental SSS and 97% of patients with widespread SSS. Histopathologic findings were common between the 2 groups. This was a retrospective study of previously published cases limited by the completeness and accuracy of the reviewed cases. We propose a distinct clinical entity, segmental SSS, characterized by a segmental distribution, later age of onset, and less severe functional limitation. Both segmental SSS and widespread SSS share common diagnostic histopathologic features. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    objective of this study is to investigate the application of enological tannins in the physicochemical composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. In the 2004 harvest, quebracho and chestnut tannins were applied in three different dosages (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hl-1, and three different times of application (maceration, 2 days after crushing; drawing off,, 8 days after crushing; and after the malolatic fermentation, 4 months after crushing. In the stabilized wines, classic physicochemical analyses were performed and chromatic characteristics and polifenols were identified. Due to the good weather during this season, in terms of classic physicochemical characteristics, in general, it seems that the addition of tannins had little influence on the composition of the wine. The variables that would, hypothetically, be more influential, such as anthocyanins and color index, also showed few significant changes, whereas the R 280 and the levels of total tannins were affected.

  4. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  5. Spatial and Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Functionally Distinct Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippeos, Christina; Telerman, Stephanie B; Oulès, Bénédicte; Pisco, Angela O; Shaw, Tanya J; Elgueta, Raul; Lombardi, Giovanna; Driskell, Ryan R; Soldin, Mark; Lynch, Magnus D; Watt, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mouse dermis is composed of functionally distinct fibroblast lineages. To explore the extent of fibroblast heterogeneity in human skin, we used a combination of comparative spatial transcriptional profiling of human and mouse dermis and single-cell transcriptional profiling of human dermal fibroblasts. We show that there are at least four distinct fibroblast populations in adult human skin, not all of which are spatially segregated. We define markers permitting their isolation and show that although marker expression is lost in culture, different fibroblast subpopulations retain distinct functionality in terms of Wnt signaling, responsiveness to IFN-γ, and ability to support human epidermal reconstitution when introduced into decellularized dermis. These findings suggest that ex vivo expansion or in vivo ablation of specific fibroblast subpopulations may have therapeutic applications in wound healing and diseases characterized by excessive fibrosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential regulation of microtubule severing by APC underlies distinct patterns of projection neuron and interneuron migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Stanco, Amelia; Guo, Jiami; Wilkins, Gary; Deslauriers, Danielle; Yan, Jessica; Monckton, Chase; Blair, Josh; Oon, Eesim; Perez, Abby; Salas, Eduardo; Oh, Adrianna; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Snider, William D.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Anton, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated migration of distinct classes of neurons to appropriate positions leads to the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in the cerebral cortex. Two major classes of cortical neurons, interneurons and projection neurons, utilize distinctly different modes (radial vs. tangential) and routes of migration to arrive at their final positions in the cerebral cortex. Here, we show that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) modulates microtubule (MT) severing in interneurons to facilitate tangential mode of interneuron migration, but not the glial-guided, radial migration of projection neurons. APC regulates the stability and activity of the MT severing protein p60-katanin in interneurons to promote the rapid remodeling of neuronal processes necessary for interneuron migration. These findings reveal how severing and restructuring of MTs facilitate distinct modes of neuronal migration necessary for laminar organization of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25535916

  7. Molecular cloning and pharmacology of functionally distinct isoforms of the human histamine H(3) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Goodman, M W; Burstein, E S

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacology of histamine H(3) receptors suggests the presence of distinct receptor isoforms or subtypes. We herein describe multiple, functionally distinct, alternatively spliced isoforms of the human H(3) receptor. Combinatorial splicing at three different sites creates at least six distinct...... receptor isoforms, of which isoforms 1, 2, and 4, encode functional proteins. Detailed pharmacology on isoforms 1 (unspliced receptor), and 2 (which has an 80 amino acid deletion within the third intracellular loop of the protein) revealed that both isoforms displayed robust responses to a series of known...... revealed a rank order of potency at both isoforms of clobenpropit>iodophenpropit>thioperamide, and these drugs are fivefold less potent at isoform 2 than isoform 1. To further explore the pharmacology of H(3) receptor function, we screened 150 clinically relevant neuropsychiatric drugs for H(3) receptor...

  8. Confluence for classical logic through the distinction between values and computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espírito Santo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an idea originated in the theory of programming languages - monadic meta-language with a distinction between values and computations - in the design of a calculus of cut-elimination for classical logic. The cut-elimination calculus we obtain comprehends the call-by-name and call-by-value fragments of Curien-Herbelin's lambda-bar-mu-mu-tilde-calculus without losing confluence, and is based on a distinction of "modes" in the proof expressions and "mode" annotations in types. Modes resemble colors and polarities, but are quite different: we give meaning to them in terms of a monadic meta-language where the distinction between values and computations is fully explored. This meta-language is a refinement of the classical monadic language previously introduced by the authors, and is also developed in the paper.

  9. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jessica L; Graham, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants' reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., "Look at this one") and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug ). Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  10. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Graham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants’ reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., “Look at this one” and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug. Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  11. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  12. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  13. Estrutura da comunidade das larvas de Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera, em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas, no trecho superior do rio Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Community structure of Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera, in different artificial substrates and during distinct hydrological phases, in the upper stretch of the Paraná river, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Felix dos Anjos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a influência das fases hídricas sobre a composição, a densidade e a dominância das larvas de Chironomidae em diferentes tipos de substratos artificiais. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, entre os meses de agosto de2004 e dezembro de 2005. A análise de agrupamento revelou diferenças na composição e densidade das morfoespécies entre as fases hídricas e, de acordo com o índice de dominância de Kownacki, Cricotopus sp. foi dominante ou subdominante em todos os substratos e fases hídricas.Na fase de águas baixas, a maior similaridade foi observada entre os substratos de mesma forma. Nesse período, os maiores valores de riqueza e densidade das larvas foram registrados nos substratos em forma de X. Na fase de águas altas, o aumento no nível do rio Paran