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Sample records for distinct poorly understood

  1. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

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    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  2. Urachal tumour: case report of a poorly understood carcinoma

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    Vallarino Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.

  3. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1

  4. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

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    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  5. ESPRIT: A Method for Defining Soluble Expression Constructs in Poorly Understood Gene Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Philippe J; Hart, Darren J

    2017-01-01

    Production of soluble, purifiable domains or multi-domain fragments of proteins is a prerequisite for structural biology and other applications. When target sequences are poorly annotated, or when there are few similar sequences available for alignments, identification of domains can be problematic. A method called expression of soluble proteins by random incremental truncation (ESPRIT) addresses this problem by high-throughput automated screening of tens of thousands of enzymatically truncated gene fragments. Rare soluble constructs are identified by experimental screening, and the boundaries revealed by DNA sequencing.

  6. Small vessel disease, neurovascular regulation and cognitive impairment: post-mortem studies reveal a complex relationship, still poorly understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2017-07-15

    The contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment is under-recognized and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. This information gap has multiple causes, including a lack of post-mortem validation of clinical diagnoses of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD), the exclusion of cases with concomitant neurodegenerative disease when diagnosing VCI/VaD, and a lack of standardization of neuropathological assessment protocols for vascular disease. Other contributors include a focus on end-stage destructive lesions to the exclusion of more subtle types of diffuse brain injury, on structural abnormalities of arteries and arterioles to the exclusion of non-structural abnormalities and capillary damage, and the use of post-mortem sampling strategies that are biased towards the identification of neurodegenerative pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of detailed neuropathology in characterizing vascular contributions to cognitive impairment (e.g. in diabetes), and highlight the importance of diffuse white matter changes, capillary damage and vasoregulatory abnormalities in VCI/VaD. The use of standardized, evidence-based post-mortem assessment protocols and the inclusion of biochemical as well as morphological methods in neuropathological studies should improve the accuracy of determination of the contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment and clarify the relative contribution of different pathogenic processes to the tissue damage. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

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    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  8. Prevalence of obesity: A public health problem poorly understood

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    This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of t...

  9. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  10. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  11. Oncoprotein MDM2 Overexpression is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Distinct Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Nielsen, O; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    MDM2 is an oncoprotein involved in the regulation of p53. MDM2 exerts its tumorigenic potential through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. It is frequently overexpressed in various malignancies. Little is known about the prognostic value of MDM2 expression in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL...... overexpression was present in 42 (22%) of 188 cases. The frequency was highest in aggressive/very aggressive NHL (P lymphomas, MDM2 overexpression was associated with higher-grade disease (P = .008). MDM2 overexpression was not related to a phenotype indicating...... altered p53. In univariate analysis MDM2 overexpression associated with short survival in follicle center lymphomas (P = .0256), extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (P lymphomas (P = .0047). The relation to poor prognosis was maintained in a Cox regression analysis including known...

  12. Distinct patterns of ALDH1A1 expression predict metastasis and poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Zeng, Dong-Zu; Dong, Wei-Guo; Ding, Yan-Qing; Rao, Jun; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jing; Zhan, Na; Liu, Ying; Hu, Qi-Ping; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the heterogeneity of its expression makes it difficult to predict the outcome of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of this molecule in CRC. Methods and Results: In this study, we examined ALDH1A1 expression by immunohistochemistry including 406 cases of primary CRC with corresponding adjacent mucosa, with confirmation of real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that the expression patterns of ALDH1A1 were heterogeneous in the CRC and corresponding adjacent tissues. We defined the ratio of ALDH1A1 level in adjacent mucosa to that in tumor tissues as RA/C and found that the capabilities of tumor invasion and metastasis in the tumors with RA/C < 1 were significantly higher than those with RA/C ≥ 1. Follow-up data showed the worse prognoses in the CRC patients with RA/C < 1. For understanding the underlying mechanism, the localization of β-catenin was detected in the CRC tissues with different patterns of ALDH1A1 expression from 221 patients and β-catenin was found preferentially expressed in cell nuclei of the tumors with RA/C < 1 and ALDH1A1high expression of HT29 cell line, indicating that nuclear translocation of β-catenin might contribute to the increased potentials of invasion and metastasis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RA/C is a novel biomarker to reflect the distinct expression patterns of ALDH1A1 for predicting metastasis and prognosis of CRC. PMID:25031716

  13. 5C analysis of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex locus reveals distinct chromatin interaction networks between gene-rich and gene-poor TADs in skin epithelial cells.

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    Krzysztof Poterlowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian genomes contain several dozens of large (>0.5 Mbp lineage-specific gene loci harbouring functionally related genes. However, spatial chromatin folding, organization of the enhancer-promoter networks and their relevance to Topologically Associating Domains (TADs in these loci remain poorly understood. TADs are principle units of the genome folding and represents the DNA regions within which DNA interacts more frequently and less frequently across the TAD boundary. Here, we used Chromatin Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C technology to characterize spatial chromatin interaction network in the 3.1 Mb Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC locus harbouring 61 functionally related genes that show lineage-specific activation during terminal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis. 5C data validated by 3D-FISH demonstrate that the EDC locus is organized into several TADs showing distinct lineage-specific chromatin interaction networks based on their transcription activity and the gene-rich or gene-poor status. Correlation of the 5C results with genome-wide studies for enhancer-specific histone modifications (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac revealed that the majority of spatial chromatin interactions that involves the gene-rich TADs at the EDC locus in keratinocytes include both intra- and inter-TAD interaction networks, connecting gene promoters and enhancers. Compared to thymocytes in which the EDC locus is mostly transcriptionally inactive, these interactions were found to be keratinocyte-specific. In keratinocytes, the promoter-enhancer anchoring regions in the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1. In contrast to gene-rich TADs, gene-poor TADs show preferential spatial contacts with each other, do not contain active enhancers and show decreased binding of CTCF, Rad21 and Brg1 in keratinocytes. Thus, spatial interactions between gene

  14. Socialization understood in a dynamic way

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    Todorović Milorad R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the process of socialization often gets the meaning it does not actually have and it also gets attached to things that are related to other processes. Here, socialization is understood only as the entering of a subject into a socio-symbolic order where he acquires his own identity. This entering into a separating order places the good on one side, and the bad on the other, and it is essentially a process that strongly designates the world by giving a man's instinctive nature the social contours obtained through imposed standards. Every form of anti-social behaviour, as well as every great psychological deviation, shows the lack of proper integration into the symbolic. Psychology, as a general theory of the psyche, and social psychology especially, indicates the social and cultural conditions that influence the mental construction. Without the dynamics of psychology, which depicts the psychological life through mental dynamics, psychological etiologies especially of those forms of behaviour that have no social verification would be neglected. Starting from the social and cultural conditions that build the 'psychological', it explains how the motives for suppression of all impulsive tendencies, aggression and libido are built. Mastering the impulses involves the construction of a moral instance (super-ego that differentiates and exists as a constant threat to the ego who tries to smuggle certain instinctive tendencies. Given that it is known, ever since Freud, that - from the standpoint of limiting the impulses, from the standpoint of morality - a man has a completely immoral part (instinctive, id; a part that is struggling to be moral (ego; and a super-ego that can be hyper-moral, and then become utterly cruel (Freud 2006a: 120, it can be observed that socialization is involved in the good part and in the bad part of a man. Success in a man's defense from Eros and Thanatos, on the one hand, and in his defense from the impulses of

  15. Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Unclassifiable (MDS-U) With 1% Blasts Is a Distinct Subgroup of MDS-U With a Poor Prognosis.

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    Margolskee, Elizabeth; Hasserjian, Robert P; Hassane, Duane; Tam, Wayne; Mathew, Susan; Ok, Chi Young; Wang, Sa A; Oak, Jean; Arber, Daniel A; Orazi, Attilio

    2017-07-01

    Three situations qualify as myelodysplastic syndrome, unclassifiable (MDS-U): (1) refractory cytopenia with dysplasia and 1% blasts in peripheral blood (BL), (2) pancytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (Pan), and (3) persistent cytopenia, less than 5% bone marrow blasts, and less than 10% dysplastic cells and presence of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities (CG). We compared the clinicopathologic features and mutational profiles for these three groups. MDS-U cases were reviewed at four major academic institutions. Targeted next-generation sequencing for genes implicated in myeloid neoplasms was performed in a subset of cases. Twenty-seven patients were identified (six MDS-U BL, 13 MDS-U Pan, and eight MDS-U CG). Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were found in six of six, seven of 13, and eight of eight cases in MDS-U BL, Pan, and CG, respectively (P > .05). Overall, four of six patients with MDS-U BL progressed to acute myeloid leukemia; no MDS-U Pan or CG patients did. The rates of progression-free survival and mortality (overall survival) were significantly higher in MDS-U BL compared with Pan and CG (P MDS-U BL is a distinct subset of MDS-U with a poor prognosis, while MDS-U Pan and CG are relatively indolent. Evaluation of peripheral blood smears in patients with MDS is essential for accurate classification and prognosis. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Immigration and Linguistic Diversity: A New and Poorly Understood Situation for Catalan

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    Comellas-Casanova, Pere

    2016-01-01

    For decades Catalan, a language minoritized and endangered by the hegemony of other state languages, has been experimenting with a process of revitalization driven by social activism and political autonomy, which has been particularly strong in some of its historical regions. Recently, however, serious doubts about the success of this process have…

  17. Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilon, Tali; Barash, Itamar

    2008-01-01

    Deregulation of Stat5 in the mammary gland of transgenic mice causes tumorigenesis. Poorly differentiated carcinoma and highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma tumors evolve. To distinguish the genes and elucidate the cellular processes and metabolic pathways utilized to preserve these phenotypes, gene-expression profiles were analyzed. Mammary tumors were excised from transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active variant of Stat5, or a Stat5 variant lacking s transactivation domain. These tumors displayed either the carcinoma or the papillary adenocarcinoma phenotypes. cRNAs, prepared from each tumor were hybridized to an Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. Gene-ontology analysis, hierarchical clustering and biological-pathway analysis were performed to distinct the two types of tumors. Histopathology and immunofluorescence staining complemented the comparison between the tumor phenotypes. The nucleus-cytoskeleton-plasma membrane axis is a major target for differential gene expression between phenotypes. In the carcinoma, stronger expression of genes coding for specific integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and calcium-binding proteins highlight cell-adhesion and motility features of the tumor cells. This is supported by the higher expression of genes involved in O-glycan synthesis, TGF-β, activin, their receptors and Smad3, as well as the Notch ligands and members of the γ-secretase complex that enable Notch nuclear localization. The Wnt pathway was also a target for differential gene expression. Higher expression of genes encoding the degradation complex of the canonical pathway and limited TCF expression in the papillary adenocarcinoma result in membranal accumulation of β-catenin, in contrast to its nuclear translocation in the carcinoma. Genes involved in cell-cycle arrest at G1 and response to DNA damage were more highly expressed in the papillary adenocarcinomas, as opposed to favored G2/M regulation in the carcinoma tumors. At least

  18. Feeling (Mis)Understood and Intergroup Friendships in Interracial Interactions.

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    Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  20. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine variation in overall milk, protein, and mineral composition of bovine milk in relation to rennet-induced coagulation, with the aim of elucidating the underlying causes of milk with impaired coagulation abilities. On the basis of an initial screening of 892...... of minerals (Ca, P, Mg) were identified in poorly coagulating and noncoagulating milk in comparison with milk with good coagulation properties. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a great variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, namely, αS1...... milk samples from 42 herds with Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, a subset of 102 samples was selected to represent milk with good, poor, or noncoagulating properties (i.e., samples that within each breed represented the most extremes in regard to coagulation properties). Milk with good...

  1. Methyl donor deficient diets cause distinct alterations in lipid metabolism but are poorly representative of human NAFLD [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Marcus J. Lyall

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global health issue. Dietary methyl donor restriction is used to induce a NAFLD/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH phenotype in rodents, however the extent to which this model reflects human NAFLD remains incompletely understood. To address this, we undertook hepatic transcriptional profiling of methyl donor restricted rodents and compared these to published human NAFLD datasets.              Methods: Adult C57BL/6J mice were maintained on control, choline deficient (CDD or methionine/choline deficient (MCDD diets for four weeks; the effects on methyl donor and lipid biology were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles followed by a cross-species comparison with human expression data of all stages of NAFLD. Results: Compared to controls, expression of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL packaging carboxylesterases (Ces1d, Ces1f, Ces3b and the NAFLD risk allele Pnpla3 were suppressed in MCDD; with Pnpla3 and the liver predominant Ces isoform, Ces3b, also suppressed in CDD. With respect to 1-carbon metabolism, down-regulation of Chka, Chkb, Pcty1a, Gnmt and Ahcy with concurrent upregulation of Mat2a suggests a drive to maintain S-adenosylmethionine levels. There was minimal similarity between global gene expression patterns in either dietary intervention and any stage of human NAFLD, however some common transcriptomic changes in inflammatory, fibrotic and proliferative mediators were identified in MCDD, NASH and HCC. Conclusions: This study suggests suppression of VLDL assembly machinery may contribute to hepatic lipid accumulation in these models, but that CDD and MCDD rodent diets are minimally representative of human NAFLD at the transcriptional level.

  2. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype Positive Tumors in the Absence of MLH1 Methylation Constitute a Distinct Subset of Duodenal Adenocarcinomas and Are Associated with Poor Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Pappou, Emmanouil P.; Guzzetta, Angela A.; Jeschke, Jana; Kwak, Ruby; Dave, Pujan; Hooker, Craig M.; Morgan, Richard; Baylin, Stephen B.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Ahuja, Nita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little information is available on genetic and epigenetic changes in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The purpose was to identify possible subsets of duodenal adenocarcinomas based on microsatellite instability (MSI), DNA methylation, mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes, clinicopathologic features, and prognosis. Experimental Design Demographics, tumor characteristics and survival were available for 99 duodenal adenocarcinoma patients. Testing for KRAS and BRAF mutations, MSI, MLH1 methylation and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status was performed. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to predict survival. Results CIMP+ was detected in 27 of 99 (27.3%) duodenal adenocarcinomas, and was associated with MSI (P = 0.011) and MLH1 methylation (P CIMP− tumors. No BRAF V600E mutation was detected. Among the CIMP+ tumors, 15 (55.6%) were CIMP+/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed tumors classified by CIMP, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status or CIMP/MSI status could predict overall survival (OS; P = 0.047, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively), while CIMP/MLH1 methylation status could also predict time-to-recurrence (TTR; P = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status showed a significant prognostic value regarding both OS (P CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors had the worst OS and TTR. Conclusions Our results demonstrate existence of CIMP in duodenal adenocarcinomas. The combination of CIMP+/MLH1-U appears to be independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with duodenal adenocarcinomas. This study also suggests that BRAF mutations are not involved in duodenal tumorigenesis, MSI or CIMP development. PMID:22825585

  3. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  4. Dual protection: more needed than practised or understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Marge

    2006-11-01

    Although non-barrier contraceptive use has become a global norm, unprotected sex in relation to sexually transmitted infections remains the norm almost everywhere. Dual protection is protection from unwanted pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and is a form of safer sex for heterosexual couples that is more needed than practised or understood. This paper draws on a review of the literature in family planning, obstetrics and gynaecology, and AIDS-related journals from 1998 to early 2005. Definitions of dual protection, found mainly in family planning literature, are very narrow. Condoms remain the mainstay of dual protection, but the aim of this paper is to provide an expanded list of dual protection methods to show that there is a range of options. These include non-penetrative sex and the increasing use of condoms with the back-up of emergency contraception on the part of young people. The fact that people may fail to use dual protection consistently and correctly is not a valid reason not to promote it. It is never too late for those providing family planning and STI/HIV prevention services to start promoting condoms and dual protection. In the long-term, the development of highly efficacious and highly acceptable methods of dual protection is an urgent research priority, starting with a wider range of condoms that will appeal to more people.

  5. GLP-2: A POORLY UNDERSTOOD MEDIATOR ENROLLED IN VARIOUS BARIATRIC/METABOLIC SURGERY-RELATED PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAZZO, Everton; GESTIC, Martinho Antonio; UTRINI, Murillo Pimentel; CHAIM, Felipe David Mendonça; GELONEZE, Bruno; PAREJA, José Carlos; CHAIM, Elinton Adami; MAGRO, Daniéla Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected. Results: There is evidence demonstrating significant increase in the levels of GLP-2 following gastric bypass, Scopinaro operation, and sleeve gastrectomy. There are no differences between gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy in regards to the increase in the GLP-2 levels. There is no correlation between the postoperative levels of GLP-2 and the occurrence of adequate or insufficient postoperative weight loss. Conclusion: GLP-2 plays significant roles on the regulation of nutrient absorption, permeability of gut mucosa, control of bone resorption, and regulation of satiety. The overall impact of these effects potentially exerts a significant adaptive or compensatory effect within the context of varied bariatric surgical techniques. PMID:28076485

  6. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  7. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Cope, Emily K.; Goldberg, Andrew N.; Pletcher, Steven D.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Results Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n?=?59) and healthy individ...

  8. Summer-long grazing of high versus low endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue by growing beef steers results in distinct temporal blood analyte response patterns, with poor correlation to serum prolactin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Jackson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported the effects of fescue toxicosis on developing Angus-cross steer growth, carcass, hepatic mRNA and protein expression profiles of selected serum proteins, and blood clinical and chemical profiles, after summer-long grazing (85 d of high (HE- vs low (LE-endophyte-infected fescue pastures. We now report the temporal development of acute, intermediate, and chronic responses of biochemical and clinical blood analytes determined at specified time intervals (period 1, d 0 to 36; period 2, d 37 to 58; and period 3, d 59 to 85. Throughout the trial, the alkaloid concentrations of the HE forage was consistently 19 to 25 times greater (P < 0.049 the concentration in the LE forage, and HE vs LE steers had continuously lower (P < 0.049 serum prolactin (85%, cholesterol (27%, and albumin (5%, but greater red blood cells (7%. The HE steers had decreased (P = 0.003 ADG only during period 1 (-0.05 vs 0.4 kg/d. For period 1, HE steers had reduced (P < 0.090 numbers of eosinophils (55% and lymphocytes (18%, serum triglyceride (27%, and an albumin/globulin ratio (9%, but an increased bilirubin concentration (20%. During period 2, serum LDH activities were 18% lower (P = 0.022 for HE vs LE steers. During period 3, serum levels of ALP (32%, ALT (16%, AST (15%, creatine kinase (35%, glucose (10%, and LDH (23% were lower (P < 0.040 for HE steers. Correlation analysis of serum prolactin and other blood analytes revealed that triglycerides (P = 0.042 and creatinine (P = 0.021 were moderately correlated (r < 0.433 with HE serum prolactin. In conclusion, three HE-induced blood analyte response patterns were identified: continually altered, initially altered and subsequently recovered, or altered only after long-term exposure. Blood analytes affected by length of grazing HE vs LE forages were either not, or poorly, correlated with serum prolactin. These data reveal important, temporal, data about how young cattle respond to the challenge of consuming

  9. "Plastic Pollution: Myths, Facts, and How You Can Help": Presenting a popular but poorly understood topic to broad and diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    For my thesis research, I study marine debris, specifically in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, colloquially known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Marine debris in general, and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in particular, are marine pollution issues that have captured considerable public and media attention. Especially in the late 2000s, there were significantly more popular media articles about marine debris and the Great Pacific Garbage Patch than scientific journal articles. Due to this popular attention and lag in scientific publication, there are a lot of exaggerated facts and prevalent myths about marine debris in the public consciousness today. As a graduate student at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, I have been given many opportunities to speak to diverse audiences about marine debris. These groups vary in their base knowledge of the issue, from very knowledgeable, to unknowledgeable, to knowledgeable but misinformed about the issue. Over my three years in graduate school, building off a base presentation from a previous graduate student and techniques learned from the education department at Birch Aquarium, I have developed ways to correct some misinformation while not making the audience feel insulted. I correct misinformation while building up a correct base knowledge. This knowledge can be very depressing, as many modern scientific problems can be, but I end the presentation with ways in which the audience can feel empowered and can continue to educate themselves. Hopefully they leave with both knowledge and applicable lessons that they can implement into their lives.

  10. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  11. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    The end Ordovician extinction has become arguably the best-understood major extinction event in Earth History. A plethora of workers have established the pattern of faunal change and causes of the extinction with remarkably little disagreement. The first indication of increased extinction at the end of the Ordovician was a graph of global diversity patterns by Norman Newell in 1967, although he did not recognize it as a major event. The presence of a major extinction event became clear as William Berry and Art Boucot assembled data for Silurian correlation charts in the late 1960s. The first reports of North African glaciation in the late 1960s provided a cause for the extinction and study of the event snowballed. It was no accident that recognition of the extinction began in North America, because it was there that the extinction completely overturned faunas in the epicontinental seas. Glacio-eustatic regression of shallow seaway coincided with the disappearance of endemic Laurentian faunas and replacement by a highly cosmopolitan fauna in the Silurian. Once the event was established in North America, paleontologists soon found evidence of the event around the globe. The well-documented Hirnantia Fauna was found to correspond to the glacial interval, and Pat Brenchley soon recognized that there were two pulses of extinction, at the beginning and end of the glaciation. At the same time that the faunal changes were being documented geologic studies of the glaciation provided information on the environmental changes associated with the extinction. The timing of the glacial maximum was established in Africa and by the presence of dropstones in high latitude marine rocks. The 1990s saw geochemical techniques employed that allowed examination of atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes. In many places carbonate deposition declined. Glacio-eustatic regression was obvious in many areas, and a sea-level decline in the range of 50-100 m was established. Shallow

  12. Simultaneous or Early Sequential Rupture of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: A Rare and Insufficiently Understood Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Zhao, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yan; Li, Guichen

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous or early sequential rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIAs) is encountered rarely, with no more than 10 cases having been reported. As a result of its rarity, there are a lot of questions concerning this entity need to be answered. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University (Eastern Division) from a local hospital after a sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Head computed tomography (CT) at the local hospital revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was concentrated predominately in the suprasellar cistern and interhemispheric fissure. During her transfer to our hospital, she experienced another episode of sudden headache. CT on admission to our hospital revealed that the SAH was increased with 2 isolated hematomas both in the interhemispheric fissure and the left paramedian frontal lobe. Further CT angiography and intraoperative findings were in favor of early sequential rupture of 2 intracranial aneurysms. To further elucidate the characteristics, mechanism, management, and prognosis of this specific entity, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature. The mechanism of simultaneous or early sequential rupture of MIAs is still obscure. Transient elevation of blood pressure might play a role in the process, and preventing the sudden elevation of blood pressure might be beneficial for patients with aneurysmal SAH and MIAs. The management of simultaneously or early sequentially ruptured aneurysms is more complex for its difficulty in responsible aneurysm determination, urgency in treatment, toughness in intraoperative manipulation and poorness in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The physics of magnetic resonance imaging: how well understood is it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Part of my work involves tutoring trainee radiologists on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I have observed that a full understanding of the physics involved with MRI, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be more specific, seems to be beyond the hopes of many people working in the field. All diagnostic radiology textbooks that I have read touch very superficially on the physics of NMR and sometimes the explanations and models used are quite inaccurate and misleading. After further investigation, I found some very good coverage on the subject in chemistry texts. The physics of NMR is based on some very difficult quantum mechanical concepts. What I have managed to understand has been tremendously satisfying and has shed light on several conceptual difficulties which I initially struggled with. The physics of MRI is based on the motion of the hydrogen proton when subjected to an external magnetic field. Protons, which are positively charged particles, have an intrinsic spin and as a result, a magnetic field. A proton, when placed in an external magnetic field, undergoes several changes in its motion. The laws of quantum mechanics govern these changes. Diagnostic radiology textbook models describing the motion of a proton tend to be poor and inaccurate leading to confusion. For example, subatomic particles are subject to laws of quantum mechanics and are forbidden to align exactly with an applied magnetic field thus creating precession. Some textbooks make no attempt to explain this phenomenon whereas others attempt a superficial but inadequate quantum mechanical explanation. I am interested to canvas opinions from others involved in MRI as to difficulties they have encountered with the understanding of the physics of MRI and how they have been overcome. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  16. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  17. Can yeast glycolysis be understood in terms of in vitro kinetics of the constituent enxymes? Testing biochemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Passarge, J.R.; Reijenga, C.A.; Esgalhado, M.E.L.M.; van der Weijden, C.C.; Schepper, M.; Walsh, M.C.; Bakker, B.M.; van Dam, K.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines whether the in vivo behavior of yeast glycolysis can be understood in terms of the in vitro kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes. In nongrowing, anaerobic, compressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae the values of the kinetic parameters of most glycolytic enzymes were

  18. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...

  19. Exploiting the Poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp Justesen, Mogens; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While extant research has focused on the causes and consequences of corruption at the macro-level, less effort has been devoted to understanding the micro-foundation of corruption. We argue that poor people are more likely to be victims of corrupt behavior by street-level bureaucrats as the poor...... often rely heavily on services provided by governments. We test this proposition using micro-level survey data from the Afrobaromenter. Multilevel regressions across 18 countries show that poor people are much more prone to experience having to pay bribes to government officials....

  20. Timing the Generation of Distinct Retinal Cells by Homeobox Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Sarah; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Vignali, Robert; Barsacchi, Giuseppina; Cremisi, Federico

    2006-01-01

    The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of “sensors” in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), we found that the 3′ UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities. PMID:16903786

  1. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decembrini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of "sensors" in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3' untranslated region (UTR, we found that the 3' UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities.

  2. Accounting for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Economists and other social scientists have long tried to understand the nature of poverty and how poor people make decisions. For example, T.W. Schultz, a Nobel Laureate, former professor of economics at the University of Chicago, and former president of the American Economic Association, spent his career working in development and agricultural economics. In his 1980 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schultz suggests that there is some accounting for the behavior of the poor in agriculture. "Fa...

  3. Is restlessness best understood as a process? Reflecting on four boys’ restlessness during music therapy in kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331

  4. Energy poor or fuel poor: What are the differences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kang; Lloyd, Bob; Liang, Xiao-Jie; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Energy poverty and fuel poverty are descriptors of problems of households' energy consumption, they are both distinct problems and have been addressed by many researchers, organizations and governments. Cross use of the terms of energy poverty and fuel poverty in published papers is common. As an accurate descriptor is the presupposition of research and policy development, especially for those who just started to pay attention to this issue, this paper compares the definitions, research priorities, status quo, and problems of these two concepts, and summarizes the relationship between them. The paper suggests that only when the research targets are households who are living in a cold climate and have difficulty in getting access to electricity or modern cooking facilities, and in supplying indoor heating with appropriate cost, the concepts of energy poverty and fuel poverty have the chance to be broadened and mutually integrated. - Highlights: • Address energy poverty and fuel poverty simultaneously. • Compare energy poverty and fuel poverty from 4 perspectives. • Summarize the relationship between energy poverty and fuel poverty. • Divide energy poor and fuel poor into three categories

  5. A new, rare and distinctive species of Panorthoptera (Insecta, Archaeorthoptera from the Upper Carboniferous of Xiaheyan (Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaheyan locality is providing abundant material on one of the earliest insect faunas. The most common species are comparatively remote relatives of Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets and katydids, belonging to the Archaeorthoptera nec Panorthoptera (the latter including crown Orthoptera. We establish the genus Sinogerarus gen. nov. to accommodate a new, rare species, S. pectinatus spec. nov., which can be conclusively assigned to Panorthoptera. It therefore represents the second occurrence of the group at this locality. The new species displays a distinctive combination of character states, adding to the knowledge of a number of Upper Carboniferous Panorthoptera whose relationships are poorly understood.

  6. 9. Poor medication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Majority (60%) of the patients were reviewed at least twice in the last 6 months at the time of the interview. 195 (83%) patients reported that drugs prescribed were not available at the hospital pharmacy, but 186 (79%) of. Factors Associated With Poor Medication Adherence. In Hypertensive Patients In Lusaka, Zambia. 1,4. 1.

  7. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  8. Detection of plane, poorly oriented wide flaws using focused transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadder, D. de; Azou, P.; Bastien, P.; Saglio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The detection of plane, poorly oriented, wide flaws by ultrasonic non destructive testing is distinctly improved when using focused transducers. An increased echo can be obtained crossing the defect limit [fr

  9. Collapse in two good solvents, swelling in two poor solvents: defying the laws of polymer solubility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Kremer, Kurt

    2018-01-17

    In this work we discuss two mirror but distinct phenomena of polymer paradoxical properties in mixed solvents: co-non-solvency and co-solvency. When a polymer collapses in a mixture of two miscible good solvents the phenomenon is known as co-non-solvency, while co-solvency is a phenomenon that is associated with the swelling of a polymer in poor solvent mixtures. A typical example of co-non-solvency is provided by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in aqueous alcohol, while poly(methyl methacrylate) in aqueous alcohol shows co-solvency. We discuss these two phenomena to compare their microscopic origins and show that both can be understood within generic universal concepts. A broad range of polymers is therefore expected to exhibit these phenomena where specific chemical details play a lesser role than the appropriate combination of interactions between the trio of molecular components.

  10. Savings for the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Mas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relevance of formal financial services – in particular, savings – to poor people, the economic factors that have hindered the mass-scale delivery of such services in developing countries, and the technology-based opportunities that exist today to make massive gains in financial inclusion. It also highlights the benefits to government from universal financial access, as well as the key policy enablers that would need to be put in place to allow the necessary innovati...

  11. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. What is beautiful is good and more accurately understood. Physical attractiveness and accuracy in first impressions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Genevieve L; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Human, Lauren J

    2010-12-01

    Beautiful people are seen more positively than others, but are they also seen more accurately? In a round-robin design in which previously unacquainted individuals met for 3 min, results were consistent with the "beautiful is good" stereotype: More physically attractive individuals were viewed with greater normative accuracy; that is, they were viewed more in line with the highly desirable normative profile. Notably, more physically attractive targets were viewed more in line with their unique self-reported personality traits, that is, with greater distinctive accuracy. Further analyses revealed that both positivity and accuracy were to some extent in the eye of the beholder: Perceivers' idiosyncratic impressions of a target's attractiveness were also positively related to the positivity and accuracy of impressions. Overall, people do judge a book by its cover, but a beautiful cover prompts a closer reading, leading more physically attractive people to be seen both more positively and more accurately.

  13. Surgeon-level reporting presented by funnel plot is understood by doctors but inaccurately interpreted by members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Poor insight and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, O

    2017-01-01

    A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In

  15. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  16. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  17. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  18. Neoliberal policies and urban reconfigurations. Victoria, San Fernando, province of Buenos Aires, a city understood from theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ester Donadío

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain from a theoretical conceptual approach the particularities that exist in Victoria, San Fernando, Buenos Aires, from its urban production. Through a series of field works, semi-structured interviews and observations, it was possible to perceive that in this locality, there are three logics of city production, market, state and necessity, according to Abramo, P. (2002. The post-development cities of Latin America, a space in which constant tensions are generated that alter the harmonious development of daily life and the interaction of those who inhabit the area. On the other hand, it is also perceived that the inhabitants naturalize that way of life, their spatial disposition, the progressive privatization of public areas and the proliferation of closed housing estates. Here is a quote that we have heard repeatedly in interviews with the neighbors: "No one in Victoria gives a ball to anyone." At the moment of understanding Victoria from the theory, we take into account such concepts as the "heterotopy" of Foucault M. (1967 - understood as the juxtaposition of spaces that would be incompatible -the term "com-fusa city" (Abramo P. - as an urban structure that interweaves two traditional models (the Mediterranean compact and the Anglo-Saxon diffused, the notion of "privatopia" by I.Rodriguez Chumillas (2005 and E. Mckenzie (1994 as private spatial consolidation, and finally the concepts: informative and dual cities of R Castells (1995 terms that emerge from the process of globalization, which may be useful to think about the reality of Victoria .

  19. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  20. Salmonella Typhimurium undergoes distinct genetic adaption during chronic infections of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg, Emilie; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a severe systemic human disease and endemic in regions of the world with poor drinking water quality and sewage treatment facilities. A significant number of patients become asymptomatic life-long carriers of S....... Typhi and serve as the reservoir for the disease. The specific mechanisms and adaptive strategies enabling S. Typhi to survive inside the host for extended periods are incompletely understood. Yet, elucidation of these processes is of major importance for improvement of therapeutic strategies...... been transmitted to the other two mice. Re-infection with this clone confirmed that it is superior to the wild type for intestinal colonisation. Conclusions During 4 to 6 weeks of chronic infections, S. Typhimurium acquired distinct SNPs in known regulators of metabolic and virulence genes. One SNP...

  1. Distinct Shifts in Microbiota Composition during Drosophila Aging Impair Intestinal Function and Drive Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca I. Clark

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been correlated with aging and measures of frailty in the elderly. However, the relationships between microbial dynamics, age-related changes in intestinal physiology, and organismal health remain poorly understood. Here, we show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, characterized by an expansion of the Gammaproteobacteria, is tightly linked to age-onset intestinal barrier dysfunction in Drosophila. Indeed, alterations in the microbiota precede and predict the onset of intestinal barrier dysfunction in aged flies. Changes in microbial composition occurring prior to intestinal barrier dysfunction contribute to changes in excretory function and immune gene activation in the aging intestine. In addition, we show that a distinct shift in microbiota composition follows intestinal barrier dysfunction, leading to systemic immune activation and organismal death. Our results indicate that alterations in microbiota dynamics could contribute to and also predict varying rates of health decline during aging in mammals.

  2. Distinct contributions of the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during emotion regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Golkar

    Full Text Available The lateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices have both been implicated in emotion regulation, but their distinct roles in regulation of negative emotion remain poorly understood. To address this issue we enrolled 58 participants in an fMRI study in which participants were instructed to reappraise both negative and neutral stimuli. This design allowed us to separately study activations reflecting cognitive processes associated with reappraisal in general and activations specifically related to reappraisal of negative emotion. Our results confirmed that both the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC contribute to emotion regulation through reappraisal. However, activity in the DLPFC was related to reappraisal independently of whether negative or neutral stimuli were reappraised, whereas the lateral OFC was uniquely related to reappraisal of negative stimuli. We suggest that relative to the lateral OFC, the DLPFC serves a more general role in emotion regulation, perhaps by reflecting the cognitive demand that is inherent to the regulation task.

  3. Identification of distinct telencephalic progenitor pools for neuronal diversity in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tsutomu; Li, Peijun; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Cocas, Laura A; Huntsman, Molly M; Corbin, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    The development of the amygdala, a central structure of the limbic system, remains poorly understood. We found that two spatially distinct and early-specified telencephalic progenitor pools marked by the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 are major sources of neuronal cell diversity in the mature mouse amygdala. We found that Dbx1-positive cells of the ventral pallium generate the excitatory neurons of the basolateral complex and cortical amygdala nuclei. Moreover, Dbx1-derived cells comprise a previously unknown migratory stream that emanates from the preoptic area (POA), a ventral telencephalic domain adjacent to the diencephalic border. The Dbx1-positive, POA-derived population migrated specifically to the amygdala and, as defined by both immunochemical and electrophysiological criteria, generated a unique subclass of inhibitory neurons in the medial amygdala nucleus. Thus, this POA-derived population represents a previously unknown progenitor pool dedicated to the limbic system.

  4. Distinct Hippocampal Pathways Mediate Dissociable Roles of Context in Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Krabbe, Sabine; Gründemann, Jan; Botta, Paolo; Fadok, Jonathan P; Osakada, Fumitaka; Saur, Dieter; Grewe, Benjamin F; Schnitzer, Mark J; Callaway, Edward M; Lüthi, Andreas

    2016-11-03

    Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways. A projection from the vHC to the basal amygdala mediates fear behavior elicited by a conditioned context, whereas a parallel projection from a distinct subset of vHC neurons onto midbrain-projecting neurons in the central amygdala is necessary for context-dependent retrieval of cued fear memories. Our findings demonstrate that two fundamentally distinct roles of context in fear memory retrieval are processed by distinct vHC output pathways, thereby allowing for the formation of robust contextual fear memories while preserving context-dependent behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MHTGR product distinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    Commercial power reactor operating experience and regulatory practice in the United States is dominated by Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology. This experience base and regulatory structure is a point of departure for the development of any future nuclear option, and must be understood and utilized as appropriate. This report discusses experience with current generation plants considered relevant to MHTGR development, as well as the fundamental differences between the MHTGR and LWR technology, and quantifies avoided business risks relative to current generation plants. It does not attempt to compare the MHTGR with other advanced nuclear options, LWR or other technologies, which are also under development and must relate to the historical framework in accordance with their own unique characteristics. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Contaminación de los alimentos por virus: un problema de salud pública poco comprendido Viral contamination of food products: a poorly understood public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. B. Ferrari

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas partes del mundo han surgido epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos (ETA sobre las que no existe suficiente información para guiar las acciones de las instituciones de salud pública. El presente estudio se hizo con objeto de contribuir a la diseminación de información sobre esas enfermedades, sus agentes etiológicos y su epidemiología y control. Se utilizaron datos de 61 estudios, entre ellos revisiones, descripciones de brotes y sistematización de datos. De los resultados obtenidos se pudo concluir que hay un gran problema de subregistro y falta de datos sobre estas enfermedades en los diversos países, pero los virus constituyen la segunda causa más importante de ETA en los Estados Unidos de América. Dos agentes, el virus Norwalk y el de la hepatitis A, ocuparon el quinto y sexto lugares, respectivamente, entre las causas principales de ETA, aunque el primero ocupó el primer puesto en 1982 y el segundo lugar como causa principal de enfermedades de transmisión hídrica durante el período de 1986 a 1988. A pesar de la escasez de datos al respecto, los rotavirus, poliovirus, virus de la hepatitis E, astrovirus y pequeños virus gastroentéricos también tienen importancia como agentes de ETA. En el artículo se discute también la importancia de las zoonosis víricas, especialmente de las fiebres hemorrágicas transmitidas por excretas de roedores y las encefalitis víricas transmitidas por garrapatas (fiebre difásica de la leche. Asimismo se presenta la polémica sobre la enfermedad de las vacas locas y su posible transmisión por los alimentos, además de los cuidados alimentarios relacionados con el sida y otras infecciones víricas. Por último, se describen los procedimientos de prevención y control de las ETA víricas.Throughout the world there have been several epidemics of food-borne diseases (FBD about which there is lack of sufficient information for public health institutions to take appropriate measures. This study was conducted for the purpose of contributing to the dissemination of information on these diseases and their etiologic agents, epidemiology, and control. The study was based on data from 61 sources, including review articles, reports of outbreaks, and databases. Results reveal considerable underregistration and lack of data on FBD throughout the various countries, with viruses being the second most important cause of FBD in the United States of America. Two agents, Norwalk virus and hepatitis A virus, were the fifth and sixth most frequent causes, respectively, although the former was the single most frequent cause of FBD in 1982 and the second most frequent cause of water-borne diseases during the period from 1986 to 1988. Despite the scarcity of information on the problem, rotavirus, poliovirus, hepatitis E virus, astrovirus, and small gastroenteric viruses are also important causes of FBD. We also discuss the importance of viral zoonoses, especially hemorrhagic fevers transmitted by contact with rodent feces and tick-borne viral encephalitides (Lassa fever. There is discussion of the controversial mad cow disease and its potential transmission through food products, as well as of dietary aspects of the management of AIDS and other viral infections. Finally, measures for the prevention and control of FBD are described.

  7. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia Tanas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patien...... generation of MPs may partake in the pathology of SLE and that new diagnostic, monitoring, and treatment strategies targeting these processes may be advantageous....

  9. Excessive biologic response to IFNβ is associated with poor treatment response in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Rudick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon-beta (IFNβ is used to inhibit disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS, but its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood, individual treatment response varies, and biological markers predicting response to treatment have yet to be identified. METHODS: The relationship between the molecular response to IFNβ and treatment response was determined in 85 patients using a longitudinal design in which treatment effect was categorized by brain magnetic resonance imaging as good (n = 70 or poor response (n = 15. Molecular response was quantified using a customized cDNA macroarray assay for 166 IFN-regulated genes (IRGs. RESULTS: The molecular response to IFNβ differed significantly between patients in the pattern and number of regulated genes. The molecular response was strikingly stable for individuals for as long as 24 months, however, suggesting an individual 'IFN response fingerprint'. Unexpectedly, patients with poor response showed an exaggerated molecular response. IRG induction ratios demonstrated an exaggerated molecular response at both the first and 6-month IFNβ injections. CONCLUSION: MS patients exhibit individually unique but temporally stable biological responses to IFNβ. Poor treatment response is not explained by the duration of biological effects or the specific genes induced. Rather, individuals with poor treatment response have a generally exaggerated biological response to type 1 IFN injections. We hypothesize that the molecular response to type I IFN identifies a pathogenetically distinct subset of MS patients whose disease is driven in part by innate immunity. The findings suggest a strategy for biologically based, rational use of IFNβ for individual MS patients.

  10. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r 2  = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r 2  = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, T H 1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  11. Home is to be understood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv

    2018-01-01

    , and involved artists with refugee status (mainly from Syria), a group of local volunteers, and members of the museum staff. The project derived from the annual theme “ON THE MOVE” and culminated in an art exhibition and event on June 4th 2016. Up until then the museum had invited the artists to create artworks...... for the exhibition, while including the volunteers in the process, facilitating the meeting of those who are at home and those who are on the run. In this sense, the MFSK situates themselves as a social-political activist; a contemporary institution dealing with contemporary societal issues. The migrant and refugee...... of engaging with themes of refuge, home and exile? What are the implications of volunteering in such project? The paper’s discussions are framed by the theories of gallery education (Bishop, 2006; Mörsch, 2009), co-creation in museums (Simon, 2010), community arts (Kester, 2013), and draws on fieldwork...

  12. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  13. We Have Not Understood Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallias, Andras

    1996-01-01

    Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)

  14. Crisis and Communication among Rural Poor People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Ganjar Runtiko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the crisis is often multiple on people in rural poverty that secluded and away from the reach of government. Main factor cannot be ignored in crisis is communication. Prolonged crisis will occur when the channels of communication in society clogged. This study establishes three specific targets: (1 To obtain a comprehensive overview of the rural poor people’s knowledge about the crisis and the potential impact, (2 To discover crisis problems faced by the rural people poor, (3 To enlist communication problems in a crisis situation. This study used a qualitative method with a case study approach. Research data collect by conducting FGD of 40 informants selected based on purposive sampling, furthermore eight people were interviewed in depth, plus other supporting informant. The results of the research show people on those two locations have understood the crisis based on their experience of dealing with it. They believe the economic crisis as the first aspect that must be resolved. The completion of crisis should consider indigenous wisdom to avoid a new crisis.

  15. Inclusive growth versus pro-poor growth: Implications for tourism development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martine; Messerli, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive growth and pro-poor growth are terms embraced but not fully understood in the tourism community. This paper discusses the main concepts of inclusive growth and their implication for tourism development across the developing world. Is inclusive growth simply another term for pro-poor in

  16. Feeling Heard & Understood in the Hospital Environment: Benchmarking Communication Quality Among Patients with Advanced Cancer Before and After Palliative Care Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Luke T; Saeed, Fahad; Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A; Anderson, Wendy; Alexander, Stewart C; Gramling, Robert

    2018-05-02

    Maximizing value in palliative care requires continued development and standardization of communication quality indicators. To describe the basic epidemiology of a newly-adopted patient-centered communication quality indicator for hospitalized palliative care patie9nts with advanced cancer. Cross-sectional analysis of 207 advanced cancer patients who received palliative care consultation at two medical centers in the United States. Participants completed the Heard & Understood quality indicator immediately before and the day following the initial palliative care consultation: "Over the past two days ["24 hours" for the post-consultation version], how much have you felt heard and understood by the doctors, nurses and hospital staff? Completely/Quite a Bit/Moderately/Slightly/Not at All". We categorized "Completely" as indicating ideal quality. Approximately one-third indicated ideal Heard & Understood quality before palliative care consultation. Age, financial security, emotional distress, preferences for comfort-longevity tradeoffs at end-of-life, and prognosis expectations were associated with pre-consultation quality. Among those with less-than-ideal quality at baseline, 56% rated feeling more Heard & Understood the day following palliative care consultation. The greatest pre-post improvement was among people who had unformed end-of-life treatment preferences or who reported having "no idea" about their prognosis at baseline. Most patients felt incompletely heard and understood at the time of referral to palliative care consultation and more than half improved following consultation. Feeling heard and understood is an important quality indicator sensitive to interventions to improve care and key variations in the patient experience. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Are the energy poor also income poor? Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach is applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The objective is to determine if the energy poor are also income poor and whether and how energy policies help reduce energy poverty, independent of income. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57% of households are energy poor, versus 22% that are income poor. But in urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28% compared to 20% that are income poor. That is, energy policies are expected to play some roles in mitigating energy poverty. We find that reducing energy poverty requires not only support for rural electrification, but also more use of modern cooking fuels such as LPG. While income growth matters, a combination of energy related programs can play an independent and substantial role in reducing energy poverty. - Highlights: ► This paper applies a new approach to measuring energy poverty to rural and urban India. ► It also compares and contrasts income poverty with energy poverty in the context of India. ► Findings suggest that income poverty tracks energy poverty in urban India, but not in rural India. ► Income growth is very important in reducing energy poverty. ► In addition, access to and reliability of modern sources (electricity, LPG) are also helpful.

  18. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood, involving more complex mechanisms than those in the stomach and proximal duodenum. There is clear evidence for important contributions to NSAID enteropathy of enteric bacteria, bile and enterohepatic recirculation of the NSAID. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. Indeed, clinical data suggest little, if any, benefit. Animal studies suggest a significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy when proton pump inhibitors are co-administered with the NSAID. This worsening of damage appears to be linked to changes in the number and types of bacteria in the small intestine during proton pump inhibitor therapy. The distinct mechanisms of NSAID-induced injury in the stomach/proximal duodenum versus the more distal small intestine likely dictate distinct strategies for prevention. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Distinct patterns of novel gene mutations in poor-prognostic stereotyped subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strefford, J C; Sutton, L-A; Baliakas, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed recurrent mutations of the NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially among aggressive, chemorefractory cases. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether their presence may differ in subsets of patients carrying stereotyped B...

  20. A comparison of the language skills of ELLs and monolinguals who are poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Massey-Garrison, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to examine how oral language abilities relate to reading profiles in English language learners (ELLs) and English as a first language (EL1) learners, and the extent of similarities and differences between ELLs and EL1s in three reading subgroups: normal readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders. The study included 100 ELLs and 50 EL1s in Grade 5. The effect of language group (ELL/EL1) and reading group on cognitive and linguistic skills was examined. Except for vocabulary, there was no language group effect on any measure. However, within ELL and EL1 alike, significant differences were found between reading groups: Normal readers outperformed the two other groups on all the oral language measures. Distinct cognitive and linguistic profiles were associated with poor decoders and poor comprehenders, regardless of language group. The ELL and EL1 poor decoders outperformed the poor comprehenders on listening comprehension and inferencing. The poor decoders displayed phonological-based weaknesses, whereas the poor comprehenders displayed a more generalized language processing weakness that is nonphonological in nature. Regardless of language status, students with poor decoding or comprehension problems display difficulties with various aspects of language.

  1. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  2. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  3. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  4. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  5. Delineation of geological facies from poorly differentiated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tartakovsky, Daniel [UCSC

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate geologic facies and to estima.te their properties from sparse data is essential for modeling physical and biochemical processes occurring in the 'ubsurface. If such data are poorly differentiated, this challcnrring task is complicated further by the absence of a clear distinction between different hydrofacies even at locations where data. are available. vVe consider three alt mative approaches for analysis of poorly differentiated data: a k-means clU!:iterinrr algorithm, an expectation-maximization algorithm, and a minimum-variance algorithm. Two distinct synthetically generated geological settings are used to r:tnalyze the ability of these algorithmti to as ign accurately the membership of such data in a given geologic facies. On average, the minimum-variance algorithm provides a more robust p rformance than its two counterparts and when combined with a nearest-neighbor algorithm, it also yields the most accurate reconstruction of the boundaries between the facies.

  6. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  7. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  8. Solid Phospholipid Dispersions for Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Martins, Susana A. M.; Brandl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug in which its oral bioavailability is limited by poor aqueous solubility. Although a range of formulations aiming to increase the solubility of CXB have been developed, it is not completely understood, whether (1) an increase...... the importance of evaluating both, solubility and permeability, and the use of biorelevant medium for testing the candidate-enabling performance of liposomal formulations. Mechanisms at molecular level that may explain the effect of PL formulations on the permeability of CXB are also discussed....

  9. The Political Economy and Coalitions in Botswana’s Water Sector Reform 2009-13: to what extent can the process of reform be understood?

    OpenAIRE

    Colman, Anthony John

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the process of water sector reform in Botswana, focusing on barriers to effective delivery of clean water and improved sanitation services (WSS) to all, and water resource management (WRM), in a water insecure country, dependent for surface water on international river basin organisations. The study provides a crtitical analysis of policy change in progress. The impact of the water reforms on the poor and the process of centralising control of WSS, from both tribal and lo...

  10. Distinct mechanisms eliminate mother and daughter centrioles in meiosis of starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Pinto, Joana; Somogyi, Kálmán; Karreman, Matthia A; König, Julia; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Gönczy, Pierre; Schwab, Yannick; Lénárt, Péter

    2016-03-28

    Centriole elimination is an essential process that occurs in female meiosis of metazoa to reset centriole number in the zygote at fertilization. How centrioles are eliminated remains poorly understood. Here we visualize the entire elimination process live in starfish oocytes. Using specific fluorescent markers, we demonstrate that the two older, mother centrioles are selectively removed from the oocyte by extrusion into polar bodies. We show that this requires specific positioning of the second meiotic spindle, achieved by dynein-driven transport, and anchorage of the mother centriole to the plasma membrane via mother-specific appendages. In contrast, the single daughter centriole remaining in the egg is eliminated before the first embryonic cleavage. We demonstrate that these distinct elimination mechanisms are necessary because if mother centrioles are artificially retained, they cannot be inactivated, resulting in multipolar zygotic spindles. Thus, our findings reveal a dual mechanism to eliminate centrioles: mothers are physically removed, whereas daughters are eliminated in the cytoplasm, preparing the egg for fertilization. © 2016 Borrego-Pinto et al.

  11. A chimeric prokaryotic pentameric ligand–gated channel reveals distinct pathways of activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Nicolaus; Velisetty, Phanindra; Chalamalasetti, Sreevatsa V.; Stein, Richard A.; Bonner, Ross; Talley, Lauren; Parker, Mark D.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Yee, Vivien C.; Lodowski, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent high resolution structures of several pentameric ligand–gated ion channels have provided unprecedented details of their molecular architecture. However, the conformational dynamics and structural rearrangements that underlie gating and allosteric modulation remain poorly understood. We used a combination of electrophysiology, double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography to investigate activation mechanisms in a novel functional chimera with the extracellular domain (ECD) of amine-gated Erwinia chrysanthemi ligand–gated ion channel, which is activated by primary amines, and the transmembrane domain of Gloeobacter violaceus ligand–gated ion channel, which is activated by protons. We found that the chimera was independently gated by primary amines and by protons. The crystal structure of the chimera in its resting state, at pH 7.0 and in the absence of primary amines, revealed a closed-pore conformation and an ECD that is twisted with respect to the transmembrane region. Amine- and pH-induced conformational changes measured by DEER spectroscopy showed that the chimera exhibits a dual mode of gating that preserves the distinct conformational changes of the parent channels. Collectively, our findings shed light on both conserved and divergent features of gating mechanisms in this class of channels, and will facilitate the design of better allosteric modulators. PMID:26415570

  12. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sepsis Induces Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion and Myelosuppression through Distinct Contributions of TRIF and MYD88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajia Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a central role in host responses to bacterial infection, but the precise mechanism(s by which its downstream signaling components coordinate the bone marrow response to sepsis is poorly understood. Using mice deficient in TLR4 downstream adapters MYD88 or TRIF, we demonstrate that both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous MYD88 activation are major causes of myelosuppression during sepsis, while having a modest impact on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC functions. In contrast, cell-intrinsic TRIF activation severely compromises HSC self-renewal without directly affecting myeloid cells. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of MYD88 or TRIF contributes to cell-cycle activation of HSC and induces rapid and permanent changes in transcriptional programs, as indicated by persistent downregulation of Spi1 and CebpA expression after transplantation. Thus, distinct mechanisms downstream of TLR4 signaling mediate myelosuppression and HSC exhaustion during sepsis through unique effects of MyD88 and TRIF.

  14. Two distinct and competitive pathways confer the cellcidal actions of artemisinins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological actions of artemisinin (ART, an antimalarial drug derived from Artemisia annua, remain poorly understood and controversial. Besides potent antimalarial activity, some of artemisinin derivatives (together with artemisinin, hereafter referred to as ARTs, in particular dihydroartemisinin (DHA, are also associated with anticancer and other antiparasitic activities. In this study, we used baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as cellular and genetic model to investigate the molecular and cellular properties of ARTs. Two clearly separable pathways exist. While all ARTs exhibit potent anti-mitochondrial actions as shown before, DHA exerts an additional strong heme-dependent, likely mitochondria-independent inhibitory action. More importantly, heme antagonizes the mitochondria-dependent cellcidal action. Indeed, when heme synthesis was inhibited, the mitochondria-dependent cellcidal action of ARTs could be dramatically strengthened, and significant yeast growth inhibition at as low as 100 nM ART, an increase of about 25 folds in sensitivity, was observed. We conclude that ARTs are endowed with two major and distinct types of properties: a potent and specific mitochondria-dependent reaction and a more general and less specific heme-mediated reaction. The competitive nature of these two actions could be explained by their shared source of the consumable ARTs, so that inhibition of the heme-mediated degradation pathway would enable more ARTs to be available for the mitochondrial action. These properties of ARTs can be used to interpret the divergent antimalarial and anticancer actions of ARTs.

  15. Drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance in Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Tytgat, Tom O G; Sun, Pulu; Lortzing, Tobias; Visser, Eric J W; Cristescu, Simona M; Steppuhn, Anke; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    In the field, biotic and abiotic stresses frequently co-occur. As a consequence, common molecular signalling pathways governing adaptive responses to individual stresses can interact, resulting in compromised phenotypes. How plant signalling pathways interact under combined stresses is poorly understood. To assess this, we studied the consequence of drought and soil flooding on resistance of Solanum dulcamara to Spodoptera exigua and their effects on hormonal and transcriptomic profiles. The results showed that S. exigua larvae performed less well on drought-stressed plants than on well-watered and flooded plants. Both drought and insect feeding increased abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) levels, whereas flooding did not induce JA accumulation. RNA sequencing analyses corroborated this pattern: drought and herbivory induced many biological processes that were repressed by flooding. When applied in combination, drought and herbivory had an additive effect on specific processes involved in secondary metabolism and defence responses, including protease inhibitor activity. In conclusion, drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance. Especially, the interaction between abscisic acid and JA signalling may be important to optimize plant responses to combined drought and insect herbivory, making drought-stressed plants more resistant to insects than well-watered and flooded plants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J.; Klingler, John  P.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas  P.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michèle; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09531.001 PMID:26814051

  18. Explaining the role of proximate determinants on fertility decline among poor and non-poor in Asian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Majumder

    Full Text Available We examined the overall contributions of the poor and non-poor in fertility decline across the Asian countries. Further, we analyzed the direct and indirect factors that determine the reproductive behaviour of two distinct population sub-groups.Data from several new rounds of DHS surveys are available over the past few years. The DHS provides cross-nationally comparable and useful data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health along with the other information. Six selected Asian countries namely: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and Vietnam are considered for the purpose of the study. Three rounds of DHS surveys for each country (except Vietnam are considered in the present study.Economic status is measured by computing a "wealth index", i.e. a composite indicator constructed by aggregating data on asset ownership and housing characteristics using principal components analysis (PCA. Computed household wealth index has been broken into three equal parts (33.3 percent each and the lowest and the highest 33.3 percent is considered as poor and non-poor respectively. The Bongaarts model was employed to quantify the contribution of each of the proximate determinants of fertility among poor and non-poor women.Fertility reduction across all population subgroups is now an established fact despite the diversity in the level of socio-economic development in Asian countries. It is clear from the analysis that fertility has declined irrespective of economic status at varying degrees within and across the countries which can be attributed to the increasing level of contraceptive use especially among poor women. Over the period of time changing marriage pattern and induced abortion are playing an important role in reducing fertility among poor women.Fertility decline among majority of the poor women across the Asian countries is accompanied by high prevalence of contraceptive use followed by changing marriage pattern and induced

  19. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in distinct circuits of the extended amygdala determine fear responsiveness to unpredictable threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M D; Daldrup, T; Remmers, F; Szkudlarek, H J; Lesting, J; Guggenhuber, S; Ruehle, S; Jüngling, K; Seidenbecher, T; Lutz, B; Pape, H C

    2017-10-01

    The brain circuits underlying behavioral fear have been extensively studied over the last decades. Although the vast majority of experimental studies assess fear as a transient state of apprehension in response to a discrete threat, such phasic states of fear can shift to a sustained anxious apprehension, particularly in face of diffuse cues with unpredictable environmental contingencies. Unpredictability, in turn, is considered an important variable contributing to anxiety disorders. The networks of the extended amygdala have been suggested keys to the control of phasic and sustained states of fear, although the underlying synaptic pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system acting in synaptic circuits of the extended amygdala can explain the fear response profile during exposure to unpredictable threat. Using fear training with predictable or unpredictable cues in mice, combined with local and cell-type-specific deficiency and rescue of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, we found that presynaptic CB1 receptors on distinct amygdala projections to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are both necessary and sufficient for the shift from phasic to sustained fear in response to an unpredictable threat. These results thereby identify the causal role of a defined protein in a distinct brain pathway for the temporal development of a sustained state of anxious apprehension during unpredictability of environmental influences, reminiscent of anxiety symptoms in humans.

  20. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  1. Distinct Neurodegenerative Changes in an Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Frontotemporal Dementia Linked to Mutant TAU Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ehrlich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is a frequent form of early-onset dementia and can be caused by mutations in MAPT encoding the microtubule-associated protein TAU. Because of limited availability of neural cells from patients’ brains, the underlying mechanisms of neurodegeneration in FTD are poorly understood. Here, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from individuals with FTD-associated MAPT mutations and differentiated them into mature neurons. Patient iPSC-derived neurons demonstrated pronounced TAU pathology with increased fragmentation and phospho-TAU immunoreactivity, decreased neurite extension, and increased but reversible oxidative stress response to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, FTD neurons showed an activation of the unfolded protein response, and a transcriptome analysis demonstrated distinct, disease-associated gene expression profiles. These findings indicate distinct neurodegenerative changes in FTD caused by mutant TAU and highlight the unique opportunity to use neurons differentiated from patient-specific iPSCs to identify potential targets for drug screening purposes and therapeutic intervention.

  2. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  3. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2. Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation. Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for

  4. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sindhu; Sreenivas, Prethish; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Reddy, Vatrapu Rami; Shashidhara, Lingadahalli Subrahmanya; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Mylavarapu, Madhavi; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts) to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2). Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation). Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for pathological

  5. Beyond liposomes: Recent advances on lipid based nanostructures for poorly soluble/poorly permeable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M C; Carbone, C; Souto, E B

    2017-10-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hybrid nanoparticles, have gained increasing interest as drug delivery systems because of their potential to load and release drugs from the Biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) of class II (low solubility and high permeability) and of class IV (low solubility and low permeability). Lipid properties (e.g. high solubilizing potential, biocompatibility, biotolerability, biodegradability and distinct route of absorption) contribute for the improvement of the bioavailability of these drugs for a set of administration routes. Their interest continues to grow, as translated by the number of patents being field worldwide. This paper discusses the recent advances on the use of SLN, NLC and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for the loading of lipophilic, poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs, being developed for oral, topical, parenteral and ocular administration, also discussing the industrial applications of these systems. A review of the patents filled between 2014 and 2017, concerning the original inventions of lipid nanocarriers, is also provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.; Wilson, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Pro Poor Growth in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fambon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between economic growth, poverty and income distribution in Cameroon, using both the data derived from three Cameroonian household surveys and the Poverty Equivalent Growth Rate (PEGR methodology developed by Kakwani et al. (2004, The study found that economic growth in Cameroon was pro poor over the period 1996–2007, which suggests that instead of increasing the economic growth rate alone, the poverty equivalent growth rate should also be maximized to achieve the poverty reduction objective, meaning that on the one hand, the growth rate should be boosted, and on the other, the distribution of income should also be concurrently improved. A decomposition of changes in poverty using the Kakwani (1997 approach reveal that the growth component dominates the redistribution component in the reduction of poverty. This suggests that the fall in absolute poverty over the survey period may be attributed to an increase in average household income, and not to the redistributive policies of the government.

  9. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  10. Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.

  11. EGL-13/SoxD specifies distinct O2 and CO2 sensory neuron fates in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Gramstrup Petersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals harbor specialized neuronal systems that are used for sensing and coordinating responses to changes in oxygen (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the O2/CO2 sensory system comprises functionally and morphologically distinct sensory neurons that mediate rapid behavioral responses to exquisite changes in O2 or CO2 levels via different sensory receptors. How the diversification of the O2- and CO2-sensing neurons is established is poorly understood. We show here that the molecular identity of both the BAG (O2/CO2-sensing and the URX (O2-sensing neurons is controlled by the phylogenetically conserved SoxD transcription factor homolog EGL-13. egl-13 mutant animals fail to fully express the distinct terminal gene batteries of the BAG and URX neurons and, as such, are unable to mount behavioral responses to changes in O2 and CO2. We found that the expression of egl-13 is regulated in the BAG and URX neurons by two conserved transcription factors-ETS-5(Ets factor in the BAG neurons and AHR-1(bHLH factor in the URX neurons. In addition, we found that EGL-13 acts in partially parallel pathways with both ETS-5 and AHR-1 to direct BAG and URX neuronal fate respectively. Finally, we found that EGL-13 is sufficient to induce O2- and CO2-sensing cell fates in some cellular contexts. Thus, the same core regulatory factor, egl-13, is required and sufficient to specify the distinct fates of O2- and CO2-sensing neurons in C. elegans. These findings extend our understanding of mechanisms of neuronal diversification and the regulation of molecular factors that may be conserved in higher organisms.

  12. Pro-poor growth and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent gender gaps in education, health, employment, productive assets and inputs can affect pro poor growth (in the sense of increasing monetary incomes of the poor). After discussing serious methodological problems with examining gender issues in the context of an income-based pro-poor growth framework, the paper considers theory and evidence on the impact of gender inequality on pro poor growth. While there is a considerable literature suggesting negative impact...

  13. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Meertens, Laurent; Chazal, Maxime; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Zamborlini, Alessia; Despres, Philippe; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Amara, Ali

    2016-02-09

    The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a "gold standard" for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry

  14. Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Caroline A; Piasini, Eugenio; Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D

    2017-08-03

    The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions. Here we show that population codes can be essential to achieve long coding timescales. Furthermore, we find that the properties of population codes differ between sensory and association cortices. We compared coding for sensory stimuli and behavioural choices in auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex as mice performed a sound localization task. Auditory stimulus information was stronger in auditory cortex than in posterior parietal cortex, and both regions contained choice information. Although auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex coded information by tiling in time neurons that were transiently informative for approximately 200 milliseconds, the areas had major differences in functional coupling between neurons, measured as activity correlations that could not be explained by task events. Coupling among posterior parietal cortex neurons was strong and extended over long time lags, whereas coupling among auditory cortex neurons was weak and short-lived. Stronger coupling in posterior parietal cortex led to a population code with long timescales and a representation of choice that remained consistent for approximately 1 second. In contrast, auditory cortex had a code with rapid fluctuations in stimulus and choice information over hundreds of milliseconds. Our results reveal that population codes differ across cortex

  15. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    analysed by means of logistic regression models. Results: Men and women with poor mental health are characterized by being single, having a long-term illness, not being able to rely on help from others in case of illness and by feeling that family and friends demand too much of them. Men with poor mental...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...... CHARACTERIZE MEN AND WOMEN WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH THE PRESENT FINDINGS SUPPORT THE NOTION THAT BOTH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS AND LIFESTYLE FACTORS ARE INDEPENDENTLY RELATED WITH POOR MENTAL HEALTH WE SUGGEST TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALL THESE AREAS OF LIFE WHEN PLANNING ACTIVITIES TO PREVENT POOR MENTAL HEALTH AND WHEN...

  16. Long-term propagation of distinct hematopoietic differentiation programs in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, Brad; Kent, David; Bowie, Michelle; McCaffrey, Lindsay; Hamilton, Melisa; Lyons, Kristin; Lee, Shang-Jung; Brinkman, Ryan; Eaves, Connie

    Heterogeneity in the differentiation behavior of hematopoietic stem cells is well documented but poorly understood. To investigate this question at a clonal level, we isolated a subpopulation of adult mouse bone marrow that is highly enriched for multilineage in vivo repopulating cells and

  17. Hypo- and hyperactivated Notch signaling induce a glycolytic switch through distinct mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landor, S.; Mutvei, A.P.; Mamaeva, V.; Jin, S.; Busk, M.; Borra, R.; Grönroos, T.J.; Kronqvist, P.; Lendahl, U.; Sahlgren, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis is frequently observed in cancer cells and is linked to tumor growth and invasion, but the underpinning molecular mechanisms controlling the switch are poorly understood. In this report we show that Notch signaling is a key regulator of cellular

  18. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  19. Depleted depletion drives polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos M; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-11-09

    Establishing a link between macromolecular conformation and microscopic interaction is a key to understand properties of polymer solutions and for designing technologically relevant "smart" polymers. Here, polymer solvation in solvent mixtures strike as paradoxical phenomena. For example, when adding polymers to a solvent, such that all particle interactions are repulsive, polymer chains can collapse due to increased monomer-solvent repulsion. This depletion induced monomer-monomer attraction is well known from colloidal stability. A typical example is poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in water or small alcohols. While polymer collapse in a single poor solvent is well understood, the observed polymer swelling in mixtures of two repulsive solvents is surprising. By combining simulations and theoretical concepts known from polymer physics and colloidal science, we unveil the microscopic, generic origin of this collapse-swelling-collapse behavior. We show that this phenomenon naturally emerges at constant pressure when an appropriate balance of entropically driven depletion interactions is achieved.

  20. Nanosuspension Technology for Solubilizing Poorly Soluble Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Deoli Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. It is estimated that around 40% of drugs in the pipeline cannot be delivered through the preferred route or in some cases, at all owing to poor water solubility. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor1 EL). To date, nanoscale systems f...

  1. Distinct Roles for CdtA and CdtC during Intoxication by Cytolethal Distending Toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandee D Dixon

    Full Text Available Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs are heterotrimeric protein exotoxins produced by a diverse array of Gram-negative pathogens. The enzymatic subunit, CdtB, possesses DNase and phosphatidylinositol 3-4-5 trisphosphate phosphatase activities that induce host cell cycle arrest, cellular distension and apoptosis. To exert cyclomodulatory and cytotoxic effects CDTs must be taken up from the host cell surface and transported intracellularly in a manner that ultimately results in localization of CdtB to the nucleus. However, the molecular details and mechanism by which CDTs bind to host cells and exploit existing uptake and transport pathways to gain access to the nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we report that CdtA and CdtC subunits of CDTs derived from Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT and enteropathogenic E. coli (Ec-CDT are independently sufficient to support intoxication by their respective CdtB subunits. CdtA supported CdtB-mediated killing of T-cells and epithelial cells that was nearly as efficient as that observed with holotoxin. In contrast, the efficiency by which CdtC supported intoxication was dependent on the source of the toxin as well as the target cell type. Further, CdtC was found to alter the subcellular trafficking of Ec-CDT as determined by sensitivity to EGA, an inhibitor of endosomal trafficking, colocalization with markers of early and late endosomes, and the kinetics of DNA damage response. Finally, host cellular cholesterol was found to influence sensitivity to intoxication mediated by Ec-CdtA, revealing a role for cholesterol or cholesterol-rich membrane domains in intoxication mediated by this subunit. In summary, data presented here support a model in which CdtA and CdtC each bind distinct receptors on host cell surfaces that direct alternate intracellular uptake and/or trafficking pathways.

  2. Parents' attitudes towards topical fluoride and vaccines for children: Are these distinct or overlapping phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Carpiano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite attention paid to parental refusal of child vaccines, the phenomenon of topical fluoride refusal is poorly understood. We examine the extent to which parent attitudes and Internet use regarding topical fluoride treatment and vaccines may overlap and, in turn, uniquely or distinctly correlate with fluoride and vaccine refusal for the child. In 2017, we analyzed data collected from 2011 to 12 for 361 children from three Washington state dental clinics. The instrument included analogous measures of topical fluoride and vaccine safety concerns, perceived severity of preventable cavities/disease, and Internet use for fluoride/vaccine information; and measures of non-fluoridated toothpaste use, attitudes towards dental x-rays and amalgam and composite fillings. We assessed dental chart-based topical fluoride refusal occurring in 2009 or 2010 and parent-reported vaccine refusal. All analogous fluoride and vaccine items were substantively correlated. However, in a series of adjusted models, none of these items were significantly associated with fluoride refusal. Multiple fluoride and vaccine items were associated with vaccine refusal in unadjusted models; but only vaccine safety concerns, perceived severity of a preventable cavity, and Internet use for vaccine information remained significant in adjusted models. Although there is concordance between the two refusal behaviors as well as analogous attitudes and Internet use, these findings challenge the idea that fluoride refusal should be addressed with interventions focusing on vaccine refusal. Further research is required on the factors underlying refusal of preventive dental care. Keywords: Vaccinations, Topical fluoride, Vaccination refusal, Fluoride refusal, Vaccine hesitancy, Fluoride hesitancy, Children, Adolescents, Preventive treatment, United States

  3. Coordination of Hepatitis C Virus Assembly by Distinct Regulatory Regions in Nonstructural Protein 5A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zayas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV nonstructural protein (NS5A is a RNA-binding protein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor, a structured domain I (DI and two intrinsically disordered domains (DII and DIII interacting with viral and cellular proteins. While DI and DII are essential for RNA replication, DIII is required for assembly. How these processes are orchestrated by NS5A is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a highly conserved basic cluster (BC at the N-terminus of DIII that is critical for particle assembly. We generated BC mutants and compared them with mutants that are blocked at different stages of the assembly process: a NS5A serine cluster (SC mutant blocked in NS5A-core interaction and a mutant lacking the envelope glycoproteins (ΔE1E2. We found that BC mutations did not affect core-NS5A interaction, but strongly impaired core-RNA association as well as virus particle envelopment. Moreover, BC mutations impaired RNA-NS5A interaction arguing that the BC might be required for loading of core protein with viral RNA. Interestingly, RNA-core interaction was also reduced with the ΔE1E2 mutant, suggesting that nucleocapsid formation and envelopment are coupled. These findings argue for two NS5A DIII determinants regulating assembly at distinct, but closely linked steps: (i SC-dependent recruitment of replication complexes to core protein and (ii BC-dependent RNA genome delivery to core protein, triggering encapsidation that is tightly coupled to particle envelopment. These results provide a striking example how a single viral protein exerts multiple functions to coordinate the steps from RNA replication to the assembly of infectious virus particles.

  4. Distinct interferon-gamma and interleukin-9 expression in cutaneous and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Schlapbach, C; Stuck, M; Simon, H-U; Borradori, L; Beltraminelli, H; Simon, D

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous (CLP) and oral lichen planus (OLP) as the main subtypes of lichen planus (LP) present with different clinical manifestation and disease course, although their histopathologic features such as the band-like lymphocyte infiltrate and keratinocyte apoptosis are similar. So far, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the in situ cellular infiltrates, cytokine expression profiles and apoptosis markers in CLP and OLP. Using immunofluorescence staining and laser scanning microscopy, we evaluated the cellular infiltrate (CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD57, CD123), cytokine expression (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interferon (IFN)-γ), and apoptosis markers (Fas, Fas ligand, cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL) of 21 anonymized biopsy specimens of LP (11 CLP, 10 OLP). Among infiltrating cells mainly T cells and natural killer (NK) cells as well as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) were observed. A predominance of CD8+ T cells was noted in OLP. In both CLP and OLP, T helper (Th)1, Th9, Th17, and Th22-type cytokines were expressed. The expression of IL-9, IFN-γ and IL-22 was higher in CLP compared to that of OLP (P = 0.0165; P = 0.0016; P = 0.052 respectively). Expression of Fas and Fas ligand as well as cleaved caspase-3-positive cells was observed in the epithelium of all LP samples. The cell and cytokine patterns of CLP and OLP were partially distinct and generally resembled those reported for autoimmune diseases. The presence of CD8+ and NK cells as well as Fas/Fas ligand expression suggested that various pathways involved in keratinocyte apoptosis are relevant for LP. These results might help to establish targeted therapies for LP. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Deconstruction of O-glycosylation-GalNAc-T isoforms direct distinct subsets of the O-glycoproteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Katrine T; Joshi, Hiren J; Kong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on most proteins trafficking through the secretory pathway in metazoan cells. The O-glycoproteome is regulated by up to 20 polypeptide GalNAc-Ts and the contributions and biological functions of individual GalNAc-Ts are poorly understood. Here, we used a zinc......-finger nuclease (ZFN)-directed knockout strategy to probe the contributions of the major GalNAc-Ts (GalNAc-T1 and GalNAc-T2) in liver cells and explore how the GalNAc-T repertoire quantitatively affects the O-glycoproteome. We demonstrate that the majority of the O-glycoproteome is covered by redundancy, whereas...... distinct subsets of substrates are modified by non-redundant functions of GalNAc-T1 and GalNAc-T2. The non-redundant O-glycoproteome subsets and specific transcriptional responses for each isoform are related to different cellular processes; for the GalNAc-T2 isoform, these support a role in lipid...

  6. Two Silene vulgaris copper transporters residing in different cellular compartments confer copper hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbang; Iqbal, Mazhar; Zhang, Qianqian; Spelt, Cornelis; Bliek, Mattijs; Hakvoort, Henk W J; Quattrocchio, Francesca M; Koes, Ronald; Schat, Henk

    2017-08-01

    Silene vulgaris is a metallophyte of calamine, cupriferous and serpentine soils all over Europe. Its metallicolous populations are hypertolerant to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) or nickel (Ni), compared with conspecific nonmetallicolous populations. These hypertolerances are metal-specific, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of HMA5 copper transporters in Cu-hypertolerance of a S. vulgaris copper mine population. Cu-hypertolerance in Silene is correlated and genetically linked with enhanced expression of two HMA5 paralogs, SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, each of which increases Cu tolerance when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Most Spermatophytes, except Brassicaceae, possess homologs of SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, which originate from an ancient duplication predating the appearance of spermatophytes. SvHMA5II and the A. thaliana homolog AtHMA5 localize in the endoplasmic reticulum and upon Cu exposure move to the plasma membrane, from where they are internalized and degraded in the vacuole. This resembles trafficking of mammalian homologs and is apparently an extremely ancient mechanism. SvHMA5I, instead, neofunctionalized and always resides on the tonoplast, likely sequestering Cu in the vacuole. Adaption of Silene to a Cu-polluted soil is at least in part due to upregulation of two distinct HMA5 transporters, which contribute to Cu hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Genomic tools for evolution and conservation in the chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes ellioti is a genetically distinct population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Bowden

    Full Text Available In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ∼700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ∼100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10-20 is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions.

  8. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2011-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients’ cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  9. Blaming the helpers: the marginalization of teachers and parents of the urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, B A; Azar, S T

    1999-10-01

    The nature and origins of the current tendency toward disparaging parents and teachers of the urban poor are examined. It is suggested that the influence of parents and teachers must be understood in the context of multiple intervening variables. Several explanations are offered for the phenomenon of blame, including the fact that women constitute the great majority of teachers and are often the primary agents of parenting.

  10. Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ of Bomba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... discovered the Harlem Renaissance Movement or New Negro Movement ... Beti picks up as a subject for his satire in The Poor Christ of Bomba. ..... slave driver, and the indigenous man into an instrument of production” (6).

  11. Where are the poor in International Economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carvalho; Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that a very significant proportion of the human population is living with financial difficulties and other constraints typical of poverty, scientific studies in the areas of Economics and especially in International Economics that address the issue of poverty and of poor countries are very few. Using bibliometric techniques, we measured the attention paid by authors from the field of International Economics to poverty and poor countries. To this end, we sorted and analyzed al...

  12. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  13. Evil Understood as the Absence of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...

  14. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    manner that gave him the time to pursue and destroy the retreating army. Centuries later, another great captain – Napoléon Bonaparte – employed...Jena-Auerstadt 1806 In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte became the first operational artist in the history of modern war when he defeated the Prussian... Napoleon , Operational Art, and the Jena Campaign,” in Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art, ed. Michael D. Krause and R. Cody Phillips

  15. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  16. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  17. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  18. Is American business working for the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, M J; Ellwood, D T

    1991-01-01

    At first glance, poverty seems to have little to do with business. When most people--managers included--think about poverty, they assume that people are poor because they are isolated from the mainstream economy, not productive participants in it. But according to Harvard University professors Mary Jo Bane and David Ellwood, this is a misleading image of the true face of poverty in the United States today. Most poor adults--and a full 90% of poor children--live in families where work is the norm, not the exception. Poor people often work or want to work. But at the low-wage end of the American economy, having a job is no guarantee of avoiding poverty. Poverty is a business issue, then, because the American poor are part of the American work force. And this poses a problem for managers. In a more competitive and fast-changing economic environment, the performance of companies increasingly depends on the capabilities of their employees. In response to this human-resource challenge, more and more managers are embracing the language of "empowerment". And yet how can low-wage employees believe empowerment when their experience of work is, quite literally, impoverishment? It is unlikely that American companies can create the work force of the future with the poverty policies of the past. Fortunately, there are some simple policy mechanisms that can assist the working poor without putting an undue burden on business. Enacting them, however, requires managers to see poverty policy as one part of a national human-resource strategy that links the strategic concerns of companies to a broad social agenda.

  19. Diet-resistant obesity is characterized by a distinct plasma proteomic signature and impaired muscle fiber metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, A B; Antoun, G; Nikpay, M; Patten, D A; DeVlugt, C; Mauger, J-F; Beauchamp, B L; Lau, P; Reshke, R; Doucet, É; Imbeault, P; Boushel, R; Gibbings, D; Hager, J; Valsesia, A; Slack, R S; Al-Dirbashi, O Y; Dent, R; McPherson, R; Harper, M-E

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Inter-individual variability in weight loss during obesity treatment is complex and poorly understood. Here we use whole body and tissue approaches to investigate fuel oxidation characteristics in skeletal muscle fibers, cells and distinct circulating protein biomarkers before and after a high fat meal (HFM) challenge in those who lost the most (obese diet-sensitive; ODS) vs the least (obese diet-resistant; ODR) amount of weight in a highly controlled weight management program. Subjects/Methods: In 20 weight stable-matched ODS and ODR women who previously completed a standardized clinical weight loss program, we analyzed whole-body energetics and metabolic parameters in vastus lateralis biopsies and plasma samples that were obtained in the fasting state and 6 h after a defined HFM, equivalent to 35% of total daily energy requirements. Results: At baseline (fasting) and post-HFM, muscle fatty acid oxidation and maximal oxidative phosphorylation were significantly greater in ODS vs ODR, as was reactive oxygen species emission. Plasma proteomics of 1130 proteins pre and 1, 2, 5 and 6 h after the HFM demonstrated distinct group and interaction differences. Group differences identified S-formyl glutathione hydratase, heat shock 70 kDA protein 1A/B (HSP72), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (eIF5) to be higher in ODS vs ODR. Group-time differences included aryl hydrocarbon interacting protein (AIP), peptidylpropyl isomerase D (PPID) and tyrosine protein-kinase Fgr, which increased in ODR vs ODS over time. HSP72 levels correlated with muscle oxidation and citrate synthase activity. These proteins circulate in exosomes; exosomes isolated from ODS plasma increased resting, leak and maximal respiration rates in C2C12 myotubes by 58%, 21% and 51%, respectively, vs those isolated from ODR plasma. Conclusions: Findings demonstrate distinct muscle metabolism and plasma proteomics in fasting and post-HFM states corresponding in diet

  20. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  1. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  2. Who speaks for the poor (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear energy benefits the poor, because it alleviates a shortage of petroleum. Less-developed countries suffer directly from a shortage of petroleum; also petroleum is necessary to raise food in the developed countries for export to the less-developed countries. (L.L.)

  3. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  4. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  5. Adult Literacy and the Poor Farming People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    In discussing Rafe-uz-Zaman's essay on adult literacy and national development (see v9, n1 of this journal), the author cites examples to support his thesis that mass literacy campaigns in predominately agricultural countries can be successful only if there is simultaneous undertaking of economic development programs focused on the rural poor. (MF)

  6. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  7. Getting to Know L2 Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Masoud; Mustapha, Ramlee; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan BT Tengku Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Among the plethora of studies conducted thus far to explore the factors affecting EFL reading effectiveness, scant attention seems to be paid to the why of poor reading comprehension of most EFL learners. In this regard, the present article capitalized on qualitative research on a small scale, for the purpose of addressing the not-so-often debated…

  8. Dealing with living in poor neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, R.; Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this prologue to the special issue, the guest editors place the contributions in the context of current debates on living in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods. These debates concern two broad categories of residents: poor households that are assisted to move from concentrations of poverty to

  9. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  10. Poor migrants in Bandung: settlement and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1989-01-01

    Sukapakir is the real but appropriate name of a poor urban kampung in southwestern Bandung. It is one of the most densely populated neighbourhoods of the town now, although some forty years ago it was still a largely rural district. On the fringes of Sukapakir, one finds even today a few sawah

  11. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  12. Distinct regimes of elastic response and deformation modes of cross-linked cytoskeletal and semiflexible polymer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, D.A.; Levine, A.M.; Mac Kintosh, F.C.

    2003-01-01

    Semiflexible polymers such as filamentous actin (F-actin) play a vital role in the mechanical behavior of cells, yet the basic properties of cross-linked F-actin networks remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we have performed numerical studies of the linear response of homogeneous and

  13. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  14. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  15. Current stress and poor oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliou, A.; Shankardass, K.; Nisenbaum, R.; Qui?onez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25?64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and ...

  16. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Poor Performance Status Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Gregory J., E-mail: kubicek-gregory@cooperhealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Turtz, Alan [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Xue, Jinyu; Patel, Ashish; Richards, Gregory; LaCouture, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Cappelli, Louis; Diestelkamp, Tim [Rowan Graduate School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Saraiya, Piya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Bexon, Anne [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Lerman, Nati [Department of Medical Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Goldman, Howard Warren [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Patients with poor performance status (PS), usually defined as a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60 or less, were not eligible for randomized stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) studies, and many guidelines suggest that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the most appropriate treatment for poor PS patients. Methods and Materials: In this retrospective review of our SRS database, we identified 36 patients with PS of 60 or less treated with SRS for central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease. PS, as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Status, was 60 (27 patients), 50 (8 patients), or 40 (1 patient). The median number of CNS lesions treated was 3. Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months (range, 0.73-25.6 months). Fifteen patients (41%) were alive at 6 months, and 6 patients (16.6%) were alive at 1 year. There was no difference in OS in patients who underwent previous WBRT. There were no local failures or cases of radiation toxicity. Distant CNS failures were seen in 9 patients (25%). Conclusions: Our patients with poor PS had reasonable median OS and relatively low distant CNS failure rates. Patients in this patient population may be ideal candidates for SRS compared with WBRT given the low incidence of distant failure over their remaining lives and the favorable logistics of single-fraction treatment for these patients with debility and their caregivers.

  18. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  19. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  20. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  1. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  2. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  3. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  4. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  5. Tumour cells expressing single VEGF isoforms display distinct growth, survival and migration characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryso Kanthou

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is produced by most cancer cells as multiple isoforms, which display distinct biological activities. VEGF plays an undisputed role in tumour growth, vascularisation and metastasis; nevertheless the functions of individual isoforms in these processes remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of three main murine isoforms (VEGF188, 164 and 120 on tumour cell behaviour, using a panel of fibrosarcoma cells we developed that express them individually under endogenous promoter control. Fibrosarcomas expressing only VEGF188 (fs188 or wild type controls (fswt were typically mesenchymal, formed ruffles and displayed strong matrix-binding activity. VEGF164- and VEGF120-producing cells (fs164 and fs120 respectively were less typically mesenchymal, lacked ruffles but formed abundant cell-cell contacts. On 3D collagen, fs188 cells remained mesenchymal while fs164 and fs120 cells adopted rounded/amoeboid and a mix of rounded and elongated morphologies respectively. Consistent with their mesenchymal characteristics, fs188 cells migrated significantly faster than fs164 or fs120 cells on 2D surfaces while contractility inhibitors accelerated fs164 and fs120 cell migration. VEGF164/VEGF120 expression correlated with faster proliferation rates and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than VEGF188 expression. Nevertheless, VEGF188 was associated with constitutively active/phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and Stat3 proteins. Differences in proliferation rates and apoptosis could be explained by defective signalling downstream of pAKT to FOXO and GSK3 in fs188 and fswt cells, which also correlated with p27/p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor over-expression. All cells expressed tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors, but these were not active/activatable suggesting that inherent differences between the cell lines are governed by endogenous VEGF isoform expression through complex interactions that are independent of tyrosine

  6. Distinctive soil organic matter composition in a precipitation contrast of a Hawaiian Andosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Thiago M.; Grant, Katherine; Mueller, Carsten W.; Lehmann, Johannes; Derry, Louis A.; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Andosols are recognized by their strong capacity to accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), and for presenting a singular aggregation pattern. However, the factors which govern their SOC storage and aggregation hierarchy are still poorly understood. In addition, many methods of fractionation are proposed for these soils and there is no consensus regarding the ideal methodology. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the soil organic matter (SOM) properties of an Andosol through CN analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) + NanoSIMS analysis in the soil mineral fraction testing different dispersion treatments. We tested three Andosol samples from two different sites of the Kohala region - Hawaii with contrasting precipitation levels. The samples tested were as follow: 1784-60 (altitude-average depth cm) and 1784-80: subsoil samples from 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-0.9 m depth, respectively, with annual mean precipitation of 1784 mm and altitude of 1194 m; and 2286-50: subsoil sample from 45-60 cm depth, with annual mean precipitation of 2286 mm and altitude of 1501 m. We performed the SOM fractionation using ultrasonic dispersion at 1500 J ml-1, wet sieving and sedimentation. Five fractions were obtained as follow: free particulate organic matter (fPOM), 4000-63, 63-20, 20-2 and analysis were carried out in the fraction analysis. More than 90% of the soil mass was concentrated in the fractions below 20 µm (i.e. 20-2 and analysis demonstrated distinct spatial differences in the distribution of 12C- and 12C14N- in organo-mineral associations at the micro scale between the two sites. The results of this study suggest that mineral interactions in the smaller size-fractions (<2µm) can be the key to explain the mechanisms of C storage in Andosols and that the pre-dispersion treatment with NaCL does not provide significant changes in the SOM study.

  7. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  8. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  9. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  10. Current stress and poor oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliou, A; Shankardass, K; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C

    2016-09-02

    Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25-64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and access to dental insurance were examined as effect modifiers. A positive relationship between current stress and poor oral health was observed for both outcomes (oral pain coefficient 0.32, 95 % CI 0.26-0.38; general oral health coefficient 0.28, 95 % CI 0.19-0.36). Effects on oral pain were stronger for the uninsured, while effects on general oral health were stronger with decreasing socioeconomic position. Our findings suggest that individuals with greater perceived stress also report poorer oral health, and that this relationship is modified by dental insurance and socioeconomic position. These findings warrant a greater focus on the role of psychological stress in the development of oral disease, including how perceived stress contributes to health inequities in self-reported oral health status. Patients experiencing stressful lives may differentially require closer monitoring and more vigilant maintenance of their oral health, above and beyond that which is needed to achieve a state of health in the oral environment of less stressed individuals. There may be health promoting effects of addressing psychosocial concerns related to dental care - particularly for the poor and uninsured.

  11. EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXIES: THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: mfilho@astro.up.pt [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  12. Justice, Work, and the Ghetto Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, Tommie

    2012-01-01

    In view of the explanatory significance of joblessness, some social scientists, policymakers,and commentators have advocated strong measures to ensure that the ghetto poor work, includingmandating work as a condition of receiving welfare benefits. Indeed, across the ideological po-litical spectrum, work is often seen as a moral or civic duty and as a necessary basis for personaldignity. And this normative stance is now instantiated in federal and state law, from the tax schemeto public benefits....

  13. Bureaucracy and Pro-poor Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cheema; Asad Sayeed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the premise that a functioning state is a necessary pre-requisite for pro-poor change, it is critical to investigate the role of the bureaucracy as a key catalyst in this process. Weber (1968) ascribes bureaucracies to be anchors of the modern nation state as their conduct is based on rational-legal norms. Bureaucracies, according to this ideal type, temper the populist urges of politicians who wish to execute policy unencumbered by rules and procedures. State success or failure in m...

  14. Access to energy for the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntjens, E.; Van Bussel, F.; Raats, M.

    2005-01-01

    Paper dealing with the topic E nergy consumption and economic development (in developed / wealthy and undeveloped / poor regions; energy price, social influence and energy efficiency. 'Brothers and sisters, I want to tell you this. The greatest thing on earth is to have the love of God in your heart, and the next greatest thing is to have electricity in your house.' In the early 1940s a farmer, who had just been connected to the electric grid, gave witness in a rural church in the United States of America(author)

  15. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  16. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  17. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  18. Association of diarrhoea, poor hygiene and poor social conditions in childhood with blood pressure in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, L; Lynch, J W; Lakka, H-M; Kauhanen, J; Smith, G D

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that dehydration in infancy may lead to high blood pressure in later life because of sodium retention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of poor hygiene of the child, poor social and poor housing conditions at home and diarrhoea in childhood as proxies for dehydration on high blood pressure in later life. Data were from a subset of participants in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, a population-based cohort study in eastern Finland. Information on childhood factors was collected from school health records (n=952), from the 1930s to the 1950s. Adult data were obtained from baseline examinations of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study cohort (n=2682) in 1984-1989. Men who had poor hygiene in childhood had on average 4.07 mm Hg (95% CI 0.53 to 7.61) higher systolic blood pressure than men who had good or satisfactory hygiene in childhood in the age-adjusted analysis. Reports of diarrhoea were not associated with adult blood pressure. The authors' findings suggest that poor hygiene and living in poor social conditions in childhood are associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Reported childhood diarrhoea did not explain the link between hygiene and high blood pressure in adulthood.

  19. Interaction Pattern of Arg 62 in the A-Pocket of Differentially Disease-Associated HLA-B27 Subtypes Suggests Distinct TCR Binding Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Valentina; Caristi, Silvana; Sorrentino, Rosa; Böckmann, Rainer A.; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The single amino acid replacement Asp116His distinguishes the two subtypes HLA-B*2705 and HLA-B*2709 which are, respectively, associated and non-associated with Ankylosing Spondylitis, an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease. The reason for this differential association is so far poorly understood and might be related to subtype-specific HLA:peptide conformations as well as to subtype/peptide-dependent dynamical properties on the nanoscale. Here, we combine functional experiments with extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular dynamics and function of the conserved Arg62 of the α1-helix for both B27 subtypes in complex with the self-peptides pVIPR (RRKWRRWHL) and TIS (RRLPIFSRL), and the viral peptides pLMP2 (RRRWRRLTV) and NPflu (SRYWAIRTR). Simulations of HLA:peptide systems suggest that peptide-stabilizing interactions of the Arg62 residue observed in crystal structures are metastable for both B27 subtypes under physiological conditions, rendering this arginine solvent-exposed and, probably, a key residue for TCR interaction more than peptide-binding. This view is supported by functional experiments with conservative (R62K) and non-conservative (R62A) B*2705 and B*2709 mutants that showed an overall reduction in their capability to present peptides to CD8+ T cells. Moreover, major subtype-dependent differences in the peptide recognition suggest distinct TCR binding modes for the B*2705 versus the B*2709 subtype. PMID:22403718

  20. Education of quality to the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. van der Merwe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality education often eludes South African learners from poverty- stricken environments. There are, however, some notable exceptions. This article looks at how quality education based on social capital is provided to the poor. The author reports on a qualitative investigation based on both focus group and individual interviews conducted at a resource-poor KwaZulu- Natal school serving learners from Grade R to 9. The findings show that quality education at the research site relates to the moral agency of the school principal and teaching staff. Through their ethics of being and doing, the school principal and teaching staff ensure that sufficient resources, sound home-school relations, and a high premium on moral values result in a receptive learner corps. This environment encourages these learners to act with diligence, honesty, politeness, respect and service to the community. The findings contribute to research that maintains that quality education is indicative of the school principal and teachers‟ ethics of being and of doing.

  1. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Ambuj D.

    2005-01-01

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  2. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.

    2012-01-01

    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian DNA......-age individuals demonstrated DNA methylomes in the crossroad between the newborn and the nonagenarian/centenarian groups. Our study constitutes a unique DNA methylation analysis of the extreme points of human life at a single-nucleotide resolution level....

  3. How poor are women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajuladevi, A K

    1992-07-01

    The assessment of poor women in India as dependent and exploited regardless of poverty focused strategies is reflected in this review of relevant literature. The scholarly approaches to the problems of poor women involve redirection and expansion of resources to women (increase bank credit) through policy and institutional changes, and involve improving women's welfare through changes in class and gender hierarchies; both pertain to restructuring power groups. A little ascribed to belief is that the organization of women's numbers will empower women; the constraints are stated. There is also some argument over whether to design women-specific programs or integrate women into existing programs; some examples are given of successes and difficulties. The regionalization of poverty in eastern and central India is discussed. The growth of the poor has been among the landless, wage-dependent households. 9.6% of households (7.5 million) are headed by women. Women work fewer hours and at lower wage scales and have fewer employment opportunities. Lower earnings are coupled with differentials in demand for female and male labor in agriculture and a crowded labor market. There is a concentration of women in less visible, nonmonetary subsistence production and domestic work. Women are undercounted in employment studies. Women predominate in agricultural activity. Women's status is influenced by economic status, caste, and ethnic background. Domestic work increases status for women and households. The poorer households have greater labor force participation, particularly as wage laborers rather than unpaid family workers. Regional factors affecting rural household strategies are factors affecting the economy (topography, rainfall, climate) and the degree of development, plus sociocultural variables (kinship and religious beliefs which affect the social domain of women), and the degree of dependence on hired vs. family labor. There are sharp contrasts in the value and survival

  4. Introgression between ecologically distinct species following increased salinity in the Colorado Delta- Worldwide implications for impacted estuary diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive L.F. Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate hybridization and introgression between ecologically distinct sister species of silverside fish in the Gulf of California through combined analysis of morphological, sequence, and genotypic data. Water diversions in the past century turned the Colorado River Delta from a normal estuary to a hypersaline inverse estuary, raising concerns for the local fauna, much of which is endangered. Salinity differences are known to generate ecological species pairs and we anticipated that loss of the fresher-water historic salinity regime could alter the adaptive factors maintaining distinction between the broadly distributed Gulf-endemic Colpichthys regis and the narrowly restricted Delta-endemic Colpichthys hubbsi, the species that experienced dramatic environmental change. In this altered environmental context, these long-isolated species (as revealed by Cytochrome b sequences show genotypic (RAG1, microsatellites evidence of active hybridization where the species ranges abut, as well as directional introgression from C. regis into the range center of C. hubbsi. Bayesian group assignment (STRUCTURE on six microsatellite loci and multivariate analyses (DAPC on both microsatellites and phenotypic data further support substantial recent admixture between the sister species. Although we find no evidence for recent population decline in C. hubbsi based on mitochondrial sequence, introgression may be placing an ancient ecological species at risk of extinction. Such introgressive extinction risk should also pertain to other ecological species historically sustained by the now changing Delta environment. More broadly, salinity gradient associated ecological speciation is evident in silverside species pairs in many estuarine systems around the world. Ecological species pairs among other taxa in such systems are likely poorly understood or cryptic. As water extraction accelerates in river systems worldwide, salinity gradients will necessarily be

  5. Introgression between ecologically distinct species following increased salinity in the Colorado Delta- Worldwide implications for impacted estuary diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Clive L F; Jacobs, David K

    2017-01-01

    We investigate hybridization and introgression between ecologically distinct sister species of silverside fish in the Gulf of California through combined analysis of morphological, sequence, and genotypic data. Water diversions in the past century turned the Colorado River Delta from a normal estuary to a hypersaline inverse estuary, raising concerns for the local fauna, much of which is endangered. Salinity differences are known to generate ecological species pairs and we anticipated that loss of the fresher-water historic salinity regime could alter the adaptive factors maintaining distinction between the broadly distributed Gulf-endemic Colpichthys regis and the narrowly restricted Delta-endemic Colpichthys hubbsi , the species that experienced dramatic environmental change. In this altered environmental context, these long-isolated species (as revealed by Cytochrome b sequences) show genotypic (RAG1, microsatellites) evidence of active hybridization where the species ranges abut, as well as directional introgression from C. regis into the range center of C. hubbsi . Bayesian group assignment (STRUCTURE) on six microsatellite loci and multivariate analyses (DAPC) on both microsatellites and phenotypic data further support substantial recent admixture between the sister species. Although we find no evidence for recent population decline in C. hubbsi based on mitochondrial sequence, introgression may be placing an ancient ecological species at risk of extinction. Such introgressive extinction risk should also pertain to other ecological species historically sustained by the now changing Delta environment. More broadly, salinity gradient associated ecological speciation is evident in silverside species pairs in many estuarine systems around the world. Ecological species pairs among other taxa in such systems are likely poorly understood or cryptic. As water extraction accelerates in river systems worldwide, salinity gradients will necessarily be altered, impacting

  6. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  7. Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.

  8. The Nordic version of working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    The development of service economies in the Western world has led to a debate on the quality of new service jobs as many are low-wage jobs with poor working conditions and career opportunities (Westergaard-Nielsen 2008; Gautié & Schmitt 2009; Kalleberg 2011). Empirical and theoretical work has...... from the European Labour Force Survey it is examined how low wage service work has developed in the private sector in the three countries since 2000 and which segments that can be identified. Data is drawn from the last quarter of 2000 (before the economic boom), 2007 (before the financial crisis....../restaurants, as the majority of low-wage private service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden work in these sectors (Bosch & Lehndorff 2005). We compare developments in the three countries to identify similar and different segments that have emerged over the past 15 years. Finally, the paper discusses findings in relation...

  9. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  11. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  12. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  13. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  14. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  15. "Managing" the poor: neoliberalism, Medicaid HMOs and the triumph of consumerism among the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskovsky, J

    2000-10-01

    In order to explore the contradictions of neoliberal health policy, this article examines Medicaid managed care in Philadelphia. At the federal and state levels, government is increasingly promoting private-sector market-based strategies over policies formerly associated with the welfare state, arguing that the former are the most effective means of achieving economic growth and guaranteeing social welfare. A prime example of this shift, Medicaid managed care is a policy by which states contract with private-sector health maintenance organizations to provide health coverage to the poor. Drawing on ethnographic and historical data, this paper shows how Pennsylvania's Medicaid managed care program has created access barriers for poor Philadelphians. It also illustrates how ideologies that justify this policy shift serve to mask its detrimental effects on the poor. By contrasting the state's consumerist model with one group's protest efforts, this article calls into question the neoliberal ideology that undergirds health and welfare "reform."

  16. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  17. Poor people and poor fields? : integrating legumes for smallholder soil fertility management in Chisepo, central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil infertility undermines the agriculture-based livelihoods in Malawi, where it is blamed for poor crop yields and the creation of cycles of poverty. Although technologies and management strategies have been developed to reverse the decline in soil fertility, they are under-used by smallholder

  18. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  19. Isolated microalbuminuria indicates a poor medical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, Lieneke; Van der Velde, Marije; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; De Jong, Paul E; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2013-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to diabetes and/or hypertension, and as such to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has been questioned whether isolated microalbuminuria, that is microalbuminuria in the absence of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) history, hypertension and diabetes has clinical relevance. Included were 8356 subjects who participated in the first four screening rounds of the PREVEND study, a prospective, community-based, observational cohort study. Isolated microalbuminuria was defined as microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h), in the absence of a CVD history, hypertension (blood pressuredefinition of isolated microalbuminuria, in which 2250 person-years of follow-up were available. In subjects with isolated microalbuminuria, the incidence rates of cardiovascular events and mortality, hypertension and diabetes were 15.3, 28.9 and 8.9 per 1000 person-year follow-up, respectively. Subjects with isolated microalbuminuria had an increased risk for cardiovascular events and mortality [crude HR 2.23 (1.63-3.07); Phypertension [OR 1.95 (1.47-2.59); Phypertension and/or diabetes. This increased risk remained significant after adjustment for age and gender. The relative risk held by isolated microalbuminuria was similar to the relative risk held by microalbuminuria in subjects that did have a CVD history, hypertension and/or diabetes. Isolated microalbuminuria indicates a poor prognosis and warrants medical attention.

  20. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  1. Poor, Old “Physical Education”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earle F. Zeigler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of physical activity (and related health education (“poor, old ‘PE’” needs to assert its "will to win" more vigorously then ever before. Scholarly and scientific investigation of the past 60 years since Sputnik was launched in 1957 has identified a wide variety of findings proving that a quality program can provide highly important benefits to the growing child and youth. Societal developments, including other curricular demands, have undoubtedly created uneasiness within the overall field of education. In North America the time and attention devoted to the relatively few involved in external highly competitive sport for the few has been a negative factor. At the same time intramural athletics for the large majority of children and youth has not been available to the extent it should be. There is now doubt as to the field’s ability to achieve high status within education. Therefore, we must pledge ourselves to make still greater efforts to become vibrant and stirring through absolute dedication and commitment in our professional endeavors. Ours is a high calling since we seek to improve the quality of life for all people on earth through the finest type of human motor performance in exercise, sport, and related expressive movement.

  2. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  3. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  4. Making law work for the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2005-11-15

    To many, law – the systems of binding rules governing human relations – seems remote from the reality of daily struggle in poor and marginalised communities around the world. Yet, directly or indirectly, legal rules shape the way we behave in our everyday life, and contribute to organise social and economic relations (from commercial codes to EC 'freedom-of-movement' treaty provisions to welfare state legislation). Since the 1960s, development agencies have supported law reform processes in developing countries. Interest in law reform was recently revived by the recognition of the importance of institutional frameworks for social change ('New Institutional Economics'), and by the attention paid by several development agencies to concepts like good governance and the rule of law. Earlier emphasis on 'legal transplants' and naive assumptions about the way the law operates have given way to a better understanding of the complex nature of processes of legal and socio-economic change. Drawing on three examples, this paper explores the extent to which legal tools can contribute to improve the lives of poorer groups in both developing and developed countries; the conditions under which this is possible; and the constraints that such tools face in the pursuit of this aim. The paper aims to spark reflection and debate on these issues – not to come up with definitive answers. It is likely to be of interest for development lawyers, development practitioners working at a macro-planning level, and researchers. As for development practitioners, the paper sets out the case for taking law seriously as a tool for positive change. As for development lawyers, it argues that designing and implementing legal interventions that deliver that positive change is function not only of sound legal thinking, but also of a solid understanding of power relations and other social, cultural, political and economic factors that affect the way the law operates in

  5. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  6. The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2018-05-01

    Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases? This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person's relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.

  7. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  8. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q-γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2 for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  9. Drug-like properties and the causes of poor solubility and poor permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, C A

    2000-01-01

    There are currently about 10000 drug-like compounds. These are sparsely, rather than uniformly, distributed through chemistry space. True diversity does not exist in experimental combinatorial chemistry screening libraries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and chemical reactivity-related toxicity is low, while biological receptor activity is higher dimensional in chemistry space, and this is partly explainable by evolutionary pressures on ADME to deal with endobiotics and exobiotics. ADME is hard to predict for large data sets because current ADME experimental screens are multi-mechanisms, and predictions get worse as more data accumulates. Currently, screening for biological receptor activity precedes or is concurrent with screening for properties related to "drugability." In the future, "drugability" screening may precede biological receptor activity screening. The level of permeability or solubility needed for oral absorption is related to potency. The relative importance of poor solubility and poor permeability towards the problem of poor oral absorption depends on the research approach used for lead generation. A "rational drug design" approach as exemplified by Merck advanced clinical candidates leads to time-dependent higher molecular weight, higher H-bonding properties, unchanged lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer permeability. A high throughput screening (HTS)-based approach as exemplified by unpublished data on Pfizer (Groton, CT) early candidates leads to higher molecular weight, unchanged H-bonding properties, higher lipophilicity, and, hence, poorer aqueous solubility.

  10. Anxa4 Genes are Expressed in Distinct Organ Systems in Xenopus laevis and tropicalis But are Functionally Conserved

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Karine L; Collins, Robert J; Bhamra, Surinder; Seville, Rachel A; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Anxa4 belongs to the multigenic annexin family of proteins which are characterized by their ability to interact with membranes in a calcium-dependent manner. Defined as a marker for polarized epithelial cells, Anxa4 is believed to be involved in many cellular processes but its functions in vivo are still poorly understood. Previously, we cloned Xanx4 in Xenopus laevis (now referred to as anxa4a) and demonstrated its role during organogenesis of the pronephros, providing the first evidence of ...

  11. Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture of in schools. ... of this paper is to find strategies that can overcome poor readership in schools. ... Keywords: English First Additional Language, Writing Skills, Spelling Errors, ...

  12. Causes and consequences of poor reading habit on primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes and consequences of poor reading habit on primary school pupils in Enugu urban. ... Moreover, they noticed that poor reading habit negatively affect pupils' educational achievement. The researchers ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Standard & Poor's kulupäid ei kummarda / Raivo Raigna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raigna, Raivo

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline reitinguagentuur Standard & Poor's hoiatas, et ilma rahanduslike reformideta hakkab Eesti rahvastiku vananemine avaldama tugevat survet avaliku sektori rahandusele ja ühtlasi riigi reitingule. Standard & Poor'si nn. mustast stsenaariumist, pakutud lahendusest

  14. Contributing Factors to Poor Service Delivery by Administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor service delivery by local government is crippling South African businesses .... main categories: one focuses on an employee's internal attributes (content ... admitted that their attitude to work was adversely affected by the poor quality.

  15. Information Lives of the Poor: Fighting poverty with technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... ... access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the ... the developing-country poor are using modern communication tools. ... Policy impacts ... A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the ...

  16. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  17. 10 distinct stellar populations in omega Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cool, Adrienne; King, Ivan R.; van der marel, roeland p.

    2015-08-01

    We are constructing the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster. The core of omega Centauri has been imaged over 600 times through WFC3’s UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist ~30 exposures each for 26 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 12-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than triple both the accuracy and the number of well-measured stars compared to previous studies.This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 400,000 stars, from the red-giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any globular cluster. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify 10 distinct sequences.

  18. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Benjamin A; Lum, Krystal K; Toettcher, Jared E; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-11-15

    The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses. How mammalian cells detect and respond to DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus is poorly understood. Here, we decipher the distinct functions of two viral DNA sensors, IFI16 and cGAS, during active immune signaling upon infection with two herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We show that IFI16

  19. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  20. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  1. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  2. Advertising and the Poor. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lawrence

    This monograph examines the impact of media advertising on the poor. The first half of the report discusses research on the conceptual styles of the poor, mass communication among the poor, and advertising and the low-income consumer. The second half describes the methodology and results of a study of the advertising evaluation capacity and…

  3. Poor oral status is associated with rehabilitation outcome in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Ai; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Tsuji, Yuri

    2017-04-01

    Poor oral status is associated with increased physical dependency and cognitive decline. Malnutrition, a potential result of poor oral status, is associated with poorer rehabilitation outcome and physical function. However, the association between oral status and rehabilitation outcome is not fully understood. The present study investigated the association of poor oral status with rehabilitation outcome in older patients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of 108 consecutive patients (mean age 80.5 ± 6.8 years; 50.9% men) who were admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards. The Revised Oral Assessment Guide was used to evaluate oral status. Rehabilitation outcome was evaluated by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) on discharge. Multivariate analyses were applied to examine the associations between poor oral status and motor-FIM on discharge. According to the Revised Oral Assessment Guide score, 14.8% of participants had normal oral status, 52.8% had slight to moderate oral problems and 32.4% had severe oral problems. The median scores of motor-FIM on admission and on discharge were 52 (interquartile range 25-70) and 75 (interquartile range 51-89), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the Revised Oral Assessment Guide score and the motor-/cognitive-FIM scores on admission were significant independent factors for motor-FIM on discharge, after adjusted for sex, age, length of stay, nutritional status, handgrip and causative diseases (P < 0.001). Poor oral status is associated with rehabilitation outcome in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 598-604. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Livestock vaccine adoption among poor farmers in Bolivia: remembering innovation diffusion theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Thomson, Kim; Nielsen, Louise

    2008-05-02

    The paper explores the low uptake of livestock vaccination among poor farming communities in Bolivia utilising core elements of the original innovation diffusion theory. Contrary to the recent literature, we found that vaccination behaviour was strongly linked to social and cultural, rather than economic, drivers. While membership in a group increased uptake, the 'hot' and 'cold' distinctions which dictate health versus illness within Andean cosmology also played a role, with vaccination viewed as a means of addressing underlying imbalances. We concluded that uptake of livestock vaccination was unlikely to improve without knowledge transfer that acknowledges local epistemologies for livestock disease.

  5. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging-based cerebral tissue classification reveals distinct spatiotemporal patterns of changes after stroke in non-human primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouts, Mark. J. R. J.; Westmoreland, Susan. V.; de Crespigny, Alex J.; Liu, Yutong; Vangel, Mark; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; Wu, Ona; D'Arceuil, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spatial and temporal changes in brain tissue after acute ischemic stroke are still poorly understood. Aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to determine unique temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns at the acute, subacute and chronic stages after stroke in macaques by

  7. Decomposing the Gap in Childhood Undernutrition between Poor and Non–Poor in Urban India, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Result Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005–06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. Conclusions The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition. PMID:23734231

  8. Decomposing the gap in childhood undernutrition between poor and non-poor in urban India, 2005-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence from other developing countries, intra-urban inequality in childhood undernutrition is poorly researched in India. Additionally, the factors contributing to the poor/non-poor gap in childhood undernutrition have not been explored. This study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in underweight, stunting, and wasting among children aged less than five years in urban India. We used cross-sectional data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005-06. Descriptive statistics were used to understand the gap in childhood undernutrition between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariates. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in undernutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India. Considerable proportions of urban children were found to be underweight (33%), stunted (40%), and wasted (17%) in 2005-06. The undernutrition gap between the poor and non-poor was stark in urban India. For all the three indicators, the main contributing factors were underutilization of health care services, poor body mass index of the mothers, and lower level of parental education among those living in poverty. The findings indicate that children belonging to poor households are undernourished due to limited use of health care services, poor health of mothers, and poor educational status of their parents. Based on the findings the study suggests that improving the public services such as basic health care and the education level of the mothers among urban poor can ameliorate the negative impact of poverty on childhood undernutrition.

  9. Explanatory models of diabetes in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Awuah, Raphael Baffour; Pera, Tuula Anneli; Mendez, Montserrat; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine explanatory models of diabetes and diabetes complications among urban poor Ghanaians living with diabetes and implications for developing secondary prevention strategies. Twenty adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from three poor communities in Accra. Qualitative data were obtained using interviews that run between 40 and 90 minutes. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically, informed by the 'explanatory model of disease' concept. Respondents associated diabetes and its complications with diet, family history, lifestyle factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity), psychological stress and supernatural factors (witchcraft and sorcery). These associations were informed by biomedical and cultural models of diabetes and disease. Subjective experience, through a process of 'body-listening,' constituted a third model on which respondents drew to theorise diabetes complications. Poverty was an important mediator of poor self-care practices, including treatment non-adherence. The biomedical model of diabetes was a major source of legitimate information for self-care practices. However, this was understood and applied through a complex framework of cultural theories of chronic disease, the biopsychological impact of everyday illness experience and the disempowering effects of poverty. An integrated biopsychosocial approach is proposed for diabetes intervention in this research community.

  10. Poor environmental tracking can make extinction risk insensitive to the colour of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the extinction risk of a shorebird population increases with the colour of a key environmental variable: winter temperature. However, the effect is weak compared with the impact of changes in the mean and interannual variability of temperature. Extinction risk was largely insensitive to noise colour, because demographic rates are poor in tracking the colour of the environment. We show that three mechanisms—which probably act in many species—can cause poor environmental tracking: (i) demographic rates that depend nonlinearly on environmental variables filter the noise colour, (ii) demographic rates typically depend on several environmental signals that do not change colour synchronously, and (iii) demographic stochasticity whitens the colour of demographic rates at low population size. We argue that the common practice of assuming perfect environmental tracking may result in overemphasizing the importance of noise colour for extinction risk. Consequently, ignoring environmental autocorrelation in population viability analysis could be less problematic than generally thought. PMID:21561978

  11. Poor energy poor: Energy saving obligations, distributional effects, and the malfunction of the priority group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The European Union’s Energy Efficiency Directive forces the Member States to install energy efficiency obligation schemes. In a first step, this paper identifies the distributional effects caused by this policy instrument which occur when energy efficiency measures are implemented (phase of delivery) and when its costs are passed on to the society (phase of financing). In the phase of delivery, suppliers prefer to implement measures at the property of those customers which enable them to minimise their costs, i.e. enterprises with large energy savings potentials and high-income households who can contribute a greater share of the costs. In the phase of financing, distributional effects occur when the costs of the scheme are passed on from the obliged suppliers to their customers, primarily affecting less competitive customers, i.e. households and small enterprises. In the British scheme, the so-called priority group was installed in order to decrease distributional effects and to support energy poor households. In a second step, this paper evaluates approaches to reduce energy poverty and indicates ineffectiveness, high transaction costs and incoherency with the aims of the obligation scheme. Alternative approaches to tackle energy poverty are briefly described. - Highlights: • The paper discusses distributional effects of energy efficiency obligations. • Significant distributional effects occur when measures are implemented. • Significant distributional effects occur when costs are passed on to the customers. • Suppliers face problems to identify energy poor households. • The priority group contradicts the scheme’s intention of cost minimisation

  12. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  14. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  16. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  18. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  19. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  20. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  2. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  3. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  4. Outcome of poor response Paediatric AML using early SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    ) or > 5% blasts after AM (n = 14, refractory disease). Poor response patients received intensively timed induction and proceeded to SCT when a donor was available. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 267 evaluable patients (12%) had a poor response. SCT was performed in 25; using matched unrelated donors in 13......BACKGROUND: Children with poor response acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) generally have a very poor outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often recommended for these children but the benefit is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate survival for poor response AML patients...... treated with SCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17...

  5. Poor tolerance of beta-blockers by elderly patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yanagisawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Yanagisawa, Noriyuki Suzuki, Toshikazu TanakaDepartment of Cardiology, Okazaki City Hospital, Aichi, JapanAbstract: Despite the well-understood importance of beta-blocker therapy in heart failure, it is sometimes not possible to use beta-blockers in elderly patients due to poor tolerance. In this report, we describe the case of an 83-year-old patient with severe systolic heart failure complicated by aortic valve stenosis and atrial fibrillation. A simple therapeutic approach involving discontinuation of beta-blockers remarkably alleviated the symptoms such as left ventricular ejection fraction, and improved the chest radiography and laboratory findings; further, atrial fibrillation converted to sinus rhythm. It is important to carefully administer beta-blocker therapy to elderly patients with heart failure, especially after considering cardiac output.Keywords: elderly, octogenarians, beta-blockers, heart failure

  6. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results. Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core......Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small-and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen-and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims. We...... aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods. We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array...

  7. Why might poor sleep quality lead to depression? A role for emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kimberly; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Disordered sleep is strongly linked to future depression, but the reasons for this link are not well understood. This study tested one possibility - that poorer sleep impairs emotion regulation (ER), which over time leads to increased depressive symptoms. Our sample contained individuals with a wide range of depression symptoms (current depression, N = 54, remitted depression, N = 36, and healthy control, N = 53), who were followed clinically over six months and reassessed for changes in depressive symptom levels. As predicted, maladaptive ER mediated both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between poor sleep quality and depression symptoms. In contrast, an alternative mediator, physical activity levels, did not mediate the link between sleep quality and depression symptoms. Maladaptive ER may help explain why sleep difficulties contribute to depression symptoms; implications for interventions are discussed.

  8. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed.

  9. The accidental plagiarist: an institutional approach to distinguishing between a deliberate attempt to deceive and poor academic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Simon; Harvey, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    There is a distinction in the literature between what is regarded as ‘intentional’ plagiarism involving a deliberate attempt to deceive (by the ‘committed’ plagiarist) in order to gain unfair advantage and ‘unintentional’ plagiarism that is associated with poor academic practice stemming from ignorance or misunderstanding of requirements (the ‘accidental’ plagiarist). Clearly, whilst neither should be condoned the former is decidedly less acceptable than the latter. Further, an analysis of ex...

  10. Industrial Catching Up in the Poor Periphery 1870-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents industrial output and labor productivity growth around the poor periphery 1870-1975 (Latin America, the European periphery, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia). Intensive and extensive industrial growth accelerated there over this critical century. The precocious poor periphery leaders underwent a surge and more poor countries joined their club. Furthermore, by the interwar the majority were catching up on Germany, the US and the UK, a process that ...

  11. A liver-specific defect of Acyl-CoA degradation produces hyperammonemia, hypoglycemia and a distinct hepatic Acyl-CoA pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gauthier

    Full Text Available Most conditions detected by expanded newborn screening result from deficiency of one of the enzymes that degrade acyl-coenzyme A (CoA esters in mitochondria. The role of acyl-CoAs in the pathophysiology of these disorders is poorly understood, in part because CoA esters are intracellular and samples are not generally available from human patients. We created a mouse model of one such condition, deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HL, in liver (HLLKO mice. HL catalyses a reaction of ketone body synthesis and of leucine degradation. Chronic HL deficiency and acute crises each produced distinct abnormal liver acyl-CoA patterns, which would not be predictable from levels of urine organic acids and plasma acylcarnitines. In HLLKO hepatocytes, ketogenesis was undetectable. Carboxylation of [2-(14C] pyruvate diminished following incubation of HLLKO hepatocytes with the leucine metabolite 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC. HLLKO mice also had suppression of the normal hyperglycemic response to a systemic pyruvate load, a measure of gluconeogenesis. Hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia, cardinal features of many inborn errors of acyl-CoA metabolism, occurred spontaneously in some HLLKO mice and were inducible by administering KIC. KIC loading also increased levels of several leucine-related acyl-CoAs and reduced acetyl-CoA levels. Ultrastructurally, hepatocyte mitochondria of KIC-treated HLLKO mice show marked swelling. KIC-induced hyperammonemia improved following administration of carglumate (N-carbamyl-L-glutamic acid, which substitutes for the product of an acetyl-CoA-dependent reaction essential for urea cycle function, demonstrating an acyl-CoA-related mechanism for this complication.

  12. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects cell signaling in breast cancer - molecularly distinct behavior of cathepsin K in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sheila Siqueira; Gouvea, Iuri Estrada; Silva, Mariana Cristina C.; Castro, Eloísa Dognani; Paula, Cláudia A. A. de; Okamoto, Debora; Oliveira, Lilian; Peres, Giovani Bravin; Ottaiano, Tatiana; Facina, Gil; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto; Campos, Antonio Hugo J. F. M.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Juliano, Maria; Silva, Ismael D. C. G. da; Oliva, Maria Luiza V.; Girão, Manoel J. B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer comprises clinically and molecularly distinct tumor subgroups that differ in cell histology and biology and show divergent clinical phenotypes that impede phase III trials, such as those utilizing cathepsin K inhibitors. Here we correlate the epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition breast cancer cells and cathepsin K secretion with activation and aggregation of platelets. Cathepsin K is up-regulated in cancer cells that proteolyze extracellular matrix and contributes to invasiveness. Although proteolytically activated receptors (PARs) are activated by proteases, the direct interaction of cysteine cathepsins with PARs is poorly understood. In human platelets, PAR-1 and −4 are highly expressed, but PAR-3 shows low expression and unclear functions. Platelet aggregation was monitored by measuring changes in turbidity. Platelets were immunoblotted with anti-phospho and total p38, Src-Tyr-416, FAK-Tyr-397, and TGFβ monoclonal antibody. Activation was measured in a flow cytometer and calcium mobilization in a confocal microscope. Mammary epithelial cells were prepared from the primary breast cancer samples of 15 women with Luminal-B subtype to produce primary cells. We demonstrate that platelets are aggregated by cathepsin K in a dose-dependent manner, but not by other cysteine cathepsins. PARs-3 and −4 were confirmed as the cathepsin K target by immunodetection and specific antagonists using a fibroblast cell line derived from PARs deficient mice. Moreover, through co-culture experiments, we show that platelets activated by cathepsin K mediated the up-regulation of SHH, PTHrP, OPN, and TGFβ in epithelial-mesenchymal-like cells from patients with Luminal B breast cancer. Cathepsin K induces platelet dysfunction and affects signaling in breast cancer cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2203-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Outreach of Pro-poor Housing Programs and Projects: Is it sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowthami Sai Dubagunta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing for urban poor is one among the hot button issues among all policy makers and planners in countries of global south.  Grand schemes with extravagant promises in the formal sector and gigantic hope for informal sector, to capture the opportunity at bottom of pyramid, are simultaneously trying to curb the problem of affordable housing shortage for urban poor. Even though private sector does not purposely seek to cater housing for lower income sections, yet large quantum of investment have been witnessed in housing for the urban poor. It is well known that in a free market tussle, the highest bidder is always the winner.  This has been a major reason for creation of artificial shortage of housing for poor. And the scenario is worse in case of public housing, where, half of the units are either left purposeless or used by ineligible users, largely due to risk of impoverishment and improper post occupancy vigilance. The magnitude of post occupancy problems being unexplored, the objective of paper pertains to looks at the challenges and issues in sustaining targeted outreach to intended beneficiaries in housing supply models for urban poor. The paper elaborates distinct challenges through three housing supply models in Ahmedabad, India. The models are Rehabilitation Housing, Subsidized Housing by government and market provided Housing. The method is mixed method i.e. qualitative and quantitative research using primary and secondary data sources. The critical analysis of effective outreach is carried by studying policy rhetoric in each of the models to on ground veracity in the post occupancy stage of model by assessing end user satisfaction in each model.

  14. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  15. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Fekri

    Full Text Available Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR, and distinct mechanism(s that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may

  16. Analysis of Poor Performance of Senior Secondary Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...

  17. Finance for the Poor: An Assessment of the Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of microfinance in the Nigerian financial system is an attempt to provide the poor with access to micro-financial services. Micro-banks that are supposed to provide these services are faced with many challenges. Among these are: inability to reach a greater number of the poor; funding of commercial sectors ...

  18. Outcome of poor response paediatric AML using early SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Neval E; Heilmann, Carsten; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Gustafsson, Britt; Ha, Shau-Yin; Heldrup, Jesper; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Lausen, Birgitte; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Hasle, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Children with poor response acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) generally have a very poor outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often recommended for these children but the benefit is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate survival for poor response AML patients treated with SCT. Treatment was given according to the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol. All patients received AIET (Cytarabine, Idarubicin, Etoposide, Thioguanine) and AM (Cytarabine, Mitoxantrone) as induction. We included poor response defined as > 15% blasts on day 15 after AIET (n = 17) or > 5% blasts after AM (n = 14, refractory disease). Poor response patients received intensively timed induction and proceeded to SCT when a donor was available. Thirty-one of 267 evaluable patients (12%) had a poor response. SCT was performed in 25; using matched unrelated donors in 13, matched sibling donors in 6, cord blood donor in 4, and haploidentical donor in two. The median follow-up for the 31 poor responding patients was 2.6 years (range 0.4 - 8.1 years) and 3-year probability of survival 70% (95% CI 59-77%). The poor responders in the NOPHO-AML 2004 protocol had a favourable prognosis treated with time-intensive induction followed by SCT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  20. Globalisation And The Poor Nations | Maku | Journal of Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reviews some definition of globalization, presents the real picture of the general economic welfare of poor nation in the era of intensive globalsiation and proffer policy recommendation on the strategies the poor nations can adopt to integrate fully and derive the immense benefits from globalization process.

  1. Mandated empowerment: handing antipoverty policy back to the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit V; Duflo, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The current trend in antipoverty policy emphasizes mandated empowerment: the poor are being handed the responsibility for making things better for themselves, largely without being asked whether this is what they want. Beneficiary control is now being built into public service delivery, while microcredit and small business promotion are seen as better ways to help the poor. The clear presumption is that the poor are both able and happy to exercise these new powers. This essay uses two examples to raise questions about these strategies. The first example is about entrepreneurship among the poor. Using data from a number of countries, we argue that there is no evidence that the median poor entrepreneur is trying his best to expand his existing businesses, even if we take into account the many constraints he faces. While many poor people own businesses, this seems to be more a survival strategy than something they want to do. The second example comes from an evaluation of a program in India that aims to involve poor rural parents in improving local public schools. The data suggest that despite being informed that they now have both the right to intervene in the school and access to funds for that purpose, and despite being made aware of how little the children were learning, parents opt to not get involved. Both examples raise concerns about committing ourselves entirely to antipoverty strategies that rely on the poor doing a lot of the work.

  2. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  3. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link-or its absence-to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs

  4. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  5. Influencing pro-poor telecommunication policies in Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... A study on mobile phone use by the poor has resulted in the cancellation of a plan to tax mobile usage in Bangladesh. Surveys on mobile expenditures in several South Asian countries found that nearly half of the poor people in Bangladesh own a mobile phone. Ownership rates are even higher in ...

  6. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  7. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  8. Differences in Brain Function and Changes with Intervention in Children with Poor Spelling and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Daniela; Fink, Andreas; Kargl, Reinhard; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct changes in brain activity patterns. We here investigated such effects of a morpheme-based spelling intervention on brain function in 20 children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities using repeated fMRI. Relative to 10 matched controls, children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities showed increased activation in frontal medial and right hemispheric regions and decreased activation in left occipito-temporal regions prior to the intervention, during processing of a lexical decision task. After five weeks of intervention, spelling and reading comprehension significantly improved in the training group, along with increased activation in the left temporal, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, the waiting group showed increases in right posterior regions. Our findings could indicate an increased left temporal activation associated with the recollection of the new learnt morpheme-based strategy related to successful training. PMID:22693600

  9. Searching for chemical classes among metal-poor stars using medium-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Monique A.; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Rossi, Silvia

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy is in the era of large spectroscopy surveys, with the spectra of hundreds of thousands of stars in the Galaxy being collected. Although most of these surveys have low or medium resolution, which makes precise abundance measurements not possible, there is still important information to be extracted from the available data. Our aim is to identify chemically distinct classes among metal-poor stars, observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using line indices. The present work focused on carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their subclasses. We applied the latent profile analysis technique to line indices for carbon, barium, iron and europium, in order to separate the sample into classes with similar chemical signatures. This technique provides not only the number of possible groups but also the probability of each object to belong to each class. The method was able to distinguish at least two classes among the observed sample, with one of them being probable CEMP stars enriched in s-process elements. However, it was not able to separate CEMP-no stars from the rest of the sample. Latent profile analysis is a powerful model-based tool to be used in the identification of patterns in astrophysics. Our tests show the potential of the technique for the attainment of additional chemical information from `poor' data.

  10. Differences in brain function and changes with intervention in children with poor spelling and reading abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gebauer

    Full Text Available Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct changes in brain activity patterns. We here investigated such effects of a morpheme-based spelling intervention on brain function in 20 children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities using repeated fMRI. Relative to 10 matched controls, children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities showed increased activation in frontal medial and right hemispheric regions and decreased activation in left occipito-temporal regions prior to the intervention, during processing of a lexical decision task. After five weeks of intervention, spelling and reading comprehension significantly improved in the training group, along with increased activation in the left temporal, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, the waiting group showed increases in right posterior regions. Our findings could indicate an increased left temporal activation associated with the recollection of the new learnt morpheme-based strategy related to successful training.

  11. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  12. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  13. Using photometrically selected metal-poor stars to study dwarf galaxies and the Galactic stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, Kris; Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Pristine Team

    2018-06-01

    The Pristine survey is a narrow-band photometric survey designed to efficiently search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. In the first three years of the survey, it has demonstrated great efficiency at finding EMP stars, and also great promise for increasing the current, small sample of the most metal-poor stars. The present sky coverage is ~2500 square degrees in the Northern Galactic Halo, including several individual fields targeting dwarf galaxies. By efficiently identifying member stars in the outskirts of known faint dwarf galaxies, the dynamical histories and chemical abundance patterns of these systems can be understood in greater detail. Additionally, with reliable photometric metallicities over a large sky coverage it is possible to perform a large scale clustering analysis in the Milky Way halo, and investigate the characteristic scale of substructure at different metallicities. This can reveal important details about the process of building up the halo through dwarf galaxy accretion, and offer insight into the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo. In this talk I will outline our results on the search for the most pristine stars, with a focus on how we are using this information to advance our understanding of dwarf galaxies and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic stellar halo.

  14. High Expression of HULC Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Osteosarcoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Maciel Uzan

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone cancer in childhood. OS is an aggressive disease, and metastatic patients evolve with very poor clinical outcomes. Genetically, OSs are extremely complex tumors, and the related metastatic process is not well understood in terms of the biology of the disease. In this context, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have emerged as an important class of gene expression regulators that play key roles in the invasion and metastasis of several human tumors. Here, we evaluated the expression of HULC, which is an lncRNA that is associated with the tumor metastatic process, and assessed its potential role as a prognostic marker in OS. HULC expression was evaluated in primary OS samples using real-time RT-PCR. HULC expression status was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and its association with survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The HULC expression level was not significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the OS patients. However, our data demonstrated that higher levels of expression of HULC were associated with lower survival rates in OS patients, both in terms of overall and event-free survival. Elevated HULC expression was associated with poor clinical outcomes among the OS patients, which suggests that HULC could be a potential prognostic biomarker in OS.

  15. On the Dearth of Ultra-faint Extremely Metal-poor Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Filho, M. E.; Vecchia, C. Dalla [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Skillman, E. D., E-mail: jos@iac.es [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) are of particular astrophysical interest since they allow us to look into physical processes characteristic of the early universe, from the assembly of galaxy disks to the formation of stars in conditions of low metallicity. Given the luminosity–metallicity relationship, all galaxies fainter than M{sub r} ≃ −13 are expected to be XMPs. Therefore, XMPs should be common in galaxy surveys. However, they are not common, because several observational biases hamper their detection. This work compares the number of faint XMPs in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic survey with the expected number, given the known biases and the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF). The faint end of the LF is poorly constrained observationally, but it determines the expected number of XMPs. Surprisingly, the number of observed faint XMPs (∼10) is overpredicted by our calculation, unless the upturn in the faint end of the LF is not present in the model. The lack of an upturn can be naturally understood if most XMPs are central galaxies in their low-mass dark matter halos, which are highly depleted in baryons due to interaction with the cosmic ultraviolet background and to other physical processes. Our result also suggests that the upturn toward low luminosity of the observed galaxy LF is due to satellite galaxies.

  16. Cheaper fuel and higher health costs among the poor in rural Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Krishna Prasad [Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Vidhya Lane, Devnagar, Kathmandu (Nepal)], email: kppant@yahoo.com

    2012-03-15

    Biomass fuels are used by the majority of resource poor households in low-income countries. Though biomass fuels, such as dung-briquette and firewood are apparently cheaper than the modern fuels indoor pollution from burning biomass fuels incurs high health costs. But, the health costs of these conventional fuels, mostly being indirect, are poorly understood. To address this gap, this study develops probit regression models using survey data generated through interviews from households using either dung-briquette or biogas as the primary source of fuel for cooking. The study investigates factors affecting the use of dung-briquette, assesses its impact on human health, and estimates the associated household health costs. Analysis suggests significant effects of dung-briquette on asthma and eye diseases. Despite of the perception of it being a cheap fuel, the annual health cost per household due to burning dung-briquette (US$ 16.94) is 61.3% higher than the annual cost of biogas (US$ 10.38), an alternative cleaner fuel for rural households. For reducing the use of dung-briquette and its indirect health costs, the study recommends three interventions: (1) educate women and aboriginal people, in particular, and make them aware of the benefits of switching to biogas; (2) facilitate tree planting in communal as well as private lands; and (3) create rural employment and income generation opportunities.

  17. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2018-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  18. Familial co-occurrence of congenital heart defects follows distinct patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina G.; Workman, Christopher T.; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) affect almost 1% of all live born children and the number of adults with CHD is increasing. In families where CHD has occurred previously, estimates of recurrence risk, and the type of recurring malformation are important for counselling and clinical decision......-making, but the recurrence patterns in families are poorly understood. We aimed to determine recurrence patterns, by investigating the co-occurrences of CHD in 1163 families with known malformations, comprising 3080 individuals with clinically confirmed diagnosis. We calculated rates of concordance and discordance for 41...... specific types of malformations, observing a high variability in the rates of concordance and discordance. By calculating odds ratios for each of 1640 pairs of discordant lesions observed between affected family members, we were able to identify 178 pairs of malformations that co-occurred significantly...

  19. Magma-poor vs. magma-rich continental rifting and breakup in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouiza, M.; Paton, D.

    2017-12-01

    Magma-poor and magma-rich rifted margins show distinct structural and stratigraphic geometries during the rift to breakup period. In magma-poor margins, crustal stretching is accommodated mainly by brittle faulting and the formation of wide rift basins shaped by numerous graben and half-graben structures. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion are often preceded by a localised phase of (hyper-) extension where the upper mantle is embrittled, serpentinized, and exhumed to the surface. In magma-rich margins, the rift basin is narrow and extension is accompanied by a large magmatic supply. Continental breakup and oceanic crust accretion is preceded by the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust juxtaposing and underplating a moderately thinned continental crust. Both magma-poor and magma-rich rifting occur in response to lithospheric extension but the driving forces and processes are believed to be different. In the former extension is assumed to be driven by plate boundary forces, while in the latter extension is supposed to be controlled by sublithospheric mantle dynamics. However, this view fails in explaining observations from many Atlantic conjugate margins where magma-poor and magma-rich segments alternate in a relatively abrupt fashion. This is the case of the Labrador margin where the northern segment shows major magmatic supply during most of the syn-rift phase which culminate in the emplacement of a thick volcanic crust in the transitional domain along with high density bodies underplating the thinned continental crust; while the southern segment is characterized mainly by brittle extension, mantle seprentinization and exhumation prior to continental breakup. In this work, we use seismic and potential field data to describe the crustal and structural architectures of the Labrador margin, and investigate the tectonic and mechanical processes of rifting that may have controlled the magmatic supply in the different segments of the margin.

  20. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Ruprecht 106 - A young metal-poor Galactic globular cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, R.; Buscema, G.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    The first CCD photometric survey in the Galactic globular cluster Ruprecht 106 has been performed. The results show that Ruprecht 106 is a metal-poor cluster with (Fe/H) about -2 located at about 25 kpc from the Galactic center. A sizable, high centrally concentrated population of blue stragglers was detected. Significant differences in the positions of the turnoffs in the color-magnitude diagram are found compared to those in metal-poor clusters. The cluster appears younger than other typical metal-poor Galactic globulars by about 4-5 Gyr; if true, this object would represent the first direct proof of the existence of a significant age spread among old, very metal-poor clusters. 51 refs

  2. Cost Analysis of Poor Quality Using a Software Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Fabianová

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The issues of quality, cost of poor quality and factors affecting quality are crucial to maintaining a competitiveness regarding to business activities. Use of software applications and computer simulation enables more effective quality management. Simulation tools offer incorporating the variability of more variables in experiments and evaluating their common impact on the final output. The article presents a case study focused on the possibility of using computer simulation Monte Carlo in the field of quality management. Two approaches for determining the cost of poor quality are introduced here. One from retrospective scope of view, where the cost of poor quality and production process are calculated based on historical data. The second approach uses the probabilistic characteristics of the input variables by means of simulation, and reflects as a perspective view of the costs of poor quality. Simulation output in the form of a tornado and sensitivity charts complement the risk analysis.

  3. URBAN PRO-POOR REGISTRATIONS: COMPLEX-SIMPLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Win User

    registrations for the poor and low-literate / corporate social responsibility); ..... legal textbooks, statutory texts, case law texts, customary texts (from a largely ...... by speaking directly to the prosecutor, or an academic who specialises in ethics.

  4. Mechanisms for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Marianne Ladegaard

    Abstract A large part of the new drug candidates discovered by the pharmaceutical industry have poor solubility in aqueous media. The preferred route of drug administration is the oral route, but for these poorly water-soluble drug candidates the oral bioavailability can be low and variable. Often......, phospholipids) and exogenous surfactants used in pharmaceutical formulations on the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drug substances. Three different models were used for this purpose. The first model was the in vitro Caco-2 cell model. Simulated intestinal fluids which did not decrease cellular...... products are important for the solubilization of poorly water-soluble drug substances and thus absorption. The second model used was the lipoprotein secreting Caco-2 cell model, which was used to simulate intestinal lymphatic transport in vitro. Various simulated intestinal fluids were composed...

  5. Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre. ... This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0+5managed with repeated blood ... aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds.

  6. Poor access to basic services | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Poor access to basic services can foster competition and fuel conflict between groups. ... Make clean water, sanitation, electricity, and other services accessible ... Poverty, inequality, and violence in urban India: Towards more ...

  7. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and ... Potential candidates include China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mali and South ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  8. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  9. FOXP2-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas exhibit a poor response to R-CHOP therapy and distinct biological signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Kah Keng; Gascoyne, Duncan M; Soilleux, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    frequency of FOXP2 expression significantly correlated with FOXP1-positivity (P = 0.0187), and FOXP1 co-immunoprecipitated FOXP2 from ABC-DLBCL cells indicating that these proteins can co-localize in a multi-protein complex. FOXP2-positive DLBCL had reduced expression of HIP1R (P = 0.0348), which...

  10. Inference in {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules ({open_quote}poor{close_quote} languages) are considered. The problem of existence of a finite, complete, and consistent inference rule system for a {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} language is stated independently of the language or the rule syntax. Several properties of the problem are proved. An application of the results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  11. Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laterveer, Leontien; Niessen, Louis W; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-06-01

    Since 1999, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have required low-income countries soliciting for debt relief and financial support to prepare a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents. The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population. More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument. There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued.

  12. Technologies of identification under the Old Poor Law\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In this important article Steve Hindle, the leading historian of the local state and the pre-1834 Poor Law, considers the different ways in which parish and township authorities labelled and identified paupers. His paper is closely based upon the lecture which he gave to the British Association for Local History in June 2006. Steve Hindle gives an accessible and comprehensive explanation of the background and rationale for the various ways in which the poor could be categorised, and discusses...

  13. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  14. Distinct molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma respond differently to chemotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yang; Wang, Shuzhen; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Lulu; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Shibai; Zhu, Wan; Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Wenwu; Ji, Shaoping; Guo, Xiangqian

    2017-09-11

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood. Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Next, clinicopathological characters and molecular pathways were analyzed in each subtype to prospect the clinical applications and progression mechanisms of ULMS. Two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS were defined based on different gene expression signatures. Subtype I ULMS recapitulated low-grade ULMS, the gene expression pattern of which resembled normal smooth muscle cells, characterized by overexpression of smooth muscle function genes such as LMOD1, SLMAP, MYLK, MYH11. In contrast, subtype II ULMS recapitulated high-grade ULMS with higher tumor weight and invasion rate, and was characterized by overexpression of genes involved in the pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis, such as CDK6, MAPK13 and HOXA1. We identified two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS responding differently to chemotherapy treatment. Our findings provide a better understanding of ULMS intrinsic molecular subtypes, and will potentially facilitate the development of subtype-specific diagnosis biomarkers and therapy strategies for these tumors.

  15. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  16. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  17. State of the art of nanocrystals technology for delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuqi; Du, Juan; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Yancai, E-mail: wangyancai1999@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    Formulation of nanocrystals is a distinctive approach which can effectively improve the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, thus enticing the development of the nanocrystals technology. The characteristics of nanocrystals resulted in an exceptional drug delivery conductance, including saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, adhesiveness, and affinity. Nanocrystals were treated as versatile pharmaceuticals that could be delivered through almost all routes of administration. In the current review, oral, pulmonary, and intravenous routes of administration were presented. Also, the targeting of drug nanocrystals, as well as issues of efficacy and safety, were also discussed. Several methods were applied for nanocrystals production including top-down production strategy (media milling, high-pressure homogenization), bottom-up production strategy (antisolvent precipitation, supercritical fluid process, and precipitation by removal of solvent), and the combination approaches. Moreover, this review also described the evaluation and characterization of the drug nanocrystals and summarized the current commercial pharmaceutical products utilizing nanocrystals technology.

  18. Psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms among US workers: comparing working poor and working non-poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh Ann; Swanberg, Jennifer E

    2009-08-01

    The psychosocial work environment has been associated with mental health outcomes; however, little research has examined this relationship for low-wage workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial job characteristics and depressive symptoms for US workers using an expanded model of job quality. Data were from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, a nationally representative study of wage and salaried workers in the US. Working poor was defined as households earning working poor employees, job insecurity was the single significant correlate of depressive symptoms after controlling for other demographic and work environment variables. For working non-poor employees, high psychological demands and low supervisor and coworker support were associated with depressive symptoms. Findings suggest all jobs do not equally affect employees' depressive symptoms. Implications for research that may improve the mental health of the working poor in the US are presented.

  19. Individual and community factors associated with geographic clusters of poor HIV care retention and poor viral suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Yehia, Baligh R; Hillier, Amy; Voytek, Chelsea D; Fiore, Danielle J; Blank, Michael; Frank, Ian; Metzger, David S; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-05-01

    Previous analyses identified specific geographic areas in Philadelphia (hotspots) associated with negative outcomes along the HIV care continuum. We examined individual and community factors associated with residing in these hotspots. Retrospective cohort of 1404 persons newly diagnosed with HIV in 2008-2009 followed for 24 months after linkage to care. Multivariable regression examined associations between individual (age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV transmission risk, and insurance status) and community (economic deprivation, distance to care, access to public transit, and access to pharmacy services) factors and the outcomes: residence in a hotspot associated with poor retention-in-care and residence in a hotspot associated with poor viral suppression. In total, 24.4% and 13.7% of persons resided in hotspots associated with poor retention and poor viral suppression, respectively. For persons residing in poor retention hotspots, 28.3% were retained in care compared with 40.4% of those residing outside hotspots (P care, and longer distance to pharmacies. Factors significantly associated with residence in poor viral suppression hotspots included female sex, higher economic deprivation, and shorter distance to pharmacies. Individual and community-level associations with geographic hotspots may inform both content and delivery strategies for interventions designed to improve retention-in-care and viral suppression.

  20. Abundance patterns of the light neutron-capture elements in very and extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, F.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in metal-poor stars provide a unique record of the nucleosynthesis products of the earlier massive primitive objects. Methods: We measured new abundances of so-called light neutron-capture of first peak elements using local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) 1D analysis; this analysis resulted in a sample of 11 very metal-poor stars, from [Fe/H] = -2.5 to [Fe/H] = -3.4, and one carbon-rich star, CS 22949-037 with [Fe/H] = -4.0. The abundances were compared to those observed in two classical metal-poor stars: the typical r-rich star CS 31082-001 ([Eu/Fe] > +1.0) and the r-poor star HD 122563 ([Eu/Fe] < 0.0), which are known to present a strong enrichment of the first peak neutron-capture elements relative to the second peak. Results: Within the first peak, the abundances are well correlated in analogy to the well-known correlation inside the abundances of the second-peak elements. In contrast, there is no correlation between any first peak element with any second peak element. We show that the scatter of the ratio of the first peak abundance over second peak abundance increases when the mean abundance of the second peak elements decreases from r-rich to r-poor stars. We found two new r-poor stars that are very similar to HD 122563. A third r-poor star, CS 22897-008, is even more extreme; this star shows the most extreme example of first peak elements enrichment to date. On the contrary, another r-poor star (BD-18 5550) has a pattern of first peak elements that is similar to the typical r-rich stars CS 31082-001, however this star has some Mo enrichment. Conclusions: The distribution of the neutron-capture elements in our very metal-poor stars can be understood as the combination of at least two mechanisms: one that enriches the forming stars cloud homogeneously through the main r-process and leads to an element pattern similar to the r-rich stars, such as CS 31082-001; and another that forms mainly lighter

  1. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are

  2. Mapping onto Eq-5 D for patients in poor health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazier John E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing amount of studies report mapping algorithms which predict EQ-5 D utility values using disease specific non-preference-based measures. Yet many mapping algorithms have been found to systematically overpredict EQ-5 D utility values for patients in poor health. Currently there are no guidelines on how to deal with this problem. This paper is concerned with the question of why overestimation of EQ-5 D utility values occurs for patients in poor health, and explores possible solutions. Method Three existing datasets are used to estimate mapping algorithms and assess existing mapping algorithms from the literature mapping the cancer-specific EORTC-QLQ C-30 and the arthritis-specific Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ onto the EQ-5 D. Separate mapping algorithms are estimated for poor health states. Poor health states are defined using a cut-off point for QLQ-C30 and HAQ, which is determined using association with EQ-5 D values. Results All mapping algorithms suffer from overprediction of utility values for patients in poor health. The large decrement of reporting 'extreme problems' in the EQ-5 D tariff, few observations with the most severe level in any EQ-5 D dimension and many observations at the least severe level in any EQ-5 D dimension led to a bimodal distribution of EQ-5 D index values, which is related to the overprediction of utility values for patients in poor health. Separate algorithms are here proposed to predict utility values for patients in poor health, where these are selected using cut-off points for HAQ-DI (> 2.0 and QLQ C-30 ( Conclusion Mapping algorithms overpredict utility values for patients in poor health but are used in cost-effectiveness analyses nonetheless. Guidelines can be developed on when the use of a mapping algorithms is inappropriate, for instance through the identification of cut-off points. Cut-off points on a disease specific questionnaire can be identified through association

  3. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper......, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  4. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  5. Association of poor childhood fear conditioning and adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Dawson, Michael E; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2010-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction is theorized to give rise to poor fear conditioning, which in turn predisposes to crime, but it is not known whether poor conditioning precedes criminal offending. This study prospectively assessed whether poor fear conditioning early in life predisposes to adult crime in a large cohort. Electrodermal fear conditioning was assessed in a cohort of 1,795 children at age 3, and registration for criminal offending was ascertained at age 23. In a case-control design, 137 cohort members with a criminal record were matched on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity with 274 noncriminal comparison members. Statistical analyses compared childhood fear conditioning for the two groups. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced electrodermal fear conditioning at age 3 compared to matched comparison subjects. Poor fear conditioning at age 3 predisposes to crime at age 23. Poor fear conditioning early in life implicates amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex dysfunction and a lack of fear of socializing punishments in children who grow up to become criminals. These findings are consistent with a neurodevelopmental contribution to crime causation.

  6. Poor motor skills: a risk marker for bully victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Plenty, Stephanie; Humble, Alice; Humble, Mats B

    2013-01-01

    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97-4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45-3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18-2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53-3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk-marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley-Blackwell.

  7. In vitro downregulated hypoxia transcriptome is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jamous, Basel; Buffa, Francesca M; Harris, Adrian L; Nandi, Asoke K

    2017-06-15

    Hypoxia is a characteristic of breast tumours indicating poor prognosis. Based on the assumption that those genes which are up-regulated under hypoxia in cell-lines are expected to be predictors of poor prognosis in clinical data, many signatures of poor prognosis were identified. However, it was observed that cell line data do not always concur with clinical data, and therefore conclusions from cell line analysis should be considered with caution. As many transcriptomic cell-line datasets from hypoxia related contexts are available, integrative approaches which investigate these datasets collectively, while not ignoring clinical data, are required. We analyse sixteen heterogeneous breast cancer cell-line transcriptomic datasets in hypoxia-related conditions collectively by employing the unique capabilities of the method, UNCLES, which integrates clustering results from multiple datasets and can address questions that cannot be answered by existing methods. This has been demonstrated by comparison with the state-of-the-art iCluster method. From this collection of genome-wide datasets include 15,588 genes, UNCLES identified a relatively high number of genes (>1000 overall) which are consistently co-regulated over all of the datasets, and some of which are still poorly understood and represent new potential HIF targets, such as RSBN1 and KIAA0195. Two main, anti-correlated, clusters were identified; the first is enriched with MYC targets participating in growth and proliferation, while the other is enriched with HIF targets directly participating in the hypoxia response. Surprisingly, in six clinical datasets, some sub-clusters of growth genes are found consistently positively correlated with hypoxia response genes, unlike the observation in cell lines. Moreover, the ability to predict bad prognosis by a combined signature of one sub-cluster of growth genes and one sub-cluster of hypoxia-induced genes appears to be comparable and perhaps greater than that of known

  8. Identification of poorly crystalline scorodite in uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, R.; Rowson, J.; Hughes, K.; Rinas, C.; Warner, J.

    2010-01-01

    The McClean Lake mill, located in northern Saskatchewan, processes a variety of uranium ore bodies to produce yellowcake. A by-product of this process is an acidic waste solution enriched in arsenic, referred to as raffinate. The raffinate waste stream is treated in the tailings preparation circuit, where arsenic is precipitated as a poorly crystalline scorodite phase. Raffinate neutralization studies have successfully identified poorly crystalline scorodite using XRD, SEM, EM, XANES and EXAFS methods, but to date, scorodite has not been successfully identified within the whole tailing solids. During the summer of 2008, a drilling program sampled the in situ tailings within the McClean Lake tailings management facility. Samples from this drilling campaign were sent to the Canadian Light Source Inc. for EXAFS analysis. The sample spectra positively identify a poorly crystalline scorodite phase within the McClean tailings management facility. (author)

  9. Channels for change: private water and the urban poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Matthew; Matthews, Petter; Ryan-Collins, Lily [Engineers Against Poverty (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    For the rapidly urbanising developing world, safe and affordable water is key to health and livelihoods, as well as meeting the Millennium Development Goals. But providing it demands innovative models. Where the context allows and the approach is appropriate, private sector involvement can generate win-win outcomes. Poor people can gain access to high-quality, affordable services, and companies can gain access to new and profitable business opportunities. Two examples of innovative 'private' water suppliers are the Manila Water Company's Water for the Poor Communities (TPSB) programme, and the Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) partnership. Both have a multisector approach to service expansion and provision, including partnerships with local authorities; strong community involvement in selecting, designing and operating options; appropriate service levels to reduce costs; and a flexible range of services. Many elements of these models are also replicable.

  10. Is Globalization Good for the Poor? A Reply to Pogge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn; Lydholm, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    an economic polarization between the wealthiest and poorest people of the world, is not, we contend, something that in itself offers strong support for his view that the global institutional order is a significant cause of this economic polarization. We believe that Pogge overemphasizes the impact......In an article from 2011, Thomas Pogge asks if globalization is good for the world’s poor. Pogge answers in the negative. As important evidence for the view that the globalization period has not been good for the world’s poor, Pogge cites a dataset provided by Branko Milanović (CUNY......). In this article, we do not take issue with Pogge’s definition of “globalization”, “the world’s poor” or with the veracity of the empirical data he refers to in articulating and defending his view about globalization and the world’s poor. However, Pogge’s reference to a dataset showing that there has been...

  11. Predictors of dental care utilization among working poor Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V E; Quiñonez, C; Figueiredo, R; Locker, D

    2009-06-01

    This study used the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to identify predictors of dental care utilization by working poor Canadians. A cross-sectional stratified sampling study design and telephone survey methodology was used to collect data from a nationally representative sample of 1049 working poor individuals aged 18 to 64 years. Working poor persons worked > or = 20 h a week, were not full-time students and had annual family incomes 1 year ago: male gender (OR = 1.63; P = 0.005), aged 25-34 years (OR = 2.05; P = 0.02), paying for dental care with cash or credit (OR = 2.31; P credit (OR = 2.71; P demand for economically constrained adults.

  12. Poor care and the professional duty of the registered nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Clair; Ion, Robin

    2017-04-28

    Concerns have been raised in recent years about standards of care in the UK. Notable failures have been identified in the care of vulnerable older adults. This article identifies and discusses some logical steps which might be taken to minimise the risk of individual and systemic care failure in settings for older adults. These steps include frank discussion about ageism to promote empowerment and respect for older people; ensuring robust policies are in place that support and encourage the reporting of poor care; and ensuring that registered practitioners are aware of their accountability for their actions and also their omissions should they witness poor care. In addition to reducing the risk of poor care, these steps could contribute to having a more confident, competent and empowered workforce.

  13. Origin of Androgen-Insensitive Poorly Differentiated Tumors in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy J. Huss

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following castration, the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP model demonstrates rapid development of SV40-Tag-driven poorly differentiated tumors that express neuroendocrine cell markers. The cell population dynamics within the prostates of castrated TRAMP mice were characterized by analyzing the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd and the expression of SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and androgen receptor (AR. Fourteen days postcastration, the remaining epithelial cells and adenocarcinoma cells were nonproliferative and lacked detectable SV40-Tag or synaptophysin expression. In contrast, morphologically distinct intraglandular foci were identified which expressed SV40-Tag, synaptophysin, and Ki67, but that lacked AR expression. These proliferative SV40-Tag and synaptophysin-expressing intraglandular foci were associated with the rare BrdUrd-retaining cells. These foci expanded rapidly in the postcastration prostate environment, in contrast to the AR- and SV40-Tag-expressing adenocarcinoma cells that lost SV40-Tag expression and underwent apoptosis after castration. Intraglandular foci of synaptophysin-expressing cells were also observed in the prostates of intact TRAMP mice at a comparable frequency; however, they did not progress to rapidly expanding tumors until much later in the life of the mice. This suggests that the foci of neuroendocrine-like cells that express SV40-Tag and synaptophysin, but lack AR, arise independent of androgen-deprivation and represent the source of the poorly differentiated tumors that are the lethal phenotype in the TRAMP model.

  14. Elucidating poor decision-making in a rat gambling task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rivalan

    Full Text Available Although poor decision-making is a hallmark of psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, pathological gambling or substance abuse, a fraction of healthy individuals exhibit similar poor decision-making performances in everyday life and specific laboratory tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These particular individuals may provide information on risk factors or common endophenotypes of these mental disorders. In a rodent version of the Iowa gambling task--the Rat Gambling Task (RGT, we identified a population of poor decision makers, and assessed how these rats scored for several behavioral traits relevant to executive disorders: risk taking, reward seeking, behavioral inflexibility, and several aspects of impulsivity. First, we found that poor decision-making could not be well predicted by single behavioral and cognitive characteristics when considered separately. By contrast, a combination of independent traits in the same individual, namely risk taking, reward seeking, behavioral inflexibility, as well as motor impulsivity, was highly predictive of poor decision-making. Second, using a reinforcement-learning model of the RGT, we confirmed that only the combination of extreme scores on these traits could induce maladaptive decision-making. Third, the model suggested that a combination of these behavioral traits results in an inaccurate representation of rewards and penalties and inefficient learning of the environment. Poor decision-making appears as a consequence of the over-valuation of high-reward-high-risk options in the task. Such a specific psychological profile could greatly impair clinically healthy individuals in decision-making tasks and may predispose to mental disorders with similar symptoms.

  15. Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, S; Engle, R W

    1986-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.

  16. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  17. Use of modern contraception by the poor is falling behind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuela Gakidou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The widespread increase in the use of contraception, due to multiple factors including improved access to modern contraception, is one of the most dramatic social transformations of the past fifty years. This study explores whether the global progress in the use of modern contraceptives has also benefited the poorest.Demographic and Health Surveys from 55 developing countries were analyzed using wealth indices that allow the identification of the absolute poor within each country. This article explores the macro level determinants of the differences in the use of modern contraceptives between the poor and the national averages of several countries. Despite increases in national averages, use of modern contraception by the absolute poor remains low. South and Southeast Asia have relatively high rates of modern contraception in the absolute poor, on average 17% higher than in Latin America. Over time the gaps in use persist and are increasing. Latin America exhibits significantly larger gaps in use between the poor and the averages, while gaps in sub-Saharan Africa are on average smaller by 15.8% and in Southeast Asia by 11.6%.The secular trend of increasing rates of modern contraceptive use has not resulted in a decrease of the gap in use for those living in absolute poverty. Countries with large economic inequalities also exhibit large inequalities in modern contraceptive use. In addition to macro level factors that influence contraceptive use, such as economic development and provision of reproductive health services, there are strong regional variations, with sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the lowest national rates of use, South and Southeast Asia the highest use among the poor, and Latin America the largest inequalities in use.

  18. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism. PMID:16759356

  19. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  20. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  1. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler John Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  2. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Chen, Weidong; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  3. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teo, Minyuen

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  4. Fetterman-House: A Process Use Distinction and a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the concept of process use as an important distinction between the evaluation theories of E. House and D. Fetterman, thus helping to explain the discordant results of C. Christie for these two theories. (SLD)

  5. On the conceptual distinction of general causality orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    electronic questionnaires of dispositional personality traits (NEO-FFI) and general causality orientations (GCOS). Proposed separate latent models and alternative shared latent models of the underlying individual differences constructs had been developed in a previous exploratory study (Olesen, Thomsen......, that is general causality orientations can be understood as characteristic adaptations of dispositional traits....

  6. Distinct Orbitofrontal Regions Encode Stimulus and Choice Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William A.; Kesek, Amanda; Mowrer, Samantha M.

    2009-01-01

    The weak axiom of revealed preferences suggests that the value of an object can be understood through the simple examination of choices. Although this axiom has driven economic theory, the assumption of equation between value and choice is often violated. fMRI was used to decouple the processes associated with evaluating stimuli from evaluating…

  7. Distinct neural mechanisms for body form and body motion discriminations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Peelen, Marius V; Tadin, Duje; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    Actions can be understood based on form cues (e.g., static body posture) as well as motion cues (e.g., gait patterns). A fundamental debate centers on the question of whether the functional and neural mechanisms processing these two types of cues are dissociable. Here, using fMRI, psychophysics, and

  8. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona, asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  9. Fort Valley's early scientists: A legacy of distinction (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Susan D. Olberding

    2008-01-01

    When the Riordan brothers of Flagstaff, Arizona asked Gifford Pinchot to determine why there was a deficit in ponderosa pine seedlings, neither party understood the historical significance of what they were setting in motion for the field of forest research. The direct result of that professional favor was the establishment of the Fort Valley Experiment Station (Fort...

  10. Nanonization strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabing; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Yang, Xiangliang; Chang, Xueling; Gao, Jinming

    2011-04-01

    Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor(®) EL). In this review, several major nanonization techniques that seek to overcome these limitations for drug solubilization are presented. Strategies including drug nanocrystals, nanoemulsions and polymeric micelles are reviewed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and future opportunities are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. On Poor Separation in Magnetically Driven Shock Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C.T.

    1973-01-01

    Observations made at steady-state running conditions in a magnetically driven shock tube, with parallel-plate electrodes, showed that for a given discharge voltage, sufficient separation between the shock and the current-sheet occurred only at relatively high discharge pressures. As a comparison......, poor separations were also noted in conventional diaphragm-type shock tubes running at low initial pressures. It is demonstrated that the observed poor separation can be explained by a mass leakage, instead of through the wall boundary layer, but through the current-sheet itself....

  12. Turning a Poor Ion Channel into a Good Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, Dean

    2003-05-01

    We consider a membrane protein that can exist in two configurations, either one of which acts as a poor ion channel, allowing ions to slowly leak across the membrane from high to low elctrochemical potential. We show that random external fluctuations can provide the energy to turn this poor channel into a good pump that drives ion transport from low to high electrochemical potential. We discuss this result in terms of a gambling analogy, and point to possible implications for fields as far ranging as population biology, economics, and actuarial science.

  13. Renewable energies and the poor: niche or nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energies are considered as an essential element of any strategy for sustainable energy development. The poor in the developing world without access to modern energies are regarded as a major market for renewable energies. This short paper attempts to analyse whether such a niche is backed by any economic logic and whether renewable energy and the poor nexus could be a strategy for success. The paper suggests that contrary to the common belief, the economic logic behind the niche is unsound and that the nexus is not a recipe for success

  14. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used in this part: (a) Profit-sharing plan...

  15. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Joerg Luedicke; Manuel C. Voelkle; Manuel C. Voelkle; Michaela Riediger; Michaela Riediger; Tian Lin; Ulman Lindenberger; Ulman Lindenberger

    2018-01-01

    Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years), middle-aged (44–55 years), and older (70–81 years) men and women. We report novel findings su...

  16. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    vision) for using Turnitin as a deterrent, in order to help learners to learn in the process. .... such as the American Psychological Association. (APA) ..... from other people. ..... and enduring concerns (2nd ed). ... Generations: The history of.

  17. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    intervention makes it easy to see why there is less commitment to ... funding for countries where crisis' stretch government ability to respond ... National agencies such as DfID (UK), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA) and GIZ .... This case study uses a qualitative research design consistent with DiCicco- ..... Swedish International.

  18. English in Dutch commercials: Not understood and not appreciated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Gijsbers, I.

    2000-01-01

    Dutch consumers are increasingly exposed to English in commercials on television. Advertising agencies appear to use English because of financial and image reasons. This article investigates how often commercials that contain English occur in the Netherlands and whether consumers comprehend the

  19. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  20. Emotions are understood from biological motion across remote cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia

    2017-04-01

    Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Clinical governance; How been understood, what is needed? Nurses' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high standards of the health services and provides a safe care for patients.  The aim of this research was to study nurses’ perception about Clinical Governance. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was done with Focus Group Discussions (FGD. Purposeful Sampling was used to select the objectives including 65 participants. Actually 7 FGD’s were held. Content analysis was used to extract the meaningful themes. Results:Nurses believed that patient centeredness and evidence based practice is the core of the CG concept. Also they mentioned that cultural change, staffs training, adequate financial and human resources are required to successfully implementation of CG in hospitals.  Conclusion: Spreading up a shared vision about CG and providing the required infrastructures in hospitals would be facilitate CG initiatives. Proper commitment of the managers and staff participation could lead an effective CG implementation.

  2. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  3. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail; Nurfaradilla Haron

    2014-01-01

    The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, t...

  4. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  5. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2015-01-01

    The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...

  6. The bare parameters of Gribov's Langrangian are understood and determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)

  7. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections? Simon Bheki Khoza ... In South Africa, however, there are very few schools that expose teachers to Turnitin in order to ... Turnitin program by John M. Barrie, when he was a graduate ... Questions. This article intended to explore and explain teach-.

  8. How Inclusive Education Is Understood by Principals of Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…

  9. Inclusion understood from the perspectives of children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Watkinson, E Jane

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8-12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children's perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.

  10. On being understood: clarity and jargon in radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Daniel J; Watson, Charles R

    2002-03-01

    While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus.

  11. Poor sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis : gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitkova, Marianna; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Szilasiova, Jarmila; Mikula, Pavol; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most of the psychological and physical factors associated with poor sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a different prevalence in women and men, but whether or not these factors contribute differently to sleep quality in women and men with MS remains unclear. The

  12. Influencing pro-poor telecommunication policies in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... The survey also revealed that the poorer the people, the larger the share ... CEO of LIRNEasia, the Sri Lanka-based think tank which conducted the study. ... has also been successful in influencing pro-poor telecommunication ...

  13. Treatment non-adherence among patients with poorly controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Background: Poor adherence to prescribed therapy among patients with chronic diseases is a growing concern which un- dermines the ... consent was obtained from individual patient to signi- .... and SRMAS in binary categories of adherence versus ..... United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group.

  14. Poor Pregnancy Outcomes among Adolecents in South Nyanza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examine factor associated with poor pregnancy outcomes among teenagers in South Nyanza region of Kenya. The analysis is based on a recent WHO funded study on Adolescent safe motherhood in the region, which involved a survey of 1247 adolescents aged 12-19 and in-depth interviews with 39 of the ...

  15. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skúladóttir, Ása; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation

  16. The effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) on poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has identified Poor study habits as one of the key factors responsible for this high rate of failure and widespread examination malpractice among students. REBT is a cognitive behavior therapy that deals with modifying maladjusted behavior that has to do with a faulty belief system. The purpose of this study is to ...

  17. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  18. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  19. Do Poor Readers Feel Angry, Sad, and Unpopular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether being poorly skilled in reading contributes to children's reported feelings of anger, distractibility, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, and social isolation. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal subsample of children (N = 3,308) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Multilevel logistic…

  20. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.

    2016-01-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher

  2. Poor Reading Culture: A Barrier to Students' Patronage of Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    show that computer and other media, harsh economic reality, societal demand for materialism, inadequate library materials among others are causes of poor reading culture of students in secondary schools. .... foundation of elementary education. ... play in the social, economic and technological development of any country.

  3. Poor Facial Affect Recognition among Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, V. J.; Fee, R. J.; De Vivo, D. C.; Goldstein, E.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) have delayed language and poor social skills and some meet criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder, yet they are identified by molecular, rather than behavioral, characteristics. To determine whether comprehension of facial affect is compromised in boys with MD, children were given a…

  4. Providing choice for poor farmers: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The work we are doing is really cutting-edge. Through this research we are talking about creating choices for farmers, giving them power using mobile phones as a tool. We just completed an extensive and comprehensive study of how 10 000 poor people use ICTs in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, and ...

  5. Targeting micro-credits to poor household enterprises in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, D.; Oosterbeek, H.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 the government of Ecuador launched a micro-credit program for enterprises run by poor households. The program was targeted to households at the bottom two quintiles in the wealth distribution. This paper uses data collected prior to the start of the program to examine whether the

  6. Creating Work Opportunities for the Poor through Home Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to investigate how Home Community Based Care (HCBC) is used as a strategy to create work opportunities for the poor. Quantitative and qualitative data from 65 HCBC organisations with three years of active involvement in HCBC that are funded by the Department of Health was collected. This was done ...

  7. PRO-POOR TOURISM POTENTIALS OF GHANA The Contribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    Dept. of Ecotourism and Environmental Management ... The potential of the tourism and hospitality sector as a poverty reduction tool, specifically ... concept is not just a state of affairs but an unacceptable state of affairs, ... A case of SMEs offering employment is the Okavango ..... strategies; making tourism work for the poor.

  8. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; David T. Butry; Amy D. Sullivan; John M. Chase

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional...

  9. Evidence for Opportunity Cost Neglect in the Poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M.T.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.

    2018-01-01

    People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an

  10. Evidence for opportunity cost neglect in the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A.; Krijnen, J.M.T.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2018-01-01

    People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an

  11. Automated processing of leucocyte-poor platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, N P; Seghatchian, M J; Bessos, H

    1992-10-01

    In view of transfusion reactions and alloimmunization associated with leucocyte contamination of platelet concentrates (PC), there is a general move towards the production of leuco-poor PC. This goal is currently pursued by the production of various PC using buffy coat and apheresis techniques. Although there is no overall consensus on the meaning of 'leuco-poor', by assuming that this refers to a level of 5-50 x 10(7) leucocytes per PC, we were able to make comparisons with available systems used in Europe. In addition to platelet and white cell counts, other markers of PC quality were assessed in some cases. These included traditional markers (such as hypotonic stress response, pH, and lactate and beta-thromboglobulin levels) and newer markers (such as glycocalicin and plasma von Willebrand factor levels). Our preliminary results showed appreciable differences in platelet and white cell content of PC prepared by various types of apheresis equipment. Appreciable differences in the quality of stored PC were also observed between routine PC (non-leuco-poor and buffy coat and apheresed PC (leuco-poor).

  12. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.; Izzard, R.G.; Pols, O.R.

    2007-01-01

    One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until

  13. Jesus: Born Poor or Rich? | Osai | African Research Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that, like tailoring, smith, masonry etc. carpentry was part of a guild that only those with means practiced in Judaea of that epoch and, therefore Joseph was not poor; that Joachim, the maternal grandfather of Jesus, was a wealthy descendant of the royal house of David; that Joseph had the means to ...

  14. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing AC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of : flexible pavements that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from the Long Term Pavemen...

  15. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing PCC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of concrete pavements (JPCP, JRCP, CRCP) that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from Long...

  16. The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative Fund Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Ghana opted for the HIPC debt relief initiative and reached the completion point in June 2004 the country has received several billions of money into the HIPC account at the Bank of Ghana. Part of the funds has been given out in the form of micro-credit to poor households to help reduce their poverty situation.

  17. Clofarabine in the treatment of poor risk acute myeloid leukaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krawczyk, Janusz

    2010-09-01

    Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue. It inhibits DNA repair and activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to cell death. In vitro clofarabine has demonstrated synergy with daunorubicin and Ara-C and in phase II clinical trials has shown promising activity in poor risk Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. In our institution over a 24 month period 22 AML patients (11 M, 11 F) with poor risk features, deemed unsuitable for standard therapy, were treated with clofarabine, alone (eight patients) or in combination (14 patients) for up to three cycles of treatment. The median age was 67.5 years (24-76) with 16 patients > 60 years. At the time of treatment 18 patients had active AML. Four patients intolerant of standard induction received clofarabine as consolidation. The overall response rate (ORR) for the 18 patients with active AML was 61%, nine patients (50%) achieving a complete response (CR). Induction and consolidation were well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. Predictably, all patients developed grade 4 neutropenia but the median duration was only 20 days (17-120). Induction mortality was acceptable at 17%. In conclusion, clofarabine (alone or in combination) is active in poor risk AML with an acceptable safety profile and should be considered a potential option in poor risk AML patients.

  18. Poor vision, refractive errors and barriers to treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor vision, refractive errors and barriers to treatment among commercial vehicle drivers in the Cape Coast municipality. ... were also administered to the participants to collect demographic data, history of driving and RTAs and utilization of eye care services as well as identification of the colours of the traffic light. Results: A ...

  19. Clinical Features and the Factors Associated with Poor Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Features and the Factors Associated with Poor Outcome of. Measles Patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Robin L Broadhead. Paul Courtright. Lincy Misoya. Affiliation: 1. Department of Paediatrics College of. Medicine University of Malawi. 2. International Eye FoundatiQn. 3. Department of Paediatrics ...

  20. Cystic poorly differentiated nephroblastoma: A case report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.O. Odubanjo

    Abstract. Background: Cystic poorly differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) is a rare variant of nephroblastoma which follows a benign clinical course. Case diagnosis/treatment: In this report, we document a case of CPDN in a 2 year old boy who pre- sented with recurrent gross painless hematuria and progressive ...

  1. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  2. Three-dimensional models of metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, R

    2008-01-01

    I present here the main results of recent realistic, three-dimensional (3D), hydrodynamical simulations of convection at the surface of metal-poor red giant stars. I discuss the application of these convection simulations as time-dependent, 3D, hydrodynamical model atmospheres to spectral line formation calculations and abundance analyses. The impact of 3D models on derived elemental abundances is investigated by means of a differential comparison of the line strengths predicted in 3D under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with the results of analogous line formation calculations performed with classical, 1D, hydrostatic model atmospheres. The low surface temperatures encountered in the upper photospheric layers of 3D model atmospheres of very metal-poor stars cause spectral lines of neutral metals and molecules to appear stronger in 3D than in 1D calculations. Hence, 3D elemental abundances derived from such lines are significantly lower than estimated by analyses with 1D models. In particular, differential 3D-1D LTE abundances for C, N and O derived from CH, NH and OH lines are found to be in the range -0.5 to - 1 dex. Large negative differential 3D-1D corrections to the Fe abundance are also computed for weak low-excitation Fe i lines. The application of metal-poor 3D models to the spectroscopic analysis of extremely iron-poor halo stars is discussed.

  3. Poor Reading Culture: A Barrier to Students' Patronage of Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined poor reading culture: A barrier to students' patronage of Selected Secondary School Libraries in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The design for the study is descriptive survey which utilizes questionnaire to collect data. Oral interview was also conducted. Tables and simple percentages ...

  4. LH Pretreatment as a Novel Strategy for Poor Responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pia Ferraretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor response to ovarian stimulation is still a major problem in IVF. The study presents a new stimulation protocol evaluated in a suppopulation of very difficult young poor ovarian responders. Material and Methods. The study consists in two sections. The first includes data from a randomized controlled study involving forty-three young patients with a poor ovarian response in at least two previous cycles (intended as cycle cancellation or with ≤3 collected oocytes. Patients were randomized in two groups: group A (control received FSH (400 IU/day, while group B received the new stimulation protocol consisting in a sequential association of 150 IU r-LH for 4 days followed by 400 IU r-FSH/after downregulation with daily GnRh agonist. The second includes data from the overall results in 65 patients treated with the new protocol compared to their previous performance with conventional cycles (historical control. Results. Both in the RCT and in the historical control study, LH pretreatment was able to decrease the cancellation rate, to improve the in vitro performance, and to significantly increase the live birth rates. Conclusions. LH pretreatment improved oocyte quantity and quality in young repeated poor responders selected in accordance with the Bologna criteria.

  5. Poor physician performance in the Netherlands: characteristics, causes, and prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, M.M.P.G. van den; Wagner, C.; Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Poor physician performance has a profound impact on patient safety and society's trust in the health care system. The attention that this topic has received in the media suggests that it is a large-scale issue. However, research about physician performance is still scant; there is

  6. Contributing factors to poor service delivery by administrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study that was conducted among non-managerial administrative employees in the public sector in Gauteng. The researchers attempted to determine the effect of specified job factors on the wellbeing and service delivery of these employees. Poor service delivery in the country triggered the research.

  7. Metformin in gestational diabetes mellitus: predictors of poor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gante, Inês; Melo, Luís; Dores, Jorge; Ruas, Luísa; Almeida, Maria do Céu

    2018-01-01

    Metformin can be regarded as a first-line treatment in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) due to its safety and effectiveness. However, a proportion of women do not achieve adequate glycemic control with metformin alone. We aim to identify predictors of this poor response to metformin. Retrospective multicentre cohort study of women with GDM who started metformin as first-line treatment. The assessed cohort was divided into a metformin group and metformin plus insulin group. Biometric and demographic characteristics, glycemic control data, obstetric, neonatal and postpartum outcomes were compared between groups and analysed in order to identify predictors of poor response to metformin. Data were analysed using STATA, version 13.1. Of the 388 women enrolled in the study, 135 (34.8%) required additional insulin therapy to achieve the glycemic targets. Higher age (aOR: 1.08 (1.03-1.13), P  = 0.003), higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (1.06 (1.02-1.10), P  = 0.003) and earlier introduction of metformin (0.89 (0.85-0.94), P  metformin, insulin supplementation was not associated with poor neonatal outcomes. Higher age, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and earlier introduction of metformin could be used as predictors of poor response to metformin. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Poor glass-forming ability of Fe-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.J.; Hu, L.N.; Zhao, X.

    2017-01-01

    processes. By using the concept of fluid cluster and supercooled liquid fragility in metallic liquids, it has been found that this dynamic transition makes the Fe-based supercooled liquids become more unstable, which leads to the poor GFA of Fe-based alloys. Further, it has been found that the degree...

  9. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Binnendijk (Erica); R. Koren (Ruth); D.M. Dror (David)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare

  10. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  11. Semantic and phonological coding in poor and normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutino, F R; Scanlon, D M; Spearing, D

    1995-02-01

    Three studies were conducted evaluating semantic and phonological coding deficits as alternative explanations of reading disability. In the first study, poor and normal readers in second and sixth grade were compared on various tests evaluating semantic development as well as on tests evaluating rapid naming and pseudoword decoding as independent measures of phonological coding ability. In a second study, the same subjects were given verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks using high and low meaning words as verbal stimuli and Chinese ideographs as visual stimuli. On the semantic tasks, poor readers performed below the level of the normal readers only at the sixth grade level, but, on the rapid naming and pseudoword learning tasks, they performed below the normal readers at the second as well as at the sixth grade level. On both the verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks, performance in poor readers approximated that of normal readers when the word stimuli were high in meaning but not when they were low in meaning. These patterns were essentially replicated in a third study that used some of the same semantic and phonological measures used in the first experiment, and verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks that employed word lists and visual stimuli (novel alphabetic characters) that more closely approximated those used in learning to read. It was concluded that semantic coding deficits are an unlikely cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers at the beginning stages of reading skills acquisition, but accrue as a consequence of prolonged reading difficulties in older readers. It was also concluded that phonological coding deficits are a probable cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers.

  12. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Cholangiocarcinoma Identifies Distinct IDH-Mutant Molecular Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Farshidfar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is an aggressive malignancy of the bile ducts, with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Here, we describe the integrated analysis of somatic mutations, RNA expression, copy number, and DNA methylation by The Cancer Genome Atlas of a set of predominantly intrahepatic CCA cases and propose a molecular classification scheme. We identified an IDH mutant-enriched subtype with distinct molecular features including low expression of chromatin modifiers, elevated expression of mitochondrial genes, and increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Leveraging the multi-platform data, we observed that ARID1A exhibited DNA hypermethylation and decreased expression in the IDH mutant subtype. More broadly, we found that IDH mutations are associated with an expanded histological spectrum of liver tumors with molecular features that stratify with CCA. Our studies reveal insights into the molecular pathogenesis and heterogeneity of cholangiocarcinoma and provide classification information of potential therapeutic significance.

  13. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ≥8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ≥20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ≤18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice.

  14. Unusual dewetting of thin polymer films in liquid media containing a poor solvent and a nonsolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Sharma, Ashutosh; Joo, Sang Woo; Liu, Hui; Shi, Tongfei

    2014-12-16

    We investigate the control of pattern size and kinetics in spontaneous dewetting of thin polymer films (polystyrene) that are stable to thermal annealing by annealing in a poor solvent (acetone)/nonsolvent (ethanol or n-hexane) liquid mixture. Dewetting occurs by the formation and growth of circular holes that coalesce to form droplets. The influence of the nature and the volume fraction of the nonsolvents on the contact angle of polymer droplets, number density of holes, and the kinetics of holes formation and growth is studied. Addition of ethanol greatly increases the hole density and slows down the kinetics substantially, while affecting only a small change in wettability. n-Hexane addition shows an interesting nonmonotonic response in decreasing the hole density and contact angle in the volume fraction range of 0-0.3 but an opposite effect beyond that. Although the two nonsolvents chosen cannot by themselves induce dewetting, their relative affinity for the solid substrate vis-à-vis acetone can strongly influence the observed dewetting scenarios that are not understood by the existing theoretical considerations. n-Hexane, for example, has great affinity for silicon substrate. In addition to the changes in wettability, viscosity, and film interfacial tension engendered by the nonsolvents, the possibility of the formation of adsorbed liquid layers at the substrate-polymer interface, which can modify the interfacial friction and slippage, needs to be considered.

  15. Pulmonary Catherization Data Correlate Poorly with Renal Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Luke; Stone, James; Stone, Danielle; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Luo

    2018-04-10

    The mechanisms of renal dysfunction in heart failure are poorly understood. We chose to explore the relationship of cardiac filling pressures and cardiac index (CI) in relation to renal dysfunction in advanced heart failure. To determine the relationship between renal function and cardiac filling pressures using the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) pulmonary artery catherization registry. Patients over the age of 18 years who were listed for single-organ heart transplantation were included. Exclusion criteria included a history of mechanical circulatory support, previous transplantation, any use of renal replacement therapy, prior history of malignancy, and cardiac surgery, amongst others. Correlations between serum creatinine (SCr) and CI, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients and simple linear regression coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients between SCr and PCWP, PASP, and PADP were near zero with values of 0.1, 0.07, and 0.08, respectively (p < 0.0001). A weak negative correlation coefficient between SCr and CI was found (correlation coefficient, -0.045, p = 0.027). In a subgroup of young patients unlikely to have noncardiac etiologies, no significant correlations between these values were identified. These findings suggest that, as assessed by pulmonary artery catherization, none of the factors - PCWP, PASP, PADP, or CI - play a prominent role in cardiorenal syndromes. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Resources and technologies in Social Occupational Therapy: actions with the poor youth in town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Esquerdo Lopesa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The METUIA team from the Occupational Therapy Department of the Federal University of Sao Carlos – UFSCar has been elaborating procedures and resources, which have produced contributions to the action of occupational therapy based on a local and communal dimension, aiming at a locally rooted technical contribution and directed to face the challenges of the social field. The territory notion adopted presupposes historical, economic, social and cultural dimensions that contextualize a given geographical area where the therapeutic and occupational action is developed. We have been dealing with questions related to the poor urban youth and working in the production of social technologies (understood as products, techniques or replicable methodologies developed in interaction with the community, and that represent alternatives for social transformation, which have been able to foster new possibilities of action, integrating and articulating actions of macro and micro social scope. This article presents discussions on Workshops of Dynamics, Activities and Projects; Individual and Territorial Follow-up; Articulation of Resources in the Social Field; and Dynamization of the Social Care Network. We support a continuous and critical reflection on the labor process, assuming the technical, ethical and political dimensions that comprise the professional qualification of occupational therapists. We also advocate that the practical and conceptual existence of these technologies promotes actions associated with the social question of the lives of these young individuals, seeking the expansion of equality, recognition of differences, and their space in the public sphere, so that more participation can be produced with more freedom, autonomy and solidarity.

  17. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyo, George W; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Rahman, Mohammed Hafizur; Peterson, Stefan; Bishai, David M; Lucas, Henry; Peters, David H

    2009-11-12

    Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider targeting subsidies to the poor and

  18. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishai David M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94. The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67. The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92, and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48. The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy

  19. The best and brightest metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: kschlauf@mit.edu, E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    The chemical abundances of large samples of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be used to investigate metal-free stellar populations, supernovae, and nucleosynthesis as well as the formation and galactic chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its progenitor halos. However, current progress on the study of EMP stars is being limited by their faint apparent magnitudes. The acquisition of high signal-to-noise spectra for faint EMP stars requires a major telescope time commitment, making the construction of large samples of EMP star abundances prohibitively expensive. We have developed a new, efficient selection that uses only public, all-sky APASS optical, 2MASS near-infrared, and WISE mid-infrared photometry to identify bright metal-poor star candidates through their lack of molecular absorption near 4.6 microns. We have used our selection to identify 11,916 metal-poor star candidates with V < 14, increasing the number of publicly available candidates by more than a factor of five in this magnitude range. Their bright apparent magnitudes have greatly eased high-resolution follow-up observations that have identified seven previously unknown stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0. Our follow-up campaign has revealed that 3.8{sub −1.1}{sup +1.3}% of our candidates have [Fe/H] ≲ –3.0 and 32.5{sub −2.9}{sup +3.0}% have –3.0 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –2.0. The bulge is the most likely location of any existing Galactic Population III stars, and an infrared-only variant of our selection is well suited to the identification of metal-poor stars in the bulge. Indeed, two of our confirmed metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≲ –2.7 are within about 2 kpc of the Galactic center. They are among the most metal-poor stars known in the bulge.

  20. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Armour-Marshall, Katrina; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Isaac, Nick J B

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE). Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  1. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE. Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  2. Performance goals in conflictual social interactions: towards the distinction between two modes of relational conflict regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommet, Nicolas; Darnon, Céline; Mugny, Gabriel; Quiamzade, Alain; Pulfrey, Caroline; Dompnier, Benoît; Butera, Fabrizio

    2014-03-01

    Socio-cognitive conflict has been defined as a situation of confrontation with a disagreeing other. Previous research suggests that individuals can regulate conflict in a relational way, namely by focusing on social comparison between relative levels of competences. Relational conflict regulation has been described as yielding particularly negative effects on social interactions and learning, but has been understudied. The present research addresses the question of the origin of relational conflict regulation by introducing a fundamental distinction between two types of regulation, one based on the affirmation of one's own point of view and the invalidation of the other's (i.e., 'competitive' regulation), the other corresponding to the protection of self-competence via compliance (i.e., 'protective' regulation). Three studies show that these modes of relational conflict regulation result from the endorsement of distinct performance goals, respectively, performance-approach goals (trying to outperform others) and performance-avoidance goals (avoiding performing more poorly than others). Theoretical implications for the literature on both conflict regulation and achievement goals are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  5. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  6. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  7. Evidence for Opportunity Cost Neglect in the Poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M T; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2018-01-01

    People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an increased focus on trade-offs. We did not find support for this hypothesis in five high-powered experiments (total N = 2325). The experiments used different products (both material and experiential) with both high and low prices (from $8.50 to $249.99) and different methods of reminding participants of opportunity costs. High-income and low-income participants showed an equally strong decrease in willingness to buy when reminded of opportunity costs, implying that both the rich and the poor neglect opportunity costs. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation and IVF outcome in poor responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Olga; Sigalos, George; Vlahos, Nikos

    2017-06-01

    Ovarian stimulation of poor ovarian responders still remains a challenging issue. The incidence of poor responders among infertile women is reported in 9-24% IVF cycles and is associated with very low clinical pregnancy rates. Different treatments have been reported in the literature in an attempt to identify the best stimulation protocol for those patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate (DHEA) was suggested as a promising treatment. It is well known that androgens can influence ovarian follicular growth, augment steroidogenesis, promote follicular recruitment and increase the number of primary and pre-antral follicles. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of DHEA supplementation on women with diminished ovarian reserve. Because of the uncertainty of published data, we suggest that well-designed multicentre RCTs are required to provide more insight on the effectiveness of DHEA. The absence of significant side effects should not be considered as an argument to support DHEA treatment.

  10. Clinical management of poor adherence to CPAP: motivational enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, Mark S; Arnedt, J Todd; Riggs, Raine L; Hecht, Jacki; Borrelli, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is poor. Previous studies have attempted to identify specific barriers to treatment, but none has identified the sole cause for the problem. We outline a behavioral approach to the problem of CPAP adherence that is based on the theories of the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory. We used these theories to guide the development of an intervention based on the methods of motivational interviewing. We present our motivational enhancement therapy for CPAP (ME-CPAP) here, with some brief pilot data to show its efficacy. Finally, we outline some strengths and weaknesses of taking a behavior change approach to the problem of poor CPAP adherence.

  11. Seeking a preferential option for the rural poor in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Dew

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From colonial times well into the twentieth century (and, unfortunately, even beyond the man/land relationship in Latin America has been markedly unjust. Small numbers of families have owned large tracts of the best land, while large numbers of poor families have struggled with tiny plots of marginal land or labored on the estates of the rich. Chile was no exception to this pattern. Thus, its experiment with land reform in the 1960s and 1970s, the setback of reform under the military in the 1970s and 1980s, and the resumption of reform under democrats in the 1990s, may provide lessons for the rest of Latin America. Is a preferential option for the rural poor still possible in a neoliberal economic system? In Chile, the answer is a qualified “yes”

  12. Challenges in managing postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2009-06-01

    Managing postpartum hemorrhage depends in part on having a prepared mind, a complement of trained coworkers, and full access to modern therapies. The last 2 components are rare in resource-poor areas and their absence may be accentuated by climatic instability and lack of basic transportation. Greater use of the active management of third stage of labor and administration of misoprostol by nontrained birth attendants will provide beneficial reductions in hemorrhage rates in resource-poor areas. Additional improvements depend on increasing public awareness, facilitating existing nongovernmental organizations in their community-related, upgrading training of traditional birth attendants, and providing cell phone communication to workers in remote areas, in addition to providing better access to blood.

  13. On social inequality: Analyzing the rich-poor disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    From the Old Testament to the Communist Manifesto, and from the French Revolution to the Occupy Wall Street protests, social inequality has always been at the focal point of public debate, as well as a major driver of political change. Although being of prime interest since Biblical times, the scientific investigation of the distributions of wealth and income in human societies began only at the close of the nineteenth century, and was pioneered by Pareto, Lorenz, Gini, and Pietra. The methodologies introduced by these trailblazing scholars form the bedrock of the contemporary science of social inequality. Based on this bedrock we present a new quantitative approach to the analysis of wealth and income distributions, which sets its spotlight on the most heated facet of the current global debate on social inequality-the rich-poor disparity. Our approach offers researchers highly applicable quantitative tools to empirically track and statistically analyze the growing gap between the rich and the poor.

  14. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  15. POOR TEXTURAL IMAGE MATCHING BASED ON GRAPH THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Image matching lies at the heart of photogrammetry and computer vision. For poor textural images, the matching result is affected by low contrast, repetitive patterns, discontinuity or occlusion, few or homogeneous textures. Recently, graph matching became popular for its integration of geometric and radiometric information. Focused on poor textural image matching problem, it is proposed an edge-weight strategy to improve graph matching algorithm. A series of experiments have been conducted including 4 typical landscapes: Forest, desert, farmland, and urban areas. And it is experimentally found that our new algorithm achieves better performance. Compared to SIFT, doubled corresponding points were acquired, and the overall recall rate reached up to 68%, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Formulation of poorly water-soluble Gemfibrozil applying power ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, R; Naghipour Amirzadi, N; Aigner, Z; Szabó-Révész, P

    2012-03-01

    The dissolution properties of a drug and its release from the dosage form have a basic impact on its bioavailability. Solubility problems are a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry as concerns the development of new pharmaceutical products. Formulation problems may possibly be overcome by modification of particle size and morphology. The application of power ultrasound is a novel possibility in drug formulation. This article reports on solvent diffusion and melt emulsification, as new methods supplemented with drying in the field of sonocrystallization of poorly water-soluble Gemfibrozil. During thermoanalytical characterization, a modified structure was detected. The specific surface area of the drug was increased following particle size reduction and the poor wettability properties could also be improved. The dissolution rate was therefore significantly increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Beyond "banking for the poor": credit mechanisms and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A

    1996-10-01

    This article describes some strengths and limitations of credit programs for women in developing countries. It is urged that development planners recognize the importance of the selection of the type of credit mechanism in the long term. Ethical issues should be decided upon before the credit mechanism is operable. Organizations should make clear what level of commitment there is to empower borrowers. Most organizations give loans to women and assume empowerment will take place without devising strategies to ensure empowerment. Credit mechanisms include credit for the poor and credit by the poor. A sound financial portfolio and 100% repayment are not the appropriate criteria for securing the empowerment of women. Empowerment of women is related to "building the capacity of borrowers to manage and control decision making." UNICEF's framework of gender equality and women's empowerment identifies levels of empowerment as "welfare, access, conscientisation, participation, and control." Development planners should be aware that provision of credit also has the potential to increase a poor family's debt. Delinquency may be hidden by overlapping loans that trap borrowers. Fewer installment payments increase the chances of a debt trap. Reducing the number of installments may reduce administrative costs and conform to production processes, but may also lead to a debt trap. There is now considerable emphasis on investing in low-income women entrepreneurs as a highly efficient means of achieving social and economic objectives. Credit programs aim to support the growth of small, self-sustaining businesses, to improve women's opportunities, and to provide alternatives to exploitation by local money-lenders. This article describes the following credit mechanisms: bank guarantee systems, government credit schemes, intermediary projects, direct lending projects, banks for the poor, credit unions, and village-based banks.

  18. GE PETtrace RF power failures related to poor power quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, B. R.; Erdahl, C. E.; Dick, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anyone who has ever overseen the installation of a new cyclotron is aware of the importance of addressing the numerous vendor-supplied site specifications prior to its arrival. If the site is not adequately prepared, the facility may face project cost overruns, poor cyclotron performance and unintended maintenance costs. Once a facility has identified the space, providing sufficient power is the next step. Every cyclotron vendor will provide you with a set of power specificati...

  19. Stellar Archaeology -- Exploring the Universe with Metal-Poor Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The abundance patterns of the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and small dwarf galaxies provide us with a wealth of information about the early Universe. In particular, these old survivors allow us to study the nature of the first stars and supernovae, the relevant nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the formation and evolution of the elements, early star- and galaxy formation processes, as well as the assembly process of the stellar halo from dwarf galaxies a long time ago. T...

  20. Globalization of food and agriculture and the poor:

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    The economic impact of globalization, particularly on poverty, and the changes in agri-food markets have received much attention in recent years. However, the intersection of these two trends has been neglected. The present volume fills this gap by focusing on the way globalization of agri-food systems affects the world's poor and its impact on food and nutrition security in developing countries. Rather than offering a single policy prescription or simplistic messages about globalization bein...

  1. Novel liquid application systems for poorly soluble drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Luschmann, Christoph Roman

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the development of efficient novel liquid formulations for poorly water soluble drugs for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases. With Restasis® there is currently only one drug product approved by the FDA, in the US only, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. It still suffers from low bioavailability, bad biocompatibility and thus a low patient compliance, as well as cumbersome manufacturing. Hence, there is a tremendous lack in the options for a causal...

  2. EDUCATION AND FAMILY INCOME: CAN POOR CHILDREN SIGNAL THEIR TALENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Olcina Vauteren; Luisa Escriche

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain how financial constraints and family background characteristics affect the signalling educational investments of individuals born in low-income families. We show that talented students who are poor are unable to signal their talent, as the maximum level of education they can attain may also be achieved by less talented students who are rich. Under this approach, a de-crease in inequalities across generations cannot be expected. The paper also shows that an ...

  3. Issues of poor rural self-employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, U

    1994-01-01

    Most Indian women are low income and self-employed, but women's studies have not focused on this large population. In order to fill in the gap in the literature on women's employment in India, a study was conducted in 1985 among 800 women from 5 "talukas" in Ahmedabad district. This article describes the common social and economic issues faced by poor, rural, self-employed women. Most of the sample belong to lower caste groups. The caste system contributed largely to their poverty, exploitation, and lack of access to facilities. The Harijans are treated the worst and many villages consider them untouchables. The Vaghris and the Dehgam are considered low caste but not untouchables. These groups are not treated much better than the Harijans. Relations between various castes are often strained. In many villages access to information about government programs is controlled by the Sarpanch and Talati and denied to the lower castes. Women's division of labor is determined by caste. The response to the demands of survival among low-income women is to adopt a "contingency" approach to life. These women are mobile, travel with few belongings, and seek shelter anywhere. Children are not sent to school. Many are untrained even in a caste-based occupation. The poor are generally landless and without assets. Work skills are acquired from family or neighbors. Women and poor people lack access to loans and lack awareness of detailed procedures. Cash payment does not usually go to women. Women work in caste-based occupations in addition to two or three seasonal agricultural labor jobs. Development programs do not address the current situation of the poor.

  4. Fundamental aspects of solid dispersion technology for poorly soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Huang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The solid dispersion has become an established solubilization technology for poorly water soluble drugs. Since a solid dispersion is basically a drug–polymer two-component system, the drug–polymer interaction is the determining factor in its design and performance. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions both in the solid state and in dissolution, emphasizing the fundamental aspects of this important technology.

  5. Diffusion of novel healthcare technologies to resource poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Robert; von Oldenburg Beer, Kim

    2013-09-01

    A new product has completed clinical trials in a distant, resource poor hospital using a few dozen prototypes. The data looks great. The novel medical device solves a widely felt problem. The next goal is to integrate the device into the country's healthcare system and spread the device to other countries. But how? In order to be widely used, the device must be manufactured and distributed. One option is to license the intellectual property (IP) to an interested third party, if one can be found. However, it is possible to manage the manufacturing and distribution without licensing. There are at least two common means for manufacturing a novel medical device targeted to resource poor settings: (a) formal (contract) manufacturing and (b) informal (local) manufacturing. There are three primary routes to diffusion of novel medical devices in the developing world: (1) local distributors (2) direct international sales and (3) international donations. Perhaps surprisingly, the least effective mechanism is direct importation through donation. The most successful mechanism, the method used by nearly all working medical devices in resource-poor settings, is the use of contract manufacturing and a local distributor. This article is written for the biomedical innovator and entrepreneur who wishes to make a novel healthcare technology or product available and accessible to healthcare providers and patients in the developing world. There are very few documented cases and little formal research in this area. To this end, this article describes and explores the manufacturing and distribution options in order to provide insights into when and how each can be applied to scale up a novel technology to make a difference in a resource poor setting.

  6. Fiscal policy, inequality, and the poor in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Using comparable fiscal incidence analysis, this paper examines the impact of fiscal policy on inequality and poverty in 25 countries for around 2010. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted at the poor and direct taxes targeted at the rich. While fiscal policy always reduces inequality, this is not the case with poverty. Fiscal policy increases pove...

  7. Poorly Controlled Homocystinuria: A Rare Cause of Ischemic Priapism?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Johnson, BSc, MBChB; Elaine Murphy, MRCP, FRCPath; Amr Raheem, MB BCh, PhD; David Ralph, BSc, MS FRCS(Urol)

    2018-01-01

    We report on the 1st case of ischemic priapism secondary to poorly controlled homocystinuria. Homocystinuria is a rare, autosomal recessive, inherited disorder of metabolism that is caused by a deficiency of cystathionine synthase, leading to marked hyperhomocysteinemia. Arterial and/or venous thromboemboli are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with homocystinuria. Untreated patients have a 50% chance of having a vascular event by 30 years of age. Increased homocysteine lev...

  8. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  9. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  10. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  11. Three-dimensional models of metal-poor stars

    OpenAIRE

    Collet, R.

    2008-01-01

    I present here the main results of recent realistic, 3D, hydrodynamical simulations of convection at the surface of metal-poor red giant stars. I discuss the application of these convection simulations as time-dependent, 3D, hydrodynamical model atmospheres to spectral line formation calculations and abundance analyses. The impact of 3D models on derived elemental abundances is investigated by means of a differential comparison of the line strengths predicted in 3D under the assumption of loc...

  12. Indoor air quality for poor families: new evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from cooking and heating is estimated to kill a million children annually in developing countries. To promote a better understanding of IAP, the authors investigate the determinants of IAP in Bangladesh using the latest air monitoring technology and a national household survey. The study concludes that IAP is dangerously high for many poor families in Bangladesh. Concentrations of respirable airborne particulates(PM10) 300 ug/m3 or greater are common in the sample, ...

  13. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  14. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  15. Dendritic brushes under theta and poor solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Kalogirou, Andreas; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Vlahos, Costas

    2013-07-01

    The effects of solvent quality on the internal stratification of polymer brushes formed by dendron polymers up to third generation were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with Langevin thermostat. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, the radii of gyration, and the back folding probabilities of the dendritic spacers were studied at the macroscopic states of theta and poor solvent. For high grafting densities we observed a small decrease in the height of the brush as the solvent quality decreases. The internal stratification in theta solvent was similar to the one we found in good solvent, with two and in some cases three kinds of populations containing short dendrons with weakly extended spacers, intermediate-height dendrons, and tall dendrons with highly stretched spacers. The differences increase as the grafting density decreases and single dendron populations were evident in theta and poor solvent. In poor solvent at low grafting densities, solvent micelles, polymeric pinned lamellae, spherical and single chain collapsed micelles were observed. The scaling dependence of the height of the dendritic brush at high density brushes for both solvents was found to be in agreement with existing analytical results.

  16. The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Chao, T.T.

    1973-01-01

    The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides was studied using synthesized samples of three members of the manganous manganite (birnessite) group, of different chemical composition and crystallinity, and a poorly organized ??-MnO2. All four oxides sorbed significant quantities of silver. The manganous manganites showed the greatest sorption (up to 0.5 moles silver/mole MnOx at pH 7) while the ??-MnO2 showed the least (0.3 moles silver/ mole MnOx at pH 7). Sorption of silver was adequately described by the Langmuir equation over a considerable concentration range. The relationship failed at low pH values and high equilibrium silver concentrations. The sorption capacity showed a direct relationship with pH. However, the rate of increase of sorption capacity decreased at the higher pH values. Silver sorption maxima. were not directly related to surface area but appeared to vary with the amount of occluded sodium and potassium present in the manganese oxide. The important processes involved in the uptake of silver by the four poorly crystallized manganese oxides ara considered to be surface exchange for manganese, potassium and sodium as well as exchange for structural manganese, potassium and sodium. ?? 1973.

  17. Residential Electrostatic Precipitator - Performance at efficient and poor combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Yngvesson, Johan; Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a pilot residential electrostatic precipitator R{sub E}SP (Applied Plasma Physics AS), was investigated at laboratory. Measurements of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), content of organic and elemental carbon, and mass size distribution of particles upstream and downstream of ESP were performed. Values for PM1 (particles < 1 {mu}m) were calculated from the particle size distributions. Concentrations and size distributions with respect to particle numbers were measured in separate tests. Gas concentrations, temperatures and boiler parameters were also measured. The TSP concentrations upstream of the R{sub E}SP were varied in range of 15-390 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}. Up to concentrations of about 300 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, the TSP-concentrations out from the ESP were less than 20 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, which is well below the German emission limit for wood stoves. The removal efficiencies with respect to mass were about 87% at efficient combustion and 93% at poor combustion. Corresponding values with respect to number concentrations were about 97% at efficient combustion and almost 99% at poor combustion. The better performance at poor combustion may be explained by lower flue gas temperature, leading to longer residence time in the ESP. High removal efficiencies were also found with respect to particulate organic and elemental carbon.

  18. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Monge

    Full Text Available Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate.

  19. Oxygen and iron abundances in two metal-poor dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesman, William J.; Wallerstein, George

    1991-11-01

    Oxygen abundances from the O I line at 6300 A in two metal-poor K dwarfs, HD 25329 and HD 134440, are derived. The spectra were obtained with the KPNO 4-m echelle spectrograph and long camera, yielding a resolution of 32,000 and an S/N of about 125. Model atmospheres with Te of 4770 were appropriate to both stars, whose metallicities were found to be -1.74 and -1.43 for HD 25329 and HD 134440, respectively. These oxygen abundances are 0.3 and 0.4 for the two stars. From the resolution an S/N a 3(sigma) upper limit of 0.8 is derived for each star, which may be combined into an upper limit of O/Fe of 0.6 for a generic K dwarf with Fe/H of 1.6. These values are more in line with O/Fe as seen in similarly metal-poor red giant than those reported in metal-poor subdwarfs by Abia and Rebolo (1989).

  20. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Deba P.; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare. PMID:21274289

  1. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  2. Paediatric Palliative Care in Resource-Poor Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Downing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for paediatric palliative care (PPC services globally, but access to services is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in resource-poor settings. Globally it is estimated that 21.6 million children need access to palliative care, with 8.2 needing specialist services. PC has been identified as important within the global health agenda e.g., within universal health coverage, and a recent Lancet commission report recognised the need for PPC. However, a variety of challenges have been identified to PPC development globally such as: access to treatment, access to medications such as oral morphine, opiophobia, a lack of trained health and social care professionals, a lack of PPC policies and a lack of awareness about PPC. These challenges can be overcome utilising a variety of strategies including advocacy and public awareness, education, access to medications, implementation and research. Examples will be discussed impacting on the provision of PPC in resource-poor settings. High-quality PPC service provision can be provided with resource-poor settings, and there is an urgent need to scale up affordable, accessible, and quality PPC services globally to ensure that all children needing palliative care can access it.

  3. A study of poor insight in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Paula; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Harrison, Ben J; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2014-11-30

    We investigated levels of insight among patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) as compared to patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and evaluated whether levels of insight in SAD were related to specific sociodemographic and/or clinical features. Thirty-seven SAD patients and 51 OCD patients attending a tertiary obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders clinic were assessed with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, a structured diagnostic interview, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS), the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Treatment Adherence Survey-patient version (TAS-P). According to the BABS, SAD patients exhibited insight levels that were as low as those exhibited by OCD patients, with up to 29.7% of them being described as "poor insight" SAD. Although poor insight SAD patients were more frequently married, less depressed and displayed a statistical trend towards greater rates of early drop-out from cognitive-behavioral therapy, their insight levels were not associated with other variables of interest, including sex, age, employment, age at onset, duration of illness, associated psychiatric disorders, SPIN and SDS scores. Patients with poor insight SAD might perceive their symptoms as being less distressful and thus report fewer depressive symptoms and high rates of treatment non-adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2017-11-01

    Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.

  5. Revitalizing the “civic” and “ethnic” distinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi-classification-analysis, to establ......This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi...

  6. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  7. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestue, Siver A; Borgan, Eldrid; Huuse, Else M; Lindholm, Evita M; Sitter, Beathe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Engebraaten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  8. Large scale aggregate microarray analysis reveals three distinct molecular subclasses of human preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Katherine; Bainbridge, Shannon A; Cox, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening hypertensive pathology of pregnancy affecting 3-5% of all pregnancies. To date, PE has no cure, early detection markers, or effective treatments short of the removal of what is thought to be the causative organ, the placenta, which may necessitate a preterm delivery. Additionally, numerous small placental microarray studies attempting to identify "PE-specific" genes have yielded inconsistent results. We therefore hypothesize that preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease encompassing several pathology subclasses, and that large cohort placental gene expression analysis will reveal these groups. To address our hypothesis, we utilized known bioinformatic methods to aggregate 7 microarray data sets across multiple platforms in order to generate a large data set of 173 patient samples, including 77 with preeclampsia. Unsupervised clustering of these patient samples revealed three distinct molecular subclasses of PE. This included a "canonical" PE subclass demonstrating elevated expression of known PE markers and genes associated with poor oxygenation and increased secretion, as well as two other subclasses potentially representing a poor maternal response to pregnancy and an immunological presentation of preeclampsia. Our analysis sheds new light on the heterogeneity of PE patients, and offers up additional avenues for future investigation. Hopefully, our subclassification of preeclampsia based on molecular diversity will finally lead to the development of robust diagnostics and patient-based treatments for this disorder.

  9. Anti-osteoporotic therapy in Denmark-predictors and demographics of poor refill compliance and poor persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Konradsen, H

    2013-01-01

    In this study of 100,949 new users of oral bisphosphonates age ≥35 years, "early quitters" were found to differ from others with poor refill compliance in terms of socioeconomic, demographic, and treatment-related characteristics. New risk factors for poor compliance and persistence were identified...... quitters" were associated with high household income, subjects' age 71.9-79 years, living in the countryside or village, prior treatment with analgesics and anti-parkinson drugs, and dementia. Differences concerning decreased risk of "early quitters" were associated with male, living in an apartment......, children living at home, living close to a university hospital, anti-osteoporotic therapy other than alendronate, number of drugs especially above three, pulmonary disease, collagen disease. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a need for improved support for patients to facilitate the interpretation...

  10. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D; Heathcock, Jill C

    2013-03-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD) were assessed from 2 to 7 months of age. The following variables were analyzed: percentage of time in midline and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III). Infants with neonatal stroke demonstrated poor performance in midline behaviors and fine and gross motor scores on the BSID-III. These results suggest that infants with NS have poor midline behaviors and motor skill development early in infancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poor understanding of marketing principles has led to poor marketing management performance: Consideration of four marketing myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickton, David W.; Wright, Sheila

    2000-01-01

    Marketing is accused of poor management practice. This paper argues that this is grounded in a confusion of marketing thinking and marketing action which results from widely held beliefs and myths that surround the marketing management process, making it difficult for marketing to develop as a coherent management discipline and profession. Barriers to its successful implementation are created at both strategic and tactical levels. The paper presents an exploration of four myths which are oft...

  12. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85 ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power

  15. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  16. Effectiveness, Improvement and Educational Change: A Distinctively Canadian Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Fink, Dean

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive Canadian school of thought on educational change is inclined to synthesize diverse bodies of work and integrate nonrational and emotional dimensions with rational and technically effective ones in a socially critical way. Highlights the Canadian perspective through discussions about complex systems, contexts of change, critical…

  17. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. Sourav Ghosh, Satish Sati, Shantanu Sengupta and Vinod Scaria. J. Genet. 94, 17–25. Gencode V9 lncRNA gene : 11004. Known lncRNA : 1175. Novel lncRNA : 5898. Putative lncRNA :.

  18. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  19. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  20. Are there distinctive indigenous methods of inquiry? | Le Grange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether there are methods that might be referred to as being distinctly indigenous. In doing so the nature of method is examined and it is concluded that method is not universal and neutral, but rather situated and performative. The upshot of this is that research methods can be transformed and that ...

  1. Blurring Boundaries : Carnap, Quine, and the Internal-External Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    Quine is routinely perceived as saving metaphysics from Carnapian positivism. Where Carnap rejects metaphysical existence claims as meaningless, Quine is taken to restore their intelligibility by dismantling the former's internal-external distinction. The problem with this picture, however, is that

  2. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... barter, of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the Government; or (2) Government...

  3. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  4. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  5. An Objective Approach to Identify Spectral Distinctiveness for Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the process of developing speech perception, speech-language pathologists have to teach a subject with hearing loss the differences between two syllables by manually enhancing acoustic cues of speech. However, this process is time consuming and difficult. Thus, this study proposes an objective approach to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness between two syllables, which is used for speech-perception training. To accurately represent the characteristics of speech, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients are selected as analytical parameters. The mismatch between two syllables in time domain is handled by dynamic time warping. Further, a filter bank is adopted to estimate the components in different frequency bands, which are also represented as mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients. The spectral distinctiveness in different frequency bands is then easily estimated by using Euclidean metrics. Finally, a morphological gradient operator is applied to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness. To evaluate the proposed approach, the identified regions are manipulated and then the manipulated syllables are measured by a close-set based speech-perception test. The experimental results demonstrated that the identified regions of spectral distinctiveness are very useful in speech perception, which indeed can help speech-language pathologists in speech-perception training.

  6. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  7. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  8. Genome-Wide Requirements for Resistance to Functionally Distinct DNA-Damaging Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic and therapeutic differences in the cellular response to DNA-damaging compounds are not completely understood, despite intense study. To expand our knowledge of DNA damage, we assayed the effects of 12 closely related DNA-damaging agents on the complete pool of ~4,700 barcoded homozygous deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In our protocol, deletion strains are pooled together and grown competitively in the presence of compound. Relative strain sensitivity is determined by hybridization of PCR-amplified barcodes to an oligonucleotide array carrying the barcode complements. These screens identified genes in well-characterized DNA-damage-response pathways as well as genes whose role in the DNA-damage response had not been previously established. High-throughput individual growth analysis was used to independently confirm microarray results. Each compound produced a unique genome-wide profile. Analysis of these data allowed us to determine the relative importance of DNA-repair modules for resistance to each of the 12 profiled compounds. Clustering the data for 12 distinct compounds uncovered both known and novel functional interactions that comprise the DNA-damage response and allowed us to define the genetic determinants required for repair of interstrand cross-links. Further genetic analysis allowed determination of epistasis for one of these functional groups.

  9. Amygdalar auditory neurons contribute to self-other distinction during ultrasonic social vocalization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Matsumoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical studies reported hyperactivation of the auditory system and amygdala in patients with auditory hallucinations (hearing others’ but not one’s own voice, independent of any external stimulus, neural mechanisms of self/other attribution is not well understood. We recorded neuronal responses in the dorsal amygdala including the lateral amygdaloid nucleus to ultrasonic vocalization (USVs emitted by subjects and conspecifics during free social interaction in 16 adult male rats. The animals emitting the USVs were identified by EMG recordings. One-quarter of the amygdalar neurons (15/60 responded to 50 kHz calls by the subject and/or conspecifics. Among the responsive neurons, most neurons (Type-Other neurons (73%, 11/15 responded only to calls by conspecifics but not subjects. Two Type-Self neurons (13%, 2/15 responded to calls by the subject but not those by conspecifics, although their response selectivity to subjects vs. conspecifics was lower than that of Type-Other neurons. The remaining two neurons (13% responded to calls by both the subject and conspecifics. Furthermore, population coding of the amygdalar neurons represented distinction of subject vs. conspecific calls. The present results provide the first neurophysiological evidence that the amygdala discriminately represents affective social calls by subject and conspecifics. These findings suggest that the amygdala is an important brain region for self/other attribution. Furthermore, pathological activation of the amygdala, where Type-Other neurons predominate, could induce external misattribution of percepts of vocalization.

  10. Separate transcriptionally regulated pathways specify distinct classes of sister dendrites in a nociceptive neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barbara M J; Palumbos, Sierra D; Novakovic, Michaela; Shang, Xueying; Sundararajan, Lakshmi; Miller, David M

    2017-12-15

    The dendritic processes of nociceptive neurons transduce external signals into neurochemical cues that alert the organism to potentially damaging stimuli. The receptive field for each sensory neuron is defined by its dendritic arbor, but the mechanisms that shape dendritic architecture are incompletely understood. Using the model nociceptor, the PVD neuron in C. elegans, we determined that two types of PVD lateral branches project along the dorsal/ventral axis to generate the PVD dendritic arbor: (1) Pioneer dendrites that adhere to the epidermis, and (2) Commissural dendrites that fasciculate with circumferential motor neuron processes. Previous reports have shown that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor MEC-3 is required for all higher order PVD branching and that one of its targets, the claudin-like membrane protein HPO-30, preferentially promotes outgrowth of pioneer branches. Here, we show that another MEC-3 target, the conserved TFIIA-like zinc finger transcription factor EGL-46, adopts the alternative role of specifying commissural dendrites. The known EGL-46 binding partner, the TEAD transcription factor EGL-44, is also required for PVD commissural branch outgrowth. Double mutants of hpo-30 and egl-44 show strong enhancement of the lateral branching defect with decreased numbers of both pioneer and commissural dendrites. Thus, HPO-30/Claudin and EGL-46/EGL-44 function downstream of MEC-3 and in parallel acting pathways to direct outgrowth of two distinct classes of PVD dendritic branches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ire1 Has Distinct Catalytic Mechanisms for XBP1/HAC1 Splicing and RIDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin B. Tam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionarily conserved unfolded protein response (UPR component, IRE1, cleaves XBP1/HAC1 introns in order to generate spliced mRNAs that are translated into potent transcription factors. IRE1 also cleaves endoplasmic-reticulum-associated RNAs leading to their decay, an activity termed regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD; however, the mechanism by which IRE1 differentiates intron cleavage from RIDD is not well understood. Using in vitro experiments, we found that IRE1 has two different modes of action: XBP1/HAC1 is cleaved by IRE1 subunits acting cooperatively within IRE1 oligomers, whereas a single subunit of IRE1 performs RIDD without cooperativity. Furthermore, these distinct activities can be separated by complementation of catalytically inactive IRE1 RNase and mutations at oligomerization interfaces. Using an IRE1 RNase inhibitor, STF-083010, selective inhibition of XBP1 splicing indicates that XBP1 promotes cell survival, whereas RIDD leads to cell death, revealing modulation of IRE1 activities as a drug-development strategy.

  12. A comparative study of small RNAs in Toxoplasma gondii of distinct genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jielin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with a significant impact on human health. Inside the mammalian and avian hosts, the parasite can undergo rapid development or remain inactive in the cysts. The mechanism that regulates parasite proliferation has not been fully understood. Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA such as microRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous regulatory factors that can modulate cell differentiation and development. It is anticipated that hundreds of miRNAs regulate the expression of thousands of genes in a single organism. SncRNAs have been identified in T. gondii, however the profiles of sncRNAs expression and their potential regulatory function in parasites of distinct genotypes has largely been unknown. Methods The transcription profiles of miRNAs in the two genetically distinct strains, RH and ME49, of T. gondii were investigated and compared by a high-through-put RNA sequencing technique and systematic bioinformatics analysis. The expression of some of the miRNAs was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Results 1,083,320 unique sequences were obtained. Of which, 17 conserved miRNAs related to 2 metazoan miRNA families and 339 novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 175 miRNAs showed strain-specific expression, of which 155 miRNAs were up-regulated in RH strain and 20 miRNAs were up-regulated in ME49 strain. Strain-specific expression of miRNAs in T. gondii could be due to activation of specific genes at different genomic loci or due to arm-switching of the same pre-miRNA duplex. Conclusions Evidence for the differential expression of miRNAs in the two genetically distinct strains of T. gondii has been identified and defined. MiRNAs of T. gondii are more species-specific as compared to other organisms, which can be developed as diagnostic biomarkers for toxoplasmosis. The data also provide a framework for future studies on RNAi-dependent regulatory mechanisms in the zoonotic parasite.

  13. Salmonella Persistence in Tomatoes Requires a Distinct Set of Metabolic Functions Identified by Transposon Insertion Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prerak; Porwollik, Steffen; Canals, Rocio; Perez, Daniel R.; Chu, Weiping; McClelland, Michael; Teplitski, Max

    2016-01-01

    being one of the common culprits. Recent studies also suggest that these human pathogens can use plants as alternate hosts as a part of their life cycle. While dual (animal/plant) lifestyles of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are well known, the strategies with which Salmonella colonizes plants are only partially understood. Therefore, we undertook a high-throughput characterization of the functions required for Salmonella persistence within tomatoes. The results of this study were compared with what is known about genes required for Salmonella virulence in animals and interactions of plant pathogens with their hosts to determine whether Salmonella repurposes its virulence repertoire inside plants or whether it behaves more as a phytopathogen during plant colonization. Even though Salmonella utilized some of its virulence-related genes in tomatoes, plant colonization required a distinct set of functions. PMID:28039131

  14. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years, middle-aged (44–55 years, and older (70–81 years men and women. We report novel findings supporting variations by face and perceiver age, in interaction with gender and emotion: although older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers generally rated faces of all ages as more attractive, young perceivers gave relatively higher attractiveness ratings to young compared to middle-aged and older faces. Controlling for variations in attractiveness, older compared to young faces were viewed as more distinctive by young and middle-aged perceivers. Age affected attractiveness more negatively for female than male faces. Furthermore, happy faces were rated as most attractive, while disgusted faces were rated as least attractive, particularly so by middle-aged and older perceivers and for young and female faces. Perceivers largely agreed on distinctiveness ratings for neutral and happy emotions, but older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers rated faces displaying negative emotions as more distinctive. These findings underscore the importance of a lifespan perspective on perception of facial characteristics and suggest possible effects of age on goal-directed perception, social motivation, and in-group bias. This publication makes available picture-specific normative data for experimental stimulus selection.

  15. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  16. Poor Response to Periodontal Treatment May Predict Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, A; Lampa, E; Lind, L

    2017-07-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether the response to the treatment of periodontal disease affects this association has not been investigated in any large prospective study. Periodontal data obtained at baseline and 1 y after treatment were available in 5,297 individuals with remaining teeth who were treated at a specialized clinic for periodontal disease. Poor response to treatment was defined as having >10% sites with probing pocket depth >4 mm deep and bleeding on probing at ≥20% of the sites 1 y after active treatment. Fatal/nonfatal incidence rate of CVD (composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) was obtained from the Swedish cause-of-death and hospital discharge registers. Poisson regression analysis was performed to analyze future risk of CVD. During a median follow-up of 16.8 y (89,719 person-years at risk), those individuals who did not respond well to treatment (13.8% of the sample) had an increased incidence of CVD ( n = 870) when compared with responders (23.6 vs. 15.3%, P 4 mm, and number of teeth, the incidence rate ratio for CVD among poor responders was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.53; P = 0.007) as opposed to good responders. The incidence rate ratio among poor responders increased to 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.73; P = 0.002) for those with the most remaining teeth. Individuals who did not respond well to periodontal treatment had an increased risk for future CVD, indicating that successful periodontal treatment might influence progression of subclinical CVD.

  17. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation with dwarf galaxy luminosity of the observed: i) frequency and [Fe/H] range of CEMP stars; ii) metallicity distribution functions; iii) star formation histories. We show that if primordial faint sup...

  18. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  19. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. Contrast Enhancement in Poor Visibility Conditions Using Guided Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, extraction of atmospheric veil is proposed to enhance the contrast of the images captured under poor visibility conditions. The method based on guided filtering can accurately recover hidden edges, maintain structural similarity (SSIM to input image and it is effective for both color and gray level images. The proposed algorithm works without prior information about the scene and its complexity is linear function of the input image size. Experimental comparisons with state of the art algorithms demonstrate that our approach can significantly enhance the contrast and restore the visibility in fine details.

  1. 2020 Focus briefs on the world's poor and hungry people:

    OpenAIRE

    IFPRI

    2007-01-01

    Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and Hungry: Looking Below the Line/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, and Doris M. Wiesmann. 4.Mapping Where the Poor Live/Todd Benson, Michael Epprecht, and Nicholas Minot 5.Child Malnutrition in India and China/Peter Svedberg. 6.Poverty and the Globalization...

  2. Application of the Lifshitz Theory to Poor Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.

    2008-01-01

    The Lifshitz formula for dispersive forces is generalized to the materials, which cannot be described with the local dielectric response. The principal nonlocality of poor conductors is related to the finite screening length of the penetrating field and collisional relaxation; at low temperatures the role of collisions plays the Landau damping. Spatial dispersion makes the theory self-consistent. Our predictions are compared with the recent experiment. It is demonstrated that at low temperatures Casimir-Lifshitz entropy disappears as T in the case of degenerate plasma and as T 2 for the nondegenerate one

  3. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man’s Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A.; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E.; Birur, Badari

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as “DXM” and “the poor man’s PCP,” is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psych...

  4. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  5. Arabidopsis roots and shoots show distinct temporal adaptation patterns toward nitrogen starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes, including new predicted small RNA genes. No global correlation between metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcripts was evident. However, this multilevel spatiotemporal global study revealed numerous new patterns of adaptation mechanisms to N starvation. In the context of a sustainable agriculture, this work will give new insight for the production of crops with increased N use efficiency.

  6. Protracted abstinence from distinct drugs of abuse shows regulation of a common gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Merrer, Julie; Befort, Katia; Gardon, Olivier; Filliol, Dominique; Darcq, Emmanuel; Dembele, Doulaye; Becker, Jerome A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder. Prolonged abstinence from drugs of abuse involves dysphoria, high stress responsiveness and craving. The neurobiology of drug abstinence, however, is poorly understood. We previously identified a unique set of hundred mu-opioid receptor-dependent genes in the extended amygdala, a key site for hedonic and stress processing in the brain. Here we examined these candidate genes either immediately after chronic morphine, nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or alcohol, or following 4 weeks of abstinence. Regulation patterns strongly differed among chronic groups. In contrast, gene regulations strikingly converged in the abstinent groups and revealed unforeseen common adaptations within a novel huntingtin-centered molecular network previously unreported in addiction research. This study demonstrates that, regardless the drug, a specific set of transcriptional regulations develops in the abstinent brain, which possibly contributes to the negative affect characterizing protracted abstinence. This transcriptional signature may represent a hallmark of drug abstinence and a unitary adaptive molecular mechanism in substance abuse disorders. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Conformational Rigidity and Protein Dynamics at Distinct Timescales Regulate PTP1B Activity and Allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Meng S; Li, Yang; Machado, Luciana E S F; Kunze, Micha B A; Connors, Christopher R; Wei, Xingyu; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2017-02-16

    Protein function originates from a cooperation of structural rigidity, dynamics at different timescales, and allostery. However, how these three pillars of protein function are integrated is still only poorly understood. Here we show how these pillars are connected in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a drug target for diabetes and cancer that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of numerous substrates in essential signaling pathways. By combining new experimental and computational data on WT-PTP1B and ≥10 PTP1B variants in multiple states, we discovered a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved CH/π switch that is critical for positioning the catalytically important WPD loop. Furthermore, our data show that PTP1B uses conformational and dynamic allostery to regulate its activity. This shows that both conformational rigidity and dynamics are essential for controlling protein activity. This connection between rigidity and dynamics at different timescales is likely a hallmark of all enzyme function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense , both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense . We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens ( Alternaria solani , Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp .) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense , resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  9. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp. and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  10. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  11. Face processing regions are sensitive to distinct aspects of temporal sequence in facial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinl, Maren; Bartels, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Facial movement conveys important information for social interactions, yet its neural processing is poorly understood. Computational models propose that shape- and temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms interact in processing dynamic faces. While face processing regions are known to respond to facial movement, their sensitivity to particular temporal sequences has barely been studied. Here we used fMRI to examine the sensitivity of human face-processing regions to two aspects of directionality in facial movement trajectories. We presented genuine movie recordings of increasing and decreasing fear expressions, each of which were played in natural or reversed frame order. This two-by-two factorial design matched low-level visual properties, static content and motion energy within each factor, emotion-direction (increasing or decreasing emotion) and timeline (natural versus artificial). The results showed sensitivity for emotion-direction in FFA, which was timeline-dependent as it only occurred within the natural frame order, and sensitivity to timeline in the STS, which was emotion-direction-dependent as it only occurred for decreased fear. The occipital face area (OFA) was sensitive to the factor timeline. These findings reveal interacting temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms that are responsive to both ecological meaning and to prototypical unfolding of facial dynamics. These mechanisms are temporally directional, provide socially relevant information regarding emotional state or naturalness of behavior, and agree with predictions from modeling and predictive coding theory. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Girard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.

  13. Poor textural image tie point matching via graph theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Wei; Cai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Feature matching aims to find corresponding points to serve as tie points between images. Robust matching is still a challenging task when input images are characterized by low contrast or contain repetitive patterns, occlusions, or homogeneous textures. In this paper, a novel feature matching algorithm based on graph theory is proposed. This algorithm integrates both geometric and radiometric constraints into an edge-weighted (EW) affinity tensor. Tie points are then obtained by high-order graph matching. Four pairs of poor textural images covering forests, deserts, bare lands, and urban areas are tested. For comparison, three state-of-the-art matching techniques, namely, scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), speeded up robust features (SURF), and features from accelerated segment test (FAST), are also used. The experimental results show that the matching recall obtained by SIFT, SURF, and FAST varies from 0 to 35% in different types of poor textures. However, through the integration of both geometry and radiometry and the EW strategy, the recall obtained by the proposed algorithm is better than 50% in all four image pairs. The better matching recall improves the number of correct matches, dispersion, and positional accuracy.

  14. Poor sleep quality affects spatial orientation in virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Valera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is well known to have a significant impact on learning and memory. Specifically, studies adopting an experimentally induced sleep loss protocol in healthy individuals have provided evidence that the consolidation of spatial memories, as acquired through navigating and orienteering in spatial surroundings, is negatively affected by total sleep loss. Here, we used both objective and subjective measures to characterize individuals' quality of sleep, and grouped participants into either a poor (insomnia-like or normal (control sleep quality group. We asked participants to solve a wayfinding task in a virtual environment, and scored their performance by measuring the time spent to reach a target location and the number of wayfinding errors made while navigating. We found that participants with poor sleep quality were slower and more error-prone than controls in solving the task. These findings provide novel evidence that pre-existing sleep deficiencies in otherwise healthy individuals affects negatively the ability to learn novel routes, and suggest that sleep quality should be accounted for among healthy individuals performing experimental spatial orientation tasks in virtual environments.

  15. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR TURNOFF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Wako; Inoue, Susumu; Barklem, Paul S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Perez, Ana E. GarcIa; Norris, John E.; Carollo, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    We have determined Li abundances for eleven metal-poor turnoff stars, among which eight have [Fe/H] <-3, based on LTE analyses of high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. The Li abundances for four of these eight stars are determined for the first time by this study. Effective temperatures are determined by a profile analysis of Hα and Hβ. While seven stars have Li abundances as high as the Spite Plateau value, the remaining four objects with [Fe/H] <-3 have A(Li) =log (Li/H)+ 12 ∼< 2.0, confirming the existence of extremely metal-poor (EMP) turnoff stars having low Li abundances, as reported by previous work. The average of the Li abundances for stars with [Fe/H]<-3 is lower by 0.2 dex than that of the stars with higher metallicity. No clear constraint on the metallicity dependence or scatter of the Li abundances is derived from our measurements for the stars with [Fe/H]<-3. Correlations of the Li abundance with effective temperatures, with abundances of Na, Mg, and Sr, and with the kinematical properties are investigated, but no clear correlation is seen in the EMP star sample.

  16. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 ± 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage

  17. Work stress, poor recovery and burnout in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, K; Elovainio, M; Kinnunen, U; Mullola, S; Hintsanen, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Hintsa, T

    2016-10-01

    Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Recovery was measured with the Recovery Experience Questionnaire and the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses adjusted for age, gender and total working hours were performed. Among the 76 study subjects, high ERI was associated with burnout and its dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy. Poor recovery experiences, in terms of low relaxation during leisure time, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and reduced professional efficacy. Sleep problems, in the form of non-restorative sleep, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and both burnout and exhaustion. Supporting a balance between effort and reward at work may enhance leisure time recovery and improve sleep quality, as well as help to reduce burnout rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Investigation on Strengthening Approaches Adopted for Poorly Detailed RC Corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Neupane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor detailing of the position of bearing pad over reinforced concrete (RC corbel may lead to premature failure, which is undesired and structurally vulnerable. An appropriate retrofitting solution is necessary to ensure the functionality of such RC corbels. Considering the growing popularity of external carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP in retrofitting, this research examines the effectiveness of an externally wrapped unidirectional CFRP sheet and compares its performance against traditional retrofitting methods. Moreover, it is intended to fulfill the lack of extensive research on external CFRP application for corbel strengthening. A total of eight medium-scale corbel specimens were tested on vertical load. Observed premature failure due to placing the bearing pad near the edge of corbel was verified and the effectiveness of the proposed structural strengthening solutions was studied. Experimental results show that although the loading capacity of the damaged corbel due to the poor detailing of bearing pad position could not be fully recovered, the external CFRP wrapping method demonstrated superior performance over RC jacketing and was able to prevent localized failure. Further study based on non-linear 3D finite element analysis (FEA was carried out to identify the governing parameters of each retrofitting solution. Numerical studies suggested important parameters of various retrofitting alternatives for higher capacity assurance.

  19. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  20. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.