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Sample records for distinct membrane currents

  1. Subthreshold membrane currents confer distinct tuning properties that enable neurons to encode the integral or derivative of their input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRatté

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons rely on action potentials, or spikes, to encode information. But spikes can encode different stimulus features in different neurons. We show here through simulations and experiments how neurons encode the integral or derivative of their input based on the distinct tuning properties conferred upon them by subthreshold currents. Slow-activating subthreshold inward (depolarizing current mediates positive feedback control of subthreshold voltage, sustaining depolarization and allowing the neuron to spike on the basis of its integrated stimulus waveform. Slow-activating subthreshold outward (hyperpolarizing current mediates negative feedback control of subthreshold voltage, truncating depolarization and forcing the neuron to spike on the basis of its differentiated stimulus waveform. Depending on its direction, slow-activating subthreshold current cooperates or competes with fast-activating inward current during spike initiation. This explanation predicts that sensitivity to the rate of change of stimulus intensity differs qualitatively between integrators and differentiators. This was confirmed experimentally in spinal sensory neurons that naturally behave as specialized integrators or differentiators. Predicted sensitivity to different stimulus features was confirmed by covariance analysis. Integration and differentiation, which are themselves inverse operations, are thus shown to be implemented by the slow feedback mediated by oppositely directed subthreshold currents expressed in different neurons.

  2. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  3. Gas separation membranes current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are now widely accepted and employed as unit operation in industrial gas, chemical and allied industries. Following their successful commercialization in the late Seventies to recover hydrogen from ammonia purge gas streams, membrane-based systems have gained acceptance in a wide variety of applications

  4. Counter-current membrane reactor for WGS process: Membrane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Vincenzo; Favetta, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering Materials and Environment, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); De Falco, Marcello [Faculty of Engineering, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome (Italy); Basile, Angelo [CNR-ITM, c/o University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Water gas shift (WGS) is a thermodynamically limited reaction which has to operate at low temperatures, reducing kinetics rate and increasing the amount of catalyst required to reach valuable CO conversions. It has been widely demonstrated that the integration of hydrogen selective membranes is a promising way to enhance WGS reactors performance: a Pd-based MR operated successfully overcoming the thermodynamic constraints of a traditional reactor thanks to the removal of hydrogen from reaction environment. In the first part of a MR, the H{sub 2} partial pressure starts from a minimum value since the reaction has not started. As a consequence, if the carrier gas in the permeation zone is sent in counter-current, which is the most efficient configuration, in the first reactor section the H{sub 2} partial pressure in reaction zone is low while in the permeation zone is high, potentially implying back permeation. This means a bad utilization of the first part of the membrane area and thus, a worsening of the MR performance with lower H{sub 2} recovery and lower CO conversion with respect to the case in which the whole selective surface is properly used. To avoid this problem different MR configurations were evaluated by a 1-D pseudo-homogeneous model, validated with WGS industrial data reported in scientific literature. It was demonstrated that the permeated H{sub 2} flow rate per membrane surface, i.e. the membrane flux, strongly improves if selective membrane is placed only in the second part of the reactor: in fact, if the membrane is placed at L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 0.5, the membrane flux is 0.2 kmol/(m{sup 2}h) about, if it is placed along all reactor tube (L{sub m}/L{sub tot} = 1), flux is 0.05 kmol/(m{sup 2}h). The effect of the L/D reactor ratio and of the reactor wall temperature on the CO conversion were also assessed. (author)

  5. Carbon membranes - current progress and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennison, St.; Arnott, K.; Richter, H.

    2007-01-01

    The future use of nano-porous gas separation membranes will be dependent on significant reductions in the membrane and module costs, improvements in production methods to allow better reproducibility, ability to scale up production and improved performance and understanding of the mode of operation of the membrane systems. New approaches to ceramic supported carbon membranes could offer solutions to these problems. Whilst the performance characteristics underline the limitations of these membranes they also show where specific process opportunities might be accessible particularly in environmental and high temperature separations. (authors)

  6. CLT and CLS job responsibilities: current distinctions and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, K; Beck, S J; Kolenc, K

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address the following questions: 1. What tasks distinguish the job of a clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) from that of a clinical laboratory technician (CLT)? 2. What changes in role distinctions, have occurred for entry-level CLS and CLT practitioners over the five-year period 1993-98? 3. What tasks have been deleted from the CLT and CLS content outlines because they were not frequently performed or not considered entry-level? 4. What changes in practice are reflected in the current job analyses? A national job analysis of tasks constituting the job of clinical laboratory scientists (CLSs) and clinical laboratory technicians (CLTs) was conducted in 1998-99 as part of a standard setting process for the certifying examinations of the National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel (NCA). The job analyses relied upon mail surveys to 1200 individuals for each job level asking respondents to identify tasks significant to effective practice at job entry. The task lists resulting from statistical analysis of those surveys were examined to answer the study questions. The sample for each survey included 1200 practitioners, educators and laboratory managers selected at random from membership in professional organizations or from NCA certificant lists. Sampling was stratified to insure adequate practitioner representation. The mean rating on a four point scale for each item on the surveys was evaluated for overall significance as well as significance across geographic regions. The tasks meeting specified criteria were retained in the final task lists. Tasks were counted and their content evaluated to compare CLS and CLT job tasks. The response rates to the surveys were 33% for CLT and 21% for CLS. Reliability was judged based on average intraclass correlation coefficients of .86 and .82 for the CLT and CLS surveys, respectively. There were 952 tasks retained on the CLS content outline and 725 retained on the CLT content outline of the

  7. Heat stress causes spatially-distinct membrane re-modelling in K562 leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Balogh

    Full Text Available Cellular membranes respond rapidly to various environmental perturbations. Previously we showed that modulations in membrane fluidity achieved by heat stress (HS resulted in pronounced membrane organization alterations which could be intimately linked to the expression and cellular distribution of heat shock proteins. Here we examine heat-induced membrane changes using several visualisation methods. With Laurdan two-photon microscopy we demonstrate that, in contrast to the enhanced formation of ordered domains in surface membranes, the molecular disorder is significantly elevated within the internal membranes of cells preexposed to mild HS. These results were compared with those obtained by anisotropy, fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. All probes detected membrane changes upon HS. However, the structurally different probes revealed substantially distinct alterations in membrane heterogeneity. These data call attention to the careful interpretation of results obtained with only a single label. Subtle changes in membrane microstructure in the decision-making of thermal cell killing could have potential application in cancer therapy.

  8. Currents and radiation from the large D black hole membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Mandal, Anup Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,Kalyanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Mandlik, Mangesh [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India); Mehta, Umang [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,JVLR, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India); Minwalla, Shiraz [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India); Sharma, Utkarsh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,JVLR, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 (India); Thakur, Somyadip [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,1, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005 (India)

    2017-05-18

    It has recently been demonstrated that black hole dynamics in a large number of dimensions D reduces to the dynamics of a codimension one membrane propagating in flat space. In this paper we define a stress tensor and charge current on this membrane and explicitly determine these currents at low orders in the expansion in (1/D). We demonstrate that dynamical membrane equations of motion derived in earlier work are simply conservation equations for our stress tensor and charge current. Through the paper we focus on solutions of the membrane equations which vary on a time scale of order unity. Even though the charge current and stress tensor are not parametrically small in such solutions, we show that the radiation sourced by the corresponding membrane currents is generically of order (1/(D{sup D})). In this regime it follows that the ‘near horizon’ membrane degrees of freedom are decoupled from asymptotic flat space at every perturbative order in the (1/D) expansion. We also define an entropy current on the membrane and use the Hawking area theorem to demonstrate that the divergence of the entropy current is point wise non negative. We view this result as a local form of the second law of thermodynamics for membrane motion.

  9. Voltage Sensing in Membranes: From Macroscopic Currents to Molecular Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, J Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J

    2015-06-01

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are integral membrane protein units that sense changes in membrane electric potential, and through the resulting conformational changes, regulate a specific function. VSDs confer voltage-sensitivity to a large superfamily of membrane proteins that includes voltage-gated Na[Formula: see text], K[Formula: see text], Ca[Formula: see text] ,and H[Formula: see text] selective channels, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, and voltage-sensing phosphatases. VSDs consist of four transmembrane segments (termed S1 through S4). Their most salient structural feature is the highly conserved positions for charged residues in their sequences. S4 exhibits at least three conserved triplet repeats composed of one basic residue (mostly arginine) followed by two hydrophobic residues. These S4 basic side chains participate in a state-dependent internal salt-bridge network with at least four acidic residues in S1-S3. The signature of voltage-dependent activation in electrophysiology experiments is a transient current (termed gating or sensing current) upon a change in applied membrane potential as the basic side chains in S4 move across the membrane electric field. Thus, the unique structural features of the VSD architecture allow for competing requirements: maintaining a series of stable transmembrane conformations, while allowing charge motion, as briefly reviewed here.

  10. Plant immune and growth receptors share common signalling components but localise to distinct plasma membrane nanodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücherl, Christoph A; Jarsch, Iris K; Schudoma, Christian; Segonzac, Cécile; Mbengue, Malick; Robatzek, Silke; MacLean, Daniel; Ott, Thomas; Zipfel, Cyril

    2017-03-06

    Cell surface receptors govern a multitude of signalling pathways in multicellular organisms. In plants, prominent examples are the receptor kinases FLS2 and BRI1, which activate immunity and steroid-mediated growth, respectively. Intriguingly, despite inducing distinct signalling outputs, both receptors employ common downstream signalling components, which exist in plasma membrane (PM)-localised protein complexes. An important question is thus how these receptor complexes maintain signalling specificity. Live-cell imaging revealed that FLS2 and BRI1 form PM nanoclusters. Using single-particle tracking we could discriminate both cluster populations and we observed spatiotemporal separation between immune and growth signalling platforms. This finding was confirmed by visualising FLS2 and BRI1 within distinct PM nanodomains marked by specific remorin proteins and differential co-localisation with the cytoskeleton. Our results thus suggest that signalling specificity between these pathways may be explained by the spatial separation of FLS2 and BRI1 with their associated signalling components within dedicated PM nanodomains.

  11. Daptomycin resistance in enterococci is associated with distinct alterations of cell membrane phospholipid content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra N Mishra

    Full Text Available The lipopeptide antibiotic, daptomycin (DAP interacts with the bacterial cell membrane (CM. Development of DAP resistance during therapy in a clinical strain of Enterococcus faecalis was associated with mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in cell envelope homeostasis and phospholipid metabolism. Here we characterized changes in CM phospholipid profiles associated with development of DAP resistance in clinical enterococcal strains.Using two clinical strain-pairs of DAP-susceptible and DAP-resistant E. faecalis (S613 vs. R712 and E. faecium (S447 vs. R446 recovered before and after DAP therapy, we compared four distinct CM profiles: phospholipid content, fatty acid composition, membrane fluidity and capacity to be permeabilized and/or depolarized by DAP. Additionally, we characterized the cell envelope of the E. faecium strain-pair by transmission electron microscopy and determined the relative cell surface charge of both strain-pairs.Both E. faecalis and E. faecium mainly contained four major CM PLs: phosphatidylglycerol (PG, cardiolipin, lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG and glycerolphospho-diglycodiacylglycerol (GP-DGDAG. In addition, E. faecalis CMs (but not E. faecium also contained: i phosphatidic acid; and ii two other unknown species of amino-containing PLs. Development of DAP resistance in both enterococcal species was associated with a significant decrease in CM fluidity and PG content, with a concomitant increase in GP-DGDAG. The strain-pairs did not differ in their outer CM translocation (flipping of amino-containing PLs. Fatty acid content did not change in the E. faecalis strain-pair, whereas a significant decrease in unsaturated fatty acids was observed in the DAP-resistant E. faecium isolate R446 (vs S447. Resistance to DAP in E. faecium was associated with distinct structural alterations of the cell envelope and cell wall thickening, as well as a decreased ability of DAP to depolarize and permeabilize the CM.Distinct

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have distinct membrane locations and lipid interactions as determined by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-01-31

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differentially influence lipid oxidation, signal transduction, fluidity, and cholesterol domain formation, potentially due in part to distinct membrane interactions. We used small angle X-ray diffraction to evaluate the EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure. Membrane vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol (C) (0.3C:POPC mole ratio) were prepared and treated with vehicle, EPA, or DHA (1:10 mol ratio to POPC). Electron density profiles generated from the diffraction data showed that EPA increased membrane hydrocarbon core electron density over a broad area, up to ± 20 Å from the membrane center, indicating an energetically favorable extended orientation for EPA likely stabilized by van der Waals interactions. By contrast, DHA increased electron density in the phospholipid head group region starting at ± 12 Å from the membrane center, presumably due to DHA-surface interactions, with coincident reduction in electron density in the membrane hydrocarbon core centered ± 7-9 Å from the membrane center. The membrane width (d-space) decreased by 5 Å in the presence of vehicle as the temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C due to increased acyl chain trans-gauche isomerizations, which was unaffected by addition of EPA or DHA. The influence of DHA on membrane structure was modulated by temperature changes while the interactions of EPA were unaffected. The contrasting EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure indicate distinct molecular locations and orientations that may contribute to observed differences in biological activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: current clinical practice, coding, and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Boyd, Kayla V; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technique for providing life support for patients experiencing both pulmonary and cardiac failure by maintaining oxygenation and perfusion until native organ function is restored. ECMO is used routinely at many specialized hospitals for infants and less commonly for children with respiratory or cardiac failure from a variety of causes. Its usage is more controversial in adults, but select medical centers have reported favorable findings in patients with ARDS and other causes of severe pulmonary failure. ECMO is also rarely used as a rescue therapy in a small subset of adult patients with cardiac failure. This article will review the current uses and techniques of ECMO in the critical care setting as well as the evidence supporting its usage. In addition, current practice management related to coding and reimbursement for this intensive therapy will be discussed.

  14. Distinct ASIC currents are expressed in rat putative nociceptors and are modulated by nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Berta, Temugin; Decosterd, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2006-10-01

    The H(+)-gated acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Studies with ASIC knockout mice indicated either a pro-nociceptive or a modulatory role of ASICs in pain sensation. We have investigated in freshly isolated rat DRG neurones whether neurones with different ASIC current properties exist, which may explain distinct cellular roles, and we have investigated ASIC regulation in an experimental model of neuropathic pain. Small-diameter DRG neurones expressed three different ASIC current types which were all preferentially expressed in putative nociceptors. Type 1 currents were mediated by ASIC1a homomultimers and characterized by steep pH dependence of current activation in the pH range 6.8-6.0. Type 3 currents were activated in a similar pH range as type 1, while type 2 currents were activated at pH ASIC current density. Nerve injury induced differential regulation of ASIC subunit expression and selective changes in ASIC function in DRG neurones, suggesting a complex reorganization of ASICs during the development of neuropathic pain. In summary, we describe a basis for distinct cellular functions of different ASIC types in small-diameter DRG neurones.

  15. Fetal membrane healing after spontaneous and iatrogenic membrane rupture: A review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devlieger, R.; Millar, L. K.; Bryant-Greenwood, G.; Lewi, L.; Deprest, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the important protective role of the fetal membranes, wound sealing, tissue regeneration, or wound healing could be life saving in cases of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Although many investigators are studying the causes of preterm premature rupture of membranes, the emphasis has not been on the wound healing capacity of the fetal membranes. In this review, the relevant literature on the pathophysiologic condition that leads to preterm premature rupture of membranes ...

  16. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Distinct Differences in the Protein Content of Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterbeemd, van de B.; Mommen, G.P.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Jong, de A.P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    At present, only vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles (OMV) have successfully stopped Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemics. These vaccines however require detergent-extraction to remove endotoxin, which changes immunogenicity and causes production difficulties. To investigate this in

  17. Distinctive changes in plasma membrane phosphoinositides underlie differential regulation of TRPV1 in nociceptive neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Viktor; Yudin, Yevgen; Hammond, Gerald R; Sharma, Esseim; Fukami, Kiyoko; Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-07-10

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel crucial to regulation of nociceptor responsiveness. Sensitization of TRPV1 by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists to its endogenous activators, such as low pH and noxious heat, is a key factor in hyperalgesia during tissue injury as well as pathological pain syndromes. Conversely, chronic pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin leads to calcium influx-induced adaptation of the channel. Paradoxically, both conditions entail activation of phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphoinositides. We found that in sensory neurons PLCβ activation by bradykinin led to a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but no sustained change in the levels of its precursor PI(4)P. Preventing this selective decrease in PI(4,5)P2 inhibited TRPV1 sensitization, while selectively decreasing PI(4,5)P2 independently of PLC potentiated the sensitizing effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the channel, thereby inducing increased TRPV1 responsiveness. Maximal pharmacological TRPV1 stimulation led to a robust decrease of both PI(4,5)P2 and its precursor PI(4)P in sensory neurons. Attenuating the decrease of either lipid significantly reduced desensitization, and simultaneous reduction of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P independently of PLC inhibited TRPV1. We found that, on the mRNA level, the dominant highly Ca(2+)-sensitive PLC isoform in dorsal root ganglia is PLCδ4. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 currents was significantly reduced, whereas capsaicin-induced nerve impulses in the skin-nerve preparation increased in mice lacking this isoform. We propose a comprehensive model in which differential changes in phosphoinositide levels mediated by distinct PLC isoforms result in opposing changes in TRPV1 activity.

  18. Mechanisms of generation of membrane potential resonance in a neuron with multiple resonant ionic currents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal membrane potential resonance (MPR is associated with subthreshold and network oscillations. A number of voltage-gated ionic currents can contribute to the generation or amplification of MPR, but how the interaction of these currents with linear currents contributes to MPR is not well understood. We explored this in the pacemaker PD neurons of the crab pyloric network. The PD neuron MPR is sensitive to blockers of H- (IH and calcium-currents (ICa. We used the impedance profile of the biological PD neuron, measured in voltage clamp, to constrain parameter values of a conductance-based model using a genetic algorithm and obtained many optimal parameter combinations. Unlike most cases of MPR, in these optimal models, the values of resonant- (fres and phasonant- (fϕ = 0 frequencies were almost identical. Taking advantage of this fact, we linked the peak phase of ionic currents to their amplitude, in order to provide a mechanistic explanation the dependence of MPR on the ICa gating variable time constants. Additionally, we found that distinct pairwise correlations between ICa parameters contributed to the maintenance of fres and resonance power (QZ. Measurements of the PD neuron MPR at more hyperpolarized voltages resulted in a reduction of fres but no change in QZ. Constraining the optimal models using these data unmasked a positive correlation between the maximal conductances of IH and ICa. Thus, although IH is not necessary for MPR in this neuron type, it contributes indirectly by constraining the parameters of ICa.

  19. Membrane fusion is induced by a distinct peptide sequence of the sea urchin fertilization protein bindin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, AS; Glabe, CG; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    Fertilization in the sea urchin is mediated by the membrane-associated acrosomal protein bindin, which plays a key role in the adhesion and fusion between sperm and egg. We have investigated the structure/function relationship of an 18-amino acid peptide fragment "B18," which represents the minimal

  20. Single cell wound generates electric current circuit and cell membrane potential variations that requires calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxardi, Guillaume; Reid, Brian; Maillard, Pauline; Zhao, Min

    2014-07-24

    Breaching of the cell membrane is one of the earliest and most common causes of cell injury, tissue damage, and disease. If the compromise in cell membrane is not repaired quickly, irreversible cell damage, cell death and defective organ functions will result. It is therefore fundamentally important to efficiently repair damage to the cell membrane. While the molecular aspects of single cell wound healing are starting to be deciphered, its bio-physical counterpart has been poorly investigated. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a model for single cell wound healing, we describe the temporal and spatial dynamics of the wound electric current circuitry and the temporal dynamics of cell membrane potential variation. In addition, we show the role of calcium influx in controlling electric current circuitry and cell membrane potential variations. (i) Upon wounding a single cell: an inward electric current appears at the wound center while an outward electric current is observed at its sides, illustrating the wound electric current circuitry; the cell membrane is depolarized; calcium flows into the cell. (ii) During cell membrane re-sealing: the wound center current density is maintained for a few minutes before decreasing; the cell membrane gradually re-polarizes; calcium flow into the cell drops. (iii) In conclusion, calcium influx is required for the formation and maintenance of the wound electric current circuitry, for cell membrane re-polarization and for wound healing.

  1. Analysis of exocyst subunit EXO70 family reveals distinct membrane polar domains in Tobacco pollen tubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekereš, Juraj; Pejchar, Přemysl; Šantrůček, J.; Vukašinović, Nemanja; Žárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 3 (2017), s. 1659-1675 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19073S; GA ČR GA15-24711S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PLASMA-MEMBRANE * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * CELL-MIGRATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  2. Co-current and Counter-Current Operations for Steam Reforming of Heptane in a Novel CFB Membrane Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.S.E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen production by steam reforming of higher hydrocarbon over nickel supported catalyst is investigated in an earlier suggested novel Circulating Fast Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (CFFBMR). Palladium hydrogen membranes are used with co-current and counter-current operation modes. It is found that hydrogen production has a non-monotonic dependence upon the reaction temperature in the range of 623-823 K. Between 623 and 723 K. the yields of hydrogen decrease and then increase between 723 and 823 K. This important phenomenon is investigated, discussed and explained. The simulation results shows that the reformer performance can be significantly improved using hydrogen membranes, especially in the counter-current operation mode. At low temperatures around 623 K, both .co-current and counter-current operation modes provide similar yields of hydrogen. While at temperature 723 K and higher, the counter-current operation provides the highest yield of hydrogen

  3. Current research and development of controlling membrane fouling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fouling is a major problem influencing the operational performance, stability and cost of a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The composition of wastewater and biomass grown in the MBR are directly related to fouling. Many factors including operational parameters can affect the fouling process. The extent of fouling can be ...

  4. Energy consumption and constant current operation in membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a water desalination technology based on applying a cell voltage between two oppositely placed porous electrodes sandwiching a spacer channel that transports the water to be desalinated. In the salt removal step, ions are adsorbed at the carbon–water

  5. Different sets of ER-resident J-proteins regulate distinct polar nuclear-membrane fusion events in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masaya; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Angiosperm female gametophytes contain a central cell with two polar nuclei. In many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, the polar nuclei fuse during female gametogenesis. We previously showed that BiP, an Hsp70 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was essential for membrane fusion during female gametogenesis. Hsp70 function requires partner proteins for full activity. J-domain containing proteins (J-proteins) are the major Hsp70 functional partners. A. thaliana ER contains three soluble J-proteins, AtERdj3A, AtERdj3B, and AtP58(IPK). Here, we analyzed mutants of these proteins and determined that double-mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A or AtERdj3B were defective in polar nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis identified that polar nuclei were in close contact, but no membrane fusion occurred in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A. The polar nuclear outer membrane appeared to be connected via the ER remaining at the inner unfused membrane in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3B. These results indicate that ER-resident J-proteins, AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3A and AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3B, function at distinct steps of polar nuclear-membrane fusion. Similar to the bip1 bip2 double mutant female gametophytes, the aterdj3a atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the outer polar nuclear membrane displayed aberrant endosperm proliferation after fertilization with wild-type pollen. However, endosperm proliferated normally after fertilization of the aterdj3b atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the inner membrane. Our results indicate that the polar nuclear fusion defect itself does not cause an endosperm proliferation defect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  7. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  8. New materials for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentall, Philip L.; Lakeman, J. Barry; Mepsted, Gary O.; Adcock, Paul L.; Moore, Jon M.

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells for automotive applications need to have high power density, and be inexpensive and robust to compete effectively with the internal combustion engine. Development of membranes and new electrodes and catalysts have increased power significantly, but further improvements may be achieved by the use of new materials and construction techniques in the manufacture of the bipolar plates. To show this, a variety of materials have been fabricated into flow field plates, both metallic and graphitic, and single fuel cell tests were conducted to determine the performance of each material. Maximum power was obtained with materials which had lowest contact resistance and good electrical conductivity. The performance of the best material was characterised as a function of cell compression and flow field geometry.

  9. Distinct kinetics of inhibitory currents in thalamocortical neurons that arise from dendritic or axonal origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunggu Yang

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN transfer visual information from retina to primary visual cortex. This information is modulated by inhibitory input arising from local interneurons and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN neurons, leading to alterations of receptive field properties of thalamocortical neurons. Local GABAergic interneurons provide two distinct synaptic outputs: axonal (F1 terminals and dendritic (F2 terminals onto dLGN thalamocortical neurons. By contrast, TRN neurons provide only axonal output (F1 terminals onto dLGN thalamocortical neurons. It is unclear if GABAA receptor-mediated currents originating from F1 and F2 terminals have different characteristics. In the present study, we examined multiple characteristics (rise time, slope, halfwidth and decay τ of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic synaptic currents (mIPSCs originating from F1 and F2 terminals. The mIPSCs arising from F2 terminals showed slower kinetics relative to those from F1 terminals. Such differential kinetics of GABAAR-mediated responses could be an important role in temporal coding of visual signals.

  10. Membrane Currents in Airway Smooth Muscle: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Janssen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were used to characterize the membrane conductance changes underlying spasmogen-evoked depolarization in airway smooth muscle (ASM. Changes included a transient activation of chloride ion channels and prolonged suppression of potassium ion channels; both changes are triggered by release of internally sequestered calcium ion and in turn cause opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The resultant influx of calcium ions contributes to contraction as well as to refilling of the internal calcium ion pool. Bronchodilators, on the other hand, act in part through activation of potassium channels, with consequent closure of calcium channels. The tools used to study ion channels in ASM are described, and the investigations of the roles of ion channels in ASM physiology (autacoid-evoked depolarization and hyperpolarization and pathophysiology (airway hyperresponsiveness are summarized. Finally, how the relationship between ion channels and ASM function/dysfunction may relate to the treatment of asthma and related breathing disorders is discussed.

  11. Densely quaternized poly(arylene ether)s with distinct phase separation for highly anion-conductive membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bingxi; Li, Xiao; Chen, Dongyang; Zhang, Weiying

    2018-05-01

    To develop high performance anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a novel bisphenol monomer bearing eight benzylmethyl groups at the outer edge of the molecule was synthesized, which after condensation polymerization with various amounts of 4,4‧-dihydroxydiphenylsulfone and 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone yielded novel poly(arylene ether)s with densely located benzylmethyl groups. These benzylmethyl groups were then converted to quaternary ammonium groups by radical-initiated bromination and quaternization in tandem, leading to the emergence of densely quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (QA-PAEs) with controlled ion exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.61 to 2.32 mmol g-1. Both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed distinct phase separation in the QA-PAEs. The QA-PAE-40 with an IEC of 2.32 mmol g-1 exhibited a Br- conductivity of 9.2 mS cm-1 and a SO42- conductivity of 14.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature, much higher than those of a control membrane with a similar IEC but without obvious phase separation. Therefore, phase separation of AEMs was validated to be advantageous for the efficient conducting of anions. The experimental results also showed that the QA-PAEs were promising AEM materials, especially for non-alkaline applications.

  12. Multichannel detection of ionic currents through two nanopores fabricated on integrated Si3N4 membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Akahori, Rena; Aoki, Mayu; Harada, Kunio; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-16

    Integration of solid-state nanopores and multichannel detection of signals from each nanopore are effective measures for realizing high-throughput nanopore sensors. In the present study, we demonstrated fabrication of Si3N4 membrane arrays and the simultaneous measurement of ionic currents through two nanopores formed in two adjacent membranes. Membranes with thicknesses as low as 6.4 nm and small nanopores with diameters of less than 2 nm could be fabricated using the poly-Si sacrificial-layer process and multilevel pulse-voltage injection. Using the fabricated nanopore membranes, we successfully achieved simultaneous detection of clear ionic-current blockades when single-stranded short homopolymers (poly(dA)60) passed through two nanopores. In addition, we investigated the signal crosstalk and leakage current among separated chambers. When two nanopores were isolated on the front surface of the membrane, there was no signal crosstalk or leakage current between the chambers. However, when two nanopores were isolated on the backside of the Si substrate, signal crosstalk and leakage current were observed owing to high-capacitance coupling between the chambers and electrolysis of water on the surface of the Si substrate. The signal crosstalk and leakage current could be suppressed by oxidizing the exposed Si surface in the membrane chip. Finally, the observed ionic-current blockade when poly(dA)60 passed through the nanopore in the oxidized chip was approximately half of that observed in the non-oxidized chip.

  13. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  14. Modulation of membrane potential by an acetylcholine-activated potassium current in trout atrial myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, C.E.; Gesser, Hans; Llach, A.

    2007-01-01

    mV from 4.3 pA/pF to 27 pA/pF with an EC50 of 45 nM in atrial myocytes. Moreover, 3 nM ACh increased the slope conductance of Im fourfold, shifted its reversal potential from -78 ± 3 to -84 ± 3 mV, and stabilized the resting membrane potential at -92 ± 4 mV. ACh also shortened the action potential...... hypothesized that this is at least partly due to a small slope conductance of Im around the resting membrane potential in atrial myocytes. In accordance with this hypothesis, the slope conductance of Im was about sevenfold smaller in atrial than in ventricular myocytes. Interestingly, ACh increased Im at -120...... of an inwardly rectifying K+ current can modulate the membrane potential in the trout atrial myocytes and stabilize the resting membrane potential. teleost heart; IK,ACh; cholinergic modulation; action potential...

  15. Cyclodextrin-Scaffolded Alamethicin with Remarkably Efficient Membrane Permeabilizing Properties and Membrane Current Conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørringgaard, Claudia Ulrich; Vad, Brian Stougaard; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to classical antibiotics is a serious medical problem, which continues to grow. Small antimicrobial peptides represent a potential solution and are increasingly being developed as novel therapeutic agents. Many of these peptides owe their antibacterial activity to the formati......-channel current measurements, the α-helices of the templated multimers were demonstrated to insert into lipid bilayers forming highly efficient and remarkably stable ion-channels...

  16. Nernst-Planck modeling of multicomponent ion transport in a Nafion membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    A mathematical model of multicomponent ion transport through a cation-exchange membrane is developed based on the Nernst–Planck equation. A correlation for the non-linear potential gradient is derived from current density relation with fluxes. The boundary conditions are determined with the Donnan

  17. Picomolar detection limits with current-polarized Pb2+ ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergel, E; Gyurcsányi, R E; Tóth, K; Lindner, E

    2001-09-01

    Minor ion fluxes across ion-selective membranes bias submicromolar activity measurements with conventional ion-selective electrodes. When ion fluxes are balanced, the lower limit of detection is expected to be dramatically improved. As proof of principle, the flux of lead ions across an ETH 5435 ionophore-based lead-selective membrane was gradually compensated by applying a few nanoamperes of galvanostatic current. When the opposite ion fluxes were matched, and the undesirable leaching of primary ions was eliminated, Nernstian response down to 3 x 10(-12) M was achieved.

  18. Disentangling the environmental heterogeneity, floristic distinctiveness and current threats of tropical dry forests in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-M, Roy; García, Hernando; Isaacs, Paola; Cuadros, Hermes; López-Camacho, René; Rodríguez, Nelly; Pérez, Karen; Mijares, Francisco; Castaño-Naranjo, Alejandro; Jurado, Rubén; Idárraga-Piedrahíta, Álvaro; Rojas, Alicia; Vergara, Hernando; Pizano, Camila

    2018-04-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been defined as a single biome occurring mostly in the lowlands where there is a marked period of drought during the year. In the Neotropics, dry forests occur across contrasting biogeographical regions that contain high beta diversity and endemism, but also strong anthropogenic pressures that threaten their biodiversity and ecological integrity. In Colombia, TDFs occur across six regions with contrasting soils, climate, and anthropogenic pressures, therefore being ideal for studying how these variables relate to dry forest species composition, successional stage and conservation status. Here, we explore the variation in climate and soil conditions, floristic composition, forest fragment size and shape, successional stage and anthropogenic pressures in 571 dry forest fragments across Colombia. We found that TDFs should not be classified solely on rainfall seasonality, as high variation in precipitation and temperature were correlated with soil characteristics. In fact, based on environmental factors and floristic composition, the dry forests of Colombia are clustered in three distinctive groups, with high species turnover across and within regions, as reported for other TDF regions of the Neotropics. Widely distributed TDF species were found to be generalists favored by forest disturbance and the early successional stages of dry forests. On the other hand, TDF fragments were not only small in size, but highly irregular in shape in all regions, and comprising mostly early and intermediate successional stages, with very little mature forest left at the national level. At all sites, we detected at least seven anthropogenic disturbances with agriculture, cattle ranching and human infrastructure being the most pressing disturbances throughout the country. Thus, although environmental factors and floristic composition of dry forests vary across regions at the national level, dry forests are equally threatened by deforestation, degradation

  19. A Method for Coupling a Direct Current Power Source Across a Dielectric Membrane or Other Non-Conducting Membrane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbrecher, Donald H

    2008-01-01

    .... A second set of plates on the second side of the membrane form a set of coupling capacitors wherein the non-conducting dielectric membrane becomes part of the coupling-capacitor dielectric material...

  20. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  1. Active fragments from pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins have distinct membrane behavior reflecting their functional divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Guillemin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BCL-2 family of proteins includes pro- and antiapoptotic members acting by controlling the permeabilization of mitochondria. Although the association of these proteins with the outer mitochondrial membrane is crucial for their function, little is known about the characteristics of this interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we followed a reductionist approach to clarify to what extent membrane-active regions of homologous BCL-2 family proteins contribute to their functional divergence. Using isolated mitochondria as well as model lipid Langmuir monolayers coupled with Brewster Angle Microscopy, we explored systematically and comparatively the membrane activity and membrane-peptide interactions of fragments derived from the central helical hairpin of BAX, BCL-xL and BID. The results show a connection between the differing abilities of the assayed peptide fragments to contact, insert, destabilize and porate membranes and the activity of their cognate proteins in programmed cell death. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BCL-2 family-derived pore-forming helices thus represent structurally analogous, but functionally dissimilar membrane domains.

  2. Distinct human and mouse membrane trafficking systems for sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Madoka; Goto, Masao; Kawai, Takayuki; Yamashita, Atsuko; Kusakabe, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    The sweet taste receptors T1r2 and T1r3 are included in the T1r taste receptor family that belongs to class C of the G protein-coupled receptors. Heterodimerization of T1r2 and T1r3 is required for the perception of sweet substances, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heterodimerization, including membrane trafficking. We developed tagged mouse T1r2 and T1r3, and human T1R2 and T1R3 and evaluated membrane trafficking in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. We found that human T1R3 surface expression was only observed when human T1R3 was coexpressed with human T1R2, whereas mouse T1r3 was expressed without mouse T1r2 expression. A domain-swapped chimera and truncated human T1R3 mutant showed that the Venus flytrap module and cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 contain a region related to the inhibition of human T1R3 membrane trafficking and coordinated regulation of human T1R3 membrane trafficking. We also found that the Venus flytrap module of both human T1R2 and T1R3 are needed for membrane trafficking, suggesting that the coexpression of human T1R2 and T1R3 is required for this event. These results suggest that the Venus flytrap module and CRD receive taste substances and play roles in membrane trafficking of human T1R2 and T1R3. These features are different from those of mouse receptors, indicating that human T1R2 and T1R3 are likely to have a novel membrane trafficking system.

  3. High Current Ionic Diode Using Homogeneously Charged Asymmetric Nanochannel Network Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunpyo; Wang, Cong; Chang, Gyu Tae; Park, Jungyul

    2016-04-13

    A high current ionic diode is achieved using an asymmetric nanochannel network membrane (NCNM) constructed by soft lithography and in situ self-assembly of nanoparticles with uniform surface charge. The asymmetric NCNM exhibits high rectified currents without losing a rectification ratio because of its ionic selectivity gradient and differentiated electrical conductance. Asymmetric ionic transport is analyzed with diode-like I-V curves and visualized via fluorescent dyes, which is closely correlated with ionic selectivity and ion distribution according to variation of NCNM geometries.

  4. Self-ordered, controlled structure nanoporous membranes using constant current anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan; Tang, Yun; Ouyang, Min

    2008-12-01

    We report a constant current (CC) based anodization technique to fabricate and control structure of mechanically stable anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with a long-range ordered hexagonal nanopore pattern. For the first time we show that interpore distance (Dint) of a self-ordered nanopore feature can be continuously tuned over a broad range with CC anodization and is uniquely defined by the conductivity of sulfuric acid as electrolyte. We further demonstrate that this technique can offer new degrees of freedom for engineering planar nanopore structures by fine tailoring the CC based anodization process. Our results not only facilitate further understanding of self-ordering mechanism of alumina membranes but also provide a fast, simple (without requirement of prepatterning or preoxide layer), and flexible methodology for controlling complex nanoporous structures, thus offering promising practical applications in nanotechnology.

  5. Light-induced, GTP-binding protein mediated membrane currents of Xenopus oocytes injected with rhodopsin of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H; Seidou, M; Kito, Y

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes that were injected with rhabdomeric membranes of squid and octopus photoreceptors acquired light sensitivity. The injected oocytes showed a light-induced current having characteristics similar to other G-protein-mediated Cl- currents induced by the activation of other membrane receptors. Pretreatment of the oocytes with pertussis toxin before the injection suppressed the generation of the light-induced current, indicating an ability of cephalopod rhodopsin to cross-react with an endogenous G-protein of Xenopus oocytes.

  6. Human Nav1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.

    2015-01-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Nav1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Nav1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Nav1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Nav1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Nav1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons. PMID:25787950

  7. Expression of three topologically distinct membrane proteins elicits unique stress response pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Teresa M; Jordan, Rick; Lyons-Weiler, James; Adelman, Joshua L; Needham, Patrick G; Kleyman, Thomas R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Misfolded membrane proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are subject to ER-associated degradation, which clears the secretory pathway of potentially toxic species. While the transcriptional response to environmental stressors has been extensively studied, limited data exist describing the cellular response to misfolded membrane proteins. To this end, we expressed and then compared the transcriptional profiles elicited by the synthesis of three ER retained, misfolded ion channels: The α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, and an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, which vary in their mass, membrane topologies, and quaternary structures. To examine transcriptional profiles in a null background, the proteins were expressed in yeast, which was previously used to examine the degradation requirements for each substrate. Surprisingly, the proteins failed to induce a canonical unfolded protein response or heat shock response, although messages encoding several cytosolic and ER lumenal protein folding factors rose when αENaC or CFTR was expressed. In contrast, the levels of these genes were unaltered by Kir2.1 expression; instead, the yeast iron regulon was activated. Nevertheless, a significant number of genes that respond to various environmental stressors were upregulated by all three substrates, and compared with previous microarray data we deduced the existence of a group of genes that reflect a novel misfolded membrane protein response. These data indicate that aberrant proteins in the ER elicit profound yet unique cellular responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Ion transfer through solvent polymeric membranes driven by an exponential current flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A; Torralba, E; González, J; Serna, C; Ortuño, J A

    2011-03-21

    General analytical equations which govern ion transfer through liquid membranes with one and two polarized interfaces driven by an exponential current flux are derived. Expressions for the transient and stationary E-t, dt/dE-E and dI/dE-E curves are obtained, and the evolution from transient to steady behaviour has been analyzed in depth. We have also shown mathematically that the voltammetric and stationary chronopotentiometric I(N)-E curves are identical (with E being the applied potential for voltammetric techniques and the measured potential for chronopotentiometric techniques), and hence, their derivatives provide identical information.

  9. Inactivation of bacteria by electric current in the presence of carbon nanotubes embedded within a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anna; Liu, Harris K; Long, Feng; Su, Erzheng; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Uniform conductive composite membranes were prepared using a phase inversion method by blending carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polysulfone polymer. At 6 % of the embedded CNTs, the membrane pore size measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was approximately 50 nm. Electric current in the presence of the composite membranes markedly inactivated the model pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with the extent of bacterial inactivation rising when the current was increased. Over 99.999 % inactivation of both bacteria was observed in deionized water after 40 min at 5 mA direct current (DC); importantly, no appreciable inactivation occurred in the absence of either the electric field or the CNTs within the membranes under otherwise the same conditions. A much lower, although still pronounced, inactivation was seen with alternating current (AC) in a 25 mM NaCl aqueous solution.

  10. Ring current shifts in {sup 19}F-NMR of membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dongsheng, E-mail: liudsh@shanghaitech.edu.cn; Wüthrich, Kurt, E-mail: kwuthrich@shanghaitech.edu.cn [ShanghaiTech University, iHuman Institute (China)

    2016-05-15

    Fluorine-19 NMR markers are attractive reporter groups for use in studies of complex biomacromolecular systems, in particular also for studies of function-related conformational equilibria and rate processes in membrane proteins. Advantages of {sup 19}F-NMR probes include high sensitivity of the {sup 19}F chemical shifts to variations in the non-covalent environment. Nonetheless, in studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) we encountered situations where {sup 19}F chemical shifts were not responsive to conformational changes that had been implicated by other methods. This prompted us to examine possible effects of aromatic ring current fields on the chemical shifts of {sup 19}F-NMR probes used in GPCRs. Analysis of previously reported {sup 19}F-NMR data on the β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor and mammalian rhodopsin showed that all {sup 19}F-labeling sites which manifested conformational changes are located near aromatic residues. Although ring current effects are small when compared to other known non-covalent effects on {sup 19}F chemical shifts, there is thus an indication that their contributions are significant when studying activation processes in GPCRs, since the observed activation-related {sup 19}F-NMR chemical shifts are comparable in size to the calculated ring current shifts. Considering the impact of ring current shifts may thus be helpful in identifying promising indigenous or engineered labeling sites for future {sup 19}F-NMR studies of GPCR activation, and novel information may be obtained on the nature of conformational rearrangements near the {sup 19}F-labels. It will then also be interesting to see if the presently indicated role of ring current shifts in membrane protein studies with {sup 19}F-NMR markers can be substantiated by a more extensive data base resulting from future studies.

  11. Current collector design for closed-plenum polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F. A.; Attingre, C.; Kucernak, A. R.; Brett, D. J. L.

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a non-isothermal, single-phase, three-dimensional model of the effects of current collector geometry in a 5 cm2 closed-plenum polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell constructed using printed circuit boards (PCBs). Two geometries were considered in this study: parallel slot and circular hole designs. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package was used to account for species, momentum, charge and membrane water distribution within the cell for each design. The model shows that the cell can reach high current densities in the range of 0.8 A cm-2-1.2 A cm-2 at 0.45 V for both designs. The results indicate that the transport phenomena are significantly governed by the flow field plate design. A sensitivity analysis on the channel opening ratio shows that the parallel slot design with a 50% opening ratio shows the most promising performance due to better species, heat and charge distribution. Modelling and experimental analysis confirm that flooding inhibits performance, but the risk can be minimised by reducing the relative humidity of the cathode feed to 50%. Moreover, overheating is a potential problem due to the insulating effect of the PCB base layer and as such strategies should be implemented to combat its adverse effects.

  12. Electrogenic glutamate uptake is a major current carrier in the membrane of axolotl retinal glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Helen; Attwell, David

    1987-06-01

    Glutamate is taken up avidly by glial cells in the central nervous system1. Glutamate uptake may terminate the transmitter action of glutamate released from neurons1, and keep extracellular glutamate at concentrations below those which are neurotoxic. We report here that glutamate evokes a large inward current in retinal glial cells which have their membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations controlled by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique2. This current seems to be due to an electrogenic glutamate uptake carrier, which transports at least two sodium ions with every glutamate anion carried into the cell. Glutamate uptake is strongly voltage-dependent, decreasing at depolarized potentials: when fully activated, it contributes almost half of the conductance in the part of the glial cell membrane facing the retinal neurons. The spatial localization, glutamate affinity and magnitude of the uptake are appropriate for terminating the synaptic action of glutamate released from photoreceptors and bipolar cells. These data challenge present explanations of how the b-wave of the electroretinogram is generated, and suggest a mechanism for non-vesicular voltage-dependent release of glutamate from neurons.

  13. Calculation of ion currents across the inner membrane of functionally intact mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial ion transport systems play a central role in cell physiology. Rates of Ca2+ and K+ transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane have been derived from the measurement of ion accumulation over time within functional isolated mitochondria or mitochondria of cultured cells. Alternatively, the electrical currents generated by ionic flux have been directly measured in purified and swollen mitochondrial samples (mitoplasts) or reconstituted channels, and typically range from 1 pA to several 100s pA. However, the direct electrophysiological approach necessarily requires extensive processing of the mitochondria prior to measurement, which can only be performed on isolated mitoplasts. To compare rates of mitochondrial ion transport measured in electrophysiological experiments to those measured in intact mitochondria and cells, we converted published rates of mitochondrial ion uptake into units of ionic current. We estimate that for monovalent ions, uptake by intact mitochondria at the rate of 1 nmol ∙ mg−1 protein ∙ min−1 is equivalent to 0.2 fA of current per whole single mitochondrion (0.4 fA for divalent ions). In intact mitochondria, estimated rates of electrogenic cation uptake are limited to 1–100 fA of integral current per single mitochondrion. These estimates are orders of magnitude lower than the currents through mitochondrial channels directly measured via patch-clamp or artificial lipid bilayer approaches. PMID:24037064

  14. Auxin-activated NADH oxidase activity of soybean plasma membranes is distinct from the constitutive plasma membrane NADH oxidase and exhibits prion-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.; Ternes, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated and growth-related cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity of etiolated hypocotyls of soybeans oscillates with a period of about 24 min or 60 times per 24-h day. Plasma membranes of soybean hypocotyls contain two such NADH oxidase activities that have been resolved by purification on concanavalin A columns. One in the apparent molecular weight range of 14-17 kDa is stimulated by the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The other is larger and unaffected by 2,4-D. The 2,4-D-stimulated activity absolutely requires 2,4-D for activity and exhibits a period length of about 24 min. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of 2,4-D or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D or IAA addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges at the expense of the constitutive activity. A recruitment process analogous to that exhibited by prions is postulated to explain this behavior.

  15. Co-current and counter-current configurations for ethanol steam reforming in a dense Pd-Ag membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; de Falco, M.; Tosti, S.; Marrelli, L; Basile, A.

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol steam-reforming reaction to produce pure hydrogen has been studied theoretically. A mathematical model has been formulated for a traditional system and a palladium membrane reactor packed with a Co-based catalyst and the simulation results related to the membrane reactor for both

  16. Different therapeutic effects of cells derived from human amniotic membrane on premature ovarian aging depend on distinct cellular biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenyue; Li, Hong; Wang, Yun; Wang, Fuxin; Wu, Huihua; Chen, Rulei; Lv, Jinghuan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Boxian

    2017-07-27

    Many reports have shown that various kinds of stem cells have the ability to recover premature ovarian aging (POA) function. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) improves ovarian function damaged by chemotherapy in a mice model. Understanding of how to evaluate the distinct effects of adult stem cells in curing POA and how to choose stem cells in clinical application is lacking. To build a different degrees of POA model, mice were administered different doses of cyclophosphamide: light dose (70 mg/kg, 2 weeks), medium dose (70 mg/kg, 1 week; 120 mg/kg, 1 week), and high dose (120 mg/kg, 2 weeks). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected serum levels of sex hormones, and hematoxylin and eosin staining allowed follicle counting and showed the ovarian tissue structure. DiIC 18 (5)-DS was employed to label human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and hAECs for detecting the cellular retention time in ovaries by a live imaging system. Proliferation of human ovarian granule cells (ki67, AMH, FSHR, FOXL2, and CYP19A1) and immunological rejection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD4, CD11b, CD19, and CD56) were measured by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). Distinction of cellular biological characteristics between hAECs and hAMSCs was evaluated, such as collagen secretory level (collagen I, II, III, IV, and VI), telomerase activity, pluripotent markers tested by western blot, expression level of immune molecules (HLA-ABC and HLA-DR) analyzed by FACS, and cytokines (growth factors, chemotactic factors, apoptosis factors, and inflammatory factors) measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hAMSCs and hAECs were transplanted into a different degrees of POA model, hAMSCs exerted better therapeutic activity on mouse ovarian function in the high-dose administration group, promoting the proliferation rate of ovarian granular cells from premature ovarian failure patients, but also provoking immune

  17. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Tentonin 3/TMEM150c Confers Distinct Mechanosensitive Currents in Dorsal-Root Ganglion Neurons with Proprioceptive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyu-Sang; Lee, Byeongjun; Wee, Jungwon; Chun, Hyeyeon; Kim, Hyungsup; Jung, Jooyoung; Cha, Joo Young; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Gyu Hyun; Kim, In-Beom; Oh, Uhtaek

    2016-07-06

    Touch sensation or proprioception requires the transduction of mechanical stimuli into electrical signals by mechanoreceptors in the periphery. These mechanoreceptors are equipped with various transducer channels. Although Piezo1 and 2 are mechanically activated (MA) channels with rapid inactivation, MA molecules with other inactivation kinetics have not been identified. Here we report that heterologously expressed Tentonin3 (TTN3)/TMEM150C is activated by mechanical stimuli with distinctly slow inactivation kinetics. Genetic ablation of Ttn3/Tmem150c markedly reduced slowly adapting neurons in dorsal-root ganglion neurons. The MA TTN3 currents were inhibited by known blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels. Moreover, TTN3 was localized in muscle spindle afferents. Ttn3-deficient mice exhibited the loss of coordinated movements and abnormal gait. Thus, TTN3 appears to be a component of a mechanosensitive channel with a slow inactivation rate and contributes to motor coordination. Identification of this gene advances our understanding of the various types of mechanosensations, including proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Potentiometric determination of trypsin using a polymeric membrane polycation-sensitive electrode based on current-controlled reagent delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ding, Jiawang; Qin, Wei

    2012-12-01

    A potentiometric biosensor for the determination of trypsin is described based on current-controlled reagent delivery. A polymeric membrane protamine-sensitive electrode with dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate as cation exchanger is used for in situ generation of protamine. Diffusion of protamine across the polymeric membrane can be controlled precisely by applying an external current. The hydrolysis catalyzed with trypsin in sample solution decreases the concentration of free protamine released at the sample-membrane interface and facilitates the stripping of protamine out of the membrane surface via the ion-exchange process with sodium ions from the sample solution, thus decreasing the membrane potential, by which the protease can be sensed potentiometrically. The influences of anodic current amplitude, current pulse duration and protamine concentration in the inner filling solution on the membrane potential response have been studied. Under optimum conditions, the proposed protamine-sensitive electrode is useful for continuous and reversible detection of trypsin over the concentration range of 0.5-5UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.3UmL(-1). The proposed detection strategy provides a rapid and reagentless way for the detection of protease activities and offers great potential in the homogeneous immunoassays using proteases as labels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multicomponent ion transport in a mono and bilayer cation-exchange membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a model for bilayer cation-exchange membranes used in the chlor-alkali process. The ion transport inside the membrane is modeled with the Nernst–Planck equation. A logistic function is used at the boundary between the two layers of the bilayer membrane to describe the change in

  2. On the Effect of Clamping Pressure and Method on the Current Mapping of Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Zhou, Fan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The degradation of the electrochemical reaction of the proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) can be characterized using in-situ current mapping measurements (CMM). CMM is significantly affected by the amount of clamping pressure and method. In this work the current is mapped...

  3. Kinetics of the membrane current mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijt, H.C.; Plomp, J.J.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    1. Ionic currents mediated by serotonin 5-HT3 receptors were studied in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115, using suction pipettes for intracellular perfusion and voltage clamp recording. The dependence of the kinetics of the membrane current on serotonin concentration was investigated. 2. At

  4. Current Understanding of Physicochemical Mechanisms for Cell Membrane Penetration of Arginine-rich Cell Penetrating Peptides: Role of Glycosaminoglycan Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising drug carriers to deliver membrane-impermeable pharmaceuticals, such as siRNA, bioactive peptides and proteins. CPPs directly penetrate into cells across cell membranes via a spontaneous energy-independent process, in which CPPs appear to interact with acidic lipids in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. However, acidic lipids represent only 10 to 20% of the total membrane lipid content and in mammalian cell membranes they are predominantly located in the inner leaflet. Alternatively, CPPs favorably bind in a charge density- dependent manner to negatively charged, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are abundant on the cell surface and are involved in many biological functions. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of CPPs with sulfated GAGs plays a critical role in their direct cell membrane penetration: the favorable enthalpy contribution drives the high-affinity binding of arginine-rich CPPs to sulfated GAGs, initiating an efficient cell membrane penetration. The favorable enthalpy gain is presumably mainly derived from a unique property of the guanidino group of arginine residues forming multidentate hydrogen bonding with sulfate and carboxylate groups in GAGs. Such interactions can be accompanied with charge neutralization of arginine-rich CPPs, promoting their partition into cell membranes. This review summarizes the current understanding of the physicochemical mechanism for lipid membrane penetration of CPPs, and discusses the role of the GAG interactions on the cell membrane penetration of CPPs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Elevated mRNA-levels of distinct mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual hypoglossal motor neurons of endstage SOD1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMühling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as major pathogenic features in familial and sporadic forms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, a fatal degenerative motor neuron disease. However, the distinct molecular ALS-pathology remains unclear. Recently, an activity-dependent Ca2+ homeostasis deficit, selectively in highly vulnerable cholinergic motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (hMNs from a common ALS mouse model, endstage superoxide dismutase SOD1G93A transgenic mice, was described. This functional deficit was defined by a reduced hMN mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity and elevated Ca2+ extrusion across the plasma membrane. To address the underlying molecular mechanisms, here we quantified mRNA-levels of respective potential mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT positive hMNs from wildtype (WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, by combining UV laser microdissection with RT-qPCR techniques, and specific data normalization. As ChAT cDNA levels as well as cDNA and genomic DNA levels of the mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase ND1 were not different between hMNs from WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, these genes were used to normalize hMN-specific mRNA-levels of plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters, respectively. We detected about 2-fold higher levels of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters MCU/MICU1, Letm1 and UCP2 in remaining hMNs from endstage SOD1G93A mice. These higher expression-levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters in individual hMNs were not associated with a respective increase in number of mitochondrial genomes, as evident from hMN specific ND1 DNA quantification. Normalized mRNA-levels for the plasma membrane Na2+/Ca2+exchanger NCX1 was also about 2-fold higher in hMNs from SOD1G93A mice. Thus, pharmacological stimulation of Ca2+ transporters in highly vulnerable hMNs might offer a novel neuroprotective strategy for ALS.

  6. A four-diode full-wave ionic current rectifier based on bipolar membranes: overcoming the limit of electrode capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Janson, Per; Tybrandt, Klas; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-08-13

    Full-wave rectification of ionic currents is obtained by constructing the typical four-diode bridge out of ion conducting bipolar membranes. Together with conjugated polymer electrodes addressed with alternating current, the bridge allows for generation of a controlled ionic direct current for extended periods of time without the production of toxic species or gas typically arising from electrode side-reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Purification of natural gas using membrane - the current status and research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq Ahmad; Mukhtar, H.; Man, Z.; Dutta, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    Separation of acid gases and lower hydrocarbon from raw natural gas has been a challenging problem in a gas processing unit. Despite the availability of chemical and cryogenic routes, search for a better alternative has been on for the last several decades. Considerable success has been achieved in the recent years by use of polymeric membrane and many units are operating using hollow fiber and spirally wound modules. The initial success notwithstanding the quest for better membrane and strategically designed modules has gained more momentum in the recent years. While research inputs to modify rubbery membranes or to develop new glassy membranes are continuing, inorganic membrane have attracted a lot of attention because of a number of reasons such as thermal and chemical stability, mechanical strength and the advantage of engineered pores. In the above perspective it appears necessary to make a review of the present status of research as well as applications in relation to both polymeric and inorganic membranes for raw natural gas processing. The present paper is an attempt in this direction. Experimental findings reported in the literature together with novel theories that will eventually help in tailoring membranes both chemically and physically have been critically analyzed and the trends in the future direction of research have been identified. A survey of application of membrane technology for acid gas separation in industries world wide has been made

  8. A comparison of co-current and counter-current modes of operation for a novel hydrogen-permselective membrane dual-type FTS reactor in GTL technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimpour, M.R.; Forghani, A.A.; Mostafazadeh, A. Khosravanipour; Shariati, A. [Chemical Engineering Department, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71345 (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    In this work, a comparison of co-current and counter-current modes of operation for a novel hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has been carried out. In both modes of operations, a system with two-catalyst bed instead of one single catalyst bed is developed for FTS reactions. In the first catalytic reactor, the synthesis gas is partly converted to products in a conventional water-cooled fixed-bed reactor, while in the second reactor which is a membrane fixed-bed reactor, the FTS reactions are completed and heat of reaction is used to preheat the feed synthesis gas to the first reactor. In the co-current mode, feed gas is entered into the tubes of the second reactor in the same direction with the reacting gas stream in shell side while in the counter-current mode the gas streams are in the opposite direction. Simulation results for both co-current and counter-current modes have been compared in terms of temperature, gasoline and CO{sub 2} yields, H{sub 2} and CO conversion, selectivity of components as well as permeation rate of hydrogen through the membrane. The results showed that the reactor in the co-current configuration operates with lower conversion and lower permeation rate of hydrogen, but it has more favorable profile of temperature. The counter-current mode of operation decreases undesired products such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and also produces more gasoline. (author)

  9. Decoupling of the nernst-planck and poisson equations. Application to a membrane system at overlimiting currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtenov, Mahamet A-Kh; Kirillova, Evgeniya V; Seidova, Natalia M; Nikonenko, Victor V

    2007-12-27

    This paper deals with one-dimensional stationary Nernst-Planck and Poisson (NPP) equations describing ion electrodiffusion in multicomponent solution/electrode or ion-conductive membrane systems. A general method for resolving ordinary and singularly perturbed problems with these equations is developed. This method is based on the decoupling of NPP equations that results in deduction of an equation containing only the terms with different powers of the electrical field and its derivatives. Then, the solution of this equation, analytical in several cases or numerical, is substituted into the Nernst-Planck equations for calculating the concentration profile for each ion present in the system. Different ionic species are grouped in valency classes that allows one to reduce the dimension of the original set of equations and leads to a relatively easy treatment of multi-ion systems. When applying the method developed, the main attention is paid to ion transfer at limiting and overlimiting currents, where a significant deviation from local electroneutrality occurs. The boundary conditions and different approximations are examined: the local electroneutrality (LEN) assumption and the original assumption of quasi-uniform distribution of the space charge density (QCD). The relations between the ion fluxes at limiting and overlimiting currents are discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the "exaltation" of counterion transfer toward an ion-exchange membrane by co-ion flux leaking through the membrane or generated at the membrane/solution interface. The structure of the multi-ion concentration field in a depleted diffusion boundary layer (DBL) near an ion-exchange membrane at overlimiting currents is analyzed. The presence of salt ions and hydrogen and hydroxyl ions generated in the course of the water "splitting" reaction is considered. The thickness of the DBL and its different zones, as functions of applied current density, are found by fitting experimental current

  10. Measurement of current distribution in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with various flow arrangements – A parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaefour, Ibrahim; Karimi, G.; Jiao, Kui; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial local current distributions in a single PEMFC are measured. ► Effects of key operating conditions on the local current density are investigated. ► Increasing air and hydrogen stoichiometries improves local current density distributions. ► Operating pressure and temperature have negligible impact on local current distribution. - Abstract: Understanding of current distributions in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial for designing cell components such as the flow field plates and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, the spatial current density distributions in a single PEMFC with three serpentine flow channels are measured using a segmented bipolar plate and printed circuit board technique. The effects of key operating conditions such as stoichiometry ratios, inlet humidity levels, cell pressure and temperature on the local current density distributions for co-, counter-, and cross-flow arrangements are examined. It is observed that the local current density distribution over the MEA is directly affected by the cell operating conditions along with the configuration of the flow arrangement. It is also found that among the different flow configurations tested under the various operating conditions, the counter flow arrangement provides the optimum average current density and the lowest variations in the local current densities along the flow channels.

  11. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  12. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm -2 was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Role of plasma membrane-associated AKAPs for the regulation of cardiac IK1 current by protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Claudia; Scherer, Daniel; Köpple, Christoph; Kulzer, Martin; Korkmaz, Sevil; Xynogalos, Panagiotis; Thomas, Dierk; Kaya, Ziya; Scholz, Eberhard; Backs, Johannes; Karle, Christoph; Katus, Hugo A; Zitron, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    The cardiac I K1 current stabilizes the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes. Protein kinase A (PKA) induces an inhibition of I K1 current which strongly promotes focal arrhythmogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have only partially been elucidated yet. Furthermore, the role of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) in this regulation has not been examined to date. The objective of this project was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of I K1 by PKA and to identify novel molecular targets for antiarrhythmic therapy downstream β-adrenoreceptors. Patch clamp and voltage clamp experiments were used to record currents and co-immunoprecipitation, and co-localization experiments were performed to show spatial and functional coupling. Activation of PKA inhibited I K1 current in rat cardiomyocytes. This regulation was markedly attenuated by disrupting PKA-binding to AKAPs with the peptide inhibitor AKAP-IS. We observed functional and spatial coupling of the plasma membrane-associated AKAP15 and AKAP79 to Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channel subunits, but not to Kir2.3 channels. In contrast, AKAPyotiao had no functional effect on the PKA regulation of Kir channels. AKAP15 and AKAP79 co-immunoprecipitated with and co-localized to Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channel subunits in ventricular cardiomyocytes. In this study, we provide evidence for coupling of cardiac Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 subunits with the plasma membrane-bound AKAPs 15 and 79. Cardiac membrane-associated AKAPs are a functionally essential part of the regulatory cascade determining I K1 current function and may be novel molecular targets for antiarrhythmic therapy downstream from β-adrenoreceptors.

  14. On water transport in polymer electrolyte membranes during the passage of current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an approach to model the water transport in the membranes of PEM fuel cells during operation. Starting from a frequently utilized equation the various transport mechanisms are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the commonly used approach to simply balance the electro......-osmotic drag (EOD) with counter diffusion and/or hydraulic permeation is flawed, and that any net transport of water through the membrane is caused by diffusion. Depending on the effective drag the cathode side of the membrane may experience a lower hydration than the anode side. The effect of a water......-uptake layer on the net water transport will also be pictured. Finally, the effect of EOD is visualized using “Newton’s cradle”....

  15. Sequential Vapor Infiltration Treatment Enhances the Ionic Current Rectification Performance of Composite Membranes Based on Mesoporous Silica Confined in Anodic Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-12-20

    Ionic current rectification of nanofluidic diode membranes has been studied widely in recent years because it is analogous to the functionality of biological ion channels in principle. We report a new method to fabricate ionic current rectification membranes based on mesoporous silica confined in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Two types of mesostructured silica nanocomposites, hexagonal structure and nanoparticle stacked structure, were used to asymmetrically fill nanochannels of AAO membranes by a vapor-phase synthesis (VPS) method with aspiration approach and were further modified via sequence vapor infiltration (SVI) treatment. The ionic current measurements indicated that SVI treatment can modulate the asymmetric ionic transport in prepared membranes, which exhibited clear ionic current rectification phenomenon under optimal conditions. The ionic current rectifying behavior is derived from the asymmetry of surface conformations, silica species components, and hydrophobic wettability, which are created by the asymmetrical filling type, silica depositions on the heterogeneous membranes, and the condensation of silanol groups. This article provides a considerable strategy to fabricate composite membranes with obvious ionic current rectification performance via the cooperation of the VPS method and SVI treatment and opens up the potential of mesoporous silica confined in AAO membranes to mimic fluid transport in biological processes.

  16. Current trends for improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis is light dependent microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in improving the design of membrane devices for photoautotrophic biosynthesis dependent lighting microorganisms aimed at a significant increase in the productivity of valuable products from biomass of microalgae and obtaining on the basis of their individual useful substances (drugs used in various industries and medicine. In film devices effectively the processes of heat - and mass-exchange with the gas comes into contact with the culture fluid flowing as a film on a transparent film-forming surface is STI in its light intensity and autotrophic biosynthesis occurs only in the presence of a mixture of air with carbon dioxide. Thus, completely eliminated the accumulation of metabolic products due to their continuous removal from film culture liquid with the process gas, which is not typical for devices of other types. Small size membrane bioreactors may increase the degree of saturation of the liquid carbon dioxide with the possibility of changing the concentration of gas in the culture fluid and to ensure the cultivation of microorganisms with a specified biomass yield. At present up to date-developed a significant number of ways to ensure contact of the gas with the liquid (bubbling, gas-lift, mechanical stirring, jet, membrane, etc. on the basis of which an industrial bioreactor, with various "stress" effect. It is believed that for the cultivation of the most optimal are bioreactors with mechanical stirring of the liquid, which allow the greatest productivity of biomass. However, the applied model of a mechanical mixing device to create a work whose cavity of the bioreactor chaotic, disorganized mixing, which contributes to the emergence, insufficient for the sustenance of the cell cultures and microorganisms. Analysis of the interactions of the gas with the liquid film devices showed the need to create a new generation of bioreactor with intensive mass transfer without the possibility of limiting the productivity of

  17. Molecular mechanisms of protein-cholesterol interactions in plasma membranes: Functional distinction between topological (tilted) and consensus (CARC/CRAC) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Jacques; Di Scala, Coralie; Baier, Carlos J; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms that control the multiple possible modes of protein association with membrane cholesterol are remarkably convergent. These mechanisms, which include hydrogen bonding, CH-π stacking and dispersion forces, are used by a wide variety of extracellular proteins (e.g. microbial or amyloid) and membrane receptors. Virus fusion peptides penetrate the membrane of host cells with a tilted orientation that is compatible with a transient interaction with cholesterol; this tilted orientation is also characteristic of the process of insertion of amyloid proteins that subsequently form oligomeric pores in the plasma membrane of brain cells. Membrane receptors that are associated with cholesterol generally display linear consensus binding motifs (CARC and CRAC) characterized by a triad of basic (Lys/Arg), aromatic (Tyr/phe) and aliphatic (Leu/Val) amino acid residues. In some cases, the presence of both CARC and CRAC within the same membrane-spanning domain allows the simultaneous binding of two cholesterol molecules, one in each membrane leaflet. In this review the molecular basis and the functional significance of the different modes of protein-cholesterol interactions in plasma membranes are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of heat and water transport on the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell under high current density operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Yuichiro; Shiomi, Takeshi; Aoki, Osamu; Kubo, Norio; Shinohara, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Key challenges to the acceptance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for automobiles are the cost reduction and improvement in its power density for compactness. In order to get the solution, the further improvement in a fuel cell performance is required. In particular, under higher current density operation, water and heat transport in PEMFCs has considerable effects on the cell performance. In this study, the impact of heat and water transport on the cell performance under high current density was investigated by experimental evaluation of liquid water distribution and numerical validation. Liquid water distribution in MEA between rib and channel area is evaluated by neutron radiography. In order to neglect the effect of liquid water in gas channels and reactant species concentration distribution in the flow direction, the differential cell was used in this study. Experimental results suggested that liquid water under the channel was dramatically changed with rib/channel width. From the numerical study, it is found that the change of liquid water distribution was significantly affected by temperature distribution in MEA between rib and channel area. In addition, not only heat transport but also water transport through the membrane also significantly affected the cell performance under high current density operation.

  19. Real-Time Microscopic Monitoring of Flow, Voltage and Current in the Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Li, Shih-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-03-15

    Looking for alternative energy sources has been an inevitable trend since the oil crisis, and close attentioned has been paid to hydrogen energy. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer is characterized by high energy efficiency, high yield, simple system and low operating temperature. The electrolyzer generates hydrogen from water free of any carbon sources (provided the electrons come from renewable sources such as solar and wind), so it is very clean and completely satisfies the environmental requirement. However, in long-term operation of the PEM water electrolyzer, the membrane material durability, catalyst corrosion and nonuniformity of local flow, voltage and current in the electrolyzer can influence the overall performance. It is difficult to measure the internal physical parameters of the PEM water electrolyzer, and the physical parameters are interrelated. Therefore, this study uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a flexible integrated microsensor; internal multiple physical information is extracted to determine the optimal working parameters for the PEM water electrolyzer. The real operational data of local flow, voltage and current in the PEM water electrolyzer are measured simultaneously by the flexible integrated microsensor, so as to enhance the performance of the PEM water electrolyzer and to prolong the service life.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of current and temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell during cold start processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Kui; Alaefour, Ibrahim E.; Karimi, Gholamreza; Li Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Cold start is critical to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive applications. Dynamic distributions of current and temperature in PEMFC during various cold start processes determine the cold start characteristics, and are required for the optimization of design and operational strategy. This study focuses on an investigation of the cold start characteristics of a PEMFC through the simultaneous measurements of current and temperature distributions. An analytical model for quick estimate of purging duration is also developed. During the failed cold start process, the highest current density is initially near the inlet region of the flow channels, then it moves downstream, reaching the outlet region eventually. Almost half of the cell current is produced in the inlet region before the cell current peaks, and the region around the middle of the cell has the best survivability. These two regions are therefore more important than other regions for successful cold start through design and operational strategy, such as reducing the ice formation and enhancing the heat generation in these two regions. The evolution of the overall current density distribution over time remains similar during the successful cold start process; the current density is the highest near the flow channel inlets and generally decreases along the flow direction. For both the failed and the successful cold start processes, the highest temperature is initially in the flow channel inlet region, and is then around the middle of the cell after the overall peak current density is reached. The ice melting and liquid formation during the successful cold start process have negligible influence on the general current and temperature distributions.

  1. Human Na(v)1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Na(v)1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Na(v)1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Na(v)1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Na(v)1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Na(v)1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons.

  2. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration.

  3. Adult venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayan; Callisen, Hannelisa E; Alwardt, Cory M; Larson, Joel S; Lowell, Amelia A; Libricz, Stacy L; Tarwade, Pritee; Patel, Bhavesh M; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure was proposed more than 40 years ago. Despite the publication of the ARDSNet study and adoption of lung protective ventilation, the mortality for acute respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome has continued to remain high. This technology has evolved over the past couple of decades and has been noted to be safe and successful, especially during the worldwide H1N1 influenza pandemic with good survival rates. The primary indications for ECMO in acute respiratory failure include severe refractory hypoxemic and hypercarbic respiratory failure in spite of maximum lung protective ventilatory support. Various triage criteria have been described and published. Contraindications exist when application of ECMO may be futile or technically impossible. Knowledge and appreciation of the circuit, cannulae, and the physiology of gas exchange with ECMO are necessary to ensure lung rest, efficiency of oxygenation, and ventilation as well as troubleshooting problems. Anticoagulation is a major concern with ECMO, and the evidence is evolving with respect to diagnostic testing and use of anticoagulants. Clinical management of the patient includes comprehensive critical care addressing sedation and neurologic issues, ensuring lung recruitment, diuresis, early enteral nutrition, treatment and surveillance of infections, and multisystem organ support. Newer technology that delinks oxygenation and ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal may lead to ultra-lung protective ventilation, avoidance of endotracheal intubation in some situations, and ambulatory therapies as a bridge to lung transplantation. Risks, complications, and long-term outcomes and resources need to be considered and weighed in before widespread application. Ethical challenges are a reality and a multidisciplinary approach that should be adopted for every case in consideration.

  4. Research in Water Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified by Polymerization of Dimethylaniline under the Action of Direct Current Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Drachev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified by polymerization of dimethylaniline in a discharge of direct current are investigated. The influence of conditions of plasma treatment on the basic characteristics of the membranes (pore size, wettability, surface charge, water permeability) is studied. It is shown that under the action of discharge, a polymeric layer is formed on the membrane surface that can swell in solutions with low pH values. It has been found that the degree of the swelling stipulated by the conformation transfer of macromolecules of the deposited polymeric layer depends upon the size of relative magnification of the mass of the membrane during its plasma treatment. It is also shown that the obtained membranes can reversibly react to changing the pH of solution and applied pressure.

  5. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  6. Modulation by endothelin-1 of spontaneous activity and membrane currents of atrioventricular node myocytes from the rabbit heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie C Choisy

    Full Text Available The atrioventricular node (AVN is a key component of the cardiac pacemaker-conduction system. Although it is known that receptors for the peptide hormone endothelin-1 (ET-1 are expressed in the AVN, there is very little information available on the modulatory effects of ET-1 on AVN electrophysiology. This study characterises for the first time acute modulatory effects of ET-1 on AVN cellular electrophysiology.Electrophysiological experiments were conducted in which recordings were made from rabbit isolated AVN cells at 35-37°C using the whole-cell patch clamp recording technique.Application of ET-1 (10 nM to spontaneously active AVN cells led rapidly (within ~13 s to membrane potential hyperpolarisation and cessation of spontaneous action potentials (APs. This effect was prevented by pre-application of the ET(A receptor inhibitor BQ-123 (1 µM and was not mimicked by the ET(B receptor agonist IRL-1620 (300 nM. In whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, ET-1 partially inhibited L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L and rapid delayed rectifier K(+ current (I(Kr, whilst it transiently activated the hyperpolarisation-activated current (I(f at voltages negative to the pacemaking range, and activated an inwardly rectifying current that was inhibited by both tertiapin-Q (300 nM and Ba(2+ ions (2 mM; each of these effects was sensitive to ET(A receptor inhibition. In cells exposed to tertiapin-Q, ET-1 application did not produce membrane potential hyperpolarisation or immediate cessation of spontaneous activity; instead, there was a progressive decline in AP amplitude and depolarisation of maximum diastolic potential.Acutely applied ET-1 exerts a direct modulatory effect on AVN cell electrophysiology. The dominant effect of ET-1 in this study was activation of a tertiapin-Q sensitive inwardly rectifying K(+ current via ET(A receptors, which led rapidly to cell quiescence.

  7. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  8. Chimeric forms of furin and TGN38 are transported with the plasma membrane in the trans-Golgi network via distinct endosomal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, W G; Maxfield, F R

    1999-07-26

    Furin and TGN38 are menbrane proteins that cycle between the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), each maintaining a predominant distribution in the TGN. We have used chimeric proteins with an extracellular Tac domain and the cytoplasmic domain of TGN38 or furin to study the trafficking of these proteins in endosomes. Previously, we demonstrated that the postendocytic trafficking of Tac-TGN38 to the TGN is via the endocytic recycling pathway (Ghosh, R.N.,W.G. Mallet,T.T. Soe,T.E.McGraw, and F.R. Maxfield.1998.J. Cell Biol.142:923-936). Here we show that internalized Tac-furin is delivered to the TGN through late endosomes, bypassing the endocytic recycling compartment. The transport of Tac-furin from late endosomes to the TGN appears to proceed via an efficient, single-pass mechanism. Delivery of Tac-furin but not Tac-TGN38 to the TGN is blocked by nocodazole, and the two pathways are also differentially affected by wortmannin. These studies demonstrate the existence of two independentpathways for endosomal transport of proteins to the TGN from the plasma membrane.

  9. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  10. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  11. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  12. Low Resting Membrane Potential and Low Inward Rectifier Potassium Currents Are Not Inherent Features of hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András; Lemoine, Marc D; Löser, Alexandra; Mannhardt, Ingra; Flenner, Frederik; Uzun, Ahmet Umur; Neuber, Christiane; Breckwoldt, Kaja; Hansen, Arne; Girdauskas, Evaldas; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Willems, Stephan; Jost, Norbert; Wettwer, Erich; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2018-03-13

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) cardiomyocytes (CMs) show less negative resting membrane potential (RMP), which is attributed to small inward rectifier currents (I K1 ). Here, I K1 was measured in hiPSC-CMs (proprietary and commercial cell line) cultured as monolayer (ML) or 3D engineered heart tissue (EHT) and, for direct comparison, in CMs from human right atrial (RA) and left ventricular (LV) tissue. RMP was measured in isolated cells and intact tissues. I K1 density in ML- and EHT-CMs from the proprietary line was similar to LV and RA, respectively. I K1 density in EHT-CMs from the commercial line was 2-fold smaller than in the proprietary line. RMP in EHT of both lines was similar to RA and LV. Repolarization fraction and I K,ACh response discriminated best between RA and LV and indicated predominantly ventricular phenotype in hiPSC-CMs/EHT. The data indicate that I K1 is not necessarily low in hiPSC-CMs, and technical issues may underlie low RMP in hiPSC-CMs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Voltage clamp methods for the study of membrane currents and SR Ca2+ release in adult skeletal muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O.; Schneider, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C)1 coupling is a process composed of multiple sequential stages, by which an action potential triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)2 Ca2+ release and subsequent contractile activation. The various steps in the E-C coupling process in skeletal muscle can be studied using different techniques. The simultaneous recordings of sarcolemmal electrical signals and the accompanying elevation in myoplasmic Ca2+, due to depolarization-initiated SR Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle fibres, have been useful to obtain a better understanding of muscle function. In studying the origin and mechanism of voltage dependency of E-C coupling a variety of different techniques have been used to control the voltage in adult skeletal fibres. Pioneering work in muscles isolated from amphibians or crustaceans used microelectrodes or ‘high resistance gap’ techniques to manipulate the voltage in the muscle fibres. The development of the patch clamp technique and its variant, the whole-cell clamp configuration that facilitates the manipulation of the intracellular environment, allowed the use of the voltage clamp techniques in different cell types, including skeletal muscle fibres. The aim of this article is to present an historical perspective of the voltage clamp methods used to study skeletal muscle E-C coupling as well as to describe the current status of using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in studies in which the electrical and Ca2+ signalling properties of mouse skeletal muscle membranes are being investigated. PMID:22306655

  14. Distinct subclassification of DRG neurons innervating the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra based on the electrophysiological current signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Brian Y; Johnson, Richard D

    2014-09-15

    Spinal sensory neurons innervating visceral and mucocutaneous tissues have unique microanatomic distribution, peripheral modality, and physiological, pharmacological, and biophysical characteristics compared with those neurons that innervate muscle and cutaneous tissues. In previous patch-clamp electrophysiological studies, we have demonstrated that small- and medium-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be subclassified on the basis of their patterns of voltage-activated currents (VAC). These VAC-based subclasses were highly consistent in their action potential characteristics, responses to algesic compounds, immunocytochemical expression patterns, and responses to thermal stimuli. For this study, we examined the VAC of neurons retrogradely traced from the distal colon and the glans penis/distal urethra in the adult male rat. The afferent population from the distal colon contained at least two previously characterized cell types observed in somatic tissues (types 5 and 8), as well as four novel cell types (types 15, 16, 17, and 18). In the glans penis/distal urethra, two previously described cell types (types 6 and 8) and three novel cell types (types 7, 14, and 15) were identified. Other characteristics, including action potential profiles, responses to algesic compounds (acetylcholine, capsaicin, ATP, and pH 5.0 solution), and neurochemistry (expression of substance P, CGRP, neurofilament, TRPV1, TRPV2, and isolectin B4 binding) were consistent for each VAC-defined subgroup. With identification of distinct DRG cell types that innervate the distal colon and glans penis/distal urethra, future in vitro studies related to the gastrointestinal and urogenital sensory function in normal as well as abnormal/pathological conditions may be benefitted. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  16. Potentiometric flow injection system for determination of reductants using a polymeric membrane permanganate ion-selective electrode based on current-controlled reagent delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjing; Ding, Jiawang; Liang, Rongning; Qin, Wei

    2011-10-17

    A polymeric membrane permanganate-selective electrode has been developed as a current-controlled reagent release system for potentiometric detection of reductants in flow injection analysis. By applying an external current, diffusion of permanganate ions across the polymeric membrane can be controlled precisely. The permanganate ions released at the sample-membrane interface from the inner filling solution of the electrode are consumed by reaction with a reductant in the sample solution thus changing the measured membrane potential, by which the reductant can be sensed potentiometrically. Ascorbate, dopamine and norepinephrine have been employed as the model reductants. Under the optimized conditions, the potential peak heights are proportional to the reductant concentrations in the ranges of 1.0×10(-5) to 2.5×10(-7)M for ascorbate, of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for dopamine, and of 1.0×10(-5) to 5.0×10(-7)M for norepinephrine, respectively with the corresponding detection limits of 7.8×10(-8), 1.0×10(-7) and 1.0×10(-7)M. The proposed system has been successfully applied to the determination of reductants in pharmaceutical preparations and vegetables, and the results agree well with those of iodimetric analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Induced- and alternating-current electro-osmotic control of the diffusion layer growth in a microchannel-membrane interface device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2014-11-01

    The passage of an electric current through an ionic permselective medium under an applied electric field is characterized by the formation of ionic concentration gradients, which result in regions of depleted and enriched ionic concentration at opposite ends of the medium. Induced-current electro-osmosis (ICEO) and alternating-current-electro-osmosis (ACEO) are shown to control the growth of the diffusion layer (DL) which, in turn, controls the diffusion limited ion transport through the microchannel-membrane system. We fabricated and tested devices made of a Nafion membrane connecting two opposite PDMS microchannels. An interdigitated electrode array was embedded within the microchannel with various distances from the microchannel-membrane interface. The induced ICEO (floating electrodes) / ACEO (active electrodes) vortices formed at the electrode array stir the fluid and thereby suppress the growth of the DL. The intensity of the ACEO vortices is controlled by either varying the voltage amplitude or the frequency, each having its own unique effect. Enhancement of the limiting current by on-demand control of the diffusion length is of importance in on-chip electro-dialysis, desalination and preconcentration of analytes.

  18. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  19. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  20. Simulation of mechano-electrical transduction in the cochlea considering basilar membrane vibration and the ionic current of the inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinyoung; Koike, Takuji

    2018-05-01

    The inner hair cells (IHCs) in the cochlea transduce mechanical vibration of the basilar membrane (BM), caused by sound pressure, to electrical signals that are transported along the acoustic nerve to the brain. The mechanical vibration of the BM and the ionic behaviors of the IHCs have been investigated. However, consideration of the ionic behavior of the IHCs related to mechanical vibration is necessary to investigate the mechano-electrical transduction of the cochlea. In this study, a finite-element model of the BM, which takes into account the non-linear activities of the outer hair cells (OHCs), and an ionic current model of IHC were combined. The amplitudes and phases of the vibration at several points on the BM were obtained from the finite-element model by applying sound pressure. These values were fed into the ionic current model, and changes in membrane potential and calcium ion concentration of the IHCs were calculated. The membrane potential of the IHC at the maximum amplitude point (CF point) was higher than that at the non-CF points. The calcium ion concentration at the CF point was also higher than that at the non-CF points. These results suggest that the cochlea achieves its good frequency discrimination ability through mechano-electrical transduction.

  1. Cell cycle-related fluctuations in transcellular ionic currents and plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity during early cleavages of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Dohmen, René

    1991-08-01

    During the first four mitotic division cycles of Lymnaea stagnalis embryos, we have detected cell cycle-dependent changes in the pattern of transcellular ionic currents and membrane-bound Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase activity. Ionic currents ranging from 0.05 to 2.50 μA/cm 2 have been measured using the vibrating probe technique. Enzyme activity was detected using Ando's cytochemical method (Ando et al. 1981) which reveals Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localization at the ultrastructural level, and under high-stringency conditions with respect to calcium availability, it reveals Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase. The ionic currents and Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization have in common that important changes occur during the M-phase of the cell cycles. Minimal outward current at the vegetal pole coincides with metaphase/anaphase. Maximal inward current at the animal pole coincides with the onset of cytokinesis at that pole. Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase is absent from one half of the embryo at metaphase/anaphase of the two- and four-cell stage, whereas it is present in all cells during the remaining part of the cell cycle. Since fluctuations of cytosolic free calcium concentrations appear to correlate with both karyokinesis and cytokinesis, we speculate that part of the cyclic pattern of Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase localization and of the transcellular ionic currents reflects the elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration during the M-phase.

  2. Sensitivity of Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential and Ca2+ Dynamics to Small Variations in Membrane Currents and Ion Diffusion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hung Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how small variations in ionic currents and Ca2+ and Na+ diffusion coefficients impact action potential and Ca2+ dynamics in rabbit ventricular myocytes. We applied sensitivity analysis to quantify the sensitivity of Shannon et al. model (Biophys. J., 2004 to 5%–10% changes in currents conductance, channels distribution, and ion diffusion in rabbit ventricular cells. We found that action potential duration and Ca2+ peaks are highly sensitive to 10% increase in L-type Ca2+ current; moderately influenced by 10% increase in Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump, rapid delayed and slow transient outward K+ currents, and Cl− background current; insensitive to 10% increases in all other ionic currents and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ fluxes. Cell electrical activity is strongly affected by 5% shift of L-type Ca2+ channels and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in between junctional and submembrane spaces while Ca2+-activated Cl−-channel redistribution has the modest effect. Small changes in submembrane and cytosolic diffusion coefficients for Ca2+, but not in Na+ transfer, may alter notably myocyte contraction. Our studies highlight the need for more precise measurements and further extending and testing of the Shannon et al. model. Our results demonstrate usefulness of sensitivity analysis to identify specific knowledge gaps and controversies related to ventricular cell electrophysiology and Ca2+ signaling.

  3. HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission, Mode of Delivery, and Duration of Rupture of Membranes: Experience in the Current Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether the length of time of rupture of membranes (ROM in optimally managed HIV-positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART with low viral loads (VL is predictive of the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Study Methods. A retrospective case series of all HIV-positive women who delivered at two academic tertiary centers in Toronto, Canada from January 2000 to November 2010 was completed. Results. Two hundred and ten HIV-positive women with viral loads <1,000 copies/ml delivered during the study period. VL was undetectable (<50 copies/mL for the majority of the women (167, 80%, and <1,000 copies/mL for all women. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 107 (51% and cesarean in 103 (49%. The median length of time of ROM was 0.63 hours (range 0 to 77.87 hours for the entire group and 2.56 hours (range 0 to 53.90 hours for those who had a vaginal birth. Among women with undetectable VL, 90 (54% had a vaginal birth and 77 (46% had a cesarean birth. Among the women in this cohort there were no cases of MTCT of HIV. Conclusions. There was no association between duration of ROM or mode of delivery and MTCT in this cohort of 210 virally suppressed HIV-positive pregnant women.

  4. Two distinct voltage-sensing domains control voltage sensitivity and kinetics of current activation in CaV1.1 calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Benedetti, Bruno; Coste de Bagneaux, Pierre; Grabner, Manfred; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2016-06-01

    Alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle CaV1.1 voltage-gated calcium channel gives rise to two channel variants with very different gating properties. The currents of both channels activate slowly; however, insertion of exon 29 in the adult splice variant CaV1.1a causes an ∼30-mV right shift in the voltage dependence of activation. Existing evidence suggests that the S3-S4 linker in repeat IV (containing exon 29) regulates voltage sensitivity in this voltage-sensing domain (VSD) by modulating interactions between the adjacent transmembrane segments IVS3 and IVS4. However, activation kinetics are thought to be determined by corresponding structures in repeat I. Here, we use patch-clamp analysis of dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes reconstituted with CaV1.1 mutants and chimeras to identify the specific roles of these regions in regulating channel gating properties. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the structure and/or hydrophobicity of the IVS3-S4 linker is critical for regulating voltage sensitivity in the IV VSD, but by itself cannot modulate voltage sensitivity in the I VSD. Swapping sequence domains between the I and the IV VSDs reveals that IVS4 plus the IVS3-S4 linker is sufficient to confer CaV1.1a-like voltage dependence to the I VSD and that the IS3-S4 linker plus IS4 is sufficient to transfer CaV1.1e-like voltage dependence to the IV VSD. Any mismatch of transmembrane helices S3 and S4 from the I and IV VSDs causes a right shift of voltage sensitivity, indicating that regulation of voltage sensitivity by the IVS3-S4 linker requires specific interaction of IVS4 with its corresponding IVS3 segment. In contrast, slow current kinetics are perturbed by any heterologous sequences inserted into the I VSD and cannot be transferred by moving VSD I sequences to VSD IV. Thus, CaV1.1 calcium channels are organized in a modular manner, and control of voltage sensitivity and activation kinetics is accomplished by specific molecular mechanisms

  5. Current density and polarization curves for radial flow field patterns applied to PEMFCs (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Andrade, S.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Spakovsky, M.R. von; Damian-Ascencio, C.E.; Rubio-Arana, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical solution of the current density and velocity fields of a 3-D PEM radial configuration fuel cell is presented. The energy, momentum and electrochemical equations are solved using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on a finite volume scheme. There are three cases of principal interest for this radial model: four channels, eight channels and twelve channels placed in a symmetrical path over the flow field plate. The figures for the current-voltage curves for the three models proposed are presented, and the main factors that affect the behavior of each of the curves are discussed. Velocity contours are presented for the three different models, showing how the fuel cell behavior is affected by the velocity variations in the radial configuration. All these results are presented for the case of high relative humidity. The favorable results obtained for this unconventional geometry seems to indicate that this geometry could replace the conventional commercial geometries currently in use.

  6. Distinct structural features of cyclothiazide are responsible for effects on peak current amplitude and desensitization kinetics at iGluR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Helle; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Timmermann, Daniel Brunicardi

    2009-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators. The molecu......Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. Upon glutamate application, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid receptors undergo rapid and almost complete desensitization that can be attenuated by positive allosteric modulators......) in micromolar: 10 (CTZ), 26 (NS1493), 43 (NS5206), and 48 (NS5217)]. The four modulators divide into three groups according to efficacy and desensitization kinetics: (1) CTZ increases the peak current efficacy twice as much as the three analogues and nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization; (2) NS5206...... and NS5217 have low efficacy and only attenuate desensitization partially; (3) NS1493 has low efficacy but nearly completely blocks receptor desensitization. A hydrophobic substituent at the 3-position of the 1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine ring system is important for compound...

  7. Study of the input-side subsurface reorganization vs. the outside current density in hydrogen permeation under constant cell voltage through iron membrane according to RHC concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePetris-Wery, M.; Wery, S.; Catonne, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, hydrogen permeation tests were performed on pure iron membrane in 1 M sodium hydroxide at 298 K, subjected to hydrogen charging under 'quasi-potentiostatic' polarization conditions, i.e. constant cell voltage applied between the cathode (membrane entry side) and the anode (counter electrode), which is a typical situation during metal electrodeposition or cathodic degreasing on steel in metal finishing industry. Two consecutive charging-discharging runs were carried out. Prolonged hydrogen charging under quasi-potentiostatic polarization was investigated and the change of cathodic current density (i in ) chg and electrode potential (E in ) chg as well as permeation current density (i out ) chg were analysed. Three singularities were underlined for each experiment: (i) the curve (i in ) chg = f((E in ) chg ), illustrating the inverse of hydrogen charge resistance R HC -1 evolution which was negative, equal to zero and then became positive; (ii) quasi-periodic instabilities during the R HC -1 zero period, probably induced by atomic reorganizing due to subsurface hydrogen insertion in the input-side; (iii) the same ratio (i out ) chg /(i in ) chg = -6 x 10 -5 . During discharge runs, both sides of the membrane were polarized at the same potential (E in ) dischg = (E out ) dischg = -0.285 V/Hg/HgO/NaOH 1 M and the current densities, (i in ) dischg and (i out ) dischg which corresponded to the desorption rates of hydrogen, were measured. The following correlation (i out ) dischg vs.(i in ) dischg = -6 x 10 -5 was confirmed leading us to introduce the R HC -1 mirror concept to observe the input-side subsurface reorganization by the survey of its potential vs. outside current density during the hydrogen charge. Thus, this R HC -1 mirror concept showed: (i) a non-stop and irreversible progress in the subsurface reorganization during the two permeations; (ii) a probable structural evolution to a stable subsurface structure, the only condition of a real steady

  8. Effects of clamping force on the water transport and performance of a PEM (proton electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with relative humidity and current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.

  9. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  10. Membrane domains and polarized trafficking of sphingolipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, O; Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    The plasma membrane of polarized cells consists of distinct domains, the apical and basolateral membrane that are characterized by a distinct lipid and protein content. Apical protein transport is largely mediated by (glyco)sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains, so called rafts. In

  11. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  12. Divalent ion block of inward rectifier current in human capillary endothelial cells and effects on resting membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jow, Flora; Numann, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Cultured human capillary endothelial cells (HCEC) contain a large inward rectifier current, IK(IR), that can be abolished by removing external K+ or by adding 50 μm Ba2+.We show that IK(IR) is responsible for maintaining the hyperpolarized potential (−60.6 ± 0.5 mV, n = 83) of HCEC. Blocking IK(IR) with 50 μm Ba2+ shifts the zero current level and depolarizes HCEC by 36.5 ± 1.3 mV (n = 4).Increasing external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) from 0.5 to 7 mm reduces the magnitude of IK(IR) by 36.5 ± 2.3 % (n = 5) and depolarizes the cells by 10.33 ± 2.4 mV (n = 3), whereas decreasing [Ca2+]o from 1.8 to 0.5 mm increases the amplitude of IK(IR) by 6.9 ± 1.9 % (n = 4). The relationship between [Ca2+]o and the percentage block of IK(IR) gives a Kd value of 5.4 ± 0.6 mm at −120 mV.IK(IR) is also blocked by other divalent ions, with Ba2+ >> Sr2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+= Ca2+, and the block of peak current at −120 mV being 85.3 ± 3.2 % (n = 5) for 50 μm Ba2+, 62.9 ± 2.2 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Sr2+, 40.7 ± 2.5 % (n = 9) for 5 mm Mg2+, 33.4 ± 2.1 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Mn2+ and 32.9 ± 2.1 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Ca2+.The voltage dependence of Sr2+ block of peak IK(IR) occurred with a Kd value of 1.0 ± 0.09 mm for −140 mV, 1.9 ± 0.16 mm for −130 mV, 3.1 ± 0.28 mm for −120 mV, 4.6 ± 0.34 mm for −110 mV and 6.4 ± 0.5 mm for −100 mV (n = 5), with a calculated electrical distance (δ) of 0.44 from the outside. PMID:9729622

  13. The M-current contributes to high threshold membrane potential oscillations in a cell type-specific way in the pedunculopontine nucleus of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla eBordas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus is known as a cholinergic nucleus of the reticular activating system, participating in regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Besides cholinergic neurons, it consists of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons as well. According to classical and recent studies, more subgroups of neurons were defined. Groups based on the neurotransmitter released by a neuron are not homogenous, but can be further subdivided.The PPN neurons do not only provide cholinergic and non-cholinergic inputs to several subcortical brain areas but they are also targets of cholinergic and other different neuromodulatory actions. Although cholinergic neuromodulation has been already investigated in the nucleus, one of its characteristic targets, the M-type potassium current has not been described yet.Using slice electrophysiology, we provide evidence in the present work that cholinergic neurons possess M-current, whereas GABAergic neurons lack it. The M-current contributes to certain functional differences of cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, as spike frequency adaptation, action potential firing frequency or the amplitude difference of medium afterhyperpolarizations. Furthermore, we showed that high threshold membrane potential oscillation with high power, around 20 Hz frequency is a functional property of almost all cholinergic cells, whereas GABAergic neurons have only low amplitude oscillations. Blockade of the M-current abolished the oscillatory activity at 20 Hz, and largely diminished it at other frequencies.Taken together, the M-current seems to be characteristic for PPN cholinergic neurons. It provides a possibility for modulating gamma band activity of these cells, thus contributing to neuromodulatory regulation of the reticular activating system.

  14. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  15. Mechanisms of mineral membrane fouling growth modulated by pulsed modes of current during electrodialysis: evidences of water splitting implications in the appearance of the amorphous phases of magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Bazinet, Laurent

    2014-07-15

    Experiments revealed the fouling nature evolutions along different electrodialysis (ED) trials, and how it disappears when current pulsation acts repetitively on the interfaces of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). Fouling was totally controlled on the diluate side of cation-exchange membrane (CEM) by the repetitive pulsation frequency of the higher on-duty ratios applied. They created steady water splitting proton-barriers that neutralized OH(-) leakage through the membrane, decreasing the interfacial pH, and fouling of the concentrate side. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) on the diluate side was similarly protected, but it was fouled once water splitting OH(-) generation became either intense enough or excessively weak. Interestingly, amorphous magnesium hydroxide (AMH) stemmed on the CEM-diluate side from brucite under intense water splitting OH(-) generation, and/or strong OH(-) leakage electromigration through the membrane. Water dissociation and overlimiting current regimes triggered drastic water molecule removal from crystal lattices through an accelerated cascade water splitting reaction. Also, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) appeared on CEM under intense water splitting reaction, and disappeared once intense OH(-) leakage was allowed by the water splitting proton-barrier dissipation. Our findings have implications for membrane fouling control, as well as for the understanding of the growth behavior of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 species on electromembrane interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridelli, M. G.; Capelletti, R.; Mora, C.

    2013-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100-300 K (type I) and 100-285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (aw = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH2/CH3, PO_{2}^{-} and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed.

  17. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridelli, M G; Capelletti, R; Mora, C

    2013-01-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100–300 K (type I) and 100–285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (a w  = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH 2 /CH 3 , PO 2 − and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed. (paper)

  18. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  19. An experimental study on the cathode humidification and evaporative cooling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using direct water injection method at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Hoon; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system for PEM fuel cells. • An external-mixing air-assist atomizer is used to produce a very fine water spray. • The system is effective in both cathode humidification and stack cooling. • Increased water flow rate improves stack performance and evaporative cooling capacity. • At a given water flow rate, lower stack temperatures cause greater humidification effect. - Abstract: Humidification and cooling are critical issues in enhancing the efficiency and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, existing humidifiers and cooling systems have the disadvantage that they must be quite large to achieve adequate PEMFC performance. In this study, to eliminate the need for a bulky humidifier and to lighten the cooling load of PEMFCs, a cathode humidification and evaporative cooling system using an external-mixing air-assist atomizer was developed and its performance was investigated. The atomization performance of the nozzle was analyzed experimentally under various operating conditions with minimal changes in the system design. Experiments with a five-cell PEMFC stack with an active area of 250 cm"2 were carried out to analyze the effects of various parameters (such as the operating temperature, current density, and water injection flow rate) on the evaporation of injected water for humidification and cooling performances. The experimental results demonstrate that the direct water injection method proposed in this study is quite effective in cathode humidification and stack cooling in PEM fuel cells at high current densities. The stack performance was improved by humidification effect and the coolant temperature at the stack outlet decreased by evaporative cooling effect.

  20. Interaction of 125I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. I. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization and quantitation of distinct membrane acceptors for types A and B on motor nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    The labeling patterns produced by radioiodinated botulinum neurotoxin ( 125 I-BoNT) types A and B at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction were investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. The data obtained allow the following conclusions to be made. (a) 125 I-BoNT type A, applied in vivo or in vitro to mouse diaphragm or frog cutaneous pectoris muscle, interacts saturably with the motor nerve terminal only; silver grains occur on the plasma membrane, within the synaptic bouton, and in the axoplasm of the nerve trunk, suggesting internalization and retrograde intra-axonal transport of toxin or fragments thereof. (b) 125 I-BoNT type B, applied in vitro to the murine neuromuscular junction, interacts likewise with the motor nerve terminal except that a lower proportion of internalized radioactivity is seen. This result is reconcilable with the similar, but not identical, pharmacological action of these toxin types. (c) The saturability of labeling in each case suggested the involvement of acceptors; on preventing the internalization step with metabolic inhibitors, their precise location became apparent. They were found on all unmyelinated areas of the nerve terminal membrane, including the preterminal axon and the synaptic bouton. (d) It is not proposed that these membrane acceptors target BoNT to the nerve terminal and mediate its delivery to an intracellular site, thus contributing to the toxin's selective inhibitory action on neurotransmitter release

  1. Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...

  2. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  3. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  4. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  5. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  6. The cation diffusion facilitator proteins MamB and MamM of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense have distinct and complex functions, and are involved in magnetite biomineralization and magnetosome membrane assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uebe, René; Junge, Katja; Henn, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria form chains of intracellular membrane‐enclosed, nanometre‐sized magnetite crystals for navigation along the earth's magnetic field. The assembly of these prokaryotic organelles requires several specific polypeptides. Among the most abundant proteins associated with the magn......Magnetotactic bacteria form chains of intracellular membrane‐enclosed, nanometre‐sized magnetite crystals for navigation along the earth's magnetic field. The assembly of these prokaryotic organelles requires several specific polypeptides. Among the most abundant proteins associated...... with the magnetosome membrane of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense are MamB and MamM, which were implicated in magnetosomal iron transport because of their similarity to the cation diffusion facilitator family. Here we demonstrate that MamB and MamM are multifunctional proteins involved in several steps of magnetosome...

  7. Amphotericin B channels in phospholipid membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces: implications for photovoltaic driving of ions across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Solomon; Liu, Nangou; Samoylov, Alexander; Lo, Ting; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2007-03-15

    The antimycotic agent amphotericin B (AmB) functions by forming complexes with sterols to form ion channels that cause membrane leakage. When AmB and cholesterol mixed at 2:1 ratio were incorporated into phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the tip of patch pipettes, ion channel current fluctuations with characteristic open and closed states were observed. These channels were also functional in phospholipid membranes formed on nanoporous silicon surfaces. Electrophysiological studies of AmB-cholesterol mixtures that were incorporated into phospholipid membranes formed on the surface of nanoporous (6.5 nm pore diameter) silicon plates revealed large conductance ion channels ( approximately 300 pS) with distinct open and closed states. Currents through the AmB-cholesterol channels on nanoporous silicon surfaces can be driven by voltage applied via conventional electrical circuits or by photovoltaic electrical potential entirely generated when the nanoporous silicon surface is illuminated with a narrow laser beam. Electrical recordings made during laser illumination of AmB-cholesterol containing membrane-coated nanoporous silicon surfaces revealed very large conductance ion channels with distinct open and closed states. Our findings indicate that nanoporous silicon surfaces can serve as mediums for ion-channel-based biosensors. The photovoltaic properties of nanoporous silicon surfaces show great promise for making such biosensors addressable via optical technologies.

  8. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  9. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  10. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; de Bruijn, Willem C; Dohmen, M René

    1990-11-01

    During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas inBithynia eggs it was localized both in the vegetal hemisphere and at the animal pole. This pattern of enzyme activity corresponds to the polar pattern of transcellular ionic currents measured with the vibrating probe, which we showed to be partially carried or regulated by calcium [Zivkovic and Dohmen (1989) Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 176 (Suppl):103-109]. The characteristics of the ATPase were studied using a variety of approaches such as ion and substrate depletions and substitutions, addition of specific inhibitors of ATPase activity, treatment with EDTA/EGTA and electron energy-loss spectrometry. The results indicate that, inLymnaea, there are at least two enzymatic entities. The first one is a Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localized along the membrane and in the cortex of the vegetal hemisphere. The second one is a Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase (calcium pump of the plasma membrane) localized in a small region of the membrane at the vegetal pole. We speculate that in the eggs ofLymnaea andBithynia a functional relationship exists between the plasma-membrane-associated ATPase activity and the transcellular ionic currents measured in the same region.

  11. Mesoporous and microporous titania membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulic, J.

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this thesis deals with the synthesis and properties of ceramic oxide membrane materials. Since most of the currently available inorganic membranes with required separation properties have limited reliability and long-term stability, membranes made of new oxide materials

  12. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Woen Ping; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2008-03-15

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (>500 microM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 microM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca2+-Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury.

  13. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, W.P.; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2008-01-01

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (> 500 μM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 μM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca 2+ -Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury

  14. Progress and challenges of carbon nanotube membrane in water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun; Jeong, Sanghyun; Liu, Zongwen

    2016-01-01

    review of the progress of CNT membranes addressing the current epidemic—whether (i) the CNT membranes could tackle current challenges in the pressure- or thermally driven membrane processes and (ii) CNT hybrid nanocomposite as a new generation

  15. Sphingolipid Organization in the Plasma Membrane and the Mechanisms That Influence It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are structural components in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Their metabolism produces bioactive signaling molecules that modulate fundamental cellular processes. The segregation of sphingolipids into distinct membrane domains is likely essential for cellular function. This review presents the early studies of sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells that shaped the most popular current model of plasma membrane organization. The results of traditional imaging studies of sphingolipid distribution in stimulated and resting cells are described. These data are compared with recent results obtained with advanced imaging techniques, including super-resolution fluorescence detection and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Emphasis is placed on the new insight into the sphingolipid organization within the plasma membrane that has resulted from the direct imaging of stable isotope-labeled lipids in actual cell membranes with high-resolution SIMS. Super-resolution fluorescence techniques have recently revealed the biophysical behaviors of sphingolipids and the unhindered diffusion of cholesterol analogs in the membranes of living cells are ultimately in contrast to the prevailing hypothetical model of plasma membrane organization. High-resolution SIMS studies also conflicted with the prevailing hypothesis, showing sphingolipids are concentrated in micrometer-scale membrane domains, but cholesterol is evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Reductions in cellular cholesterol decreased the number of sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane, whereas disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated them. In addition, hemagglutinin, a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a putative raft marker, did not cluster within sphingolipid-enriched regions in the plasma membrane. Thus, sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membrane is dependent on the cytoskeleton, but not on favorable interactions with

  16. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  17. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  18. Current limitations of the assessment of haemostasis in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients and the role of point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K; Nair, P S; Hoechter, D J; Buscher, H

    2016-11-01

    Haemostatic perturbations are commonly seen in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients and remain a clinical challenge, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. The approach to anticoagulation monitoring and the management of bleeding varies considerably across ECMO centres. Routine laboratory tests have their limitations in terms of turnaround time and specificity of information provided. Newer point-of-care testing (POCT) for coagulation may overcome these issues, as it provides information about the entire coagulation pathway from clot initiation to lysis. It is also possible to obtain qualitative information on platelet function from these tests. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate these results into a goal-directed algorithm to manage bleeding with targeted transfusion strategies appears particularly attractive and cost effective. Further studies are required to evaluate the utility of POCT to optimise bleeding and anticoagulation management in these complex patients.

  19. Introducing Membrane Charge and Membrane Potential to T Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While membrane models now include the heterogeneous distribution of lipids, the impact of membrane charges on regulating the association of proteins with the plasma membrane is often overlooked. Charged lipids are asymmetrically distributed between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane, resulting in the inner leaflet being negatively charged and a surface potential that attracts and binds positively charged ions, proteins, and peptide motifs. These interactions not only create a transmembrane potential but they can also facilitate the formation of charged membrane domains. Here, we reference fields outside of immunology in which consequences of membrane charge are better characterized to highlight important mechanisms. We then focus on T cell receptor (TCR signaling, reviewing the evidence that membrane charges and membrane-associated calcium regulate phosphorylation of the TCR–CD3 complex and discuss how the immunological synapse exhibits distinct patterns of membrane charge distribution. We propose that charged lipids, ions in solution, and transient protein interactions form a dynamic equilibrium during T cell activation.

  20. The actions of mdivi-1, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, on rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K⁺ current and membrane potential in HL-1 murine atrial cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Liang, Chia-Hua; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2012-05-15

    Mdivi-1 is an inhibitor of dynamin related protein 1- (drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission. However, the mechanisms through which this compound interacts directly with ion currents in heart cells remain unknown. In this study, its effects on ion currents and membrane potential in murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes were investigated. In whole-cell recordings, the addition of mdivi-1 decreased the amplitude of tail current (I(tail)) for the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K⁺ current (I(Kr)) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC₅₀ value at 11.6 μM, a value that resembles the inhibition requirement for mitochondrial division. It shifted the activation curve of I(tail) to depolarized voltages with no change in the gating charge. However, mdivi-1 did not alter the rate of recovery from current inactivation. In cell-attached configuration, mdivi-1 inside the pipette suppressed the activity of acetylcholine-activated K⁺ channels without modifying the single-channel conductance. Mdivi-1 (30 μM) slightly depressed the peak amplitude of Na⁺ current with no change in the overall current-voltage relationship. Under current-clamp recordings, addition of mdivi-1 resulted in prolongation for the duration of action potentials (APs) and to increase the firing of spontaneous APs in HL-1 cells. Similarly, in pituitary GH₃ cells, mdivi-1 was effective in directly suppressing the amplitude of ether-à-go-go-related gene-mediated K⁺ current. Therefore, the lengthening of AP duration and increased firing of APs caused by mdivi-1 can be primarily explained by its inhibition of these K⁺ channels enriched in heart cells. The observed effects of mdivi-1 on ion currents were direct and not associated with its inhibition of mitochondrial division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloning and characterization of the immunodominant membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... A; Amp, antigenic membranes protein; AY, aster yellows; CPh, clover phyllody; JHP ... host-phytoplasma interactions and the IDPs are classified into three distinct types: type I was ..... Range of phytoplasma concentrations in ...

  2. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Lu, Chen-En; Ger, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm 2 ) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm 2 and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I corr = 9.360 × 10 −8 A/cm 2 ). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm 2 at 150 N cm −2 ), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm 2 as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm 2 ) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm 2 ). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel

  3. The study of electroplating trivalent CrC alloy coatings with different current densities on stainless steel 304 as bipolar plate of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hou, Kung-Hsu, E-mail: khou@ndu.edu.tw [Department of Power Vehicle and Systems Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chen-En [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, the trivalent Cr–C coatings were electroplated on stainless steel 304 (SS304) substrates for an application in bipolar plates (BPPs) that was because of coating's excellent electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. The images of scanning electron microscope showed that the thickness of the coatings was between 1.4 and 11.4 μm, which increased with increase of coating current density. The surface morphology of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was smooth, crack- and pinhole-free, while cracks and pinholes appearing in networks were observed apparently in the deposits plated at a higher coating current density. Additionally, the C content in the coating decreased with increasing the coating current density. Moreover, the polarization curve with different coating current densities (10, 30, 50 A/dm{sup 2}) exhibited the coating prepared at 10 A/dm{sup 2} and 10 min possessing the best corrosion resistance (I{sub corr} = 9.360 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}). The contact resistance of Cr–C plated at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} was the lowest (16.54 mΩ cm{sup 2} at 150 N cm{sup −2}), which showed great potential of application. The single cell test with Cr–C coated SS304 prepared at coating current density of 10 A/dm{sup 2} as BPPs showed the highest current density (about 791.532 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power density (about 270.150 mW/cm{sup 2}). - Highlights: • The Cr–C coatings on steel are electroplated for utilization as bipolar plate. • The electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance increase with carbon content. • The power density of Cr–C coated steel is superior to the bare steel.

  4. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  5. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta eJain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA. In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the last universal common ancestor LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria.

  6. Analysis of Protein-Membrane Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmer, Gerdi Christine

    Cellular membranes are complex structures, consisting of hundreds of different lipids and proteins. These membranes act as barriers between distinct environments, constituting hot spots for many essential functions of the cell, including signaling, energy conversion, and transport. These functions....... Discovered interactions were then probed on the level of the membrane using liposome-based assays. In the second part, a transmembrane protein was investigated. Assays to probe activity of the plasma membrane ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana H+ -ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2)) in single liposomes using both giant...... are implemented by soluble proteins reversibly binding to, as well as by integral membrane proteins embedded in, cellular membranes. The activity and interaction of these proteins is furthermore modulated by the lipids of the membrane. Here, liposomes were used as model membrane systems to investigate...

  7. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  8. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  9. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  10. Investigations on contribution of glial inwardly-rectifying K+ current to membrane potential and ion flux: An experimental and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inwardly rectifying K+ current [IK(IR] allows large inward K+ currents at potentials negative to K+ equilibrium potential (EK and it becomes small outward K+ currents at those positive to EK. How changes of such currents enriched in glial cells can influence the functions of glial cell, neurons, or both is not clearly defined, although mutations of Kir4.1 channels have been demonstrated to cause serious neurological disorders. In this study, we identified the presence of IK(IR in human glioma cells (U373 and U87 cells. The amplitude of IK(IR in U373 cells was subject to inhibition by amitriptyline, arecoline, or BaCl2. The activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channels was also clearly detected, and single-channel conductance of these channels was calculated to be around 23 pS. Moreover, based on a simulation model derived from neuron–glial interaction mediated by ion flux, we further found out that incorporation of glial IK(IR conductance into the model can significantly contribute to regulation of extracellular K+ concentrations and glial resting potential, particularly during high-frequency stimulation. Glial cells and neurons can mutually modulate their expression of ion channels through K+ ions released into the extracellular space. It is thus anticipated that glial IK(IR may be a potential target utilized to influence the activity of neuronal and glial cells as well as their interaction.

  11. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 6343821. ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rat ventricular cell * mathematical model * Na-Ca current * t-tubules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  12. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  13. The dynamics of plant plasma membrane proteins: PINs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschnig, Christian; Vert, Grégory

    2014-08-01

    Plants are permanently situated in a fixed location and thus are well adapted to sense and respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues. At the cellular level, several of these responses require delicate adjustments that affect the activity and steady-state levels of plasma membrane proteins. These adjustments involve both vesicular transport to the plasma membrane and protein internalization via endocytic sorting. A substantial part of our current knowledge of plant plasma membrane protein sorting is based on studies of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins, which are found at distinct plasma membrane domains and have been implicated in directional efflux of the plant hormone auxin. Here, we discuss the mechanisms involved in establishing such polar protein distributions, focusing on PINs and other key plant plasma membrane proteins, and we highlight the pathways that allow for dynamic adjustments in protein distribution and turnover, which together constitute a versatile framework that underlies the remarkable capabilities of plants to adjust growth and development in their ever-changing environment. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Proteomic profiling of exosomes: Current perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, Richard J; Jensen, Søren S; Lim, Justin W E

    2008-01-01

    for the spread of morphogens in epithelia. The advent of current MS-based proteomic technologies has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular composition of exosomes. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic proteins, it is becoming increasingly apparent that exosomes harbor...... distinct subsets of proteins that may be linked to cell-type associated functions. The secretion of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the transport and propagation of infectious cargo such as prions and retroviruses such as HIV suggest their participation in pathological situations...

  15. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  16. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  17. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  19. Simultaneous mapping of membrane voltage and calcium in zebrafish heart in vivo reveals chamber-specific developmental transitions in ionic currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac action potential (AP and the consequent cytosolic Ca2+ transient are key indicators of cardiac function. Natural developmental processes, as well as many drugs and pathologies change the waveform, propagation, or variability (between cells or over time of these parameters. Here we apply a genetically encoded dual-function calcium and voltage reporter (CaViar to study the development of the zebrafish heart in vivo between 1.5 and 4 days post fertilization (dpf. We developed a high-sensitivity spinning disk confocal microscope and associated software for simultaneous three-dimensional optical mapping of voltage and calcium. We produced a transgenic zebrafish line expressing CaViar under control of the heart-specific cmlc2 promoter, and applied ion channel blockers at a series of developmental stages to map the maturation of the action potential in vivo. Early in development, the AP initiated via a calcium current through L-type calcium channels. Between 90 – 102 hours post fertilization (hpf, the ventricular AP switched to a sodium-driven upswing, while the atrial AP remained calcium driven. In the adult zebrafish heart, a sodium current drives the AP in both the atrium and ventricle. Simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging with genetically encoded reporters provides a new approach for monitoring cardiac development, and the effects of drugs on cardiac function.

  20. The resurrection of a species: Sarcocystis bovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975 is distinct from the current Sarcocystis hirsuta in cattle and morphologically indistinguishable from Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    should again be used not only for the species originally described from cattle in Germany but also for morphologically indistinguishable taxa recently reported from cattle under the names S. sinensis and S. rommeli. Because of the morphological similarity between S. bovifelis and S. sinensis, it is likely that cats also act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. The present paper also gives a thorough review of all research in the 1970s pertaining to S. bovifelis, including its development in cats and cattle; a review of reports of S. bovifelis-like sarcocysts in cattle, water buffaloes and other hosts; and a review of reports of the taxon currently named S. hirsuta in cattle. The usage of the name S. sinensis versus Sarcocystis dubeyi for the S. bovifelis-like taxon in water buffaloes is discussed, and the latter name is found to represent a nomen dubium since the original description concerned a mixture of a S. sinensis- and a Sarcocystis hominis-like species. Based on available transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the three-dimensional configuration of the cyst wall protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis and the current S. hirsuta has been inferred and is described. The protrusions of S. bovifelis/S. sinensis are shaped like soft plastic tubes, having a cylindrical basal portion and a flattened distal portion, making them prone to fold over. The protrusions of the current S. hirsuta are thin, flattened and flexible rectangular structures (like a soft cover note book), which are attached to the cyst surface with a narrow stalk. The appearance of both types of protrusions in ultrathin sections viewed by TEM is highly dependent on how the sarcocysts and the protrusions themselves have been sectioned.

  1. MHTGR product distinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    Commercial power reactor operating experience and regulatory practice in the United States is dominated by Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology. This experience base and regulatory structure is a point of departure for the development of any future nuclear option, and must be understood and utilized as appropriate. This report discusses experience with current generation plants considered relevant to MHTGR development, as well as the fundamental differences between the MHTGR and LWR technology, and quantifies avoided business risks relative to current generation plants. It does not attempt to compare the MHTGR with other advanced nuclear options, LWR or other technologies, which are also under development and must relate to the historical framework in accordance with their own unique characteristics. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  3. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  4. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi, E-mail: kinsakai@ngk.co.jp [Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya 467-8530 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R and D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  5. Ceramic membrane development in NGK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kiyoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    NGK Insulators, Ltd. was established in 1919 to manufacture the electric porcelain insulators for power transmission lines. Since then, our business has grown as one of the world-leading ceramics manufacturing companies and currently supply with the various environmentally-benign ceramic products to worldwide. In this paper, ceramic membrane development in NGK is described in detail. We have been selling ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes for many years to be used for solid/liquid separation in various fields such as pharmaceutical, chemical, food and semiconductor industries. In Corporate R&D, new ceramic membranes with sub-nanometer sized pores, which are fabricated on top of the membrane filters as support, are under development for gas and liquid/liquid separation processes.

  6. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Nitul; Diamond James; Jalali Subhadra; Das Taraprasad

    1998-01-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose o...

  7. Generalized chiral membrane dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, R.; Rojas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We develop the dynamics of the chiral superconducting membranes (with null current) in an alternative geometrical approach. Besides of this, we show the equivalence of the resulting description with the one known Dirac-Nambu-Goto (DNG) case. Integrability for chiral string model is obtained using a proposed light-cone gauge. In a similar way, domain walls are integrated by means of a simple Ansatz. (Author)

  8. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  9. On the resistances of membrane, diffusion boundary layer and double layer in ion exchange membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Długołȩcki, P.; Ogonowski, P.; Metz, S.J.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.; Wessling, M.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane resistances are often measured under direct current conditions using a standard 0.5 M NaCl characterization solution, although several electro-membrane processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, electrodialysis, fuel cells, microbial fuel cells and membrane capacitive deionization) operate in

  10. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  11. Plants and fungi in the era of heterogeneous plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekarová, M; Malinsky, J; Tanner, W

    2010-09-01

    Examples from yeast and plant cells are described that show that their plasma membrane is laterally compartmented. Distinct lateral domains encompassing both specific lipids and integral proteins coexist within the plane of the plasma membrane. The compartments are either spatially stable and include distinct sets of proteins, or they are transiently formed to accomplish diverse functions. They are not related to lipid rafts or their clusters, as defined for mammalian cells. This review summarises only well-documented compartments of plasma membranes from plants and fungi, which have been recognised using microscopic approaches. In several cases, physiological functions of the membrane compartmentation are revealed.

  12. Ballistic impact response of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Zhaoxu; Qin, Xin; Keten, Sinan

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic agent loaded micro and nanoscale particles as high-velocity projectiles can penetrate cells and tissues, thereby serving as gene and drug delivery vehicles for direct and rapid internalization. Despite recent progress in developing micro/nanoscale ballistic tools, the underlying biophysics of how fast projectiles deform and penetrate cell membranes is still poorly understood. To understand the rate and size-dependent penetration processes, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the ballistic impact of spherical projectiles on lipid membranes. Our simulations reveal that upon impact, the projectile can pursue one of three distinct pathways. At low velocities below the critical penetration velocity, projectiles rebound off the surface. At intermediate velocities, penetration occurs after the projectile deforms the membrane into a tubular thread. At very high velocities, rapid penetration occurs through localized membrane deformation without tubulation. Membrane tension, projectile velocity and size govern which phenomenon occurs, owing to their positive correlation with the reaction force generated between the projectile and the membrane during impact. Two critical membrane tension values dictate the boundaries among the three pathways for a given system, due to the rate dependence of the stress generated in the membrane. Our findings provide broad physical insights into the ballistic impact response of soft viscous membranes and guide design strategies for drug delivery through lipid membranes using micro/nanoscale ballistic tools.

  13. 3D pressure field in lipid membranes and membrane-protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Risselada, H Jelger; Louhivuori, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We calculate full 3D pressure fields for inhomogeneous nanoscale systems using molecular dynamics simulation data. The fields represent systems with increasing level of complexity, ranging from semivesicles and vesicles to membranes characterized by coexistence of two phases, including also...... a protein-membrane complex. We show that the 3D pressure field is distinctly different for curved and planar bilayers, the pressure field depends strongly on the phase of the membrane, and that an integral protein modulates the tension and elastic properties of the membrane....

  14. Conformational transitions and interactions underlying the function of membrane embedded receptor protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Sharonov, Georgy V; Bocharova, Olga V; Pavlov, Konstantin V

    2017-09-01

    Among membrane receptors, the single-span receptor protein kinases occupy a broad but specific functional niche determined by distinctive features of the underlying transmembrane signaling mechanisms that are briefly overviewed on the basis of some of the most representative examples, followed by a more detailed discussion of several hierarchical levels of organization and interactions involved. All these levels, including single-molecule interactions (e.g., dimerization, liganding, chemical modifications), local processes (e.g. lipid membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal interactions), and larger scale phenomena (e.g., effects of membrane surface shape or electrochemical potential gradients) appear to be closely integrated to achieve the observed diversity of the receptor functioning. Different species of receptor protein kinases meet their specific functional demands through different structural features defining their responses to stimulation, but certain common patterns exist. Signaling by receptor protein kinases is typically associated with the receptor dimerization and clustering, ligand-induced rearrangements of receptor domains through allosteric conformational transitions with involvement of lipids, release of the sequestered lipids, restriction of receptor diffusion, cytoskeleton and membrane shape remodeling. Understanding of complexity and continuity of the signaling processes can help identifying currently neglected opportunities for influencing the receptor signaling with potential therapeutic implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Choroidal neovascular membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nitul

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician′s viewpoint.

  16. Choroidal neovascular membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, N S; Diamond, J G; Jalali, S; Das, T

    1998-06-01

    Choroidal neovascular membrane in the macular area is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss. Usually a manifestation in elderly population, it is often associated with age-related macular degeneration. The current mainstay of management is early diagnosis, usually by fundus examination, aided by angiography and photocoagulation in selected cases. Various other modalities of treatment including surgery are being considered as alternate options, but with limited success. The purpose of this review is to briefly outline the current concepts and the management strategy from a clinician's viewpoint.

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  18. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  19. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  20. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  1. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  2. The subapical compartment : a traffic center in membrane polarity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D; Tyteca, D; van IJzendoorn, SCD

    2004-01-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces

  3. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2015-04-06

    in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  4. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  6. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Simon

    2008-02-01

    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning.

  7. Integration of ceramic membrane and compressed air-assisted solvent extraction (CASX) for metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Wang; Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Hao; Lee, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In our previous publications, compressed air-assisted solvent extraction process (CASX) was developed and proved to be kinetically efficient process for metal removal. In the current study, CASX with a ceramic MF membrane integrated for separation of spent solvent was employed to remove and recover metal from wastewater. MF was operated either in crossflow mode or dead-end with intermittent flushing mode. Under crossflow mode, three distinct stages of flux vs. TMP (trans-membrane pressure) relationship were observed. In the first stage, flux increases with increasing TMP which is followed by the stage of stable flux with increasing TMP. After reaching a threshold TMP which is dependent of crossflow velocity, flux increases again with increasing TMP. At the last stage, solvent was pushed through membrane pores as indicated by increasing permeate COD. In dead-end with intermittent flushing mode, an intermittent flushing flow (2 min after a 10-min or a 30-min dead-end filtration) was incorporated to reduce membrane fouling by flush out MSAB accumulated on membrane surface. Effects of solvent concentration and composition were also investigated. Solvent concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1% (w/w) have no adverse effect in terms of membrane fouling. However, solvent composition, i.e. D(2)EHPA/kerosene ratio, shows impact on membrane fouling. The type of metal extractants employed in CASX has significant impact on both membrane fouling and the quality of filtrate due to the differences in their viscosity and water solubility. Separation of MSAB was the limiting process controlling metal removal efficiency, and the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) followed the same trend as that for COD.

  8. Towards supported bolaamphiphile membranes for water filtration: Roles of lipid and substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufman, Y.; Grinberg, S.; Linder, C..; Heldman, E.; Gilron, J.; Shen, Yue-xiao; Kumar, M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Freger, V.

    2014-01-01

    Supported biomimetic membranes hold potential for applications such as biosensors and water purification by filtration. The current paper reports on the preparation of a supported bolaamphiphile membrane on two polymeric nanofiltration membranes: NF-270 made of polyamide with carboxylic surface

  9. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette eJouhet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterised by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organisation are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts.

  10. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particular local structures within membranes. Since biological membranes are composed of a mixture of lipids, each with distinctive biophysical properties, lateral and transversal sorting of lipids can promote creation of domains inside the membrane through local modulation of the lipid phase. Lipid biophysical properties have been characterized for long based on in vitro analyses using non-natural lipid molecules; their re-examinations using natural lipids might open interesting perspectives on membrane architecture occurring in vivo in various cellular and physiological contexts.

  11. Neutrons and model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragneto, G.

    2012-11-01

    Current research in membrane protein biophysics highlights the emerging role of lipids in shaping membrane protein function. Cells and organisms have developed sophisticated mechanisms for controlling the lipid composition and many diseases are related to the failure of these mechanisms. One of the recent advances in the field is the discovery of the existence of coexisting micro-domains within a single membrane, important for regulating some signaling pathways. Many important properties of these domains remain poorly characterized. The characterization and analysis of bio-interfaces represent a challenge. Performing measurements on these few nanometer thick, soft, visco-elastic and dynamic systems is close to the limits of the available tools and methods. Neutron scattering techniques including small angle scattering, diffraction, reflectometry as well as inelastic methods are rapidly developing for these studies and are attracting an increasing number of biologists and biophysicists at large facilities. This manuscript will review some recent progress in the field and provide perspectives for future developments. It aims at highlighting neutron reflectometry as a versatile method to tackle questions dealing with the understanding and function of biomembranes and their components. The other important scattering methods are only briefly introduced.

  12. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  13. Membrane fusion by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuan; Hardee, Deborah; Minnear, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins on vesicles (v-SNAREs) and SNARE proteins on target membranes (t-SNAREs) mediates intracellular membrane fusion. VAMP3/cellubrevin is a v-SNARE that resides in recycling endosomes and endosome-derived transport vesicles. VAMP3 has been implicated in recycling of transferrin receptors, secretion of α-granules in platelets, and membrane trafficking during cell migration. Using a cell fusion assay, we examined membrane fusion capacity of the ternary complexes formed by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP-23 and SNAP-25. VAMP3 forms fusogenic pairing with t-SNARE complexes syntaxin1/SNAP-25, syntaxin1/SNAP-23 and syntaxin4/SNAP-25, but not with syntaxin4/SNAP-23. Deletion of the N-terminal domain of syntaxin4 enhanced membrane fusion more than two fold, indicating that the N-terminal domain negatively regulates membrane fusion. Differential membrane fusion capacities of the ternary v-/t-SNARE complexes suggest that transport vesicles containing VAMP3 have distinct membrane fusion kinetics with domains of the plasma membrane that present different t-SNARE proteins

  14. Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.

    2018-03-01

    We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.

  15. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  16. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  17. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  18. Progress and challenges of carbon nanotube membrane in water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jieun

    2016-05-25

    The potential of the carbon nanotube (CNT) membrane has been highly strengthened in water treatment during the last decade. According to works published up to now, the unique and excellent characteristics of CNT outperformed conventional polymer membranes. Such achievements of CNT membranes are greatly dependent on their fabrication methods. Further, the intrinsic properties of CNT could be a critical factor of applicability to membrane processes. This article provides an explicit and systematic review of the progress of CNT membranes addressing the current epidemic—whether (i) the CNT membranes could tackle current challenges in the pressure- or thermally driven membrane processes and (ii) CNT hybrid nanocomposite as a new generation of materials could complement current CNT-enhanced membrane. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  20. Stabilized ultrathin liquid membranes for gas separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetz, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although immobilized liquid membranes have the desirable properties of high selectivity and permeability, their practical application to gas phase separations is hindered because of the instability of the liquid phase and the relative thickness of current membranes. The problem of liquid instability, which is due to both liquid volatilization and flooding, can be reduced, or eliminated, by immobilizing the liquid phase in pores small enough to significantly reduce the molar free energy of the solution via the Kelvin effect. The obstacle of membrane thickness can be overcome by selectively immobilizing the liquid phase into the skin of a porous asymmetric membranes

  1. Nafion/Silicon Oxide Composite Membrane for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membranes were produced via in situ sol-gel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in Nafion membranes. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were studied by FT-IR, TG-DSC and tensile strength. The results show that the silicon oxide is compatible with the Nafion membrane and the thermo stability of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. Furthermore, the tensile strength of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is similar to that of the Nafion membrane. The proton conductivity of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. When the Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane was employed as an electrolyte in H2/O2 PEMFC, a higher current density value (1 000 mA/cm2 at 0.38 V) than that of the Nafion 1135 membrane (100 mA/cm2 at 0.04 V) was obtained at 110 ℃.

  2. Global Proteomic Analysis Reveals an Exclusive Role of Thylakoid Membranes in Bioenergetics of a Model Cyanobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberton, Michelle; Saha, Rajib; Jacobs, Jon M.; Nguyen, Amelia Y.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2016-04-07

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microbes with highlydifferentiated membrane systems. These organisms contain an outer membrane, plasma membrane, and an internal system of thylakoid membranes where the photosynthetic and respiratory machinery are found. This existence of compartmentalization and differentiation of membrane systems poses a number of challenges for cyanobacterial cells in terms of organization and distribution of proteins to the correct membrane system. Proteomics studies have long sought to identify the components of the different membrane systems in cyanobacteria, and to date about 450 different proteins have been attributed to either the plasma membrane or thylakoid membrane. Given the complexity of these membranes, many more proteins remain to be identified, and a comprehensive catalogue of plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane proteins is needed. Here we describe the identification of 635 differentially localized proteins in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by quantitative iTRAQ isobaric labeling; of these, 459 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and 176 were localized to the thylakoid membrane. Surprisingly, we found over 2.5 times the number of unique proteins identified in the plasma membrane compared with the thylakoid membrane. This suggests that the protein composition of the thylakoid membrane is more homogeneous than the plasma membrane, consistent with the role of the plasma membrane in diverse cellular processes including protein trafficking and nutrient import, compared with a more specialized role for the thylakoid membrane in cellular energetics. Thus, our data clearly define the two membrane systems with distinct functions. Overall, the protein compositions of the Synechocystis 6803 plasma membrane and thylakoid membrane are quite similar to that of the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli and thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis chloroplasts, respectively. Synechocystis 6803 can therefore be described as a Gram

  3. Distinct colicin M-like bacteriocin-immunity pairs in Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Mot, René

    2015-11-27

    The Escherichia coli bacteriocin colicin M (ColM) acts via degradation of the cell wall precursor lipid II in target cells. ColM producers avoid self-inhibition by a periplasmic immunity protein anchored in the inner membrane. In this study, we identified colM-like bacteriocin genes in genomes of several β-proteobacterial strains belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei group. Two selected Burkholderia ambifaria proteins, designated burkhocins M1 and M2, were produced recombinantly and showed antagonistic activity against Bcc strains. In their considerably sequence-diverged catalytic domain, a conserved aspartate residue equally proved pivotal for cytotoxicity. Immunity to M-type burkhocins is conferred upon susceptible strains by heterologous expression of a cognate gene located either upstream or downstream of the toxin gene. These genes lack homology with currently known ColM immunity genes and encode inner membrane-associated proteins of two distinct types, differing in predicted transmembrane topology and moiety exposed to the periplasm. The addition of burkhocins to the bacteriocin complement of Burkholderia reveals a wider phylogenetic distribution of ColM-like bacteriotoxins, beyond the γ-proteobacterial genera Escherichia, Pectobacterium and Pseudomonas, and illuminates the diversified nature of immunity-providing proteins.

  4. Fouling distribution in forward osmosis membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Kim, Bongchul; Hong, Seungkwan

    2014-06-01

    Fouling behavior along the length of membrane module was systematically investigated by performing simple modeling and lab-scale experiments of forward osmosis (FO) membrane process. The flux distribution model developed in this study showed a good agreement with experimental results, validating the robustness of the model. This model demonstrated, as expected, that the permeate flux decreased along the membrane channel due to decreasing osmotic pressure differential across the FO membrane. A series of fouling experiments were conducted under the draw and feed solutions at various recoveries simulated by the model. The simulated fouling experiments revealed that higher organic (alginate) fouling and thus more flux decline were observed at the last section of a membrane channel, as foulants in feed solution became more concentrated. Furthermore, the water flux in FO process declined more severely as the recovery increased due to more foulants transported to membrane surface with elevated solute concentrations at higher recovery, which created favorable solution environments for organic adsorption. The fouling reversibility also decreased at the last section of the membrane channel, suggesting that fouling distribution on FO membrane along the module should be carefully examined to improve overall cleaning efficiency. Lastly, it was found that such fouling distribution observed with co-current flow operation became less pronounced in counter-current flow operation of FO membrane process. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  6. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  7. Measuring shape fluctuations in biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzel, C; Sengupta, K

    2016-01-01

    Shape fluctuations of lipid membranes have intrigued cell biologists and physicists alike. In the cellular context, their origin—thermal or active—and their physiological significance are open questions. These small incessant displacements, also called membrane undulations, have mostly been studied in model membranes and membranes of simple cells like erythrocytes. Thermal fluctuations of such membranes have been very well described both theoretically and experimentally; active fluctuations are a topic of current interest. Experimentally, membrane fluctuations are not easy to measure, the main challenge being to develop techniques which are capable of measuring very small displacements at very high speed, and preferably over a large area and long time. Scattering techniques have given access to fluctuations in membrane stacks and a variety of optical microscopy based techniques have been devised to study membrane fluctuations of unilamellar vesicles, erythrocytes and other cells. Among them are flicker spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, diffraction phase microscopy and reflection interference contrast microscopy. Each of these techniques has its advantages and limitations. Here we review the basic principles of the major experimental techniques used to measure bending or shape fluctuations of biomembranes. We report seminal results obtained with each technique and highlight how these studies furthered our understanding of physical properties of membranes and their interactions. We also discuss suggested role of membrane fluctuations in different biological processes. (topical review)

  8. Development of a Novel Intravenous Membrane Oxygenator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinrich, Shelly

    1997-01-01

    .... The current IMO device consists of several hundred hollow fiber membranes (H:FMs) manifolded to gas supply lines for O2 delivery, CO2 removal, and helium supply to a balloon integer located within the fiber bundle...

  9. Membrane microdomains, rafts, and detergent-resistant membranes in plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Jan; Opekarová, Miroslava; Grossmann, Guido; Tanner, Widmar

    2013-01-01

    The existence of specialized microdomains in plasma membranes, postulated for almost 25 years, has been popularized by the concept of lipid or membrane rafts. The idea that detergent-resistant membranes are equivalent to lipid rafts, which was generally abandoned after a decade of vigorous data accumulation, contributed to intense discussions about the validity of the raft concept. The existence of membrane microdomains, meanwhile, has been verified by unequivocal independent evidence. This review summarizes the current state of research in plants and fungi with respect to common aspects of both kingdoms. In these organisms, principally immobile microdomains large enough for microscopic detection have been visualized. These microdomains are found in the context of cell-cell interactions (plant symbionts and pathogens), membrane transport, stress, and polarized growth, and the data corroborate at least three mechanisms of formation. As documented in this review, modern methods of visualization of lateral membrane compartments are also able to uncover the functional relevance of membrane microdomains.

  10. Ultrasonographic identification of the cricothyroid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S; Teoh, W H; Rudolph, S S

    2016-01-01

    Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compare...... ultrasonographic identification; a service that we should aim at making available in all locations where anaesthesia is undertaken and where patients with difficult airways could be encountered.......Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compared...... with the clinical techniques. We identified the best-documented techniques for bedside use, their success rates, and the necessary training for airway-ultrasound-naïve clinicians. After a short but structured training, the cricothyroid membrane can be identified using ultrasound in difficult patients by previously...

  11. Template Synthesis of Nanostructured Polymeric Membranes by Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Hunter, Aaron; Benavides, Sherwood; Summe, Mark J; Gao, Feng; Phillip, William A

    2016-02-10

    The fabrication of functional nanomaterials with complex structures has been serving great scientific and practical interests, but current fabrication and patterning methods are generally costly and laborious. Here, we introduce a versatile, reliable, and rapid method for fabricating nanostructured polymeric materials. The novel method is based on a combination of inkjet printing and template synthesis, and its utility and advantages in the fabrication of polymeric nanomaterials is demonstrated through three examples: the generation of polymeric nanotubes, nanowires, and thin films. Layer-by-layer-assembled nanotubes can be synthesized in a polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membrane by printing poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) sequentially. This sequential deposition of polyelectrolyte ink enables control over the surface charge within the nanotubes. By a simple change of the printing conditions, polymeric nanotubes or nanowires were prepared by printing poly(vinyl alcohol) in a PCTE template. In this case, the high-throughput nature of the method enables functional nanomaterials to be generated in under 3 min. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inkjet printing paired with template synthesis can be used to generate patterns comprised of chemically distinct nanomaterials. Thin polymeric films of layer-by-layer-assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrenesulfonate) are printed on a PCTE membrane. Track-etched membranes covered with the deposited thin films reject ions and can potentially be utilized as nanofiltration membranes. When the fabrication of these different classes of nanostructured materials is demonstrated, the advantages of pairing template synthesis with inkjet printing, which include fast and reliable deposition, judicious use of the deposited materials, and the ability to design chemically patterned surfaces, are highlighted.

  12. Membrane Proteins : The Key Players of a Cancer Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    Membrane proteins are involved in the prognosis of the most common forms of cancer. Membrane proteins are the hallmark of a cancer cell. The overexpressed membrane receptors are becoming increasingly important in cancer cell therapy. Current renewing therapy approaches based on receptor

  13. Asymmetric bipolar membrane: A tool to improve product purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Sumbharaju, R.; Srikantharajah, S.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Jordan, V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Bipolar membranes (BPMs) are catalytic membranes for electro-membrane processes splitting water into protons and hydroxyl ions. To improve selectivity and current efficiency of BPMs, we prepare new asymmetric BPMs with reduced salt leakages. The flux of salt ions across a BPM is determined by the

  14. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  15. A review on the performance and modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucetta, A., E-mail: abirboucetta@yahoo.fr; Ghodbane, H., E-mail: h.ghodbane@mselab.org; Bahri, M., E-mail: m.bahri@mselab.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khider Biskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: ayadmy@gmail.com [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)

    2016-07-25

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), are energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional energy conversion for various applications in stationary power plants, portable power device and transportation. PEM fuel cells provide low operating temperature and high-energy efficiency with near zero emission. A PEM fuel cell is a multiple distinct parts device and a series of mass, energy, transport through gas channels, electric current transport through membrane electrode assembly and electrochemical reactions at the triple-phase boundaries. These processes play a decisive role in determining the performance of the Fuel cell, so that studies on the phenomena of gas flows and the performance modelling are made deeply. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the state of the art on the Study of the phenomena of gas flow and performance modelling of PEMFC.

  16. Application of the nanocomposite membrane as electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahreni

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently still in development and commercialization. Several barriers to the commercialization of these Nafion membrane as electrolyte is its very sensitive to humidity fluctuation. Nafion must be modified by making a composite Nafion-SiO 2 -HPA to increase electrolyte resistance against humidity fluctuations during the cell used. Research carried out by mixing Nafion solution with Tetra Ethoxy Ortho Silicate (TEOS) and conductive materials is phosphotungstic acid (PWA) by varying the ratio of Nafion, TEOS and PWA. The membrane is produced by heating a mixture of Nafion, TEOS and PWA by varying the evaporation temperature, time and annealing temperature to obtain the transparent membrane. The resulting membrane was analyzed its physical, chemical and electrochemical properties by applying the membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC at various humidity and temperature of operation. The results showed that at low temperatures (30-90 °C) and high humidity at 100 % RH, pure Nafion membrane is better than composite membrane (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA), but at low humidity condition composite membrane is better than the pure Nafion membrane. It can be concluded that the composite membranes of (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA) can be used as electrolyte of PEMFC operated at low humidity (40 % RH) and temperature between (30-90 °C). (author)

  17. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  18. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  19. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M

    1996-01-01

    heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species......The presence of proteoglycans bearing galactosaminoglycan chains has been reported, but none has been identified previously in the matrix of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor, which is a source of several basement membrane components. This tumor matrix contains perlecan, a large, low buoyant density......-CSPG are distinct in core protein structure. Both are, however, basement membrane components, although there are tissue-specific differences in their distribution....

  20. Recent advances in membrane materials: introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayral, A.

    2007-01-01

    A lot of separation operations are currently performed using membranes both for production processes and for environmental applications. The main part of the used membranes are organic membranes but for specific conditions of utilization inorganic or organic-inorganic membranes have been also developed. Among the applications for gas separation, some examples are the removal of hydrogen from ammonia synthesis gas, the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas and air separation. Environmental considerations like massive scale air and water pollution and also the gradual rarefaction of fossil energy resources gave rise to the concept of sustainable growth and to related strategies like process intensification, the reuse of water and solvents at their point of use, hydrogen as energy vector (requiring H 2 production...)..Membranes will have a key part to play in the new technologies associated with these strategies. Intensive efforts of research and development are now engaged everywhere in the world to develop high performance membranes for those emerging applications. Membrane science is a multidisciplinary scientific and technological domain covering mainly materials science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, modeling. This issue (Annales de chimie - Science des materiaux, 2007 Vol.32 N.2) provides a wide review of recent advances in membrane materials. It is based on the contributions of experts in different fields of membrane materials (organic, organic-inorganic hybrid, composite, carbon, metallic, ceramic; dense, porous, surface modified materials). (O.M.)

  1. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  2. F-BAR family proteins, emerging regulators for cell membrane dynamic changes-from structure to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suxuan; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhao, Xianxian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-09

    Eukaryotic cell membrane dynamics change in curvature during physiological and pathological processes. In the past ten years, a novel protein family, Fes/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins, has been identified to be the most important coordinators in membrane curvature regulation. The F-BAR domain family is a member of the Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain superfamily that is associated with dynamic changes in cell membrane. However, the molecular basis in membrane structure regulation and the biological functions of F-BAR protein are unclear. The pathophysiological role of F-BAR protein is unknown. This review summarizes the current understanding of structure and function in the BAR domain superfamily, classifies F-BAR family proteins into nine subfamilies based on domain structure, and characterizes F-BAR protein structure, domain interaction, and functional relevance. In general, F-BAR protein binds to cell membrane via F-BAR domain association with membrane phospholipids and initiates membrane curvature and scission via Src homology-3 (SH3) domain interaction with its partner proteins. This process causes membrane dynamic changes and leads to seven important cellular biological functions, which include endocytosis, phagocytosis, filopodium, lamellipodium, cytokinesis, adhesion, and podosome formation, via distinct signaling pathways determined by specific domain-binding partners. These cellular functions play important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We further summarize F-BAR protein expression and mutation changes observed in various diseases and developmental disorders. Considering the structure feature and functional implication of F-BAR proteins, we anticipate that F-BAR proteins modulate physiological and pathophysiological processes via transferring extracellular materials, regulating cell trafficking and mobility, presenting antigens, mediating extracellular matrix degradation, and transmitting

  3. Characterising antimicrobial protein-membrane complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Gloria; Dingley, Andrew; Tremouilhac, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are host defence molecules that protect organisms from microbial infection. A number of hypotheses for AMP activity have been proposed which involve protein membrane interactions. However, there is a paucity of information describing AMP-membrane complexes in detail. The aim of this project is to characterise the interactions of amoebapore-A (APA-1) with membrane models using primarily solution-state NMR spectroscopy. APA-1 is an AMP which is regulated by a pH-dependent dimerisation event. Based on the atomic resolution solution structure of monomeric APA-1, it is proposed that this dimerisation is a prerequisite for ring-like hexameric pore formation. Due to the cytotoxicity of APA-1, we have developed a cell-free system to produce this protein. To facilitate our studies, we have adapted the cell-free system to isotope label APA-1. 13 C /15 N -enriched APA-1 sample was achieved and we have begun characterising APA-1 dimerisation and membrane interactions using NMR spectroscopy and other biochemical/biophysical methods. Neutron reflectometry is a surface-sensitive technique and therefore represents an ideal technique to probe how APA-1 interacts with membranes at the molecular level under different physiological conditions. Using Platypus, the pH-induced APA-1-membrane interactions should be detectable as an increase of the amount of protein adsorbed at the membrane surface and changes in the membrane properties. Specifically, detailed information of the structure and dimensions of the protein-membrane complex, the position and amount of the protein in the membrane, and the perturbation of the membrane phospholipids on protein incorporation can be extracted from the neutron reflectometry measurement. Such information will enable critical assessment of current proposed mechanisms of AMP activity in bacterial membranes and complement our NMR studies

  4. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  7. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  8. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  9. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  10. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  11. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  12. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  13. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  14. Ion Transport through Diffusion Layer Controlled by Charge Mosaic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic transport behaviors in near interface of the membranes were studied using commercial anion and cation exchange membrane and charge mosaic membrane. Current-voltage curve gave the limiting current density that indicates the ceiling of conventional flux. From chronopotentiometry above the limiting current density, the transition time was estimated. The thickness of boundary layer was derived with conjunction with the conventional limiting current density and the transition time from steady state flux. On the other hand, the charge mosaic membrane was introduced in order to examine the ion transport on the membrane surface in detail. The concentration profile was discussed by the kinetic transport number with regard to the water dissociation (splitting on the membrane surface.

  15. Biomimetic membranes for sensor and separation applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the possibilities and challenges in mimicking biological membranes and creating membrane-based sensor and separation devices. It covers recent advances in developing biomimetic membranes for technological applications with a focus on the use of integral membrane protein mediated transport. It describes the fundamentals of biosensing as well as separation and shows how the two processes work together in biological systems. The book provides an overview of the current state of the art, points to areas that need further investigation and anticipates future directions in the field. Biomimetics is a truly cross-disciplinary approach and this is exemplified by the challenges in mimicking osmotic processes as they occur in nature using aquaporin protein water channels as central building blocks. In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, both channel and carrier proteins are important and examples of how these may be reconstituted and controlled in biomimetic membranes are ...

  16. Enhancing Membrane Protein Identification Using a Simplified Centrifugation and Detergent-Based Membrane Extraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanting; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jingjing; He, Han; Gu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ma, Danjun; Zhou, Hu; Zheng, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Membrane proteins may act as transporters, receptors, enzymes, and adhesion-anchors, accounting for nearly 70% of pharmaceutical drug targets. Difficulties in efficient enrichment, extraction, and solubilization still exist because of their relatively low abundance and poor solubility. A simplified membrane protein extraction approach with advantages of user-friendly sample processing procedures, good repeatability and significant effectiveness was developed in the current research for enhancing enrichment and identification of membrane proteins. This approach combining centrifugation and detergent along with LC-MS/MS successfully identified higher proportion of membrane proteins, integral proteins and transmembrane proteins in membrane fraction (76.6%, 48.1%, and 40.6%) than in total cell lysate (41.6%, 16.4%, and 13.5%), respectively. Moreover, our method tended to capture membrane proteins with high degree of hydrophobicity and number of transmembrane domains as 486 out of 2106 (23.0%) had GRAVY > 0 in membrane fraction, 488 out of 2106 (23.1%) had TMs ≥ 2. It also provided for improved identification of membrane proteins as more than 60.6% of the commonly identified membrane proteins in two cell samples were better identified in membrane fraction with higher sequence coverage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008456.

  17. Performance enhancement of membrane electrode assemblies with plasma etched polymer electrolyte membrane in PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea); Bae, Jin Woo; Cho, Yoon-Hwan; Lim, Ju Wan; Ahn, Minjeh; Jho, Jae Young; Sung, Yung-Eun [World Class University (WCU) program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kwon, Nak-Hyun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team 3, Advanced Technology Center, Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, 104 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, a surface modified Nafion 212 membrane was fabricated by plasma etching in order to enhance the performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Single-cell performance of MEA at 0.7 V was increased by about 19% with membrane that was etched for 10 min compared to that with untreated Nafion 212 membrane. The MEA with membrane etched for 20 min exhibited a current density of 1700 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.35 V, which was 8% higher than that of MEA with untreated membrane (1580 mA cm{sup -2}). The performances of MEAs containing etched membranes were affected by complex factors such as the thickness and surface morphology of the membrane related to etching time. The structural changes and electrochemical properties of the MEAs with etched membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  18. Pilot demonstration of energy-efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Patamasank, Jaren; Tontcheva, Petia; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming popular for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Air scouring to "shake" the membrane fibers is most suitable and applicable to maintain filtration without severe and rapidfouling. However, membrane fouling mitigating technologies are energy intensive. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative energy-saving MBR system to reduce energy consumption; a revolutionary system that will directly compete with air scouring technologies currently in the membrane water reuse market. The innovative MBR system, called reciprocation MBR (rMBR), prevents membrane fouling without the use of air scouring blowers. The mechanism featured is a mechanical reciprocating membrane frame that uses inertia to prevent fouling. Direct strong agitation of the fiber is also beneficial for the constant removal of solids built up on the membrane surface. The rMBR pilot consumes less energy than conventional coarse air scouring MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation for the pilot rMBR system was 0.072 kWh/m3 permeate produced at 40 LMH, which is 75% less than the conventional air scouring in an MBR system (0.29 kWh/m3). Reciprocation of the hollow-fiber membrane can overcome the hydrodynamic limitations of air scouring or cross-flow membrane systems with less energy consumption and/or higher energy efficiency.

  19. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  20. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  1. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  2. A comparison of neuronal growth cone and cell body membrane: electrophysiological and ultrastructural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, P B; Lee, R E; Kater, S B

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated a broad set of general electrophysiological and ultrastructural features of growth cone and cell body membrane of individual neurons where membrane from different regions of the same neuron can be directly compared. Growth cones were surgically isolated from identified adult Helisoma neurons in culture and compared with the cell body using whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. All isolated growth cones generated overshooting regenerative action potentials. Five neurons (buccal neurons B4, B5, and B19; pedal neurons P1 and P5) were selected that displayed distinctive action potential waveforms. In all cases, the growth cone action potential was indistinguishable from the cell body action potential and different from growth cones from other identified neurons. Two of these neurons (B5 and B19) were studied further using voltage-clamp procedures; growth cones and cell bodies again revealed major similarities within one neuron type and differences between neuron types. The only suggested difference between the growth cone and cell body was an apparent reduction in the magnitude of the A-current in the growth cone. Peak inward and outward current densities, as with other electrophysiological features, were different between neuron types, but were, again, similar between the growth cone and the cell body of the same neuron. Freeze-fracture analysis of intramembraneous particles (IMPs) was also performed on identified regions of the same neuron in culture. Both the density and the size distribution of IMPs were the same in growth cone, cell body, and neurite membranes. In these general electrophysiological and ultrastructural characteristics, therefore, growth cone membranes appear to retain the identity of the parent neuron cell body membrane.

  3. Acute otitis media with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, N; Marchisio, P; Rosazza, C; Sciarrabba, C S; Esposito, S

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of this review is to present the current knowledge regarding acute otitis media (AOM) with spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation (STMP) and to address the question of whether AOM with STMP is a disease with specific characteristics or a severe case of AOM. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the past 15 years using the key words "acute otitis media" and "othorrea" or "spontaneous tympanic membrane perforation". More than 250 articles were found, but only those published in English and providing data on aspects related to perforation of infectious origin were considered. Early Streptococcus pneumoniae infection due to invasive pneumococcal strains, in addition to coinfections and biofilm production due mainly to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, seem to be precursors of STMP. However, it is unclear why some children have several STMP episodes during the first years of life that resolve without complications in adulthood, whereas other children develop chronic suppurative otitis media. Although specific aetiological agents appear to be associated with an increased risk of AOM with STMP, further studies are needed to determine whether AOM with STMP is a distinct disease with specific aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics or a more severe case of AOM than the cases that occur without STMP. Finally, it is important to identify preventive methods that are useful not only in otitis-prone children with uncomplicated AOM, but also in children with recurrent AOM and those who experience several episodes with STMP.

  4. Review of Membranes for Helium Separation and Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Scholes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation has potential for the recovery and purification of helium, because the majority of membranes have selectivity for helium. This review reports on the current state of the research and patent literature for membranes undertaking helium separation. This includes direct recovery from natural gas, as an ancillary stage in natural gas processing, as well as niche applications where helium recycling has potential. A review of the available polymeric and inorganic membranes for helium separation is provided. Commercial gas separation membranes in comparable gas industries are discussed in terms of their potential in helium separation. Also presented are the various membrane process designs patented for the recovery and purification of helium from various sources, as these demonstrate that it is viable to separate helium through currently available polymeric membranes. This review places a particular focus on those processes where membranes are combined in series with another separation technology, commonly pressure swing adsorption. These combined processes have the most potential for membranes to produce a high purity helium product. The review demonstrates that membrane gas separation is technically feasible for helium recovery and purification, though membranes are currently only applied in niche applications focused on reusing helium rather than separation from natural sources.

  5. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Roman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding protein folding has been one of the great challenges in biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Over the past 50 years, many thermodynamic and kinetic studies have been performed addressing the stability of globular proteins. In comparison, advances in the membrane protein folding field lag far behind. Although membrane proteins constitute about a third of the proteins encoded in known genomes, stability studies on membrane proteins have been impaired due to experimental limitations. Furthermore, no systematic experimental strategies are available for folding these biomolecules in vitro. Common denaturing agents such as chaotropes usually do not work on helical membrane proteins, and ionic detergents have been successful denaturants only in few cases. Refolding a membrane protein seems to be a craftsman work, which is relatively straightforward for transmembrane β-barrel proteins but challenging for α-helical membrane proteins. Additional complexities emerge in multidomain membrane proteins, data interpretation being one of the most critical. In this review, we will describe some recent efforts in understanding the folding mechanism of membrane proteins that have been reversibly refolded allowing both thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. This information will be discussed in the context of current paradigms in the protein folding field.

  6. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  7. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  8. Polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Many polymeric materials have already been used in the field of artificial organs. However, the materials used in artificial organs are not necessarily created with the best material selectivity and materials design; therefore, the development of synthesized polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs based on well-defined designs is required. The approaches to the development of biocompatible polymeric materials fall into three categories: (1) control of physicochemical characteristics on material surfaces, (2) modification of material surfaces using biomolecules, and (3) construction of biomimetic membrane surfaces. This review will describe current issues regarding polymeric membrane materials for use in artificial organs.

  9. Cell membrane temperature rate sensitivity predicted from the Nernst equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F S

    1984-01-01

    A hyperpolarized current is predicted from the Nernst equation for conditions of positive temperature derivatives with respect to time. This ion current, coupled with changes in membrane channel conductivities, is expected to contribute to a transient potential shift across the cell membrane for silent cells and to a change in firing rate for pacemaker cells.

  10. Virus Infection Triggers MAVS Polymers of Distinct Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zamorano Cuervo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS adaptor protein is a central signaling hub required for cells to mount an antiviral response following virus sensing by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors. MAVS localizes in the membrane of mitochondria and peroxisomes and in mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Structural and functional studies have revealed that MAVS activity relies on the formation of functional high molecular weight prion-like aggregates. The formation of protein aggregates typically relies on a dynamic transition between oligomerization and aggregation states. The existence of intermediate state(s of MAVS polymers, other than aggregates, has not yet been documented. Here, we used a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE and semi-denaturing detergent agarose gel electrophoresis (SDD-AGE to resolve whole cell extract preparations to distinguish MAVS polymerization states. While SDD-AGE analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the formation of previously described high molecular weight prion-like aggregates upon constitutively active RIG-I ectopic expression and virus infection, non-reducing SDS-PAGE allowed us to demonstrate the induction of lower molecular weight oligomers. Cleavage of MAVS using the NS3/4A protease revealed that anchoring to intracellular membranes is required for the appropriate polymerization into active high molecular weight aggregates. Altogether, our data suggest that RIG-I-dependent MAVS activation involves the coexistence of MAVS polymers with distinct molecular weights.

  11. Plasma membrane of a marine T cell lymphoma: surface labelling, membrane isolation, separation of membrane proteins and distribution of surface label amongst these proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumpton, M.J.; Marchalonis, J.J.; Haustein, D.; Atwell, J.L.; Harris, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Two established techniques for analysis of plasma membranes, namely, lactoperoxidase catalyzed surface radioiodination of intact cells and bulk membrane isolation following disruption of cells by shear forces, were applied in studies of membrane proteins of continuously cultured cells of the monoclonal T lymphoma line WEHI-22. It was found that macromolecular 125 I-iodide incorporated into plasma membrane proteins of intact cells was at least as good a marker for the plasma as was the commonly used enzyme 5'-nucleotidase, T lymphoma plasma membrane proteins were complex when analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecylsulphate-containing buffers and more than thirty distinct components were resolved. More than fifteen of the components observed on a mass basis were also labelled with 125 I-iodide. Certain bands, however, exhibited a degree of label disproportionate to their staining properties with Coomassie Blue. This was interpreted in terms of their accessibility to the solvent in the intact cells. (author)

  12. Probing cellular behaviors through nanopatterned chitosan membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chung-Yao; Sung, Chun-Yen; Shuai, Hung-Hsun; Cheng, Chao-Min; Yeh, J Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a high-throughput method for developing physically modified chitosan membranes to probe the cellular behavior of MDCK epithelial cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts adhered onto these modified membranes. To prepare chitosan membranes with micro/nanoscaled features, we have demonstrated an easy-to-handle, facile approach that could be easily integrated with IC-based manufacturing processes with mass production potential. These physically modified chitosan membranes were observed by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of chitosan membrane surface morphology. After MDCK cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts were cultured on these modified chitosan membranes for various culture durations (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h), they were investigated to decipher cellular behavior. We found that both cells preferred to adhere onto a flat surface rather than on a nanopatterned surface. However, most (> 80%) of the MDCK cells showed rounded morphology and would suspend in the cultured medium instead of adhering onto the planar surface of negatively nanopatterned chitosan membranes. This means different cell types (e.g. fibroblasts versus epithelia) showed distinct capabilities/preferences of adherence for materials of varying surface roughness. We also showed that chitosan membranes could be re-used at least nine times without significant contamination and would provide us consistency for probing cell–material interactions by permitting reuse of the same substrate. We believe these results would provide us better insight into cellular behavior, specifically, microscopic properties and characteristics of cells grown under unique, nanopatterned cell-interface conditions. (paper)

  13. Perkembangan Terkini Membran Guided Tissue Regeneration/Guided Bone Regeneration sebagai Terapi Regenerasi Jaringan Periodontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Cahaya

    2015-06-01

    kombinasi prosedur-prosedur di atas, termasuk prosedur bedah restoratif yang berhubungan dengan rehabilitasi oral dengan penempatan dental implan. Pada tingkat selular, regenerasi periodontal adalah proses kompleks yang membutuhkan proliferasi yang terorganisasi, differensiasi dan pengembangan berbagai tipe sel untuk membentuk perlekatan periodontal. Rasionalisasi penggunaan guided tissue regeneration sebagai membran pembatas adalah menahan epitel dan gingiva jaringan pendukung, sebagai barrier membrane mempertahankan ruang dan gigi serta menstabilkan bekuan darah. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas sekilas mengenai 1. Proses penyembuhan terapi periodontal meliputi regenerasi, repair ataupun pembentukan perlekatan baru. 2. Periodontal spesific tissue engineering. 3. Berbagai jenis membran/guided tissue regeneration yang beredar di pasaran dengan keuntungan dan kerugian sekaligus karakteristik masing-masing membran. 4. Perkembangan membran terbaru sebagai terapi regenerasi penyakit periodontal. Tujuan penulisan untuk memberi gambaran masa depan mengenai terapi regenerasi yang menjanjikan sebagai perkembangan terapi penyakit periodontal.   Latest Development of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane as Regenerative Therapy on Periodontal Tissue. Periodontitis is a patological state which influences the integrity of periodontal system that could lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissue and end up with tooth loss. Currently, there are so many researches and efforts to regenerate periodontal tissue, not only to stop the process of the disease but also to reconstruct the periodontal tissue. Periodontal regenerative therapy aims at directing the growth of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament on the affected teeth. Regenerative procedures consist of soft tissue graft, bone graft, roots biomodification, guided tissue regeneration and combination of the procedures, including restorative surgical procedure that is

  14. Intelligent Membranes: Dream or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Gugliuzza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent materials are claimed to overcome current drawbacks associated with the attainment of high standards of life, health, security and defense. Membrane-based sensors represent a category of smart systems capable of providing a large number of benefits to different markets of textiles, biomedicine, environment, chemistry, agriculture, architecture, transport and energy. Intelligent membranes can be characterized by superior sensitivity, broader dynamic range and highly sophisticated mechanisms of autorecovery. These prerogatives are regarded as the result of multi-compartment arrays, where complementary functions can be accommodated and well-integrated. Based on the mechanism of “sense to act”, stimuli-responsive membranes adapt themselves to surrounding environments, producing desired effects such as smart regulation of transport, wetting, transcription, hydrodynamics, separation, and chemical or energy conversion. Hopefully, the design of new smart devices easier to manufacture and assemble can be realized through the integration of sensing membranes with wireless networks, looking at the ambitious challenge to establish long-distance communications. Thus, the transfer of signals to collecting systems could allow continuous and real-time monitoring of data, events and/or processes.

  15. Polyarylenethioethersulfone Membranes for Fuel Cells (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Electrochemical SocietyProton exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs are an attrac- tive power source due to their energy efficiency and...standard in PEMFC technology.3,4 Nafion membranes have a polytetrafluoro- ethylene PTFE backbone, which provides thermal and chemical stability, and...diffusion layers to fabricate MEAs. Single-cell test (H- PEMFC ).— MEAs were positioned in a single-cell fixture with graphite blocks as current

  16. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  17. Introduction to solid supported membrane based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Costa, Wagner Steuer; Braner, Markus; Călinescu, Octavian; Hatahet, Lina; Fendler, Klaus

    2013-05-11

    The electrophysiological method we present is based on a solid supported membrane (SSM) composed of an octadecanethiol layer chemisorbed on a gold coated sensor chip and a phosphatidylcholine monolayer on top. This assembly is mounted into a cuvette system containing the reference electrode, a chlorinated silver wire. After adsorption of membrane fragments or proteoliposomes containing the membrane protein of interest, a fast solution exchange is used to induce the transport activity of the membrane protein. In the single solution exchange protocol two solutions, one non-activating and one activating solution, are needed. The flow is controlled by pressurized air and a valve and tubing system within a faraday cage. The kinetics of the electrogenic transport activity is obtained via capacitive coupling between the SSM and the proteoliposomes or membrane fragments. The method, therefore, yields only transient currents. The peak current represents the stationary transport activity. The time dependent transporter currents can be reconstructed by circuit analysis. This method is especially suited for prokaryotic transporters or eukaryotic transporters from intracellular membranes, which cannot be investigated by patch clamp or voltage clamp methods.

  18. Isolation of Protein Storage Vacuoles and Their Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-01-01

    Protein-storage vacuoles (PSVs) are specialized vacuoles that sequester large amounts of storage proteins. During seed development, PSVs are formed de novo and/or from preexisting lytic vacuoles. Seed PSVs can be subdivided into four distinct compartments: membrane, globoid, matrix, and crystalloid. In this chapter, we introduce easy methods for isolation of PSVs and their membranes from pumpkin seeds. These methods facilitate the identification and characterization of PSV components.

  19. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jouhet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particu...

  20. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  1. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  2. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  3. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  4. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  5. Polymeric Gas-Separation Membranes for Petroleum Refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Alqaheem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric gas-separation membranes were commercialized 30 years ago. The interest on these systems is increasing because of the simplicity of concept and low-energy consumption. In the refinery, gas separation is needed in many processes such as natural gas treatment, carbon dioxide capture, hydrogen purification, and hydrocarbons separations. In these processes, the membranes have proven to be a potential candidate to replace the current conventional methods of amine scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption, and cryogenic distillation. In this paper, applications of polymeric membranes in the refinery are discussed by reviewing current materials and commercialized units. Economical evaluation of these membranes in comparison to traditional processes is also indicated.

  6. Sensing Phosphatidylserine in Cellular Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Kay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid with a negatively charged head-group, is an important constituent of eukaryotic cellular membranes. On the plasma membrane, rather than being evenly distributed, phosphatidylserine is found preferentially in the inner leaflet. Disruption of this asymmetry, leading to the appearance of phosphatidylserine on the surface of the cell, is known to play a central role in both apoptosis and blood clotting. Despite its importance, comparatively little is known about phosphatidylserine in cells: its precise subcellular localization, transmembrane topology and intracellular dynamics are poorly characterized. The recent development of new, genetically-encoded probes able to detect phosphatidylserine within live cells, however, is leading to a more in-depth understanding of the biology of this phospholipid. This review aims to give an overview of the current methods for phosphatidylserine detection within cells, and some of the recent realizations derived from their use.

  7. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  8. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  9. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Treatment of textile wastewater with membrane bioreactor: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Chen, Jingyu; Navaratna, Dimuth; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Shu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been used widely for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional bioreactors. Treatment of textile wastewater using MBR has been investigated as a simple, reliable and cost-effective process with a significant removal of contaminants. However, a major drawback in the operation of MBR is membrane fouling, which leads to the decline in permeate flux and therefore requires membrane cleaning. This eventually decreases the lifespan of the membrane. In this paper, the application of aerobic and anaerobic MBR for textile wastewater treatment as well as fouling and control of fouling in MBR processes have been reviewed. It has been found that long sludge retention time increases the degradation of pollutants by allowing slow growing microorganisms to establish but also contributes to membrane fouling. Further research aspects of MBR for textile wastewater treatment are also considered for sustainable operations of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  12. Sieving of Hot Gases by Hyper-Cross-Linked Nanoscale-Hybrid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel; Hempenius, Mark A.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular networks consisting of homogeneously distributed covalently bonded inorganic and organic precursors are anticipated to show remarkable characteristics, distinct from those of the individual constituents. A novel hypercross-linked ultrathin membrane is presented, consisting of a giant

  13. Effect of cytosolic pH on inward currents reveals structural characteristics of the proton transport cycle in the influenza A protein M2 in cell-free membrane patches of Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia L DiFrancesco

    Full Text Available Transport activity through the mutant D44A of the M2 proton channel from influenza virus A was measured in excised inside-out macro-patches of Xenopus laevis oocytes at cytosolic pH values of 5.5, 7.5 and 8.2. The current-voltage relationships reveal some peculiarities: 1. "Transinhibition", i.e., instead of an increase of unidirectional outward current with increasing cytosolic H(+ concentration, a decrease of unidirectional inward current was found. 2. Strong inward rectification. 3. Exponential rise of current with negative potentials. In order to interpret these findings in molecular terms, different kinetic models have been tested. The transinhibition basically results from a strong binding of H(+ to a site in the pore, presumably His37. This assumption alone already provides inward rectification and exponential rise of the IV curves. However, it results in poor global fits of the IV curves, i.e., good fits were only obtained for cytosolic pH of 8.2, but not for 7.5. Assuming an additional transport step as e.g. caused by a constriction zone at Val27 resulted in a negligible improvement. In contrast, good global fits for cytosolic pH of 7.5 and 8.2 were immediately obtained with a cyclic model. A "recycling step" implies that the protein undergoes conformational changes (assigned to Trp41 and Val27 during transport which have to be reset before the next proton can be transported. The global fit failed at the low currents at pHcyt = 5.5, as expected from the interference of putative transport of other ions besides H(+. Alternatively, a regulatory effect of acidic cytosolic pH may be assumed which strongly modifies the rate constants of the transport cycle.

  14. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  15. Free-standing biomimetic polymer membrane imaged with atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Christian; Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Fluid polymeric biomimetic membranes are probed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using probes with both normal tetrahedrally shaped tips and nanoneedle-shaped Ag2Ga rods. When using nanoneedle probes, the collected force volume data show three distinct membrane regions which match the expected...... membrane structure when spanning an aperture in a hydrophobic scaffold. The method used provides a general method for mapping attractive fluid surfaces. In particular, the nanoneedle probing allows for characterization of free-standing biomimetic membranes with thickness on the nanometer scale suspended...... over 300-μm-wide apertures, where the membranes are stable toward hundreds of nanoindentations without breakage. © 2010 American Chemical Society....

  16. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  17. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  18. Role for chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins in inclusion membrane structure and biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Mital

    Full Text Available The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties.

  19. Translational analysis of mouse and human placental protein and mRNA reveals distinct molecular pathologies in human preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian; Sharma, Parveen; Evangelou, Andreas I; Whiteley, Kathie; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alex; Baczyk, Dora; Czikk, Marie; Kingdom, John; Rossant, Janet; Gramolini, Anthony O; Adamson, S Lee; Kislinger, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) adversely impacts ~5% of pregnancies. Despite extensive research, no consistent biomarkers or cures have emerged, suggesting that different molecular mechanisms may cause clinically similar disease. To address this, we undertook a proteomics study with three main goals: (1) to identify a panel of cell surface markers that distinguish the trophoblast and endothelial cells of the placenta in the mouse; (2) to translate this marker set to human via the Human Protein Atlas database; and (3) to utilize the validated human trophoblast markers to identify subgroups of human preeclampsia. To achieve these goals, plasma membrane proteins at the blood tissue interfaces were extracted from placentas using intravascular silica-bead perfusion, and then identified using shotgun proteomics. We identified 1181 plasma membrane proteins, of which 171 were enriched at the maternal blood-trophoblast interface and 192 at the fetal endothelial interface with a 70% conservation of expression in humans. Three distinct molecular subgroups of human preeclampsia were identified in existing human microarray data by using expression patterns of trophoblast-enriched proteins. Analysis of all misexpressed genes revealed divergent dysfunctions including angiogenesis (subgroup 1), MAPK signaling (subgroup 2), and hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (subgroup 3). Subgroup 2 lacked expected changes in known preeclampsia markers (sFLT1, sENG) and uniquely overexpressed GNA12. In an independent set of 40 banked placental specimens, GNA12 was overexpressed during preeclampsia when co-incident with chronic hypertension. In the current study we used a novel translational analysis to integrate mouse and human trophoblast protein expression with human microarray data. This strategy identified distinct molecular pathologies in human preeclampsia. We conclude that clinically similar preeclampsia patients exhibit divergent placental gene expression profiles thus implicating divergent

  20. High-performance ionic diode membrane for salinity gradient power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Guo, Wei; Feng, Dan; Wang, Huanting; Zhao, Dongyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-03

    Salinity difference between seawater and river water is a sustainable energy resource that catches eyes of the public and the investors in the background of energy crisis. To capture this energy, interdisciplinary efforts from chemistry, materials science, environmental science, and nanotechnology have been made to create efficient and economically viable energy conversion methods and materials. Beyond conventional membrane-based processes, technological breakthroughs in harvesting salinity gradient power from natural waters are expected to emerge from the novel fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. A major challenge toward real-world applications is to extrapolate existing single-channel devices to macroscopic materials. Here, we report a membrane-scale nanofluidic device with asymmetric structure, chemical composition, and surface charge polarity, termed ionic diode membrane (IDM), for harvesting electric power from salinity gradient. The IDM comprises heterojunctions between mesoporous carbon (pore size ∼7 nm, negatively charged) and macroporous alumina (pore size ∼80 nm, positively charged). The meso-/macroporous membrane rectifies the ionic current with distinctly high ratio of ca. 450 and keeps on rectifying in high-concentration electrolytes, even in saturated solution. The selective and rectified ion transport furthermore sheds light on salinity-gradient power generation. By mixing artificial seawater and river water through the IDM, substantially high power density of up to 3.46 W/m(2) is discovered, which largely outperforms some commercial ion-exchange membranes. A theoretical model based on coupled Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations is established to quantitatively explain the experimental observations and get insights into the underlying mechanism. The macroscopic and asymmetric nanofluidic structure anticipates wide potentials for sustainable power generation, water purification, and desalination.

  1. Membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Timmiati, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEFCs have emerged as alternative energy source. • But many issue need to be addressed. • This paper describes current problem and advancement of membrane in DEFC. - Abstract: Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attractive as a power source options because ethanol is a nontoxic, leading to ease of handling and a high energy density fuel, leading to high system energy density. However, to provide practical DEFCs power source there are several issues that still must be addressed including low power density, effect of ethanol crossover on efficiency of fuel utilization, electrical, mechanical and thermal stability and water uptake of the DEFCs electrolyte membrane. This paper describes the proton exchange membrane and alkaline exchange membrane for DEFCs, focusing on current problems and advancements in DEFC membranes. It also presents the specifications and performances of the membranes used in DEFC.

  2. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  3. Polymide gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  4. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  5. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  6. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions

  7. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water Purification and Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed nano-engineered, high-permeance membrane materials with more than double the permeance of current reverse osmosis membranes as well as manufacturing technologies for large-scale production of the novel materials.

  9. Characterisation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced during algal bloom: A membrane treatment perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, D.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are currently a major concern of the membrane industry as it generates massive concentrations of organic matter (e.g. transparent exopolymer particles [TEP]), which can adversely affect the operation of membrane filtration systems

  10. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  11. Membrane technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to prepare and characterize some synthetic membranes obtained by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of and A Am unitary and binary system onto nylon-6 films. The optimum conditions at which the grafting process proceeded homogeneously were determined. Some selected properties of the prepared membranes were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties and U.V./vis, instruments and techniques were used to characterize the prepared membranes. The use of such membranes for the decontamination of radioactive waste and some heavy metal ions as water pollutants were investigated. These grafted membranes showed good cation exchange properties and may be of practical interest in waste water treatment whether this water was radioactive or not. 4 tabs., 68 figs., 146 refs

  12. α6-Integrin alternative splicing: distinct cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate specification and niche interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijing; Qu, Jing; He, Li; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Yong

    2018-05-02

    α6-Integrin subunit (also known as CD49f) is a stemness signature that has been found on the plasma membrane of more than 30 stem cell populations. A growing body of studies have focused on the critical role of α6-containing integrins (α6β1 and α6β4) in the regulation of stem cell properties, lineage-specific differentiation, and niche interaction. α6-Integrin subunit can be alternatively spliced at the post-transcriptional level, giving rise to divergent isoforms which differ in the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain of integrins is an important functional part of integrin-mediated signals. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of α6 provide an efficient means for the regulation of stem cell responses to biochemical stimuli and/or biophysical cues in the stem cell niche, thus impacting stem cell fate determination. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural variants of the α6-integrin subunit and spatiotemporal expression of α6 cytoplasmic variants in embryonic and adult stem/progenitor cells. We highlight the roles of α6 cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate decision and niche interaction, and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Understanding of the distinct functions of α6 splicing variants in stem cell biology may inform the rational design of novel stem cell-based therapies for a range of human diseases.

  13. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  15. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  16. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  17. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  18. Membrane-mediated oligomerization of G protein coupled receptors and its implications for GPCR function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gahbauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The dimerization or even oligomerization of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs causes ongoing, controversial debates about its functional role and the coupled biophysical, biochemical or biomedical implications. A continously growing number of studies hints to a relation between oligomerization and function of GPCRs and strengthens the assumption that receptor assembly plays a key role in the regulation of protein function. Additionally, progress in the structural analysis of GPCR-G protein and GPCR-ligand interactions allows to distinguish between actively functional and non-signalling complexes. Recent findings further suggest that the surrounding membrane, i.e. its lipid composition may modulate the preferred dimerization interface and as a result the abundance of distinct dimeric conformations. In this review, the association of GPCRs and the role of the membrane in oligomerization will be discussed. An overview of the different reported oligomeric interfaces is provided and their capability for signaling discussed. The currently available data is summarized with regard to the formation of GPCR oligomers, their structures and dependency on the membrane microenvironment as well as the coupling of oligomerization to receptor function.

  19. Breaking down barriers: construction of a hybrid heterochiral membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliakus, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Because of a chemical disparity between Archaeal and Bacterial membrane-lipids, these organisms thrive under distinct environmental conditions. Archaea are generally more resistant to extreme habitats like low pH, high temperature or presence of solvents. It has therefore long been hypothesized

  20. Materials dependence of mixed gas plasticization behavior in asymmetric membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Tymen; Masetto, N.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The mass transport of asymmetric membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide/methane mixtures is determined by competitive sorption and plasticization. With increasing feed pressure in mixed gas experiments, the selectivity decreases due to both effects. Distinction whether one or the other

  1. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  3. Modeling of interactions between nanoparticles and cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Young-Min

    Rapid development of nanotechnology and ability to manufacture materials and devices with nanometer feature size leads to exciting innovations in many areas including the medical and electronic fields. However, the possible health and environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials are not fully known. Recent experimental reports suggest that some of the manufactured nanomaterials, such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, are highly toxic even in small concentrations. The goal of the current work is to understand the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of nanomaterials. In the current study coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the interactions between NPs and cellular membranes at a molecular level. One of the possible toxicity mechanisms of the nanomaterials is membrane disruption. Possibility of membrane disruption exposed to the manufactured nanomaterials are examined by considering chemical reactions and non-reactive physical interactions as chemical as well as physical mechanisms. Mechanisms of transport of carbon-based nanoparticles (fullerene and its derivative) across a phospholipid bilayer are investigated. The free energy profile is obtained using constrained simulations. It is shown that the considered nanoparticles are hydrophobic and therefore they tend to reside in the interior of the lipid bilayer. In addition, the dynamics of the membrane fluctuations is significantly affected by the nanoparticles at the bilayer-water interface. The hydrophobic interaction between the particles and membrane core induces the strong coupling between the nanoparticle motion and membrane deformation. It is observed that the considered nanoparticles affect several physical properties of the membrane. The nanoparticles embedded into the membrane interior lead to the membrane softening, which becomes more significant with increase in CNT length and concentration. The lateral pressure profile and membrane energy in the membrane

  4. Three-dimensional dynamic modelling of Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell-Systems; Dreidimensionale dynamische Modellierung und Berechnung von Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vath, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    This thesis deals with dynamic and multi-dimensional modelling of Polymer- Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cells (PEMFC). The developed models include all the different layers of the fuel cell e.g. flow field, gas diffusion layer, catalyst layer and membrane with their particular physical, chemical and electrical characteristics. The simulation results have been verified by detailed measurements performed at the research centre for hydrogen and solar energy in Ulm (ZSW Ulm). The developed three dimensional model describes the time- and spatial-dependent charge and mass transport in a fuel cell. Additionally, this model allows the analysis of critical operating conditions. For example, the current density distribution for different membranes is shown during insufficient humidification which results in local overstraining and degradation. The model also allows to analyse extreme critical operating conditions, e.g. short time breakdown of the humidification. Furthermore, the model shows the available potential of improvement opportunities in power density and efficiency of PEMFC due to optimisation of the gas diffusion layer, the catalyst and membrane. In the second part of the work the application of PEMFC systems for combined heat and power units is described by one-dimensional models for an electrical power range between 1 kW and 5 kW. This model contains the necessary components, e.g. gas processing, humidification, gas supply, fuel cell stack, heat storage, pumps, auxiliary burner, power inverter und additional aggregates. As a main result, it is possible to distinctly reduce the energy demand and the carbon dioxide exhaust for different load profiles. Today the costs for fuel cell systems are considerably higher than that of the conventional electrical energy supply. (orig.)

  5. Distinct domains within the NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION protein mediate its subcellular localization and function in the nitrate-dependent phosphate homeostasis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NITROGEN LIMITATION ADAPTATION (NLA) protein is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays an essential role in the regulation of nitrogen and phosphate homeostasis. NLA is localized to two distinct subcellular sites, the plasma membrane and nucleus, and contains four distinct domains: i) a RING...

  6. Inflammatory Response of Human Gestational Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Using a Novel Dual-Chamber Tissue Explant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Lauren C; Feng, Liping; Seed, Patrick C; Jayes, Friederike L; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Antczak, Brian; Nazzal, Matthew K; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-05-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is often associated with intra-amniotic inflammation and infection. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of PPROM includes activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes leading to compromise of membrane integrity. The impact of exposure to bacterial pathogens, including Ureaplasma parvum, on gestational membranes is poorly understood. Our objective was to develop a dual-chamber system to characterize the inflammatory response of gestational membranes to U. parvum in a directional nature. Full-thickness human gestational membrane explants, with either choriodecidua or amnion oriented superiorly, were suspended between two washers in a cylindrical device, creating two distinct compartments. Brilliant green dye was introduced into the top chamber to assess the integrity of the system. Tissue viability was evaluated after 72 h using a colorimetric cell proliferation assay. Choriodecidua or amnion was exposed to three doses of U. parvum and incubated for 24 h. Following treatment, media from each compartment were used for quantification of U. parvum (quantitative PCR), interleukin (IL)-8 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity (zymography). We observed that system integrity and explant viability were maintained over 72 h. Dose-dependent increases in recovered U. parvum, IL-8 concentration, and MMP-2 activity were detected in both compartments. Significant differences in IL-8 concentration and MMP-9 activity were found between the choriodecidua and amnion. This tissue explant system can be used to investigate the inflammatory consequences of directional bacterial exposure for gestational membranes and provides insight into the pathogenesis of PPROM and infectious complications of pregnancy. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  8. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  9. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-03-10

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  10. Materials and membrane technologies for water and energy sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Water and energy have always been crucial for the world’s social and economic growth. Their supply and use must be sustainable. This review discusses opportunities for membrane technologies in water and energy sustainbility by analyzing their potential applications and current status; providing emerging technologies and scrutinizing research and development challenges for membrane materials in this field.

  11. Concerted diffusion of lipids in raft-like membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apajalahti, Touko; Niemela, Perttu; Govindan, Praveen Nedumpully; Miettinen, Markus S.; Salonen, Emppu; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no comprehensive model for the dynamics of cellular membranes. The understanding of even the basic dynamic processes, such as lateral diffusion of lipids, is still quite limited. Recent studies of one-component membrane systems have shown that instead of single-particle motions,

  12. X-radiation effects on muscle cell membrane electrical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portela, A.; Vaccari, J.G.; Llobera, O.; Campi, M.; Delbue, M.A.; Perez, J.C.; Stewart, P.A.; Gosztonyi, A.E.; Brown Univ., Providence, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    Early effects of 100 Kilorads of X-rays on muscle cell membrane properties have been measured in sartorius muscles from Leptodactylus ocellatus. Threshold strength for rectangular current pulses increased 10% after irradiation, and action potential propagation velocity decreased 10%. Passive membrane parameters were calculated from potential responses to sub-threshold current pulses, assuming conventional cable theory. Specific membrane conductance increased to 18% after irradiation, membrane capacitance increased 14%, and length constant decreased 10% but membrane time constant was unchanged. Cell diameter decreased 5%, and resting membrane potential decreased 8%. Membrane parameters during an action potential were also evaluated by the phase-plane and current-voltage plot techniques. Irradiation significantly decreased the action potential amplitude, the excitation potential, and the maximum rates of rise and fall of membrane potential. Increases were observed in dynamic sodium and potassium conductances, peak sodium current, and net charge accumulation per action potential. This X-ray dose also produced signficant changes in the timing of peak events during the action potential; in general the whole action potential process is slower after irradiation

  13. Chapter 6: cubic membranes the missing dimension of cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almsherqi, Zakaria A; Landh, Tomas; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Deng, Yuru

    2009-01-01

    Biological membranes are among the most fascinating assemblies of biomolecules: a bilayer less than 10 nm thick, composed of rather small lipid molecules that are held together simply by noncovalent forces, defines the cell and discriminates between "inside" and "outside", survival, and death. Intracellular compartmentalization-governed by biomembranes as well-is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic cells, which allows them to fulfill multiple and highly specialized anabolic and catabolic functions in strictly controlled environments. Although cellular membranes are generally visualized as flat sheets or closely folded isolated objects, multiple observations also demonstrate that membranes may fold into "unusual", highly organized structures with 2D or 3D periodicity. The obvious correlation of highly convoluted membrane organizations with pathological cellular states, for example, as a consequence of viral infection, deserves close consideration. However, knowledge about formation and function of these highly organized 3D periodic membrane structures is scarce, primarily due to the lack of appropriate techniques for their analysis in vivo. Currently, the only direct way to characterize cellular membrane architecture is by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, deciphering the spatial architecture solely based on two-dimensionally projected TEM images is a challenging task and prone to artifacts. In this review, we will provide an update on the current progress in identifying and analyzing 3D membrane architectures in biological systems, with a special focus on membranes with cubic symmetry, and their potential role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Proteomics and lipidomics approaches in defined experimental cell systems may prove instrumental to understand formation and function of 3D membrane morphologies.

  14. Regulation of VEGF signaling by membrane traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arie; Seerapu, Himabindu Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Recent findings have drawn attention to the role of membrane traffic in the signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The significance of this development stems from the pivotal function of VEGF in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The outline of the regulation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) signaling by membrane traffic is similar to that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a prototype of the intertwining between membrane traffic and signaling. There are, however, unique features in VEGFR signaling that are conferred in part by the involvement of the co-receptor neuropilin (Nrp). Nrp1 and VEGFR2 are integrated into membrane traffic through the adaptor protein synectin, which recruits myosin VI, a molecular motor that drives inward trafficking [17,21,64]. The recent detection of only mild vascular defects in a knockin mouse model that expresses Nrp1 lacking a cytoplasmic domain [104], questions the co-receptor's role in VEGF signaling and membrane traffic. The regulation of endocytosis by ephrin-B2 is another feature unique to VEGR2/3 [18,19], but it awaits a mechanistic explanation. Current models do not fully explain how membrane traffic bridges between VEGFR and the downstream effectors that produce its functional outcome, such as cell migration. VEGF-A appears to accomplish this task in part by recruiting endocytic vesicles carrying RhoA to internalized active VEGFR2 [58]. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Membrane development for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become the main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion, as the preferred membrane material, is responsible for about 11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore, in recent years two main membrane related research threads have emerged: 1) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and 2) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic scientific issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  16. Comparison of biofouling mechanisms between cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide forward osmosis membranes in osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Zhao, Yanxiao; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2016-02-01

    There are two types of popular forward osmosis (FO) membrane materials applied for researches on FO process, cellulose triacetate (CTA) and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide. However, performance and fouling mechanisms of commercial TFC FO membrane in osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) are still unknown. In current study, its biofouling behaviors in OMBRs were investigated and further compared to the CTA FO membrane. The results indicated that β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms accounted for approximately 77% of total biovolume on the CTA FO membrane while β-D-glucopyranose polysaccharides (biovolume ratio of 81.1%) were the only dominant biofoulants on the TFC FO membrane. The analyses on the biofouling structure implied that a tighter biofouling layer with a larger biovolume was formed on the CTA FO membrane. The differences in biofouling behaviors including biofoulants composition and biofouling structure between CTA and TFC FO membranes were attributed to different membrane surface properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  18. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.

    2012-02-01

    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  19. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  20. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  1. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  2. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  3. Geometric theory on the elasticity of bio-membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Z. C.; Ou-Yang, Z. C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the shapes and stabilities of bio-membranes within the framework of exterior differential forms. After a brief review of the current status in theoretical and experimental studies on the shapes of bio-membranes, a geometric scheme is proposed to discuss the shape equation of closed lipid bilayers, the shape equation and boundary conditions of open lipid bilayers and two-component membranes, the shape equation and in-plane strain equations of cell membrane...

  4. Temperature responsive track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Yoshido, M.; Asano, M.; Tamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    A new track membrane was synthesized by introducing polymeric hydrogel to films. Such a monomer as amino acid group containing acryloyl or methacryloyl was either co-polymerized with diethylene glycol-bis-ally carbonate followed by on beam irradiation and chemical etching, or graft co-polymerized onto a particle track membrane of CR-39. The pore size was controlled in water by changing the water temperature. Some films other than CR-39 were also examined. (author). 11 refs, 7 figs

  5. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  7. Modes of Interaction of Pleckstrin Homology Domains with Membranes: Toward a Computational Biochemistry of Membrane Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Fiona B; Kalli, Antreas C; Sansom, Mark S P

    2018-02-02

    Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains mediate protein-membrane interactions by binding to phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) molecules. The structural and energetic basis of selective PH-PIP interactions is central to understanding many cellular processes, yet the molecular complexities of the PH-PIP interactions are largely unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations using a coarse-grained model enables estimation of free-energy landscapes for the interactions of 12 different PH domains with membranes containing PIP 2 or PIP 3 , allowing us to obtain a detailed molecular energetic understanding of the complexities of the interactions of the PH domains with PIP molecules in membranes. Distinct binding modes, corresponding to different distributions of cationic residues on the PH domain, were observed, involving PIP interactions at either the "canonical" (C) and/or "alternate" (A) sites. PH domains can be grouped by the relative strength of their C- and A-site interactions, revealing that a higher affinity correlates with increased C-site interactions. These simulations demonstrate that simultaneous binding of multiple PIP molecules by PH domains contributes to high-affinity membrane interactions, informing our understanding of membrane recognition by PH domains in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  10. Porphyrin-functionalized porous polysulfone membrane towards an optical sensor membrane for sorption and detection of cadmium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lizhi, E-mail: zhaolizhi_phd@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Min; Liu, Manman; Zhang, Yuecong [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wu, Chenglin [School of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Yuzhong, E-mail: zhangyz2004cn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • An optical sensor membrane is prepared by TMPyP and PNaSS-grafted PSF membrane. • The optical sensor membrane shows enhanced sorption for cadmium(II). • Visual and spectrophotometric detection can be achieved. • The functional membrane exhibits good stability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, an optical sensor membrane was prepared for sorption and detection of cadmium(II) (Cd(II)) in aqueous solution. A polyanion, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PNaSS), was grafted onto the chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) microporous membrane via surface-initiated ATRP. 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphyrin p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP) was immobilized onto the PNaSS-grafted polysulfone (PSF-PNaSS) membrane through electrostatic interaction. The TMPyP-functionalized membrane exhibited an enhanced sorption for, and distinct color and spectral response to cadmium(II) (Cd(II)) in aqueous solution. Larger immobilization capacity of TMPyP on the membrane led to stronger sorption for Cd(II), and smaller one made the optical sensor have a faster (in minutes) and more sensitive response to the ion. The detection limit study indicated that the functional membrane with proper amount of TMPyP (<0.5 mg/g) could still have color and spectral response to Cd(II) solutions at an extreme low concentration (10{sup −4} mg/L). The optical sensor membrane exhibited good stability and reusability which made it efficient for various sorptive removal and detection applications.

  11. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  12. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  13. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  15. Hyperpolarization-activated current (In is reduced in hippocampal neurons from Gabra5-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Bonin

    Full Text Available Changes in the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors can either drive or mediate homeostatic alterations in neuronal excitability. A homeostatic relationship between α5 subunit-containing GABAA (α5GABAA receptors that generate a tonic inhibitory conductance, and HCN channels that generate a hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih was recently described for cortical neurons, where a reduction in Ih was accompanied by a reciprocal increase in the expression of α5GABAA receptors resulting in the preservation of dendritosomatic synaptic function. Here, we report that in mice that lack the α5 subunit gene (Gabra5-/-, cultured embryonic hippocampal pyramidal neurons and ex vivo CA1 hippocampal neurons unexpectedly exhibited a decrease in Ih current density (by 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with neurons from wild-type (WT mice. The resting membrane potential and membrane hyperpolarization induced by blockade of Ih with ZD-7288 were similar in cultured WT and Gabra5-/- neurons. In contrast, membrane hyperpolarization measured after a train of action potentials was lower in Gabra5-/- neurons than in WT neurons. Also, membrane impedance measured in response to low frequency stimulation was greater in cultured Gabra5-/- neurons. Finally, the expression of HCN1 protein that generates Ih was reduced by 41% in the hippocampus of Gabra5-/- mice. These data indicate that loss of a tonic GABAergic inhibitory conductance was followed by a compensatory reduction in Ih. The results further suggest that the maintenance of resting membrane potential is preferentially maintained in mature and immature hippocampal neurons through the homeostatic co-regulation of structurally and biophysically distinct cation and anion channels.

  16. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  17. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Gyroid Nanoporous Membranes with Tunable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Schulte, Lars; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    -linked 1,2-polybutadiene (1,2-PB) membranes with uniform pores that, if needed, can be rendered hydrophilic. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure prealignment. Closed (skin) or opened (nonskin) outer surface can be simply realized by altering...... the effective diffusion coefficients of a series of antibiotics, proteins, and other biomolecules; solute permeation is discussed in terms of hindered diffusion. The combination of uniform bulk morphology, isotropically percolating porosity, controlled surface chemistry, and tunable permeability is distinctive...

  19. Lipophilic drug transfer between liposomal and biological membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahr, Alfred; van Hoogevest, Peter; Kuntsche, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This review presents the current knowledge on the interaction of lipophilic, poorly water soluble drugs with liposomal and biological membranes. The center of attention will be on drugs having the potential to dissolve in a lipid membrane without perturbing them too much. The degree of interaction...... is described as solubility of a drug in phospholipid membranes and the kinetics of transfer of a lipophilic drug between membranes. Finally, the consequences of these two factors on the design of lipid-based carriers for oral, as well as parenteral use, for lipophilic drugs and lead selection of oral...... lipophilic drugs is described. Since liposomes serve as model-membranes for natural membranes, the assessment of lipid solubility and transfer kinetics of lipophilic drug using liposome formulations may additionally have predictive value for bioavailability and biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics...

  20. Forward osmosis biomimetic membranes in industrial and environmental applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Bajraktari, Niada

    Membrane processes have in recent years found increasing uses in several sectors where separation of one or more components from a solvent, typically water, is required. The most widespread types of membranes are polymeric and pressure driven, but the high pressures that are required results...... consumption and lead to much more stable operations, but is currently limited by the availability of suitable membranes. However, by introducing aquaporin protein channels into a polymeric membrane to make a biomimetic membrane, the vision of both high flux and separation efficiency may be achieved......) a single use filtration module containing a sample reservoir and a biomimetic aquaporin based forward osmosis membrane. 2) a multi-use desktop forward osmosis system containing draw solution mixing, and monitoring devices. The sample is placed in the single use module and the module is then mounted...

  1. Nanostructured Polysulfone-Based Block Copolymer Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate nanostructured membranes from polysulfone-based block copolymers through self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Block copolymers containing polysulfone are novel materials for this purpose providing better mechanical and thermal stability to membranes than polystyrene-based copolymers, which have been exclusively used now. Firstly, we synthesized a triblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) through polycondensation and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The obtained membrane has a highly porous interconnected skin layer composed of elongated micelles with a flower-like arrangement, on top of the graded finger-like macrovoids. Membrane surface hydrolysis was carried out in a combination with metal complexation to obtain metal-chelated membranes. The copper-containing membrane showed improved antibacterial capability. Secondly, a poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) triblock copolymer obtained by hydrolyzing poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) formed a thin film with cylindrical poly(acrylic acid) microdomains in polysulfone matrix through thermal annealing. A phase inversion membrane was prepared from the same polymer via self-assembly and chelation-assisted non-solvent induced phase separation. The spherical micelles pre-formed in a selective solvent mixture packed into an ordered lattice in aid of metal-poly(acrylic acid) complexation. The space between micelles was filled with poly(acrylic acid)-metal complexes acting as potential water channels. The silver0 nanoparticle-decorated membrane was obtained by surface reduction, having three distinct layers with different particle sizes. Other amphiphilic copolymers containing polysulfone and water-soluble segments such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were also synthesized through coupling reaction and copper0-mediated

  2. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of vertically aligned carbon-nanotube membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Richard; Akin, Cevat; Purri, Matt; Shan, Jerry; Kim, Sangil; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Membranes having vertically-aligned carbon-nanotube (VACNT) pores offer promise as highly efficient and permeable membranes for use as breathable thin films, or in filtration and separation applications, among others. However, current membrane-fabrication techniques utilizing chemical-vapor-deposition-grown VACNT arrays are costly and difficult to scale up. We have developed a solution-based, electric-field-assisted approach as a cost-effective and scalable method to produce large-area VACNT membranes. Nanotubes are dispersed in a liquid polymer, and aligned and electrodeposited with the aid of an electric field prior to crosslinking the polymer to create VACNT membranes. We experimentally examine the electrodeposition process, focusing on parameters including the electric field, composition of the solution, and CNT functionalization that can affect the nanotube number density in the resulting membrane. We characterize the CNT pore size and number density and investigate the transport properties of the membrane. Size-exclusion tests are used to check for defects and infer the pore size of the VACNT membranes. Dry-gas membrane permeability is measured with a pressurized nitrogen-flow system, while moisture-vapor-transfer rate is measured with the ASTM-E96 upright-cup test. We discuss the measured transport properties of the solution-based, electric-field-fabricated VACNT membranes in reference to their application as breathable thin films. We would like to acknowledge DTRA for their funding and support of our research.

  4. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: jchutiaiasst@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  5. Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runnan; Liu, Yanan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Zhao, Xueting; Elimelech, Menachem; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-10-24

    One of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of modern society is an inadequate supply of clean water. Due to its energy-saving and cost-effective features, membrane technology has become an indispensable platform technology for water purification, including seawater and brackish water desalination as well as municipal or industrial wastewater treatment. However, membrane fouling, which arises from the nonspecific interaction between membrane surface and foulants, significantly impedes the efficient application of membrane technology. Preparing antifouling membranes is a fundamental strategy to deal with pervasive fouling problems from a variety of foulants. In recent years, major advancements have been made in membrane preparation techniques and in elucidating the antifouling mechanisms of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis. This review will first introduce the major foulants and the principal mechanisms of membrane fouling, and then highlight the development, current status and future prospects of antifouling membranes, including antifouling strategies, preparation techniques and practical applications. In particular, the strategies and mechanisms for antifouling membranes, including passive fouling resistance and fouling release, active off-surface and on-surface strategies, will be proposed and discussed extensively.

  6. Recent advances on mixed matrix membranes for CO2 separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wang; Zhi Wang; Song Zhao; Jixiao Wang; Shichang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances on mixed matrix membrane for CO2 separation are reviewed in this paper. To improve CO2 separation performance of polymer membranes, mixedmatrixmembranes (MMMs) are developed. The concept of MMM is illustrated distinctly. Suitable polymer and inorganic or organic fillers for MMMs are summarized.Possible interface morphologies between polymer and filler, and the effect of interface morphologies on gas transport properties of MMMs are summarized. The methods to improve compatibility between polymer and filler are introduced. There are eightmethods including silane coupling, Grignard treatment, incorporation of additive,grafting, in situ polymerization, polydopamine coating, particle fusion approach and polymer functionalization. To achieve higher productivity for industrial application,mixed matrix composite membranes are developed. The recent development on hollow fiber and flat mixedmatrix composite membrane is reviewed in detail. Last, the future trend of MMM is forecasted.

  7. Mitochondrial shape governs BAX-induced membrane permeabilization and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thibaud T; Floros, Konstantinos V; Elkholi, Rana; Corrigan, Kelly-Ann; Kushnareva, Yulia; Wieder, Shira Y; Lindtner, Claudia; Serasinghe, Madhavika N; Asciolla, James J; Buettner, Christoph; Newmeyer, Donald D; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2015-01-08

    Proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins converge upon the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to promote mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and apoptosis. Here we investigated the mechanistic relationship between mitochondrial shape and MOMP and provide evidence that BAX requires a distinct mitochondrial size to induce MOMP. We utilized the terminal unfolded protein response pathway to systematically define proapoptotic BCL-2 protein composition after stress and then directly interrogated their requirement for a productive mitochondrial size. Complementary biochemical, cellular, in vivo, and ex vivo studies reveal that Mfn1, a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fusion, establishes a mitochondrial size that is permissive for proapoptotic BCL-2 family function. Cells with hyperfragmented mitochondria, along with size-restricted OMM model systems, fail to support BAX-dependent membrane association and permeabilization due to an inability to stabilize BAXα9·membrane interactions. This work identifies a mechanistic contribution of mitochondrial size in dictating BAX activation, MOMP, and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms underlying anomalous diffusion in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a complex fluid where lipids and proteins undergo diffusive motion critical to biochemical reactions. Through quantitative imaging analyses such as single-particle tracking, it is observed that diffusion in the cell membrane is usually anomalous in the sense that the mean squared displacement is not linear with time. This chapter describes the different models that are employed to describe anomalous diffusion, paying special attention to the experimental evidence that supports these models in the plasma membrane. We review models based on anticorrelated displacements, such as fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion, and nonstationary models such as continuous time random walks. We also emphasize evidence for the formation of distinct compartments that transiently form on the cell surface. Finally, we overview heterogeneous diffusion processes in the plasma membrane, which have recently attracted considerable interest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  10. The dynamic interplay of plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules in secondary cell wall patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eOda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of the cellulosic cell wall underlies the shape and function of plant cells. The cortical microtubule array plays a central role in the regulation of cell wall patterns. However, the regulatory mechanisms by which secondary cell wall patterns are established through cortical microtubules remain to be fully determined. Our recent study in xylem vessel cells revealed that a mutual inhibitory interaction between cortical microtubules and distinct plasma membrane domains leads to distinctive patterning in secondary cell walls. Our research revealed that the recycling of active and inactive ROP proteins by a specific GAP and GEF pair establishes distinct de novo plasma membrane domains. Active ROP recruits a plant-specific microtubule-associated protein, MIDD1, which mediates the mutual interaction between cortical microtubules and plasma membrane domains. In this mini review, we summarize recent research regarding secondary wall patterning, with a focus on the emerging interplay between plasma membrane domains and cortical microtubules through MIDD1 and ROP.

  11. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl

  12. Porous polybenzimidazole membranes doped with phosphoric acid: Preparation and application in high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jin; Li, Xiaojin; Yu, Shuchun; Hao, Jinkai; Lu, Wangting; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared with glucose as porogen. • Phosphoric acid content was as high as 15.7 mol H 3 PO 4 per PBI repeat unit. • 200 h Constant current density test was carried out at 150 °C. • Degradation was due to the gap between membrane and catalyst layer. - Abstract: In this paper, the preparation and characterization of porous polybenzimidazole membranes doped with phosphoric acid were reported. For the preparation of porous polybenzimidazole membranes, glucose and saccharose were selected as porogen and added into PBI resin solution before solvent casting. The prepared porous PBI membranes had high proton conductivity and high content of acid doping at room temperature with 15.7 mol H 3 PO 4 per PBI repeat unit, much higher than pure PBI membrane at the same condition. Further, the performance and stability of the porous PBI membrane in high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells was tested. It was found that the cell performance remained stable during 200 h stability test under a constant current discharge of 0.5 A cm −2 except for the last fifty hours. The decay in the last fifty hours was ascribed to the delamination between the catalyst layer and membrane increasing the charge-transfer resistance

  13. Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction...... into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches...

  14. More About Thin-Membrane Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, George D.; Worley, Jennings F., III

    1994-01-01

    Report presents additional information about device described in "Thin-Membrane Sensor With Biochemical Switch" (MFS-26121). Device is modular sensor that puts out electrical signal indicative of chemical or biological agent. Signal produced as membrane-crossing ion current triggered by chemical reaction between agent and recognition protein conjugated to channel blocker. Prototype of biosensor useful in numerous laboratory, industrial, or field applications; such as to detect bacterial toxins in food, to screen for disease-producing micro-organisms, or to warn of toxins or pollutants in air.

  15. Nanocomposites for Improved Physical Durability of Porous PVDF Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Current commercial polymer membranes have shown high performance and durability in water treatment, converting poor quality waters to higher quality suitable for drinking, agriculture and recycling. However, to extend the treatment into more challenging water sources containing abrasive particles, micro and ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced physical durability are highly desirable. This review summarises the current limits of the existing polymeric membranes to treat harsh water sources, followed by the development of nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes for improved physical durability. Various types of nanofillers including nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanoclays were evaluated for their effect on flux, fouling resistance, mechanical strength and abrasion resistance on PVDF membranes. The mechanisms of abrasive wear and how the more durable materials provide resistance was also explored. PMID:24957121

  16. Comparison of membrane electroporation and protein denature in response to pulsed electric field with different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feiran; Fang, Zhihui; Mast, Jason; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we compared the minimum potential differences in the electroporation of membrane lipid bilayers and the denaturation of membrane proteins in response to an intensive pulsed electric field with various pulse durations. Single skeletal muscle fibers were exposed to a pulsed external electric field. The field-induced changes in the membrane integrity (leakage current) and the Na channel currents were monitored to identify the minimum electric field needed to damage the membrane lipid bilayer and the membrane proteins, respectively. We found that in response to a relatively long pulsed electric shock (longer than the membrane intrinsic time constant), a lower membrane potential was needed to electroporate the cell membrane than for denaturing the membrane proteins, while for a short pulse a higher membrane potential was needed. In other words, phospholipid bilayers are more sensitive to the electric field than the membrane proteins for a long pulsed shock, while for a short pulse the proteins become more vulnerable. We can predict that for a short or ultrashort pulsed electric shock, the minimum membrane potential required to start to denature the protein functions in the cell plasma membrane is lower than that which starts to reduce the membrane integrity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Morphologically Aligned Cation-Exchange Membranes by a Pulsed Electric Field for Reverse Electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Hyuk; Kim, Seok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2015-07-21

    A low-resistance ion-exchange membrane is essential to achieve the high-performance energy conversion or storage systems. The formation methods for low-resistance membranes are various; one of the methods is the ion channel alignment of an ion-exchange membrane under a direct current (DC) electric field. In this study, we suggest a more effective alignment method than the process with the DC electric field. First, an ion-exchange membrane was prepared under a pulsed electric field [alternating current (AC) mode] to enhance the effectiveness of the alignment. The membrane properties and the performance in reverse electrodialysis (RED) were then examined to assess the membrane resistance and ion selectivity. The results show that the membrane electrical resistance (MER) had a lower value of 0.86 Ω cm(2) for the AC membrane than 2.13 Ω cm(2) observed for the DC membrane and 4.30 Ω cm(2) observed for the pristine membrane. Furthermore, RED achieved 1.34 W/m(2) of maximum power density for the AC membrane, whereas that for the DC membrane was found to be 1.14 W/m(2) [a RED stack assembled with CMX, used as a commercial cation-exchange membrane (CEM), showed 1.07 W/m(2)]. Thereby, the novel preparation process for a remarkable low-resistance membrane with high ion selectivity was demonstrated.

  18. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow and fouling in membrane filters: Effects of membrane morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    Membrane filters are widely-used in microfiltration applications. Many types of filter membranes are produced commercially, for different filtration applications, but broadly speaking the requirements are to achieve fine control of separation, with low power consumption. The answer to this problem might seem obvious: select the membrane with the largest pore size and void fraction consistent with the separation requirements. However, membrane fouling (an inevitable consequence of successful filtration) is a complicated process, which depends on many parameters other than membrane pore size and void fraction; and which itself greatly affects the filtration process and membrane functionality. In this work we formulate mathematical models that can (i) account for the membrane internal morphology (internal structure, pore size & shape, etc.); (ii) fouling of membranes with specific morphology; and (iii) make some predictions as to what type of membrane morphology might offer optimum filtration performance.

  20. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  1. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-10-12

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  2. Experimental study on the membrane electrode assembly of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: effects of microporous layer, membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer hydrophobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rui B.; Falcão, D.S.; Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EIS is employed to investigate the MEA design of a PEM fuel cell. • Effects of MPL, membrane thickness and GDL hydrophobic treatment are studied. • MPL increases cell output at low to medium currents but reduces it at high currents. • Better results are obtained when employing a thinner Nafion membrane. • GDL hydrophobic treatment improves the cell performance. - Abstract: In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to analyze the influence of microporous layer (MPL), membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer (GDL) hydrophobic treatment in the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Results show that adding a MPL increases cell performance at low to medium current densities. Because lower ohmic losses are observed when applying a MPL, such improvement is attributed to a better hydration state of the membrane. The MPL creates a pressure barrier for water produced at the cathode, forcing it to travel to the anode side, therefore increasing the water content in the membrane. However, at high currents, this same phenomenon seems to have intensified liquid water flooding in the anode gas channels, increasing mass transfer losses and reducing the cell performance. Decreasing membrane thickness results into considerably higher performances, due to a decrease in ohmic resistance. Moreover, at low air humidity operation, a rapid recovery from dehydration is observed when a thinner membrane is employed. The GDL hydrophobic treatment significantly improves the cell performance. Untreated GDLs appear to act as water-traps that not only hamper reactants transport to the reactive sites but also impede the proper humidification of the cell. From the different designs tested, the highest maximum power density is obtained from that containing a MPL, a thinner membrane and treated GDLs.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of single extracellular vesicles reveals subpopulations with varying membrane content (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Lee, Changwon; Rojalin, Tatu; Carney, Randy P.; Hazari, Sidhartha; Knudson, Alisha; Lam, Kit S.; Saari, Heikki; Lazaro Ibañez, Elisa; Viitala, Tapani; Laaksonen, Timo; Yliperttula, Marjo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Exosomes are small (~100nm) membrane bound vesicles excreted by cells as part of their normal biological processes. These extracellular vesicles are currently an area of intense research, since they were recently found to carry functional mRNA that allows transfer of proteins and other cellular instructions between cells. Exosomes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells are known to have increased exosome production, and may use those exosomes to prepare remote environments for metastasis. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop characterization methods to help understand the structure and function of these vesicles. However, current techniques, such as proteomics and genomics technologies, rely on aggregating a large amount of exosome material and reporting on chemical content that is averaged over many millions of exosomes. Here we report on the use of laser-tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) to probe individual vesicles, discovering distinct heterogeneity among exosomes both within a cell line, as well as between different cell lines. Through principal components analysis followed by hierarchical clustering, we have identified four "subpopulations" of exosomes shared across seven cell lines. The key chemical differences between these subpopulations, as determined by spectral analysis of the principal component loadings, are primarily related to membrane composition. Specifically, the differences can be ascribed to cholesterol content, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, and surface protein expression. Thus, we have shown LTRS to be a powerful method to probe the chemical content of single extracellular vesicles.

  4. Eukaryote-wide sequence analysis of mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outer membranes of mitochondria are thought to be homologous to the outer membranes of Gram negative bacteria, which contain 100's of distinct families of β-barrel membrane proteins (BOMPs often forming channels for transport of nutrients or drugs. However, only four families of mitochondrial BOMPs (MBOMPs have been confirmed to date. Although estimates as high as 100 have been made in the past, the number of yet undiscovered MBOMPs is an open question. Fortunately, the recent discovery of a membrane integration signal (the β-signal for MBOMPs gave us an opportunity to look for undiscovered MBOMPs. Results We present the results of a comprehensive survey of eukaryotic protein sequences intended to identify new MBOMPs. Our search employs recent results on β-signals as well as structural information and a novel BOMP predictor trained on both bacterial and mitochondrial BOMPs. Our principal finding is circumstantial evidence suggesting that few MBOMPs remain to be discovered, if one assumes that, like known MBOMPs, novel MBOMPs will be monomeric and β-signal dependent. In addition to this, our analysis of MBOMP homologs reveals some exceptions to the current model of the β-signal, but confirms its consistent presence in the C-terminal region of MBOMP proteins. We also report a β-signal independent search for MBOMPs against the yeast and Arabidopsis proteomes. We find no good candidates MBOMPs in yeast but the Arabidopsis results are less conclusive. Conclusions Our results suggest there are no remaining MBOMPs left to discover in yeast; and if one assumes all MBOMPs are β-signal dependent, few MBOMP families remain undiscovered in any sequenced organism.

  5. Physics of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    The biological membrane is a complex system consisting of an aqueous biomolecular planar aggregate of predominantly lipid and protein molecules. At physiological temperatures, the membrane may be considered a thin (˜50Å) slab of anisotropic fluid characterized by a high lateral mobility of the various molecular components. A substantial fraction of biological activity takes place in association with membranes. As a very lively piece of condensed matter, the biological membrane is a challenging research topic for both the experimental and theoretical physicists who are facing a number of fundamental physical problems including molecular self-organization, macromolecular structure and dynamics, inter-macromolecular interactions, structure-function relationships, transport of energy and matter, and interfacial forces. This paper will present a brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on such problems, with special emphasis on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution. The paper advocates the dual point of view that there are a number of interesting physics problems in membranology and, at the same time, that the physical properties of biomembranes are important regulators of membrane function.

  6. Polymeric membranes modulate human keratinocyte differentiation in specific epidermal layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Simona; Morelli, Sabrina; Giordano, Francesca; Gordano, Amalia; Bartolo, Loredana De

    2016-10-01

    In vitro models of human bioengineered skin substitutes are an alternative to animal experimentation for testing the effects and toxicity of drugs, cosmetics and pollutants. For the first time specific and distinct human epidermal strata were engineered by using membranes and keratinocytes. To this purpose, biodegradable membranes of chitosan (CHT), polycaprolactone (PCL) and a polymeric blend of CHT-PCL were prepared by phase-inversion technique and characterized in order to evaluate their morphological, physico-chemical and mechanical properties. The capability of membranes to modulate keratinocyte differentiation inducing specific interactions in epidermal membrane systems was investigated. The overall results demonstrated that the membrane properties strongly influence the cell morpho-functional behaviour of human keratinocytes, modulating their terminal differentiation, with the creation of specific epidermal strata or a fully proliferative epidermal multilayer system. In particular, human keratinocytes adhered on CHT and CHT-PCL membranes, forming the structure of the epidermal top layers, such as the corneum and granulosum strata, characterized by withdrawal or reduction from the cell cycle and cell proliferation. On the PCL membrane, keratinocytes developed an epidermal basal lamina, with high proliferating cells that stratified and migrated over time to form a complete differentiating epidermal multilayer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  8. Composite Membrane Formation by Combination of Reaction-Induced and Nonsolvent-Induced Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    A novel method of preparing skinned asymmetric membranes with two distinctive layers is described: a top layer composed of chemically cross-linked polymer chains (dense layer) and a bottom layer of non-cross-linked polymer chains (porous substructure). The method consists of two simple steps that are compatible with industrial membrane fabrication facilities. Unlike conventional processes to prepare asymmetric membranes, with this approach it is possible to finely control the structure and functionalities of the final membrane. The thickness of the dense layer can be easily controlled over several orders of magnitude and targeted functional groups can be readily incorporated in it.

  9. Composite Membrane Formation by Combination of Reaction-Induced and Nonsolvent-Induced Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-25

    A novel method of preparing skinned asymmetric membranes with two distinctive layers is described: a top layer composed of chemically cross-linked polymer chains (dense layer) and a bottom layer of non-cross-linked polymer chains (porous substructure). The method consists of two simple steps that are compatible with industrial membrane fabrication facilities. Unlike conventional processes to prepare asymmetric membranes, with this approach it is possible to finely control the structure and functionalities of the final membrane. The thickness of the dense layer can be easily controlled over several orders of magnitude and targeted functional groups can be readily incorporated in it.

  10. Liver plasma membranes: an effective method to analyze membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Liang, Songping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of plasma membrane proteins make them difficult to analyze. The protocols given here are the efficient isolation/digestion procedures for liver plasma membrane proteomic analysis. Both protocol for the isolation of plasma membranes and protocol for the in-gel digestion of gel-embedded plasma membrane proteins are presented. The later method allows the use of a high detergent concentration to achieve efficient solubilization of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins while avoiding interference with the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis.

  11. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...... of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct (CD) principal cells (10, 20). This process is mainly regulated by the actions of AVP on the type 2 AVP receptor (V2R), although the V1a receptor may also play a minor role (26). The V2R is classified within the group of 7-transmembrane....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes : Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, H; Pinho, M

    1986-01-01

    The chapters in this book are based upon lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes (June 26-July 8, 1983, Alcabideche, Portugal), which provided an integrated presentation of syn­ thetic membrane science and technology in three broad areas. Currently available membrane formation mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the manner in which synthesis conditions can be controlled to achieve desired membrane structures. Membrane performance in a specific separa­ tionprocess involves complex phenomena, the understanding of which re­ quires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing polymer chemistry, phys­ ical chemistry, and chemical engineering. Progress toward a global understanding of membrane phenomena is described in chapters on the principles of membrane transport. The chapters on membrane processes and applications highlight both established and emerging membrane processes, and elucidate their myriad applications. It is our hope that this book will be an enduring, comprehensi...

  13. Membrane adsorber for endotoxin removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Moita de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The surface of flat-sheet nylon membranes was modified using bisoxirane as the spacer and polyvinyl alcohol as the coating polymer. The amino acid histidine was explored as a ligand for endotoxins, aiming at its application for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the membrane adsorber, analysis of the depyrogenation procedures and the evaluation of endotoxin removal efficiency in static mode are discussed. Ligand density of the membranes was around 7 mg/g dry membrane, allowing removal of up to 65% of the endotoxins. The performance of the membrane adsorber prepared using nylon coated with polyvinyl alcohol and containing histidine as the ligand proved superior to other membrane adsorbers reported in the literature. The lack of endotoxin adsorption on nylon membranes without histidine confirmed that endotoxin removal was due to the presence of the ligand at the membrane surface. Modified membranes were highly stable, exhibiting a lifespan of approximately thirty months.

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  16. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  17. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  18. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  19. Influence of Silica/Sulfonated Polyether-Ether Ketone as Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handayani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of non-humidified condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC using composite sPEEK-silica membrane is reported. Sulfonated membrane of PEEK is known as hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membrane for PEMFC and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The state of the art of fuel cells is based on the perluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion. Nafion has been the most used in both PEMFC and DMFC due to good performance although in low humidified condition showed poor current density. Here we reported the effect of silica in hydrocarbon sPEEK membrane that contributes for a better water management system inside the cell, and showed 0.16 W/cm2 of power density which is 78% higher than that of non-silica modified [Keywords: composite membrane, polyether-ether ketone, silica, proton exchange membrane fuel cell].

  20. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  1. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Almudena; Eljack, N., D.; Sani, ND

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the membrane...

  2. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2017-10-12

    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  3. Organic separations with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials

  4. Structure and physical properties of bio membranes and model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor Hianik

    2006-01-01

    Bio membranes belong to the most important structures of the cell and the cell organelles. They play not only structural role of the barrier separating the external and internal part of the membrane but contain also various functional molecules, like receptors, ionic channels, carriers and enzymes. The cell membrane also preserves non-equilibrium state in a cell which is crucial for maintaining its excitability and other signaling functions. The growing interest to the bio membranes is also due to their unique physical properties. From physical point of view the bio membranes, that are composed of lipid bilayer into which are incorporated integral proteins and on their surface are anchored peripheral proteins and polysaccharides, represent liquid s crystal of smectic type. The bio membranes are characterized by anisotropy of structural and physical properties. The complex structure of bio membranes makes the study of their physical properties rather difficult. Therefore several model systems that mimic the structure of bio membranes were developed. Among them the lipid monolayers at an air-water interphase, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes are most known. This work is focused on the introduction into the physical word of the bio membranes and their models. After introduction to the membrane structure and the history of its establishment, the physical properties of the bio membranes and their models are stepwise presented. The most focus is on the properties of lipid monolayers, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes that were most detailed studied. This lecture has tutorial character that may be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in the area of biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioengineering, however it contains also original work of the author and his co-worker and PhD students, that may be useful also for specialists working in the field of bio membranes and model

  5. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  6. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  7. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel(reg s ign) Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  8. Lipopolysaccharide Membranes and Membrane Proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Studied by Computer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatsma, TP

    2006-12-01

    bilayers. A few simulation studies of outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria have been reported using simple lipid bilayers, even though this is not a realistic representation of the outer membrane environment. This contribution describes our recent molecular simulation studies of the rough lipopolysaccharide membrane of P. aeruginosa, which are the first and only reported studies to date for a complete, periodic lipopolysaccharide outer membrane. This also includes our current efforts in building on our initial and unique experience simulating the lipopolysaccharide membrane in the development and application of novel computational procedures and tools that allow molecular simulation studies of outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria to be carried out in realistic membrane models.

  9. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  10. Studies on membrane for redox flow battery. 9. Crosslinking of the membrane by the electron radiation and durability of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Minamihira, Kazunori; Hwang, Gab-Jin; Kawahara, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko; Negishi, Youichi; Kang, An-Soo.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorosulfonated homogeneous and asymmetric cation exchange membranes were tested as separators for the all-vanadium redox flow battery. The membrane was prepared by chlorosulfonation of the polyethylene film in vapour phase. In the case of the polyethylene film of 20 μm thickness used for the homogeneous membrane, area resistivity of 0.5 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl aq. solution was reached at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. In the case of heat laminated 20 μm thick PE film on a neutral porous polyolefin film of 200 μm thickness used for the asymmetric membrane, a minimum area resistivity of 1 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl was achieved at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. The performance evaluation of the membranes as separators in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was also measured. The area resistivity of the membranes in the measuring-cell using charge-discharge current density 63.7 mA/cm 2 was 1.4 Ω · cm 2 and 2.2 Ω · cm 2 for charge and discharge respectively for the homogeneous membrane, and 3.6 Ω · cm 2 and 4.3 Ω · cm 2 for charge discharge cycles respectively for the asymmetric membrane. The chlorosulfonated homogeneous cation exchange membrane was cross-linked by the electron radiation to improve durability of the membrane. The crosslinked membrane which has the high degree of cross-linking, did not shown the mechanical breakage by swelling or shrinking in the acidic vanadium solution, but its area resistivity in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was increased. (author)

  11. Theoretical investigation of gas separation in functionalized nanoporous graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli; Li, Jinping

    2017-06-01

    Graphene has enormous potential as a membrane-separation material with ultrahigh permeability and selectivity. The understanding of mass-transport mechanism in graphene membranes is crucial for applications in gas separation field. We computationally investigated the capability and mechanisms of functionalized nanoporous graphene membranes for gas separation. The functionalized graphene membranes with appropriate pore size and geometry possess excellent high selectivity for separating CO2/N2, CO2/CH4 and N2/CH4 gas mixtures with a gas permeance of ∼103-105 GPU, compared with ∼100 GPU for typical polymeric membranes. More important, we found that, for ultrathin graphene membranes, the gas separation performance has a great dependence not only with the energy barrier for gas getting into the pore of the graphene membranes, but also with the energy barrier for gas escaping from the pore to the other side of the membranes. The gas separation performance can be tuned by changing the two energy barriers, which can be realized by varying the chemical functional groups on the pore rim of the graphene. The novel mass-transport mechanism obtained in current study may provide a theoretical foundation for guiding the future design of graphene membranes with outstanding separation performance.

  12. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission

  13. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110, Germany florian.schneider@imtek.uni-freiburg.de ABSTRACT We compare the performance and optical quality of two types of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses. The membranes feature either a...-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane Florian Schneider1,2, Philipp Waibel2 and Ulrike Wallrabe2 1 CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 University of Freiburg – IMTEK, Department of Microsystems...

  15. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  16. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  17. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane; Naceur, Mohamed W.; Francis, Lijo; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D

  18. Imaging of membranous dysmenorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouanet, J.P.; Daclin, P.Y.; Turpin, F.; Karam, R.; Prayssac-Salanon, A. [Dept. of Radiology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Courtieu, C.R. [Dept. of Gynecology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Maubon, A.J. [Dept. of Radiology, C. M. C. Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Dept. of Radiology, C. H. U. Dupuytren, Limoges (France)

    2001-06-01

    Membranous dysmenorrhea is an unusual clinical entity. It is characterized by the expulsion of huge fragments of endometrium during the menses, favored by hormonal abnormality or drug intake. This report describes a case with clinical, US, and MRI findings before the expulsion. Differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of membranous dysmenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouanet, J.P.; Daclin, P.Y.; Turpin, F.; Karam, R.; Prayssac-Salanon, A.; Courtieu, C.R.; Maubon, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Membranous dysmenorrhea is an unusual clinical entity. It is characterized by the expulsion of huge fragments of endometrium during the menses, favored by hormonal abnormality or drug intake. This report describes a case with clinical, US, and MRI findings before the expulsion. Differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig.)

  20. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  1. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  2. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  3. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  4. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  5. Membrane Transfer Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Progress has been made in several areas of the definition, design, and development of the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA) instrument and associated sensors and systems. Progress is also reported in the development of software modules for instrument control, experimental image and data acquisition, and data analysis.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  7. Membrane Trafficking Modulation during Entamoeba Encystation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Emily; Siegesmund, Maria A; Bottery, Michael J; van Aerle, Ronny; Shather, Maulood Mohammed; Caler, Elisabet; Dacks, Joel B; van der Giezen, Mark

    2017-10-09

    Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite that infects 50-100 million people and causes up to 55,000 deaths annually. The transmissive form of E. histolytica is the cyst, with a single infected individual passing up to 45 million cysts per day, making cyst production an attractive target for infection control. Lectins and chitin are secreted to form the cyst wall, although little is known about the underlying membrane trafficking processes supporting encystation. As E. histolytica does not readily form cysts in vitro, we assessed membrane trafficking gene expression during encystation in the closely related model Entamoeba invadens. Genes involved in secretion are up-regulated during cyst formation, as are some trans-Golgi network-to-endosome trafficking genes. Furthermore, endocytic and general trafficking genes are up-regulated in the mature cyst, potentially preserved as mRNA in preparation for excystation. Two divergent dynamin-related proteins found in Entamoeba are predominantly expressed during cyst formation. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that they are paralogous to, but quite distinct from, classical dynamins found in human, suggesting that they may be potential drug targets to block encystation. The membrane-trafficking machinery is clearly regulated during encystation, providing an additional facet to understanding this crucial parasitic process.

  8. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  9. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  10. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  11. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  12. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  13. Influence of membrane properties on fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; Temmink, Hardy; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric flat-sheet membranes with different properties were used in filtration experiments with activated sludge from a pilot-scale MBR to investigate the influence of membrane pore size, surface porosity, pore morphology, and hydrophobicity on membrane fouling. An improved flux-step method was

  14. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  15. Autophagosomal membranes assemble at ER-plasma membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    The biogenesis of autophagosome, the double membrane bound organelle related to macro-autophagy, is a complex event requiring numerous key-proteins and membrane remodeling events. Our recent findings identify the extended synaptotagmins, crucial tethers of Endoplasmic Reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, as key-regulators of this molecular sequence.

  16. Ataques de nervios: culturally bound and distinct from panic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) has emphasized the importance of understanding psychopathology within a cultural framework by including culture-bound syndromes within its appendices. These syndromes are proposed to be bound to certain cultures and distinct from other psychological disorders. Included among the syndromes are ataques de nervios (ADN), which are reported to be bound to the Hispanic culture and closely resemble panic attacks. However, the cultural distinctiveness and phenomenology of ADN has not been adequately investigated. The current study employed an ethnically diverse study sample (N=342) of undergraduates. Participants completed a number of measures that assessed acculturation, syndrome and anxiety risk factors. In contrast to the DSM-IV's conceptualization of ADN, the rate of ADN did not significantly vary across the three main groups (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic participants) nor did it vary based on acculturation. More consistent with the DSM-IV, the symptom comparisons indicated some differentiation between ADN and panic attacks. The present report provides data indicating that ADNs, as described by the DSM-IV, are not unique to the Hispanic culture and are experienced by non-Hispanic individuals at similar rates to Hispanic-endorsement. The findings are consistent with the DSM-IV assertion that ADNs and PAs are distinct syndromes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  18. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  19. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  20. From shell to membrane theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destuynder, P.

    1981-02-01

    A new formulation of the membrane theory is presented in this paper. The assumptions which allow the Budiansky-Sanders' model or the membrane theory to be deduced from the three-dimensional case are pointed out [fr

  1. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  2. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    Various techniques for NO removal in Membrane Contactor were considered. However the NO absorption in a liquid adsorbent with chemical enhancement and its ease for regeneration, was selected as the most practicable choice. Various different compounds for chemical enhancement were studied and Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent was selected for further studies. The technical feasibility of Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent for obtaining greater than 80% NO removal have been successfully established. Even though the membrane area required for greater than 80% NO removal has been found to be about 500 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c} (compared to 50 - 150 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c}, for 95% SO{sub 2} removal, depending on the membrane characteristics), suitable Membrane Contactor design has been proposed for carrying out the process at an acceptable gas side pressure drop. The electro-membrane processes for the regeneration of adsorbents have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies have concerned the study of basic functions of both the bipolar membranes and charge laden (anion/cation) membranes. Suitable experimental techniques have been devised for studying of these basic parameters (e.g. charge transport number, salt diffusion through membranes, current-voltage characteristics of bipolar membranes and electrical resistance of charge laden membranes). These parameters have further been utilized in the mechanistic model of combined membranes in an ED cell (electrodialysis). Based on these fundamental studies and analysis of process requirements, suitable configuration of ED cell has been developed and verified by experimental studies. The effect of both the stack design parameters (e.g. number of cells, membrane type and spacer design) and the operational parameters (e.g. temperature, electrolyte concentration, liquid velocity and current density) have been studied for optimization of energy consumption for regeneration of loaded adsorbents. As a result

  3. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  4. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  5. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite...... structure with a crystal size of about 1 to 100 nm, and a method for producing same....

  6. Membranes suited for immobilizing biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to flow-through membranes suitable for the immobilization of biomols., methods for the prepn. of such membranes and the use of such membranes for the immobilization of biomols. and subsequent detection of immobilized biomols. The invention concerns a flow-through

  7. Phase behavior of multicomponent membranes: Experimental and computational techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis; Kumar, P.B. Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in biology seems to indicate that the Fluid Mosaic model of membrane proposed by Singer and Nicolson, with lipid bilayer functioning only as medium to support protein machinery, may be too simple to be realistic. Many protein functions are now known to depend on the compositio....... This review includes basic foundations on membrane model systems and experimental approaches applied in the membrane research area, stressing on recent advances in the experimental and computational techniques....... membranes. Current increase in interest in the domain formation in multicomponent membranes also stems from the experiments demonstrating liquid ordered-liquid disordered coexistence in mixtures of lipids and cholesterol and the success of several computational models in predicting their behavior...

  8. Dense ceramic membranes based on ion conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.L.; Larring, Y.; Bredesen, R.; Norby, T.; Grande, T.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made in the fields of high temperature oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes. Studies of membranes for oxygen separation are mainly focusing on materials design to improve flux, and to lesser extent, related to stability issues. High oxygen fluxes satisfying industrial requirements can be obtained but, for many materials, the surface exchange rate is limiting the performance. The current status on electrolyte-type and mixed proton and electron conducting membranes is outlined, highlighting materials with improved stability in typical applications as solid oxide fuel cell technology and gas separation. In our presentation more fundamental aspects related to transport properties, chemical and mechanical stability of membrane materials are also treated. It is concluded that a significantly better understanding of the long term effects of operation in chemical gradients is needed for these types of membrane materials. (authors)

  9. Toward the Structure of Dynamic Membrane-Anchored Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Igor

    2007-01-01

    In the cortex of a motile cell, membrane-anchored actin filaments assemble into structures of varying shape and function. Filopodia are distinguished by a core of bundled actin filaments within finger-like extensions of the membrane. In a recent paper by Medalia et al1 cryo-electron tomography has been used to reconstruct, from filopodia of Dictyostelium cells, the 3-dimensional organization of actin filaments in connection with the plasma membrane. A special arrangement of short filaments converging toward the filopod's tip has been called a “terminal cone”. In this region force is applied for protrusion of the membrane. Here we discuss actin organization in the filopodia of Dictyostelium in the light of current views on forces that are generated by polymerizing actin filaments, and on the resistance of membranes against deformation that counteracts these forces. PMID:19262130

  10. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...

  11. Development of membranes of PLGA functionalized with antimicrobial agents nanostructured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.G.; Molin, M.L.A.L.; Nogueira, A.L.; Schneider, E. Duek; Pezzin, A.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease affecting the tooth supporting tissues, causing loss of bone attachment. One of the possible treatments is through guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Currently, a variety of resorbable membranes are available as alternative to conventional non-resorbable membranes for this application, as the membranes of poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). In this context, this study aimed to produce membranes were biocompatible and nanostructured functionalized with antibacterial agents and evaluate its thermal properties for future application in RTG. For the production of membranes were used as the PLGA polymer matrix. The NpAg were used at concentrations of 5, 7, 8 and 10 ppm and NpZnO were: 10, 50, 100 and 150 ppm. The materials were characterized by TGA and DSC. (author)

  12. Unraveling the role of membrane microdomains during microbial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagam, Prathyusha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Inda, Maria Eugenia; Batra, Sanjay

    2017-10-01

    Infectious diseases pose major socioeconomic and health-related threats to millions of people across the globe. Strategies to combat infectious diseases derive from our understanding of the complex interactions between the host and specific bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains that play important role in life cycle of microbes. Interaction of microbial pathogens with host membrane rafts influences not only their initial colonization but also their spread and the induction of inflammation. Therefore, intervention strategies aimed at modulating the assembly of membrane rafts and/or regulating raft-directed signaling pathways are attractive approaches for the. management of infectious diseases. The current review discusses the latest advances in terms of techniques used to study the role of membrane microdomains in various pathological conditions and provides updated information regarding the role of membrane rafts during bacterial, viral and fungal infections.

  13. Metal–organic framework membranes: from synthesis to separation application

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Shilun

    2014-06-26

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials, which are constructed from metal ions or metal ion clusters and bridging organic linkers, exhibit regular crystalline lattices with relatively well-defined pore structures and interesting properties. As a new class of porous solid materials, MOFs are attractive for a variety of industrial applications including separation membranes-a rapidly developing research area. Many reports have discussed the synthesis and applications of MOFs and MOF thin films, but relatively few have addressed MOF membranes. This critical review provides an overview of the diverse MOF membranes that have been prepared, beginning with a brief introduction to the current techniques for the fabrication of MOF membranes. Gas and liquid separation applications with different MOF membranes are also included (175 references). This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. A geometric theory on the elasticity of bio-membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Z C; Ou-Yang, Z C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the shapes and stabilities of bio-membranes within the framework of exterior differential forms. After a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental studies on the shapes of bio-membranes, a geometric scheme is proposed to discuss the shape equation of closed lipid bilayers, the shape equation and boundary conditions of open lipid bilayers and two-component membranes, the shape equation and in-plane strain equations of cell membranes with cross-linking structures, and the stabilities of closed lipid bilayers and cell membranes. The key point of this scheme is to deal with the variational problems on surfaces embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space by using exterior differential forms

  15. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  16. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  17. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  18. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  19. Membranous glomerulopathy with spherules: an uncommon variant with obscure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Jolanta; Smith, Kelly D; Hudkins, Kelly L; Chang, Anthony; Fogo, Agnes B; Houghton, Donald; Leslie, Deena; Aitchison, John; Nicosia, Roberto F; Alpers, Charles E

    2006-06-01

    Occasional case reports of membranous glomerulopathy described unique subepithelial accumulations of an unusual type of immune deposit composed of spherular structures. The identity of such structures as nuclear pores has been suggested, but not established. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 14, including 1 patient with disease recurrence in an allograft) who presented with nephrotic syndrome and had renal biopsy specimens with light and immunofluorescence microscopic findings characteristic of membranous glomerulopathy. These patients were distinguished by ultrastructural studies that showed glomerular capillary wall accumulations of subepithelial immune deposits composed of uniform spherular structures, while lacking the typical granular electron-dense deposits seen in membranous glomerulopathy. The molecular identity of these spherular structures as nuclear pores was tested by using immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry with mouse monoclonal antinuclear pore antibodies (Covance, Princeton, NJ) and anti-Nuclear Pore-O-Linked Glycoprotein (Affinity BioReagents Inc, Golden, CO) antibodies. Measurement of spherular structures by using high-magnification electron microscopy showed an average diameter of 84.5 nm, which correlated well with accepted diameters of nuclear pores (80 to 120 nm). Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoperoxidase staining with both antibodies showed characteristic beaded staining of nuclear membranes of multiple cell types within normal control kidney, but no staining of immune-type deposits within glomerular basement membranes. These cases form a rare, but distinctive, morphological subclass of membranous glomerulopathy. The antigenic specificity of immune deposits in these cases remains elusive.

  20. Impact of sludge flocs on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Niessen, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are widely used for wastewater treatment, but membrane fouling reduces membrane performance and thereby increases the cost for membranes and fouling control. Large variation in filtration properties measured as flux decline was observed for the different types of sludges....... Further, the flux could partly be reestablished after the relaxation period depending on the sludge composition. The results underline that sludge properties are important for membrane fouling and that control of floc properties, as determined by the composition of the microbial communities...... and the physico-chemical properties, is an efficient method to reduce membrane fouling in the MBR. High concentration of suspended extracellular substances (EPS) and small particles (up to 10 µm) resulted in pronounced fouling propensity. The membrane fouling resistance was reduced at high concentration...

  1. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and related complications are associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. The line of demarcation between the pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and differing responses to therapeutic interventions is blurred. Diabetes induces changes in the microvasculature, causing extracellular matrix protein synthesis, and capillary basement membrane thickening which are the pathognomic features of diabetic microangiopathy. These changes in conjunction with advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, and neovascularization of vasa vasorum can lead to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycemia is the principal cause of microvasculopathy but also appears to play an important role in causation of macrovasculopathy. There is thought to be an intersection between micro and macro vascular complications, but the two disorders seem to be strongly interconnected, with micro vascular diseases promoting atherosclerosis through processes such as hypoxia and changes in vasa vasorum. It is thus imperative to understand whether microvascular complications distinctly precede macrovascular complications or do both of them progress simultaneously as a continuum. This will allow re-focusing on the clinical issues with a unifying perspective which can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes.

  2. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  3. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  4. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  5. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  6. Pulse radiolysis studies of model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijman, M.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of the structure of membranes on the processes in cell membranes were examined. Different models of the membranes were evaluated. Pulse radiolysis was used as the technique to examine the membranes. (R.B.)

  7. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  8. A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination-Development to date and future potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kali Peng; Arnot, Tom C.; Mattia, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is currently the most important desalination technology and it is experiencing significant growth. The objective of this paper is to review the historical and current development of RO membrane materials which are the key determinants of separation performance and water productivity, and hence to define performance targets for those who are developing new RO membrane materials. The chemistry, synthesis mechanism(s) and desalination performance of various RO membranes are ...

  9. Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hafez; Faghri, Amir

    2012-11-01

    A one-dimensional, isothermal, single-phase model is presented to investigate the mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell incorporating an alkaline anion exchange membrane. The electrochemistry is analytically solved and the closed-form solution is provided for two limiting cases assuming Tafel expressions for both oxygen reduction and ethanol oxidation. A multi-layer membrane model is proposed to properly account for the diffusive and electroosmotic transport of ethanol through the membrane. The fundamental differences in fuel crossover for positive and negative electroosmotic drag coefficients are discussed. It is found that ethanol crossover is significantly reduced upon using an alkaline anion exchange membrane instead of a proton exchange membrane, especially at current densities higher than 500 A m

  10. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  11. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  12. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  13. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  14. Physics of smectic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieranski, P.; Beliard, L.; Tournellec, J.-Ph.; Leoncini, X.; Furtlehner, C.; Dumoulin, H.; Riou, E.; Jouvin, B.; Fénerol, J.-P.; Palaric, Ph.; Heuving, J.; Cartier, B.; Kraus, I.

    1993-03-01

    Due to their layered structure, smectic liquid crystals can form membranes, similar to soap bubbles, that can be spanned on frames. Such smectic membranes have been used extensively as samples in many structural X-ray studies of smectic liquid crystals. In this context they have been considered as very convenient and highly perfect samples but little attention has been paid to the reasons for their existence and to the process of their formation. Our aim here is to address a first list of questions, which are the most urgent to answer. We will also describe experiments and models that have been conceived especially in order to understand the physics of these fascinating systems.

  15. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  16. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (orig.)

  17. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-11-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries.

  18. Membrane Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-09-30

    The Electrosynthesis Co. Inc. (ESC) was contracted by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to investigate the long term performance and durability of cell components (anode, membrane, cathode) in an electrochemical caustic recovery process using a simulated SRC liquid waste as anolyte solution. This report details the results of two long-term studies conducted using an ICI FM01 flow cell. This cell is designed and has previously been demonstrated to scale up directly into the commercial scale ICI FM21 cell.

  19. Membrane technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golomb, A

    1990-10-01

    Due to a continuing emphasis on increasing the efficiency of utilizing the Province's electrical energy system, a Membrane Testing and Development Facility (MTDF) has been established at Ontario Hydro Research Division. The MTDF comprises bench-scale and pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) systems. RO and UF are membrane separation technologies which with microfiltration (MF) have found numerous industrial applications in wastewater treatment and/or byproduct recovery. Since no phase change is involved in RO and UF, they are more energy efficient separation processes than, say, evaporation or distillation. Initial tests have been carried out to demonstrate the capability of the newly-established MTDF. Bench- and pilot-scale RO treatment, at 4.1 MPa applied pressure, of a simulated nickel plating waste rinse stream was demonstrated. RO membrane rejection efficiencies for nickel were 99+% (in the bench scale test) and 99.9+% (on the pilot scale). Volume reduction factors of about 25 were attained, at purified water flux rates in the range 1 to 1.5 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per day. Good correlation was noted between bench-scale and pilot-scale RO test results. Pilot-scale UF of a simulated industrial cutting oil/water waste emulsion at 0.40 MPa gave 99+% oil rejection (pilot scale) at a flux rate of 0.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2} per day. A volume reduction of about 5.2 was attained. Overviews of opportunities for membrane separation technology applied to the metal cutting and surface finishing industries, and the food and beverage industry are given. Capabilities (and some present needs) of the MTDF are outlined, with recommendations. 17 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  1. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.

  2. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  3. Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage an......” woofer where a copper ring in the pole piece has not been implemented to compensate for eddy currents. However the drive method seems to be irrelevant for a 5” woofer where the compliance, force factor as well as the voice coil inductance has been optimized for linearity.......Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...

  4. Charge transport in the electrospun nanofiber composite membrane's three-dimensional fibrous structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGostin, Matthew B.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Myles, Timothy D.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a Fiber Network (FN) ion transport model is developed to simulate the three-dimensional fibrous microstructural morphology that results from the electrospinning membrane fabrication process. This model is able to approximate fiber layering within a membrane as well as membrane swelling due to water uptake. The discrete random fiber networks representing membranes are converted to resistor networks and solved for current flow and ionic conductivity. Model predictions are validated by comparison with experimental conductivity data from electrospun anion exchange membranes (AEM) and proton exchange membranes (PEM) for fuel cells as well as existing theories. The model is capable of predicting in-plane and thru-plane conductivity and takes into account detailed membrane characteristics, such as volume fraction, fiber diameter, fiber conductivity, and membrane layering, and as such may be used as a tool for advanced electrode design.

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  6. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  7. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  8. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  9. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  10. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm{sup −1}, demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion{sup ®} membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured.

  11. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion ® ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion ® membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm −1 , demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion ® membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state 19 F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured

  12. Raft-like membrane domains in pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoud, Amir M; Toledo, Alvaro M; Konopka, James B; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist, and reports on the presence of sterol- or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing. Despite increasing attention, little is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The current literature on characterization of microdomains in pathogens is reviewed, and their potential role in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance is discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of their pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Wasik, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted with a variety of ions (O 5+ , N 4+ , Kr 9+ ) by the energy of 10 keV/q up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and the changes in the chemical structure of implanted membrane were measured by conductivity and discharge currents and FTIR spectra. Electrical conductivity of the membranes PET increases to 1-3 orders of magnitude after implantation and is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal detrapping of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability to accumulate charge

  14. There Is No Simple Model of the Plasma Membrane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Eggeling, Christian; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Ever since technologies enabled the characterization of eukaryotic plasma membranes, heterogeneities in the distributions of its constituents were observed. Over the years this led to the proposal of various models describing the plasma membrane organization such as lipid shells, picket-and-fences, lipid rafts, or protein islands, as addressed in numerous publications and reviews. Instead of emphasizing on one model we in this review give a brief overview over current models and highlight how current experimental work in one or the other way do not support the existence of a single overarching model. Instead, we highlight the vast variety of membrane properties and components, their influences and impacts. We believe that highlighting such controversial discoveries will stimulate unbiased research on plasma membrane organization and functionality, leading to a better understanding of this essential cellular structure. PMID:27747212

  15. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P; T. Adams

    2008-09-12

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques.

  16. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Pulido, Bruno

    2017-05-30

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic solvents. We report for the first time porous polymeric membranes manufactured from poly(oxindolebiphenylylene) (POXI), a polymer with thermal stability as high as 500 °C in oxidative conditions. The membranes were prepared by solution casting and phase inversion by immersion in water. The asymmetric porous morphology was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. The pristine membranes are stable in alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and hexane, as well as in aqueous solutions with pH between 0 and 14. The membrane stability was extended for application in other organic solvents by crosslinking, using various dibromides, and the efficiency of the different crosslinkers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). POXI crosslinked membranes are stable up to 329 °C in oxidative conditions and showed organic solvent resistance in polar aprotic solvents with 99% rejection of Red Direct 80 in DMF at 70 °C. With this development, the application of polymeric membranes could be extended to high temperature and harsh environments, fields currently dominated by ceramic membranes.

  17. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  18. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  19. Spatio-temporal remodeling of functional membrane microdomains organizes the signaling networks of a bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schneider

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains specialized in the regulation of numerous cellular processes related to membrane organization, as diverse as signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane trafficking or pathogen invasion. It has been proposed that this functional diversity would require a heterogeneous population of raft domains with varying compositions. However, a mechanism for such diversification is not known. We recently discovered that bacterial membranes organize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs that are structurally and functionally similar to the eukaryotic lipid rafts. In this report, we took advantage of the tractability of the prokaryotic model Bacillus subtilis to provide evidence for the coexistence of two distinct families of FMMs in bacterial membranes, displaying a distinctive distribution of proteins specialized in different biological processes. One family of microdomains harbors the scaffolding flotillin protein FloA that selectively tethers proteins specialized in regulating cell envelope turnover and primary metabolism. A second population of microdomains containing the two scaffolding flotillins, FloA and FloT, arises exclusively at later stages of cell growth and specializes in adaptation of cells to stationary phase. Importantly, the diversification of membrane microdomains does not occur arbitrarily. We discovered that bacterial cells control the spatio-temporal remodeling of microdomains by restricting the activation of FloT expression to stationary phase. This regulation ensures a sequential assembly of functionally specialized membrane microdomains to strategically organize signaling networks at the right time during the lifespan of a bacterium.

  20. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Davey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s, Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s, Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  1. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Christopher John; Leak, David; Patterson, Darrell Alec

    2016-02-29

    Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s), Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s), Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  2. Mechanics, morphology, and mobility in stratum corneum membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Peter; Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of skin, and serves as a protective barrier against external agents, and to control moisture. It comprises keratin bodies (corneocytes) embedded in a matrix of lipid bilayers. Unlike the more widely studied phospholipid bilayers, the SC bilayers are typically in a gel-like state. Moreover, the SC membrane composition is radically different from more fluid counterparts: it comprises single tailed fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol; with many distinct ceramides possessing different lengths of tails, and always with two tails of different lengths. I will present insight from computer simulations into the morphology, mechanical properties, and diffusion (barrier) properties of these highly heterogeneous membranes. Our results provide some clue as to the design principles for the SC membrane, and is an excellent example of the use of wide polydispersity by natural systems.

  3. Perfluorinated Compounds as Test Media for Porous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodt, Juliana I; Filiz, Volkan; Shishatskiy, Sergey

    2017-09-05

    We suggest a failure-free method of porous membranes characterization that gives the researcher the opportunity to compare and characterize properties of any porous membrane. This proposal is supported by an investigation of eight membranes made of different organic and inorganic materials, with nine different perfluorinated compounds. It was found that aromatic compounds, perfluorobenzene, and perfluorotoluene, used in the current study show properties different from other perfluorinated aliphatics. They demonstrate extreme deviation from the general sequence indicating the existence of π-π-interaction on the pore wall. The divergence of the flow for cyclic compounds from ideal e.g., linear compounds can be an indication of the pore dimension.

  4. Towards Extrusion of Ionomers to Process Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Sanchez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC membranes are currently prepared by film casting, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of extrusion, a solvent-free alternative process. Thanks to water-soluble process-aid plasticizers, duly selected, it was possible to extrude acidic and alkaline polysulfone ionomers. Additionally, the feasibility to extrude composites was demonstrated. The impact of the plasticizers on the melt viscosity was investigated. Following the extrusion, the plasticizers were fully removed in water. The extrusion was found to impact neither on the ionomer chains, nor on the performances of the membrane. This environmentally friendly process was successfully validated for a variety of high performance ionomers.

  5. Flux Enhancement in Membrane Distillation Using Nanofiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD is an emerging separation technology, whose largest application potential lies in the desalination of highly concentrated solutions, which are out of the scope of reverse osmosis. Despite many attractive features, this technology is still awaiting large industrial application. The main reason is the lack of commercially available membranes with fluxes comparable to reverse osmosis. MD is a thermal separation process driven by a partial vapour pressure difference. Flux, distillate purity, and thermal efficiency are always in conflict, all three being strictly connected with pore size, membrane hydrophobicity, and thickness. The world has not seen the ideal membrane yet, but nanofibers may offer a solution to these contradictory requirements. Membranes of electrospun PVDF were tested under various conditions on a direct contact (DCMD unit, in order to determine the optimum conditions for maximum flux. In addition, their performance was compared to commonly available PTFE, PE, and PES membranes. It was confirmed that thinner membranes have higher fluxes and a lower distillate purity and also higher energy losses via conduction across the membrane. As both mass and heat transfer are connected, it is best to develop new membranes with a target application in mind, for the specific membrane module and operational conditions.

  6. Soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-03-23

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation (MD). In one example, a system includes a MD module comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to estimate feed solution temperatures and permeate solution temperatures of the MD module using monitored outlet temperatures of the feed side and the permeate side. In another example, a method includes monitoring outlet temperatures of a feed side and a permeate side of a MD module to determine a current feed outlet temperature and a current permeate outlet temperature; and determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating the feed side and the permeate side of the MD module using the current feed outlet temperature and the current permeate outlet temperature.

  7. Mechanism of membranous tunnelling nanotube formation in viral genome delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Peralta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In internal membrane-containing viruses, a lipid vesicle enclosed by the icosahedral capsid protects the genome. It has been postulated that this internal membrane is the genome delivery device of the virus. Viruses built with this architectural principle infect hosts in all three domains of cellular life. Here, using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, we investigate bacteriophage PRD1, the best understood model for such viruses, to unveil the mechanism behind the genome translocation across the cell envelope. To deliver its double-stranded DNA, the icosahedral protein-rich virus membrane transforms into a tubular structure protruding from one of the 12 vertices of the capsid. We suggest that this viral nanotube exits from the same vertex used for DNA packaging, which is biochemically distinct from the other 11. The tube crosses the capsid through an aperture corresponding to the loss of the peripentonal P3 major capsid protein trimers, penton protein P31 and membrane protein P16. The remodeling of the internal viral membrane is nucleated by changes in osmolarity and loss of capsid-membrane interactions as consequence of the de-capping of the vertices. This engages the polymerization of the tail tube, which is structured by membrane-associated proteins. We have observed that the proteo-lipidic tube in vivo can pierce the gram-negative bacterial cell envelope allowing the viral genome to be shuttled to the host cell. The internal diameter of the tube allows one double-stranded DNA chain to be translocated. We conclude that the assembly principles of the viral tunneling nanotube take advantage of proteo-lipid interactions that confer to the tail tube elastic, mechanical and functional properties employed also in other protein-membrane systems.

  8. Integral and peripheral association of proteins and protein complexes with Yersinia pestis inner and outer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunai Christine L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yersinia pestis proteins were sequentially extracted from crude membranes with a high salt buffer (2.5 M NaBr, an alkaline solution (180 mM Na2CO3, pH 11.3 and membrane denaturants (8 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 1% amidosulfobetaine-14. Separation of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis was followed by identification of more than 600 gene products by MS. Data from differential 2D gel display experiments, comparing protein abundances in cytoplasmic, periplasmic and all three membrane fractions, were used to assign proteins found in the membrane fractions to three protein categories: (i integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins with low solubility in aqueous solutions (220 entries; (ii peripheral membrane proteins with moderate to high solubility in aqueous solutions (127 entries; (iii cytoplasmic or ribosomal membrane-contaminating proteins (80 entries. Thirty-one proteins were experimentally associated with the outer membrane (OM. Circa 50 proteins thought to be part of membrane-localized, multi-subunit complexes were identified in high Mr fractions of membrane extracts via size exclusion chromatography. This data supported biologically meaningful assignments of many proteins to the membrane periphery. Since only 32 inner membrane (IM proteins with two or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs were profiled in 2D gels, we resorted to a proteomic analysis by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Ninety-four additional IM proteins with two or more TMDs were identified. The total number of proteins associated with Y. pestis membranes increased to 456 and included representatives of all six β-barrel OM protein families and 25 distinct IM transporter families.

  9. New Development of Membrane Base Optoelectronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Hamui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that one factor that affects the operation of optoelectronic devices is the effective protection of the semiconductor materials against environmental conditions. The permeation of atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the device structure induces degradation of the electrodes and the semiconductor. As a result, in this communication we report the fabrication of semiconductor membranes consisting of Magnesium Phthalocyanine-allene (MgPc-allene particles dispersed in Nylon 11 films. These membranes combine polymer properties with organic semiconductors properties and also provide a barrier effect for the atmospheric gas molecules. They were prepared by high vacuum evaporation and followed by thermal relaxation technique. For the characterization of the obtained membranes, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were used to determine the chemical and microstructural properties. UV-ViS, null ellipsometry, and visible photoluminescence (PL at room temperature were used to characterize the optoelectronic properties. These results were compared with those obtained for the organic semiconductors: MgPc-allene thin films. Additionally, semiconductor membranes devices have been prepared, and a study of the device electronic transport properties was conducted by measuring electrical current density-voltage (J-V characteristics by four point probes with different wavelengths. The resistance properties against different environmental molecules are enhanced, maintaining their semiconductor functionality that makes them candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  10. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-02-10

    Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency) and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc. , nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  11. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  12. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  14. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  15. Thermal curing of PBI membranes for high temperature PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Cleemann, Lars N.; Li, Qingfeng

    2012-01-01

    (MEAs) is currently hampering the commercial viability of the technology. In the present study, thermoset PBI membranes were prepared by curing the membranes under inert atmosphere at temperatures of up to 350 °C prior to the acid doping. The systematic membrane characterizations with respect...... to solubility, phosphoric acid doping, radical-oxidative resistance and mechanical strength indicated that the PBI membranes were irreversibly cured by the thermal treatment. After curing, the PBI membranes demonstrated features that are fundamental characteristics of a thermoset resin including complete...

  16. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  17. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  18. Direct visualization of membrane architecture of myelinating cells in transgenic mice expressing membrane-anchored EGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaqi; Kim, BongWoo; He, Xuelian; Kim, Sunja; Lu, Changqing; Wang, Haibo; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Hou, Yiping; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Xianghui; Lu, Q Richard

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis is a complex process that involves substantial and dynamic changes in plasma membrane architecture and myelin interaction with axons. Highly ramified processes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) make axonal contact and then extrapolate to wrap around axons and form multilayer compact myelin sheathes. Currently, the mechanisms governing myelin sheath assembly and axon selection by myelinating cells are not fully understood. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing the membrane-anchored green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) in myelinating cells, which allow live imaging of details of myelinogenesis and cellular behaviors in the nervous systems. mEGFP expression is driven by the promoter of 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) that is expressed in the myelinating cell lineage. Robust mEGFP signals appear in the membrane processes of oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), wherein mEGFP expression defines the inner layers of myelin sheaths and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures in adult sciatic nerves. In addition, mEGFP expression can be used to track the extent of remyelination after demyelinating injury in a toxin-induced demyelination animal model. Taken together, the membrane-anchored mEGFP expression in the new transgenic line would facilitate direct visualization of dynamic myelin membrane formation and assembly during development and process remodeling during remyelination after various demyelinating injuries.

  19. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Livazovic, Sara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.