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Sample records for distinct isopeptides predicted

  1. Biodistribution and catabolism of 18F-labelled isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Pawelke, B; Pietzsch, J; Wuest, F; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2005-12-01

    Isopeptide bonds between the epsilon-amino group of lysine and the gamma-carboxamide group of glutamine are formed during strong heating of pure proteins or, more important, by enzymatic reaction mediated by transglutaminases. Despite the wide use of a microbial transglutaminase in food biotechnology, up to now little is known about the metabolic fate of the isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine. In the present study, N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate was used to modify N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine at each of its two alpha-amino groups, resulting in the 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoylated derivatives, for which biodistribution, catabolism, and elimination were investigated in male Wistar rats. A significant different biochemical behavior of the two labelled isopeptides was observed in terms of in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism as well as biodistribution. The results suggest that the metabolic fate of isopeptides is likely to be dependent on how they are reabsorbed - free or peptide bound.

  2. Distinctive Facial Cues Predict Leadership Rank and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Facial appearance correlates with leadership, both in terms of who is chosen (leader selection) and how they do (leader success). Leadership theories suggest that exceptional individuals acquire positions as leaders. Exceptional traits can differ between domains, however, and so the qualities valued in leaders in one occupation may not match those valued among leaders in another. To test this, we compared the relationship between facial appearance and leadership across two domains: law firms and mafia families. Perceptions of power correlated with leadership among law executives whereas social skill correlated with leadership in organized crime. Critically, these traits were distinctive within their respective groups. Furthermore, an experimental test showed that the relative frequency of facial traits in a group can render them either an asset or liability. Perceived leadership ability is therefore enhanced by characteristics that appear unique among individuals who satisfy the basic criteria for their group.

  3. Radiolabelling of isopeptide Nε-(γ-glutamyl)-L-lysine by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, F.; Hultsch, C.; Bergmann, R.; Johannsen, B.; Henle, T.

    2003-01-01

    The isopeptide N ε -(γ-glutamyl)-L-lysine 4 was labelled with 18 F via N-succinimidyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]SFB). A modified approach for the convenient synthesis of [ 18 F]SFB was used, and [ 18 F]SFB could be obtained in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 44-53% (n=20) and radiochemical purity >95% within 40 min after EOB. For labelling N ε -(γ-glutamyl)-L-lysine with [ 18 F]SFB the effects of isopeptide concentration, temperature, and pH were studied to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The coupling reaction was shown to be temperature and pH independent while being strongly affected by the isopeptide concentration. Using the optimized labelling conditions, in a typical experiment 1.3 GBq of [ 18 F]SFB could be converted into 447 MBq (46%, decay-corrected) of [ 18 F]fluorobenzoylated isopeptide within 45 min, including HPLC purification

  4. Radiolabelling of isopeptide N{sup {epsilon}}-({gamma}-glutamyl)-L-lysine by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, F; Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2003-07-01

    The isopeptide N{sup {epsilon}}-({gamma}-glutamyl)-L-lysine 4 was labelled with {sup 18}F via N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]SFB). A modified approach for the convenient synthesis of [{sup 18}F]SFB was used, and [{sup 18}F]SFB could be obtained in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 44-53% (n=20) and radiochemical purity >95% within 40 min after EOB. For labelling N{sup {epsilon}}-({gamma}-glutamyl)-L-lysine with [{sup 18}F]SFB the effects of isopeptide concentration, temperature, and pH were studied to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The coupling reaction was shown to be temperature and pH independent while being strongly affected by the isopeptide concentration. Using the optimized labelling conditions, in a typical experiment 1.3 GBq of [{sup 18}F]SFB could be converted into 447 MBq (46%, decay-corrected) of [{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoylated isopeptide within 45 min, including HPLC purification.

  5. Radiolabelling of isopeptide N epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, F; Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2003-07-01

    The isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine 4 was labelled with 18F via N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB). A modified approach for the convenient synthesis of [18F]SFB was used, and [18F]SFB could be obtained in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 44-53% (n = 20) and radiochemical purity >95% within 40 min after EOB. For labelling N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine with [18F]SFB the effects of isopeptide concentration, temperature, and pH were studied to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The coupling reaction was shown to be temperature and pH independent while being strongly affected by the isopeptide concentration. Using the optimized labelling conditions, in a typical experiment 1.3GBq of [18F]SFB could be converted into 447MBq (46%, decay-corrected) of [18F]fluorobenzoylated isopeptide within 45 min, including HPLC purification.

  6. Isopeptide bonds of the major pilin protein BcpA influence pilus structure and bundle formation on the surface of Bacillus cereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Poor, Catherine B.; Jureller, Justin E.; Budzik, Jonathan M.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf (UC)

    2012-09-05

    Bacillus cereus strains elaborate pili on their surface using a mechanism of sortase-mediated cross-linking of major and minor pilus components. Here we used a combination of electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to visualize these structures. Pili occur as single, double or higher order assemblies of filaments formed from monomers of the major pilin, BcpA, capped by the minor pilin, BcpB. Previous studies demonstrated that within assembled pili, four domains of BcpA -- CNA{sub 1}, CNA{sub 2}, XNA and CNA{sub 3} -- each acquire intramolecular lysine-asparagine isopeptide bonds formed via catalytic glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues. Here we showed that mutants unable to form the intramolecular isopeptide bonds in the CNA2 or CNA3 domains retain the ability to form pilus bundles. A mutant lacking the CNA{sub 1} isopeptide bond assembled deformed pilin subunits that failed to associate as bundles. X-ray crystallography revealed that the BcpA variant Asp{sup 312}Ala, lacking an aspartyl catalyst, did not generate the isopeptide bond within the jelly-roll structure of XNA. The Asp{sup 312}Ala mutant was also unable to form bundles and promoted the assembly of deformed pili. Thus, structural integrity of the CNA{sub 1} and XNA domains are determinants for the association of pili into higher order bundle structures and determine native pilus structure.

  7. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G. [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Kim, Chae Un [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Middleditch, Martin [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Baker, Edward N., E-mail: ted.baker@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  8. Site-specific Isopeptide Bridge Tethering of Chimeric gp41 N-terminal Heptad Repeat Helical Trimers for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xue; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Huixin; Lai, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Zhenqing; Ye, Ling; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-01-01

    Peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of HIV-1 gp41 can be potent inhibitors against viral entry when presented in a nonaggregating trimeric coiled-coil conformation via the introduction of exogenous trimerization motifs and intermolecular disulfide bonds. We recently discovered that crosslinking isopeptide bridges within the de novo helical trimers added exceptional resistance to unfolding. Herein, we attempted to optimize (CCIZN17)3, a representative disulfide bond-stabilized chimeric NHR-trimer, by incorporating site-specific interhelical isopeptide bonds as the redox-sensitive disulfide surrogate. In this process, we systematically examined the effect of isopeptide bond position and molecular sizes of auxiliary trimeric coiled-coil motif and NHR fragments on the antiviral potency of these NHR-trimers. Pleasingly, (IZ14N24N)3 possessed promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 infection and markedly increased proteolytic stability relative to its disulfide-tethered counterpart, suggesting good potential for further development as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27562370

  9. Combining Results from Distinct MicroRNA Target Prediction Tools Enhances the Performance of Analyses

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    Arthur C. Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Target prediction is generally the first step toward recognition of bona fide microRNA (miRNA-target interactions in living cells. Several target prediction tools are now available, which use distinct criteria and stringency to provide the best set of candidate targets for a single miRNA or a subset of miRNAs. However, there are many false-negative predictions, and consensus about the optimum strategy to select and use the output information provided by the target prediction tools is lacking. We compared the performance of four tools cited in literature—TargetScan (TS, miRanda-mirSVR (MR, Pita, and RNA22 (R22, and we determined the most effective approach for analyzing target prediction data (individual, union, or intersection. For this purpose, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, and correlation of these approaches using 10 miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34a-5p, miR-124-3p, miR-125b-5p, miR-145-5p, and miR-155-5p and 1,400 genes (700 validated and 700 non-validated as targets of these miRNAs. The four tools provided a subset of high-quality predictions and returned few false-positive predictions; however, they could not identify several known true targets. We demonstrate that union of TS/MR and TS/MR/R22 enhanced the quality of in silico prediction analysis of miRNA targets. We conclude that the union rather than the intersection of the aforementioned tools is the best strategy for maximizing performance while minimizing the loss of time and resources in subsequent in vivo and in vitro experiments for functional validation of miRNA-target interactions.

  10. Learning Similar Actions by Reinforcement or Sensory-Prediction Errors Rely on Distinct Physiological Mechanisms.

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    Uehara, Shintaro; Mawase, Firas; Celnik, Pablo

    2017-09-14

    Humans can acquire knowledge of new motor behavior via different forms of learning. The two forms most commonly studied have been the development of internal models based on sensory-prediction errors (error-based learning) and success-based feedback (reinforcement learning). Human behavioral studies suggest these are distinct learning processes, though the neurophysiological mechanisms that are involved have not been characterized. Here, we evaluated physiological markers from the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulations while healthy participants trained finger-reaching tasks. We manipulated the extent to which subjects rely on error-based or reinforcement by providing either vector or binary feedback about task performance. Our results demonstrated a double dissociation where learning the task mainly via error-based mechanisms leads to cerebellar plasticity modifications but not long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity changes in M1; while learning a similar action via reinforcement mechanisms elicited M1 LTP-like plasticity but not cerebellar plasticity changes. Our findings indicate that learning complex motor behavior is mediated by the interplay of different forms of learning, weighing distinct neural mechanisms in M1 and the cerebellum. Our study provides insights for designing effective interventions to enhance human motor learning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SpyRings Declassified: A Blueprint for Using Isopeptide-Mediated Cyclization to Enhance Enzyme Thermal Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, C; Bennett, S P; Howarth, M

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes often have marginal stability, with unfolding typically leading to irreversible denaturation. This sensitivity is a major barrier, both for de novo enzyme development and for expanding enzyme impact beyond the laboratory. Seeking an approach to enhance resilience to denaturation that could be applied to a range of different enzymes, we developed SpyRing cyclization. SpyRings contain genetically encoded SpyTag (13 amino acids) on the N-terminus and SpyCatcher (12kDa) on the C-terminus of the enzyme, so that the Spy partners spontaneously react together through an irreversible isopeptide bond. SpyRing cyclization gave major increases in thermal resilience, including on a model for enzyme evolution, β-lactamase, and an industrially important enzyme in agriculture and nutrition, phytase. We outline the SpyRing rationale, including comparison of SpyRing cyclization to other cyclization strategies. The cloning strategy is presented for the simple insertion of enzyme genes for recombinant expression. We discuss structure-based approaches to select suitable enzyme cyclization targets. Approaches to evaluate the cyclization reaction and its effect on enzyme resilience are described. We also highlight the use of differential scanning calorimetry to understand how SpyRing cyclization promotes enzyme refolding. Efficiently searching sequence space will continue to be important for enzyme improvement, but the SpyRing platform may be a valuable rational adjunct for conferring resilience. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct patterns of ALDH1A1 expression predict metastasis and poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Zeng, Dong-Zu; Dong, Wei-Guo; Ding, Yan-Qing; Rao, Jun; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jing; Zhan, Na; Liu, Ying; Hu, Qi-Ping; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the heterogeneity of its expression makes it difficult to predict the outcome of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of this molecule in CRC. Methods and Results: In this study, we examined ALDH1A1 expression by immunohistochemistry including 406 cases of primary CRC with corresponding adjacent mucosa, with confirmation of real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that the expression patterns of ALDH1A1 were heterogeneous in the CRC and corresponding adjacent tissues. We defined the ratio of ALDH1A1 level in adjacent mucosa to that in tumor tissues as RA/C and found that the capabilities of tumor invasion and metastasis in the tumors with RA/C < 1 were significantly higher than those with RA/C ≥ 1. Follow-up data showed the worse prognoses in the CRC patients with RA/C < 1. For understanding the underlying mechanism, the localization of β-catenin was detected in the CRC tissues with different patterns of ALDH1A1 expression from 221 patients and β-catenin was found preferentially expressed in cell nuclei of the tumors with RA/C < 1 and ALDH1A1high expression of HT29 cell line, indicating that nuclear translocation of β-catenin might contribute to the increased potentials of invasion and metastasis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RA/C is a novel biomarker to reflect the distinct expression patterns of ALDH1A1 for predicting metastasis and prognosis of CRC. PMID:25031716

  14. Voluntary ethanol intake predicts κ-opioid receptor supersensitivity and regionally distinct dopaminergic adaptations in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Helms, Christa M; Lovinger, David M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-04-15

    The dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the striatum have long been implicated in mediating motivated behaviors and addiction. Previously it was demonstrated that κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the striatum plays a critical role in the increased reinforcing efficacy of ethanol following ethanol vapor exposure in rodent models. Although rodents have been used extensively to determine the neurochemical consequences of chronic ethanol exposure, establishing high levels of voluntary drinking in these models has proven difficult. Conversely, nonhuman primates exhibit similar intake and pattern to humans in regard to drinking. Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Using voltammetry in brain slices from cynomolgus macaques after 6 months of ad libitum ethanol drinking, we found increased KOR sensitivity in both the DLC and NAc. The magnitude of ethanol intake predicted increases in KOR sensitivity in the NAc core, but not the DLC. Additionally, ethanol drinking increased dopamine release and uptake in the NAc, but decreased both of these measures in the DLC. These data suggest that chronic daily drinking may result in regionally distinct disruptions of striatal outputs. In concert with previous reports showing increased KOR regulation of drinking behaviors induced by ethanol exposure, the strong relationship between KOR activity and voluntary ethanol intake observed here gives further support to the hypothesis that KORs may provide a promising pharmacotherapeutic target in the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355959-10$15.00/0.

  15. "Do unto others"? Distinct psychopathy facets predict reduced perception and tolerance of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Joiner, Thomas E; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others' pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety, 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again 3 days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. ‘Do Unto Others’?: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others’ pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again three days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. PMID:26950545

  17. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michelle Windt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, subjects awakened from REM (rapid eye movement- sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, suggesting that sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input.

  18. Tickle me, I think I might be dreaming! Sensory attenuation, self-other distinction, and predictive processing in lucid dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M.; Harkness, Dominic L.; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between self- and other-produced tickles, as a special case of sensory attenuation for self-produced actions, has long been a target of empirical research. While in standard wake states it is nearly impossible to tickle oneself, there are interesting exceptions. Notably, participants awakened from REM (rapid eye movement-) sleep dreams are able to tickle themselves. So far, however, the question of whether it is possible to tickle oneself and be tickled by another in the dream state has not been investigated empirically or addressed from a theoretical perspective. Here, we report the results of an explorative web-based study in which participants were asked to rate their sensations during self-tickling and being tickled during wakefulness, imagination, and lucid dreaming. Our results, though highly preliminary, indicate that in the special case of lucid control dreams, the difference between self-tickling and being tickled by another is obliterated, with both self- and other produced tickles receiving similar ratings as self-tickling during wakefulness. This leads us to the speculative conclusion that in lucid control dreams, sensory attenuation for self-produced tickles spreads to those produced by non-self dream characters. These preliminary results provide the backdrop for a more general theoretical and metatheoretical discussion of tickling in lucid dreams in a predictive processing framework. We argue that the primary value of our study lies not so much in our results, which are subject to important limitations, but rather in the fact that they enable a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between sensory attenuation, the self-other distinction and agency, as well as suggest new questions for future research. In particular, the example of tickling during lucid dreaming raises the question of whether sensory attenuation and the self-other distinction can be simulated largely independently of external sensory input. PMID:25278861

  19. Distinct multivariate brain morphological patterns and their added predictive value with cognitive and polygenic risk scores in mental disorders

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    Nhat Trung Doan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain underpinnings of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are multidimensional, reflecting complex pathological processes and causal pathways, requiring multivariate techniques to disentangle. Furthermore, little is known about the complementary clinical value of brain structural phenotypes when combined with data on cognitive performance and genetic risk. Using data-driven fusion of cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter density maps (GMD, we found six biologically meaningful patterns showing strong group effects, including four statistically independent multimodal patterns reflecting co-occurring alterations in thickness and GMD in patients, over and above two other independent patterns of widespread thickness and area reduction. Case-control classification using cognitive scores alone revealed high accuracy, and adding imaging features or polygenic risk scores increased performance, suggesting their complementary predictive value with cognitive scores being the most sensitive features. Multivariate pattern analyses reveal distinct patterns of brain morphology in mental disorders, provide insights on the relative importance between brain structure, cognitive and polygenetic risk score in classification of patients, and demonstrate the importance of multivariate approaches in studying the pathophysiological substrate of these complex disorders.

  20. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  1. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

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    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  2. Distinct work-related, clinical and psychological factors predict return to work following treatment in four different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alethea F; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Many factors influence return to work (RTW) following cancer treatment. However specific factors affecting RTW across different cancer types are unclear. This study examined the role of clinical, sociodemographic, work and psychological factors in RTW following treatment for breast, gynaecological, head and neck, and urological cancer. A 12-month prospective questionnaire study was conducted with 290 patients. Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for time to RTW. Between 89-94% of cancer survivors returned to work. Breast cancer survivors took the longest to return (median 30 weeks), and urology cancer survivors returned the soonest (median 5 weeks). Earlier return among breast cancer survivors was predicted by a greater sense of control over their cancer at work (HR 1.2; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37) and by full-time work (HR 2.1; CI: 1.24-3.4). Predictive of a longer return among gynaecological cancer survivors was a belief that cancer treatment may impair ability to work (HR 0.75; CI: 0.62-0.91). Among urological cancer survivors constipation was predictive of longer RTW (HR 0.99; CI: 0.97-1.00), whereas undertaking flexible working was predictive of returning sooner (HR 1.70; CI: 1.07-2.7). Head and neck cancer survivors who perceived greater negative consequences of their cancer took longer to return (HR 0.27; CI: 0.11-0.68). Those reporting better physical functioning returned sooner (HR1.04; CI: 1.01-1.08). A different profile of predictive factors emerged for the four cancer types. In addition to optimal symptom management and workplace adaptations, the findings suggest that eliciting and challenging specific cancer and treatment-related perceptions may facilitate RTW. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Nathan R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notwithstanding previous studies supporting independent associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and prevalence of diabetes, the underlying pathogenesis of impaired glucose regulation in OSA remains unclear. We explored mechanisms linking OSA with prediabetes/diabetes and associated biomarker profiles. We hypothesized that OSA is associated with distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarker profiles in subjects with normal (NGM and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. Methods Forty-five severely obese adults (36 women without certain comorbidities/medications underwent anthropometric measurements, polysomnography, and blood tests. We measured fasting serum glucose, insulin, selected cytokines, and calculated homeostasis model assessment estimates of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and pancreatic beta-cell function (HOMA-B. Results Both increases in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and the presence of prediabetes/diabetes were associated with reductions in HOMA-IS in the entire cohort even after adjustment for sex, race, age, and BMI (P = 0.003. In subjects with NGM (n = 30, OSA severity was associated with significantly increased HOMA-B (a trend towards decreased HOMA-IS independent of sex and adiposity. OSA-related oxyhemoglobin desaturations correlated with TNF-α (r=-0.76; P = 0.001 in women with NGM and with IL-6 (rho=-0.55; P = 0.035 in women with IGM (n = 15 matched individually for age, adiposity, and AHI. Conclusions OSA is independently associated with altered glucose homeostasis and increased basal beta-cell function in severely obese adults with NGM. The findings suggest that moderate to severe OSA imposes an excessive functional demand on pancreatic beta-cells, which may lead to their exhaustion and impaired secretory capacity over time. The two distinct biomarker profiles linking sleep apnea with NGM and IGM via TNF-α and IL-6 have been discerned in our study to suggest that sleep apnea and particularly

  4. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eEscudero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although infants perceptually attune to native vowels and consonants well before 12 months, at 13–15 months, they have difficulty learning to associate novel words that differ by their initial consonant (e.g., BIN and DIN to their visual referents. However, this difficulty may not apply to all minimal-pair novel words. While Canadian English (CE 15-month-olds failed to respond to a switch from the newly learned word DEET to the novel nonword DOOT, they did notice a switch from DEET to DIT (Curtin, Fennell, & Escudero, 2009. Those authors argued that early word learners capitalize on large phonetic differences, seen in CE DEET–DIT, but not on smaller phonetic differences, as in CE DEET–DOOT. To assess this hypothesis, we tested Australian English (AusE 15-month-olds, as AusE has a smaller magnitude of phonetic difference in both novel word pairs. Two groups of infants were trained on the novel word DEET and tested on the vowel switches in DIT and DOOT, produced by an AusE female speaker or the same CE female speaker as in Curtin et al. (2009. If the size of the phonetic distinction plays a more central role than native accent experience in early word learning, AusE children should more easily recognize both of the unfamiliar but larger CE vowel switches than the more familiar but smaller AusE ones. The results support our phonetic-magnitude hypothesis: AusE children taught and tested with the CE-accented novel words looked longer to both of the switch test trials (DIT, DOOT than same test trials (DEET, while those who heard the AusE-accented tokens did not notice either switch. Implications of our findings for models of early word learning are discussed.

  5. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss......: In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight maintenance. The determination of the lipid composition during an LCD enables...

  6. Distinct contributions of explicit and implicit memory processes to weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights: an aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Weight predictions used to scale lifting forces adapt quickly when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects and are readily updated by explicit information provided about weight. In contrast, weight predictions used when making perceptual judgments about weight are more resistant to change and are largely unaffected by explicit information about weight. These observations suggest that distinct memory systems underlie weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights. Here we examined whether these weight predictions differ in their reliance on declarative and nondeclarative memory resources by comparing the adaptability of these predictions in older adults, who exhibit relatively impaired declarative memory processes, to those in younger adults. In the size condition, we measured lift forces as participants repeatedly lifted a pair of size-weight inverted objects in alternation. To assess weight judgments, we measured the size-weight illusion every 10 lifts. The material condition was similar, except that we used material-weight inverted objects and measured the material-weight illusion. The strengths of these illusions prior to lifting, and the attenuation of the illusions that arise when lifting inverted objects, were similar for both groups. The magnitude of the change in the illusions was positively correlated with implicit memory performance in both groups, suggesting that predictions used when judging weight rely on nondeclarative memory resources. Updating of lifting forces also did not differ between groups. However, within the older group the success with which lifting forces were updated was positively correlated with working memory performance, suggesting that weight predictions used when lifting rely on declarative memory resources. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Integrated genomic and immunophenotypic classification of pancreatic cancer reveals three distinct subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Martin; Cibin, Silvia; Zlobec, Inti; Vassella, Erik; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella M M; Terracciano, Luigi; Eichmann, Micha; Worni, Mathias; Gloor, Beat; Perren, Aurel; Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2018-04-16

    Current clinical classification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unable to predict prognosis or response to chemo- or immunotherapy and does not take into account the host reaction to PDAC-cells. Our aim is to classify PDAC according to host- and tumor-related factors into clinically/biologically relevant subtypes by integrating molecular and microenvironmental findings. A well-characterized PDAC-cohort (n=110) underwent next-generation sequencing with a hotspot cancer panel, while Next-generation Tissue-Microarrays were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-L1, p63, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and DNA mismatch-repair proteins. Previous data on FOXP3 were integrated. Immune-cell counts and protein expression were correlated with tumor-derived driver mutations, clinicopathologic features (TNM 8. 2017), survival and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like tumor budding.  Results: Three PDAC-subtypes were identified: the "immune-escape" (54%), poor in T- and B-cells and enriched in FOXP3+Tregs, with high-grade budding, frequent CDKN2A- , SMAD4- and PIK3CA-mutations and poor outcome; the "immune-rich" (35%), rich in T- and B-cells and poorer in FOXP3+Tregs, with infrequent budding, lower CDKN2A- and PIK3CA-mutation rate and better outcome and a subpopulation with tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT), mutations in DNA damage response genes (STK11, ATM) and the best outcome; and the "immune-exhausted" (11%) with immunogenic microenvironment and two subpopulations: one with PD-L1-expression and high PIK3CA-mutation rate and a microsatellite-unstable subpopulation with high prevalence of JAK3-mutations. The combination of low budding, low stromal FOXP3-counts, presence of TLTs and absence of CDKN2A-mutations confers significant survival advantage in PDAC-patients. Immune host responses correlate with tumor characteristics leading to morphologically recognizable PDAC-subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance. Copyright ©2018

  8. Assessment of the APCC Coupled MME Suite in Predicting the Distinctive Climate Impacts of Two Flavors of ENSO during Boreal Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-In; Lee, Doo Young; Karumuri, Ashok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, June-Yi; Luo, Jing-Jia; Schemm, Jae-Kyung E.; Hendon, Harry H.; Braganza, Karl; Ham, Yoo-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Forecast skill of the APEC Climate Center (APCC) Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) seasonal forecast system in predicting two main types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), namely canonical (or cold tongue) and Modoki ENSO, and their regional climate impacts is assessed for boreal winter. The APCC MME is constructed by simple composite of ensemble forecasts from five independent coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models. Based on a hindcast set targeting boreal winter prediction for the period 19822004, we show that the MME can predict and discern the important differences in the patterns of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly between the canonical and Modoki ENSO one and four month ahead. Importantly, the four month lead MME beats the persistent forecast. The MME reasonably predicts the distinct impacts of the canonical ENSO, including the strong winter monsoon rainfall over East Asia, the below normal rainfall and above normal temperature over Australia, the anomalously wet conditions across the south and cold conditions over the whole area of USA, and the anomalously dry conditions over South America. However, there are some limitations in capturing its regional impacts, especially, over Australasia and tropical South America at a lead time of one and four months. Nonetheless, forecast skills for rainfall and temperature over East Asia and North America during ENSO Modoki are comparable to or slightly higher than those during canonical ENSO events.

  9. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  10. 137Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Hamilton, Terry F.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Kehl, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bq g -1137 Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bq g -1137 Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict 137 Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate 137 Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of 137 Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in 137 Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples

  11. Distinct prediction errors in mesostriatal circuits of the human brain mediate learning about the values of both states and actions: evidence from high-resolution fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Jaron T; Pauli, Wolfgang M; Larsen, Tobias; Tyszka, J Michael; O'Doherty, John P

    2017-10-01

    Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e.g., the Q-learning model). The state-value-prediction error (SVPE), which is independent of actions, is a hallmark of the actor/critic architecture, whereas the action-value-prediction error (AVPE) is the distinguishing feature of action-value-learning algorithms. To test for the presence of these prediction-error signals in the brain, we scanned human participants with a high-resolution functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol optimized to enable measurement of neural activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the striatal areas to which it projects. In keeping with the actor/critic model, the SVPE signal was detected in the substantia nigra. The SVPE was also clearly present in both the ventral striatum and the dorsal striatum. However, alongside these purely state-value-based computations we also found evidence for AVPE signals throughout the striatum. These high-resolution fMRI findings suggest that model-free aspects of reward learning in humans can be explained algorithmically with RL in terms of an actor/critic mechanism operating in parallel with a system for more direct action-value learning.

  12. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  13. The microbe-secreted isopeptide poly-γ-glutamic acid induces stress tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings by activating crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Pang, Xiao; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Chi, Bo; Wang, Rui; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a microbe-secreted isopeptide that has been shown to promote growth and enhance stress tolerance in crops. However, its site of action and downstream signaling pathways are still unknown. In this study, we investigated γ-PGA-induced tolerance to salt and cold stresses in Brassica napus L. seedlings. Fluorescent labeling of γ-PGA was used to locate the site of its activity in root protoplasts. The relationship between γ-PGA-induced stress tolerance and two signal molecules, H2O2 and Ca2+, as well as the γ-PGA-elicited signaling pathway at the whole plant level, were explored. Fluorescent labeling showed that γ-PGA did not enter the cytoplasm but instead attached to the surface of root protoplasm. Here, it triggered a burst of H2O2 in roots by enhancing the transcription of RbohD and RbohF, and the elicited H2O2 further activated an influx of Ca2+ into root cells. Ca2+ signaling was transmitted via the stem from roots to leaves, where it elicited a fresh burst of H2O2, thus promoting plant growth and enhancing stress tolerance. On the basis of these observation, we propose that γ-PGA mediates stress tolerance in Brassica napus seedlings by activating an H2O2 burst and subsequent crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:28198821

  14. MGMT methylation analysis of glioblastoma on the Infinium methylation BeadChip identifies two distinct CpG regions associated with gene silencing and outcome, yielding a prediction model for comparisons across datasets, tumor grades, and CIMP-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bady, Pierre; Sciuscio, Davide; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Bloch, Jocelyne; van den Bent, Martin J; Marosi, Christine; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Weller, Michael; Mariani, Luigi; Heppner, Frank L; Mcdonald, David R; Lacombe, Denis; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika E

    2012-10-01

    The methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is an important predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy in glioblastoma. Recent studies in anaplastic glioma suggest a prognostic value for MGMT methylation. Investigation of pathogenetic and epigenetic features of this intriguingly distinct behavior requires accurate MGMT classification to assess high throughput molecular databases. Promoter methylation-mediated gene silencing is strongly dependent on the location of the methylated CpGs, complicating classification. Using the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChip interrogating 176 CpGs annotated for the MGMT gene, with 14 located in the promoter, two distinct regions in the CpG island of the promoter were identified with high importance for gene silencing and outcome prediction. A logistic regression model (MGMT-STP27) comprising probes cg12434587 [corrected] and cg12981137 provided good classification properties and prognostic value (kappa = 0.85; log-rank p CIMP) positive tumors was found in glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas than in low grade and anaplastic glioma cohorts, while in CIMP-negative gliomas MGMT was classified as methylated in approximately 50 % regardless of tumor grade. The proposed MGMT-STP27 prediction model allows mining of datasets derived on the HM-450K or HM-27K BeadChip to explore effects of distinct epigenetic context of MGMT methylation suspected to modulate treatment resistance in different tumor types.

  15. PredictSNP2: A Unified Platform for Accurately Evaluating SNP Effects by Exploiting the Different Characteristics of Variants in Distinct Genomic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Musil, Miloš; Štourač, Jan; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Damborský, Jiří; Brezovský, Jan

    2016-05-01

    An important message taken from human genome sequencing projects is that the human population exhibits approximately 99.9% genetic similarity. Variations in the remaining parts of the genome determine our identity, trace our history and reveal our heritage. The precise delineation of phenotypically causal variants plays a key role in providing accurate personalized diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of inherited diseases. Several computational methods for achieving such delineation have been reported recently. However, their ability to pinpoint potentially deleterious variants is limited by the fact that their mechanisms of prediction do not account for the existence of different categories of variants. Consequently, their output is biased towards the variant categories that are most strongly represented in the variant databases. Moreover, most such methods provide numeric scores but not binary predictions of the deleteriousness of variants or confidence scores that would be more easily understood by users. We have constructed three datasets covering different types of disease-related variants, which were divided across five categories: (i) regulatory, (ii) splicing, (iii) missense, (iv) synonymous, and (v) nonsense variants. These datasets were used to develop category-optimal decision thresholds and to evaluate six tools for variant prioritization: CADD, DANN, FATHMM, FitCons, FunSeq2 and GWAVA. This evaluation revealed some important advantages of the category-based approach. The results obtained with the five best-performing tools were then combined into a consensus score. Additional comparative analyses showed that in the case of missense variations, protein-based predictors perform better than DNA sequence-based predictors. A user-friendly web interface was developed that provides easy access to the five tools' predictions, and their consensus scores, in a user-understandable format tailored to the specific features of different categories of variations. To

  16. Small proportions of silt linked to distinct and predictable differences in marine macrofaunal assemblages on the continental shelf of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S. K.; Politano, K. K.

    2017-07-01

    Increasing interest in offshore development has motivated intensified efforts to map the seafloor for marine spatial planning. However, surficial geologic maps do not accurately represent habitats for various species groups of concern. This study used a bottom-up approach to integrate macrofaunal densities and benthic conditions on the Pacific Northwest shelf to identify macrofaunal assemblages and associated habitat features. Benthic cores and water-column profiles were collected from 137 stations from 50 to 110 m depth. Analyses grouping stations based on both similar species abundances and benthic conditions resulted in six broad habitats. Within the sampled depth and latitudinal range, sediment characteristics were the primary structuring variable. A major break in assemblages was detected between sediment that had less than 1% silt/clay and those containing more than 1% silt/clay. Assemblages differed primarily in the bivalve species present and secondarily in polychaete species. Within the greater than and less than 1% silt/clay habitats, further discretization of assemblages was based mostly on differing abundances of characteristic bivalves and polychaetes associated with differing median grain sizes, which did not correspond to traditional definitions of fine or medium sand. These data show that a bottom-up methodology is necessary to discern habitats for macrofauna and that site-specific physical sampling is necessary to predict macrofaunal assemblage composition. However, if detailed sediment characteristics are known, macrofaunal assemblages may be predicted without time-intensive biological sampling and processing. These results also indicate that seemingly small sedimentary changes due to offshore installations may have measureable effects on the relative abundances and even the species composition of macrofauna.

  17. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from human prostate epithelial and stromal cells reveal distinct pattern of microRNAs primarily predicted to target growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Ebron, Jey Sabith; Sikand, Kavleen; Gupta, Sanjay; Sunker, Ramanjulu; Shukla, Girish C

    2016-02-28

    Complex epithelial and stromal cell interactions are required during the development and progression of prostate cancer. Regulatory small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the spatiotemporal regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) and regulation of translation affecting a large number of genes involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In this study, through deep-sequencing of size fractionated small RNA libraries we profiled the miRNAs of prostate epithelial (PrEC) and stromal (PrSC) cells. Over 50 million reads were obtained for PrEC in which 860,468 were unique sequences. Similarly, nearly 76 million reads for PrSC were obtained in which over 1 million were unique reads. Expression of many miRNAs of broadly conserved and poorly conserved miRNA families were identified. Sixteen highly expressed miRNAs with significant change in expression in PrSC than PrEC were further analyzed in silico. ConsensusPathDB showed the target genes of these miRNAs were significantly involved in adherence junction, cell adhesion, EGRF, TGF-β and androgen signaling. Let-7 family of tumor-suppressor miRNAs expression was highly pervasive in both, PrEC and PrSC cells. In addition, we have also identified several miRNAs that are unique to PrEC or PrSC cells and their predicted putative targets are a group of transcription factors. This study provides perspective on the miRNA expression in PrEC and PrSC, and reveals a global trend in miRNA interactome. We conclude that the most abundant miRNAs are potential regulators of development and differentiation of the prostate gland by targeting a set of growth factors. Additionally, high level expression of the most members of let-7 family miRNAs suggests their role in the fine tuning of the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial and stromal cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  19. Multivariate soil fertility relationships for predicting the environmental persistence of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-tricyclohexane (RDX) among taxonomically distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseanes, Chelsea K; Chappell, Mark A; Hopkins, Bryan G; Durham, Brian D; Price, Cynthia L; Porter, Beth E; Miller, Lesley F

    2017-12-01

    After nearly a century of use in numerous munition platforms, TNT and RDX contamination has turned up largely in the environment due to ammunition manufacturing or as part of releases from low-order detonations during training activities. Although the basic knowledge governing the environmental fate of TNT and RDX are known, accurate predictions of TNT and RDX persistence in soil remain elusive, particularly given the universal heterogeneity of pedomorphic soil types. In this work, we proposed overcoming this problem by considering the environmental persistence of these munition constituents (MC) as multivariate mathematical functions over a variety of taxonomically distinct soil types, instead of a single constant or parameter of a specific absolute value. To test this idea, we conducted experiments where the disappearance kinetics of TNT and RDX were measured over a >300 h period in taxonomically distinct soils. Classical fertility-based soil measurements were log-transformed, statistically decomposed, and correlated to TNT and RDX disappearance rates (k -TNT and k -RDX ) using multivariate dimension-reduction and correlation techniques. From these efforts, we generated multivariate linear functions for k parameters across different soil types based on a statistically reduced set of their chemical and physical properties: Calculations showed that the soil properties exhibited strong covariance, with a prominent latent structure emerging as the basis for relative comparisons of the samples in reduced space. Loadings describing TNT degradation were largely driven by properties associated with alkaline/calcareous soil characteristics, while the degradation of RDX was attributed to the soil organic matter content - reflective of an important soil fertility characteristic. In spite of the differing responses to the munitions, batch data suggested that the overall nutrient dynamics were consistent for each soil type, as well as readily distinguishable from the other

  20. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  1. MGMT methylation analysis of glioblastoma on the Infinium methylation BeadChip identifies two distinct CpG regions associated with gene silencing and outcome, yielding a prediction model for comparisons across datasets, tumor grades, and CIMP-status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Bady (Pierre); D. Sciuscio (Davide); A.C. Diserens; J. Bloch (Jocelyne); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); C. Marosi (Christine); P-Y. Dietrich (Pierre Yves); M. Weller (Michael); L. Mariani (Luigi); F.L. Heppner (Frank ); D.R. Mcdonald (David ); D. Lacombe (Denis); R. Stupp (Roger); M. Delorenzi (Mauro); M.E. Hegi (Monika)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe methylation status of the O6-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is an important predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy in glioblastoma. Recent studies in anaplastic glioma suggest a prognostic value for MGMT methylation. Investigation of

  2. Identification and phenotypic characterization of a second collagen adhesin, Scm, and genome-based identification and analysis of 13 other predicted MSCRAMMs, including four distinct pilus loci, in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Jouko; Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Prakash, Vittal P; Qin, Xiang; Höök, Magnus; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E

    2008-10-01

    Attention has recently been drawn to Enterococcus faecium because of an increasing number of nosocomial infections caused by this species and its resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. However, relatively little is known about the pathogenic determinants of this organism. We have previously identified a cell-wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, produced by some isolates of E. faecium, and a secreted antigen, SagA, exhibiting broad-spectrum binding to extracellular matrix proteins. Here, we analysed the draft genome of strain TX0016 for potential microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). Genome-based bioinformatics identified 22 predicted cell-wall-anchored E. faecium surface proteins (Fms), of which 15 (including Acm) had characteristics typical of MSCRAMMs, including predicted folding into a modular architecture with multiple immunoglobulin-like domains. Functional characterization of one [Fms10; redesignated second collagen adhesin of E. faecium (Scm)] revealed that recombinant Scm(65) (A- and B-domains) and Scm(36) (A-domain) bound to collagen type V efficiently in a concentration-dependent manner, bound considerably less to collagen type I and fibrinogen, and differed from Acm in their binding specificities to collagen types IV and V. Results from far-UV circular dichroism measurements of recombinant Scm(36) and of Acm(37) indicated that these proteins were rich in beta-sheets, supporting our folding predictions. Whole-cell ELISA and FACS analyses unambiguously demonstrated surface expression of Scm in most E. faecium isolates. Strikingly, 11 of the 15 predicted MSCRAMMs clustered in four loci, each with a class C sortase gene; nine of these showed similarity to Enterococcus faecalis Ebp pilus subunits and also contained motifs essential for pilus assembly. Antibodies against one of the predicted major pilus proteins, Fms9 (redesignated EbpC(fm)), detected a 'ladder' pattern of high-molecular-mass protein bands in a

  3. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  4. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  5. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  6. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  7. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  8. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  10. The effects of distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Nicholas; Collin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of face and name distinctiveness on memory and metamemory for face-name associations. Four types of monitoring judgements were solicited during encoding and retrieval of face-name pairs that contained distinct or typical faces (Experiment 1) or names (Experiment 2). The beneficial effects of distinctiveness on associative memory were symmetrical between faces and names, such that relative to their typical counterparts, distinct faces enhanced memory for names, and distinct names enhanced memory for faces. These effects were also apparent in metamemory. Estimates of prospective and retrospective memory performance were greater for face-name associations that contained a distinct face or name compared with a typical face or name, regardless of whether the distinct item was a cue or target. Moreover, the predictive validity of prospective monitoring improved with name distinctiveness, whereas the predictive validity of retrospective monitoring improved with facial distinctiveness. Our results indicate that distinctiveness affects not only the strength of the association between a face and a name, but also the ability to monitor that association.

  11. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  12. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  13. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  14. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  15. Visual distinctiveness can enhance recency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, B H; Neely, C B; LeCompte, D C

    1995-05-01

    Experimental efforts to meliorate the modality effect have included attempts to make the visual stimulus more distinctive. McDowd and Madigan (1991) failed to find an enhanced recency effect in serial recall when the last item was made more distinct in terms of its color. In an attempt to extend this finding, three experiments were conducted in which visual distinctiveness was manipulated in a different manner, by combining the dimensions of physical size and coloration (i.e., whether the stimuli were solid or outlined in relief). Contrary to previous findings, recency was enhanced when the size and coloration of the last item differed from the other items in the list, regardless of whether the "distinctive" item was larger or smaller than the remaining items. The findings are considered in light of other research that has failed to obtain a similar enhanced recency effect, and their implications for current theories of the modality effect are discussed.

  16. SpyRing interrogation: analyzing how enzyme resilience can be achieved with phytase and distinct cyclization chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Christopher; Bennett, S. Paul; Howarth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes catalyze reactions with exceptional selectivity and rate acceleration but are often limited by instability. Towards a generic route to thermo-resilience, we established the SpyRing approach, cyclizing enzymes by sandwiching between SpyTag and SpyCatcher (peptide and protein partners which lock together via a spontaneous isopeptide bond). Here we first investigated the basis for this resilience, comparing alternative reactive peptide/protein pairs we engineered from Gram-positive bacteria. Both SnoopRing and PilinRing cyclization gave dramatic enzyme resilience, but SpyRing cyclization was the best. Differential scanning calorimetry for each ring showed that cyclization did not inhibit unfolding of the inserted β-lactamase. Cyclization conferred resilience even at 100 °C, where the cyclizing domains themselves were unfolded. Phytases hydrolyze phytic acid and improve dietary absorption of phosphate and essential metal ions, important for agriculture and with potential against human malnutrition. SpyRing phytase (PhyC) resisted aggregation and retained catalytic activity even following heating at 100 °C. In addition, SpyRing cyclization made it possible to purify phytase simply by heating the cell lysate, to drive aggregation of non-cyclized proteins. Cyclization via domains forming spontaneous isopeptide bonds is a general strategy to generate resilient enzymes and may extend the range of conditions for isolation and application of enzymes. PMID:26861173

  17. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  18. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  19. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  20. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  1. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  2. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  3. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  4. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  5. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbash, Manssour; Idapalapati, Srinivasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs…

  6. Prediction during natural language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Frank, S.L.; Nijhof, A.D.; Hagoort, P.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as

  7. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  8. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cockayne syndrom is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvment of the spine. (orig.)

  9. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  10. Army nurses in wartime: distinction and pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L P

    1996-08-01

    Nurses have served with distinction in wartime since Florence Nightingale went to the Crimea. Women often accompanied their husbands to battle during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, caring for the sick and wounded. Although not officially given officer status until 1920, Army nurses served in the Spanish-American War and World War I. As officers, thousands of nurses served in subsequent wars, distinguishing themselves by their heroism, devotion to duty, and sheer tenacity of spirit.

  11. Two Distinct Scene-Processing Networks Connecting Vision and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    A number of regions in the human brain are known to be involved in processing natural scenes, but the field has lacked a unifying framework for understanding how these different regions are organized and interact. We provide evidence from functional connectivity and meta-analyses for a new organizational principle, in which scene processing relies upon two distinct networks that split the classically defined parahippocampal place area (PPA). The first network of strongly connected regions consists of the occipital place area/transverse occipital sulcus and posterior PPA, which contain retinotopic maps and are not strongly coupled to the hippocampus at rest. The second network consists of the caudal inferior parietal lobule, retrosplenial complex, and anterior PPA, which connect to the hippocampus (especially anterior hippocampus), and are implicated in both visual and nonvisual tasks, including episodic memory and navigation. We propose that these two distinct networks capture the primary functional division among scene-processing regions, between those that process visual features from the current view of a scene and those that connect information from a current scene view with a much broader temporal and spatial context. This new framework for understanding the neural substrates of scene-processing bridges results from many lines of research, and makes specific functional predictions.

  12. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  13. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  14. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  15. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  16. The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2018-05-01

    Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases? This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person's relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.

  17. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  18. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q) ~ q-γ, localization occurs on the largest hub if γ > 5/2 for γ < 5/2 a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  19. WALS Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Prediction under model uncertainty is an important and difficult issue. Traditional prediction methods (such as pretesting) are based on model selection followed by prediction in the selected model, but the reported prediction and the reported prediction variance ignore the uncertainty

  20. Distinctive Features Hold a Privileged Status in the Computation of Word Meaning: Implications for Theories of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, George S.; McNorgan, Chris; McRae, Ken

    2006-01-01

    The authors present data from 2 feature verification experiments designed to determine whether distinctive features have a privileged status in the computation of word meaning. They use an attractor-based connectionist model of semantic memory to derive predictions for the experiments. Contrary to central predictions of the conceptual structure…

  1. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  2. 10 distinct stellar populations in omega Centauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cool, Adrienne; King, Ivan R.; van der marel, roeland p.

    2015-08-01

    We are constructing the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster. The core of omega Centauri has been imaged over 600 times through WFC3’s UVIS and IR channels for the purposes of detector calibration. There exist ~30 exposures each for 26 filters, stretching uniformly from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 12-year baseline between this data and a 2002 ACS survey will more than triple both the accuracy and the number of well-measured stars compared to previous studies.This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage for over 400,000 stars, from the red-giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best chance yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any globular cluster. A preliminary analysis of the color-magnitude diagrams in different bands already allows us to identify 10 distinct sequences.

  3. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  4. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  5. Neurophysiological Distinction between Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H.; Hoffman, Ralph E.; Watson, Todd D.; Miller, Ryan M.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SA) is distinguished from schizophrenia (SZ) based on the presence of prominent mood symptoms over the illness course. Despite this clinical distinction, SA and SZ patients are often combined in research studies, in part because data supporting a distinct pathophysiological boundary between the disorders are lacking. Indeed, few studies have addressed whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with SZ, such as the widely replicated reduction and delay of the P300 event-related potential (ERP), are also present in SA. Scalp EEG was acquired from patients with DSM-IV SA (n = 15) or SZ (n = 22), as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 22) to assess the P300 elicited by infrequent target (15%) and task-irrelevant distractor (15%) stimuli in separate auditory and visual ”oddball” tasks. P300 amplitude was reduced and delayed in SZ, relative to HC, consistent with prior studies. These SZ abnormalities did not interact with stimulus type (target vs. task-irrelevant distractor) or modality (auditory vs. visual). Across sensory modality and stimulus type, SA patients exhibited normal P300 amplitudes (significantly larger than SZ patients and indistinguishable from HC). However, P300 latency and reaction time were both equivalently delayed in SZ and SA patients, relative to HC. P300 differences between SA and SZ patients could not be accounted for by variation in symptom severity, socio-economic status, education, or illness duration. Although both groups show similar deficits in processing speed, SA patients do not exhibit the P300 amplitude deficits evident in SZ, consistent with an underlying pathophysiological boundary between these disorders. PMID:20140266

  6. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Agent-specific learning signals for self-other distinction during mentalising.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent. Combining computational modelling with magnetoencephalography (MEG enabled us to track neural representations of prediction errors (PEs and beliefs attributed to self, and of simulated PEs and beliefs attributed to another agent. We found that the representational pattern of a PE reliably predicts the identity of the agent to whom the signal is attributed, consistent with a neural self-other distinction implemented via agent-specific learning signals. Strikingly, subjects exhibiting a weaker neural self-other distinction also had a reduced behavioural capacity for self-other distinction and displayed more marked subclinical psychopathological traits. The neural self-other distinction was also modulated by social context, evidenced in a significantly reduced decoding of agent identity in a nonsocial control task. Thus, we show that self-other distinction is realised through an encoding of agent identity intrinsic to fundamental learning signals. The observation that the fidelity of this encoding predicts psychopathological traits is of interest as a potential neurocomputational psychiatric biomarker.

  8. Culture and the distinctiveness motive: constructing identity in individualistic and collectivistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maja; Vignoles, Vivian L; Owe, Ellinor; Brown, Rupert; Smith, Peter B; Easterbrook, Matt; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Bourguignon, David; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flávia Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, M Cristina; Koller, Silvia H; González, Roberto; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Wang, Qian; Bond, Michael Harris; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Valk, Aune; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Nizharadze, George; Fülöp, Marta; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Harb, Charles; Aldhafri, Said; Martin, Mariana; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Chybicka, Aneta; Gavreliuc, Alin; Buitendach, Johanna; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Ozgen, Emre; Güner, Ulkü E; Yamakoğlu, Nil

    2012-04-01

    The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achieve feelings of distinctiveness, rather than influence the strength of their motivation to do so. We measured the distinctiveness motive using an indirect technique to avoid cultural response biases. Analyses showed that the distinctiveness motive was not weaker-and, if anything, was stronger-in more collectivistic nations. However, individualism-collectivism was found to moderate the ways in which feelings of distinctiveness were constructed: Distinctiveness was associated more closely with difference and separateness in more individualistic cultures and was associated more closely with social position in more collectivistic cultures. Multilevel analysis confirmed that it is the prevailing beliefs and values in an individual's context, rather than the individual's own beliefs and values, that account for these differences. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Endpoint Distinctiveness Facilitates Analogical Mapping in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, reassignment, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal map of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons’ capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. PMID:25447511

  11. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  13. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  14. Climate prediction and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Climate prediction is generally accepted to be one of the grand challenges of the Geophysical Sciences. What is less widely acknowledged is that fundamental issues have yet to be resolved concerning the nature of the challenge, even after decades of research in this area. How do we verify or falsify a probabilistic forecast of a singular event such as anthropogenic warming over the 21st century? How do we determine the information content of a climate forecast? What does it mean for a modelling system to be "good enough" to forecast a particular variable? How will we know when models and forecasting systems are "good enough" to provide detailed forecasts of weather at specific locations or, for example, the risks associated with global geo-engineering schemes. This talk will provide an overview of these questions in the light of recent developments in multi-decade climate forecasting, drawing on concepts from information theory, machine learning and statistics. I will draw extensively but not exclusively from the experience of the climateprediction.net project, running multiple versions of climate models on personal computers.

  15. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  16. Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashktorab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer (CRC development often includes chromosomal instability (CIN leading to amplifications and deletions of large DNA segments. Epidemiological, clinical, and cytogenetic studies showed that there are considerable differences between CRC tumors from African Americans (AAs and Caucasian patients. In this study, we determined genomic copy number aberrations in sporadic CRC tumors from AAs, in order to investigate possible explanations for the observed disparities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied genome-wide array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH using a 105k chip to identify copy number aberrations in samples from 15 AAs. In addition, we did a population comparative analysis with aCGH data in Caucasians as well as with a widely publicized list of colon cancer genes (CAN genes. There was an average of 20 aberrations per patient with more amplifications than deletions. Analysis of DNA copy number of frequently altered chromosomes revealed that deletions occurred primarily in chromosomes 4, 8 and 18. Chromosomal duplications occurred in more than 50% of cases on chromosomes 7, 8, 13, 20 and X. The CIN profile showed some differences when compared to Caucasian alterations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosome X amplification in male patients and chromosomes 4, 8 and 18 deletions were prominent aberrations in AAs. Some CAN genes were altered at high frequencies in AAs with EXOC4, EPHB6, GNAS, MLL3 and TBX22 as the most frequently deleted genes and HAPLN1, ADAM29, SMAD2 and SMAD4 as the most frequently amplified genes. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs.

  17. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  18. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  19. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  20. Two distinct origins for Archean greenstone belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, R. Hugh; Ivanic, Tim J.; Lowrey, Jack R.; Morris, Paul A.; Barnes, Stephen J.; Wyche, Stephen; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Applying the Th/Yb-Nb/Yb plot of Pearce (2008) to the well-studied Archean greenstone sequences of Western Australia shows that individual volcanic sequences evolved through one of two distinct processes reflecting different modes of crust-mantle interaction. In the Yilgarn Craton, the volcanic stratigraphy of the 2.99-2.71 Ga Youanmi Terrane mainly evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends with a narrow range of Th/Nb ('constant-Th/Nb' greenstones). In contrast, the 2.71-2.66 Ga volcanic stratigraphy of the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane evolved through processes leading to Th/Yb-Nb/Yb trends showing a continuous range in Th/Nb ('variable-Th/Nb' greenstones). Greenstone sequences of the Pilbara Craton show a similar evolution, with constant-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.13 and 2.95 Ga and variable-Th/Nb greenstone evolution between 3.49 and 3.23 Ga and between 2.77 and 2.68 Ga. The variable-Th/Nb trends dominate greenstone sequences in Australia and worldwide, and are temporally associated with peaks in granite magmatism, which promoted crustal preservation. The increasing Th/Nb in basalts correlates with decreasing εNd, reflecting variable amounts of crustal assimilation during emplacement of mantle-derived magmas. These greenstones are typically accompanied in the early stages by komatiite, and can probably be linked to mantle plume activity. Thus, regions such as the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane simply developed as plume-related rifts over existing granite-greenstone crust - in this case the Youanmi Terrane. Their Th/Nb trends are difficult to reconcile with modern-style subduction processes. The constant-Th/Nb trends may reflect derivation from a mantle source already with a high and constant Th/Nb ratio. This, and a lithological association including boninite-like lavas, basalts, and calc-alkaline andesites, all within a narrow Th/Nb range, resembles compositions typical of modern-style subduction settings. These greenstones are very

  1. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  2. Distinct Reward Properties are Encoded via Corticostriatal Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Rigney, Anastasia E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-02-02

    The striatum serves as a critical brain region for reward processing. Yet, understanding the link between striatum and reward presents a challenge because rewards are composed of multiple properties. Notably, affective properties modulate emotion while informative properties help obtain future rewards. We approached this problem by emphasizing affective and informative reward properties within two independent guessing games. We found that both reward properties evoked activation within the nucleus accumbens, a subregion of the striatum. Striatal responses to informative, but not affective, reward properties predicted subsequent utilization of information for obtaining monetary reward. We hypothesized that activation of the striatum may be necessary but not sufficient to encode distinct reward properties. To investigate this possibility, we examined whether affective and informative reward properties were differentially encoded in corticostriatal interactions. Strikingly, we found that the striatum exhibited dissociable connectivity patterns with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, with increasing connectivity for affective reward properties and decreasing connectivity for informative reward properties. Our results demonstrate that affective and informative reward properties are encoded via corticostriatal interactions. These findings highlight how corticostriatal systems contribute to reward processing, potentially advancing models linking striatal activation to behavior.

  3. A two process model of burnout and work engagement: distinct implications of demands and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, M P

    2008-01-01

    A model of job burnout proposes two distinct processes. The first process concerns balance of demands to resources. A poor balance leads to chronic exhaustion, an integral aspect of the burnout syndrome. The second process concerns the congruence of individual and organizational values. The model proposes that value conflicts have implications for all three aspects of burnout. It also proposes that the impact of value conflicts has only minor implications for the exhaustion aspect of burnout; they are more relevant for the cynicism and inefficacy aspects of the syndrome. The model considers distinct processes at work that concern employees' perception of organizational justice and their trust in leadership. With a sample of 725 nurses, the analysis tested one component of the theory: the extent to which value congruence enhances the prediction of burnout beyond the prediction provided by demands and resources. Future directions are discussed.

  4. Comprehensive update of the atomic mass predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustein, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    A project has been completed recently for a comprehensive update of atomic mass predictions. This last occurred in 1976. Over the last 10 years the reliability of these earlier predictions (and others published later) has been analyzed by comparisons of the predictions with new masses from isotopes that were not in the experimental data base when the predictions were prepared. This analysis has highlighted distinct systematic features in various models which frequently result in poor predictions for nuclei that lie far from stability. An overview of the new predictions from models with different theoretical approaches will be presented

  5. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fern?ndez-Aranda, Fernando; Fr?berg, Frida; Aymam?, Neus; G?mez-Pe?a, M?nica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; del Pino-Guti?rrez, Amparo; Ag?era, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. Method: a total sample of 2010 trea...

  6. Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2011-04-01

    A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories.

  7. NSAID gastropathy and enteropathy: distinct pathogenesis likely necessitates distinct prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to cause ulceration in the stomach and proximal duodenum are well understood, and this injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors). In contrast, the pathogenesis of small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood, involving more complex mechanisms than those in the stomach and proximal duodenum. There is clear evidence for important contributions to NSAID enteropathy of enteric bacteria, bile and enterohepatic recirculation of the NSAID. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. Indeed, clinical data suggest little, if any, benefit. Animal studies suggest a significant exacerbation of NSAID enteropathy when proton pump inhibitors are co-administered with the NSAID. This worsening of damage appears to be linked to changes in the number and types of bacteria in the small intestine during proton pump inhibitor therapy. The distinct mechanisms of NSAID-induced injury in the stomach/proximal duodenum versus the more distal small intestine likely dictate distinct strategies for prevention. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  9. Are abrupt climate changes predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlevsen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    It is taken for granted that the limited predictability in the initial value problem, the weather prediction, and the predictability of the statistics are two distinct problems. Lorenz (1975) dubbed this predictability of the first and the second kind respectively. Predictability of the first kind in a chaotic dynamical system is limited due to the well-known critical dependence on initial conditions. Predictability of the second kind is possible in an ergodic system, where either the dynamics is known and the phase space attractor can be characterized by simulation or the system can be observed for such long times that the statistics can be obtained from temporal averaging, assuming that the attractor does not change in time. For the climate system the distinction between predictability of the first and the second kind is fuzzy. This difficulty in distinction between predictability of the first and of the second kind is related to the lack of scale separation between fast and slow components of the climate system. The non-linear nature of the problem furthermore opens the possibility of multiple attractors, or multiple quasi-steady states. As the ice-core records show, the climate has been jumping between different quasi-stationary climates, stadials and interstadials through the Dansgaard-Oechger events. Such a jump happens very fast when a critical tipping point has been reached. The question is: Can such a tipping point be predicted? This is a new kind of predictability: the third kind. If the tipping point is reached through a bifurcation, where the stability of the system is governed by some control parameter, changing in a predictable way to a critical value, the tipping is predictable. If the sudden jump occurs because internal chaotic fluctuations, noise, push the system across a barrier, the tipping is as unpredictable as the triggering noise. In order to hint at an answer to this question, a careful analysis of the high temporal resolution NGRIP isotope

  10. Evidence and characterization of a glide-vowel distinction in American English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Scott Jaggers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests whether native speakers of American English exhibit a glide-vowel distinction ([j]-[i] in a speech elicitation experiment. When reading sentences out loud, participants’ pronunciations of 4 near-minimal pairs of pre-existing lexical items (e.g., 'Eston'[iə] vs. 'pneumon'[jə] exhibit significant differences when acoustically measured, confirming the presence of a [j]-[i] distinction. This distinction is also found to be productively extended to the production of 20 near-minimal pairs of nonce words (e.g., 'Súmia '→ [sumiə] vs. 'Fímya '→ [fimjə], diversified and balanced along different phonologically relevant factors of the surrounding environment. Multiple acoustic measurements are compared to test what aspects most consistently convey the distinction: F2 (frontness, F1 (height, intensity, vocalic sequence duration, transition earliness, and transition speed. This serves the purpose of documenting the distinction’s acoustic phonetic realization. It also serves in the comparison of phonological representations. Multiple types of previously proposed phonological representations are considered along with the competing predictions they generate regarding the acoustic measurements performed. Results suggest that the primary and most consistent characteristic of the distinction is earliness of transition into the following vowel, with results also suggesting that the [j] glide has a greater degree of constriction. The [j] glide is found to have a significantly 'less 'anterior articulation, challenging the application of a representation based on place or articulator differences that would predict [j] to be 'more 'anterior.

  11. Integrated Circuit Wear out Prediction and Recycling Detection using Radio Frequency Distinct Native Attribute Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    105 A.2 AES Encrypt ... AES Advanced Encryption Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 AFIT Air Force Institute of...a 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) se- quence implemented with software code. Once the encryption was completed on 52 a data block, the

  12. ?Do Unto Others??: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others? pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defi...

  13. Earthquake prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of earthquake prediction is summarized, the possible responses to such prediction are examined, and some needs in the present prediction program and in research related to use of this new technology are reviewed. Three basic aspects of earthquake prediction are discussed: location of the areas where large earthquakes are most likely to occur, observation within these areas of measurable changes (earthquake precursors) and determination of the area and time over which the earthquake will occur, and development of models of the earthquake source in order to interpret the precursors reliably. 6 figures

  14. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Long-term future risk of severe exacerbations: Distinct 5-year trajectories of problematic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, A C A; Tan, J H Y; Lapperre, T S; Chan, A K W; Low, S Y; Ong, T H; Tan, K L; Chotirmall, S H; Sterk, P J; Koh, M S

    2017-09-01

    Assessing future risk of exacerbations is an important component of asthma management. Existing studies have investigated short- but not long-term risk. Problematic asthma patients with unfavorable long-term disease trajectory and persistently frequent severe exacerbations need to be identified early to guide treatment. To identify distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates among "problematic asthma" patients and develop a risk score to predict the most unfavorable trajectory. Severe exacerbation rates over five years for 177 "problematic asthma" patients presenting to a specialist asthma clinic were tracked. Distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Baseline predictors of trajectory were identified and used to develop a clinical risk score for predicting the most unfavorable trajectory. Three distinct trajectories were found: 58.5% had rare intermittent severe exacerbations ("infrequent"), 32.0% had frequent severe exacerbations at baseline but improved subsequently ("nonpersistently frequent"), and 9.5% exhibited persistently frequent severe exacerbations, with the highest incidence of near-fatal asthma ("persistently frequent"). A clinical risk score composed of ≥2 severe exacerbations in the past year (+2 points), history of near-fatal asthma (+1 point), body mass index ≥25kg/m 2 (+1 point), obstructive sleep apnea (+1 point), gastroesophageal reflux (+1 point), and depression (+1 point) was predictive of the "persistently frequent" trajectory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.84, sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 81.1% using cutoff ≥3 points). The trajectories and clinical risk score had excellent performance in an independent validation cohort. Patients with problematic asthma follow distinct illness trajectories over a period of five years. We have derived and validated a clinical risk score that accurately identifies patients who will have persistently

  16. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  17. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health

  18. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  19. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-03-31

    In this work we propose a new automatic image annotation model, dubbed {\\\\bf diverse and distinct image annotation} (D2IA). The generative model D2IA is inspired by the ensemble of human annotations, which create semantically relevant, yet distinct and diverse tags. In D2IA, we generate a relevant and distinct tag subset, in which the tags are relevant to the image contents and semantically distinct to each other, using sequential sampling from a determinantal point process (DPP) model. Multiple such tag subsets that cover diverse semantic aspects or diverse semantic levels of the image contents are generated by randomly perturbing the DPP sampling process. We leverage a generative adversarial network (GAN) model to train D2IA. Extensive experiments including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  20. Conceptual distinctiveness supports detailed visual long-term memory for real-world objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2010-08-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars presented from each category. At test, observers indicated which of 2 exemplars they had previously studied. Memory performance was high and remained quite high (82% accuracy) with 16 exemplars from a category in memory, demonstrating a large memory capacity for object exemplars. However, memory performance decreased as more exemplars were held in memory, implying systematic categorical interference. Object categories with conceptually distinctive exemplars showed less interference in memory as the number of exemplars increased. Interference in memory was not predicted by the perceptual distinctiveness of exemplars from an object category, though these perceptual measures predicted visual search rates for an object target among exemplars. These data provide evidence that observers' capacity to remember visual information in long-term memory depends more on conceptual structure than perceptual distinctiveness. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper......, we present the novel MODCODE algorithm incorporating the ROD measure to measure and control candidate distinctiveness. MODCODE is tested against GDE3 on three real world centrifugal pump design problems supplied by Grundfos. Our algorithm outperforms GDE3 on all problems with respect to all...

  2. The effects of cue distinctiveness on odor-based context-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-05-01

    The distinctiveness of an ambient odor was examined in relation to its success as a cue in context-dependent memory. Distinctiveness was examined in terms of both cue novelty and contextual appropriateness. Two experiments were conducted in which three different ambient odors that varied in familiarity and contextual appropriateness were manipulated at an incidental word learning encoding session and at a free recall retrieval session 48 h later. Experiment 1 revealed that when a novel ambient odor (osmanthus) was the available context cue, word recall was better than in any other condition. Further, among familiar odor cues, recall was better with a contextually inappropriate odor (peppermint) than with a contextually appropriate odor (clean fresh pine). Experiment 2 confirmed that superior word recall with osmanthus and peppermint depended on the odor cue's being available at both encoding and retrieval, and that the relation of an odor to the situational context is a key factor for predicting its effectiveness as a retrieval cue.

  3. Predictive profiling and its legal limits : Effectiveness gone forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; van der Sloot, B.; Broeders, D.; Schrijvers, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine predictive group profiling in the Big Data context as an instrument of governmental control and regulation. We first define profiling by drawing some useful distinctions (section 6.1). We then discuss examples of predictive group profiling from policing (such as parole prediction methods

  4. Compositionally and functionally distinct sinus microbiota in chronic rhinosinusitis patients have immunological and clinically divergent consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Emily K; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Lynch, Susan V

    2017-05-12

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by persistent sinonasal inflammation and sinus microbiome dysbiosis. The basis of this heterogeneity is poorly understood. We sought to address the hypothesis that a limited number of compositionally distinct pathogenic bacterial microbiota exist in CRS patients and invoke discrete immune responses and clinical phenotypes in CRS patients. Sinus brushings from patients with CRS (n = 59) and healthy individuals (n = 10) collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, predicted metagenomics, and RNA profiling of the mucosal immune response. We show that CRS patients cluster into distinct sub-groups (DSI-III), each defined by specific pattern of bacterial co-colonization (permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA); p = 0.001, r 2  = 0.318). Each sub-group was typically dominated by a pathogenic family: Streptococcaceae (DSI), Pseudomonadaceae (DSII), Corynebacteriaceae [DSIII(a)], or Staphylococcaceae [DSIII(b)]. Each pathogenic microbiota was predicted to be functionally distinct (PERMANOVA; p = 0.005, r 2  = 0.217) and encode uniquely enriched gene pathways including ansamycin biosynthesis (DSI), tryptophan metabolism (DSII), two-component response [DSIII(b)], and the PPAR-γ signaling pathway [DSIII(a)]. Each is also associated with significantly distinct host immune responses; DSI, II, and III(b) invoked a variety of pro-inflammatory, T H 1 responses, while DSIII(a), which exhibited significantly increased incidence of nasal polyps (Fisher's exact; p = 0.034, relative risk = 2.16), primarily induced IL-5 expression (Kruskal Wallis; q = 0.045). A large proportion of CRS patient heterogeneity may be explained by the composition of their sinus bacterial microbiota and related host immune response-features which may inform strategies for tailored therapy in this patient population.

  5. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism. PMID:16759356

  6. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  7. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, John Z

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  8. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler John Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  9. Tagging like Humans: Diverse and Distinct Image Annotation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Chen, Weidong; Sun, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    including quantitative and qualitative comparisons, as well as human subject studies, on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed model can produce more diverse and distinct tags than the state-of-the-arts.

  10. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teo, Minyuen

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  11. Fetterman-House: A Process Use Distinction and a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the concept of process use as an important distinction between the evaluation theories of E. House and D. Fetterman, thus helping to explain the discordant results of C. Christie for these two theories. (SLD)

  12. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  13. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used in this part: (a) Profit-sharing plan...

  14. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Natalie C. Ebner; Joerg Luedicke; Manuel C. Voelkle; Manuel C. Voelkle; Michaela Riediger; Michaela Riediger; Tian Lin; Ulman Lindenberger; Ulman Lindenberger

    2018-01-01

    Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years), middle-aged (44–55 years), and older (70–81 years) men and women. We report novel findings su...

  15. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  16. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  17. Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-04-01

    Analysts and markets have struggled to predict a number of phenomena, such as the rise of natural gas, in US energy markets over the past decade or so. Research shows the challenge may grow because the industry — and consequently the market — is becoming increasingly volatile.

  18. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2018-05-01

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  19. Interpersonal Subtypes Within Social Anxiety: The Identification of Distinct Social Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Danielle; Anderson, Timothy

    2017-10-05

    Although social anxiety disorder is defined by anxiety-related symptoms, little research has focused on the interpersonal features of social anxiety. Prior studies (Cain, Pincus, & Grosse Holtforth, 2010; Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001) identified distinct subgroups of socially anxious individuals' interpersonal circumplex problems that were blends of agency and communion, and yet inconsistencies remain. We predicted 2 distinct interpersonal subtypes would exist for individuals with high social anxiety, and that these social anxiety subtypes would differ on empathetic concern, paranoia, received peer victimization, perspective taking, and emotional suppression. From a sample of 175 undergraduate participants, 51 participants with high social anxiety were selected as above a clinical cutoff on the social phobia scale. Cluster analyses identified 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially anxious individuals: low hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 1) and high hostility-high submissiveness (Cluster 2). Cluster 1 reported higher levels of empathetic concern, lower paranoia, less peer victimization, and lower emotional suppression compared to Cluster 2. There were no differences between subtypes on perspective taking or cognitive reappraisal. Findings are consistent with an interpersonal conceptualization of social anxiety, and provide evidence of distinct social features between these subtypes. Findings have implications for the etiology, classification, and treatment of social anxiety.

  20. Distinct Shifts in Microbiota Composition during Drosophila Aging Impair Intestinal Function and Drive Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca I. Clark

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been correlated with aging and measures of frailty in the elderly. However, the relationships between microbial dynamics, age-related changes in intestinal physiology, and organismal health remain poorly understood. Here, we show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, characterized by an expansion of the Gammaproteobacteria, is tightly linked to age-onset intestinal barrier dysfunction in Drosophila. Indeed, alterations in the microbiota precede and predict the onset of intestinal barrier dysfunction in aged flies. Changes in microbial composition occurring prior to intestinal barrier dysfunction contribute to changes in excretory function and immune gene activation in the aging intestine. In addition, we show that a distinct shift in microbiota composition follows intestinal barrier dysfunction, leading to systemic immune activation and organismal death. Our results indicate that alterations in microbiota dynamics could contribute to and also predict varying rates of health decline during aging in mammals.

  1. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  2. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....

  3. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  4. Unification predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilencea, D.; Ross, G.G.; Lanzagorta, M.

    1997-07-01

    The unification of gauge couplings suggests that there is an underlying (supersymmetric) unification of the strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The prediction of the unification scale may be the first quantitative indication that this unification may extend to unification with gravity. We make a precise determination of these predictions for a class of models which extend the multiplet structure of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to include the heavy states expected in many Grand Unified and/or superstring theories. We show that there is a strong cancellation between the 2-loop and threshold effects. As a result the net effect is smaller than previously thought, giving a small increase in both the unification scale and the value of the strong coupling at low energies. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  5. Distinctiveness revisited: unpredictable temporal isolation does not benefit short-term serial recall of heard or seen events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Lisa M; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2006-09-01

    The notion of a link between time and memory is intuitively appealing and forms the core assumption of temporal distinctiveness models. Distinctiveness models predict that items that are temporally isolated from their neighbors at presentation should be recalled better than items that are temporally crowded. By contrast, event-based theories consider time to be incidental to the processes that govern memory, and such theories would not imply a temporal isolation advantage unless participants engaged in a consolidation process (e.g., rehearsal or selective encoding) that exploited the temporal structure of the list. In this report, we examine two studies that assessed the effect of temporal distinctiveness on memory, using auditory (Experiment 1) and auditory and visual (Experiment 2) presentation with unpredictably varying interitem intervals. The results show that with unpredictable intervals temporal isolation does not benefit memory, regardless of presentation modality.

  6. What History Tells Us about the Distinct Nature of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2017-11-01

    Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness. Furthermore, I argue that the combination of these three features makes chemistry an exemplary science.

  7. Revitalizing the “civic” and “ethnic” distinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi-classification-analysis, to establ......This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi...

  8. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Deirdre M; Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2016-07-13

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8-16 and 18-30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research on the human brain has

  9. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  10. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85 ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic mirror fusion systems: Characteristics and distinctive features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A tutorial account is given of the main characteristics and distinctive features of conceptual magnetic fusion systems employing the magnetic mirror principle. These features are related to the potential advantages that mirror-based fusion systems may exhibit for the generation of economic fusion power

  13. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  14. Effectiveness, Improvement and Educational Change: A Distinctively Canadian Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Fink, Dean

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive Canadian school of thought on educational change is inclined to synthesize diverse bodies of work and integrate nonrational and emotional dimensions with rational and technically effective ones in a socially critical way. Highlights the Canadian perspective through discussions about complex systems, contexts of change, critical…

  15. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. Sourav Ghosh, Satish Sati, Shantanu Sengupta and Vinod Scaria. J. Genet. 94, 17–25. Gencode V9 lncRNA gene : 11004. Known lncRNA : 1175. Novel lncRNA : 5898. Putative lncRNA :.

  16. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate–acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate–acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate–acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature–nurture debates. PMID:20234831

  17. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  18. Are there distinctive indigenous methods of inquiry? | Le Grange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether there are methods that might be referred to as being distinctly indigenous. In doing so the nature of method is examined and it is concluded that method is not universal and neutral, but rather situated and performative. The upshot of this is that research methods can be transformed and that ...

  19. Blurring Boundaries : Carnap, Quine, and the Internal-External Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    Quine is routinely perceived as saving metaphysics from Carnapian positivism. Where Carnap rejects metaphysical existence claims as meaningless, Quine is taken to restore their intelligibility by dismantling the former's internal-external distinction. The problem with this picture, however, is that

  20. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... barter, of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the Government; or (2) Government...

  1. MAGDM linear-programming models with distinct uncertain preference structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeshui S; Chen, Jian

    2008-10-01

    Group decision making with preference information on alternatives is an interesting and important research topic which has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to investigate multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems with distinct uncertain preference structures. We develop some linear-programming models for dealing with the MAGDM problems, where the information about attribute weights is incomplete, and the decision makers have their preferences on alternatives. The provided preference information can be represented in the following three distinct uncertain preference structures: 1) interval utility values; 2) interval fuzzy preference relations; and 3) interval multiplicative preference relations. We first establish some linear-programming models based on decision matrix and each of the distinct uncertain preference structures and, then, develop some linear-programming models to integrate all three structures of subjective uncertain preference information provided by the decision makers and the objective information depicted in the decision matrix. Furthermore, we propose a simple and straightforward approach in ranking and selecting the given alternatives. It is worth pointing out that the developed models can also be used to deal with the situations where the three distinct uncertain preference structures are reduced to the traditional ones, i.e., utility values, fuzzy preference relations, and multiplicative preference relations. Finally, we use a practical example to illustrate in detail the calculation process of the developed approach.

  2. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  3. An Objective Approach to Identify Spectral Distinctiveness for Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the process of developing speech perception, speech-language pathologists have to teach a subject with hearing loss the differences between two syllables by manually enhancing acoustic cues of speech. However, this process is time consuming and difficult. Thus, this study proposes an objective approach to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness between two syllables, which is used for speech-perception training. To accurately represent the characteristics of speech, mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients are selected as analytical parameters. The mismatch between two syllables in time domain is handled by dynamic time warping. Further, a filter bank is adopted to estimate the components in different frequency bands, which are also represented as mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients. The spectral distinctiveness in different frequency bands is then easily estimated by using Euclidean metrics. Finally, a morphological gradient operator is applied to automatically identify the regions of spectral distinctiveness. To evaluate the proposed approach, the identified regions are manipulated and then the manipulated syllables are measured by a close-set based speech-perception test. The experimental results demonstrated that the identified regions of spectral distinctiveness are very useful in speech perception, which indeed can help speech-language pathologists in speech-perception training.

  4. Distinctiveness and Bidirectional Effects in Input Enhancement for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This study examined input enhancement and second language (L2) vocabulary learning while exploring the role of "distinctiveness," the degree to which an item in the input diverges from the form in which other items in the input are presented, with regard to the nature and direction of the effects of enhancement. In this study,…

  5. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  6. An Adult Developmental Approach to Perceived Facial Attractiveness and Distinctiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Attractiveness and distinctiveness constitute facial features with high biological and social relevance. Bringing a developmental perspective to research on social-cognitive face perception, we used a large set of faces taken from the FACES Lifespan Database to examine effects of face and perceiver characteristics on subjective evaluations of attractiveness and distinctiveness in young (20–31 years, middle-aged (44–55 years, and older (70–81 years men and women. We report novel findings supporting variations by face and perceiver age, in interaction with gender and emotion: although older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers generally rated faces of all ages as more attractive, young perceivers gave relatively higher attractiveness ratings to young compared to middle-aged and older faces. Controlling for variations in attractiveness, older compared to young faces were viewed as more distinctive by young and middle-aged perceivers. Age affected attractiveness more negatively for female than male faces. Furthermore, happy faces were rated as most attractive, while disgusted faces were rated as least attractive, particularly so by middle-aged and older perceivers and for young and female faces. Perceivers largely agreed on distinctiveness ratings for neutral and happy emotions, but older and middle-aged compared to young perceivers rated faces displaying negative emotions as more distinctive. These findings underscore the importance of a lifespan perspective on perception of facial characteristics and suggest possible effects of age on goal-directed perception, social motivation, and in-group bias. This publication makes available picture-specific normative data for experimental stimulus selection.

  7. Model predictive Controller for Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Rezaee

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for control of a P2AT mobile robot. MPC refers to a group of controllers that employ a distinctly identical model of process to predict its future behavior over an extended prediction horizon. The design of a MPC is formulated as an optimal control problem. Then this problem is considered as linear quadratic equation (LQR) and is solved by making use of Ricatti equation. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method this controller is...

  8. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  9. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Morphological distinctiveness of Javan Tupaia hypochrysa (Scandentia, Tupaiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2013-01-01

    The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, represents a species complex with a complicated taxonomic history. It is distributed mostly south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands. In our recent revision of a portion of this species complex, we did not fully assess the population from Java (T. “glis” hypochrysa) because of our limited sample. Herein, we revisit this taxon using multivariate analyses in comparisons with T. glis, T. chrysogaster of the Mentawai Islands, and T. ferruginea from Sumatra. Analyses of both the manus and skull of Javan T. “glis” hypochrysa show it to be most similar to T. chrysogaster and distinct from both T. glis and T. ferruginea. Yet, the Javan population and T. chrysogaster have different mammae counts, supporting recognition of T. hypochrysa as a distinct species. The change in taxonomic status of T. hypochrysa has conservation implications for both T. glis and this Javan endemic.

  11. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  12. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  13. Distinctive safety aspects of the CANDU-PHW reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two lectures are presented in this report. They were prepared in response to a request from IAEA to provide information on the 'Special characteristics of the safety analysis of heavy water reactors' to delegates from member states attending the Interregional Training Course on Safety Analysis Review, held at Karlsruhe, November 19 to December 20, 1979. The CANDU-PHW reactor is used as a model for discussion. The first lecture describes the distinctive features of the CANDU reactor and how they impact on reactor safety. In the second lecture the Canadian safety philosophy, the safety design objective, and other selected topics on reactor safety analysis are discussed. The material in this report was selected with a view to assisting those not familiar with the CANDU heavy water reactor design in evaluating the distinctive safety aspects of these reactors. (auth)

  14. Mapping Phylogenetic Trees to Reveal Distinct Patterns of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michelle; Colijn, Caroline

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary relationships are frequently described by phylogenetic trees, but a central barrier in many fields is the difficulty of interpreting data containing conflicting phylogenetic signals. We present a metric-based method for comparing trees which extracts distinct alternative evolutionary relationships embedded in data. We demonstrate detection and resolution of phylogenetic uncertainty in a recent study of anole lizards, leading to alternate hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships. We use our approach to compare trees derived from different genes of Ebolavirus and find that the VP30 gene has a distinct phylogenetic signature composed of three alternatives that differ in the deep branching structure. phylogenetics, evolution, tree metrics, genetics, sequencing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  16. The emotional memory effect: differential processing or item distinctiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Saari, Bonnie

    2007-12-01

    A color-naming task was followed by incidental free recall to investigate how emotional words affect attention and memory. We compared taboo, nonthreatening negative-affect, and neutral words across three experiments. As compared with neutral words, taboo words led to longer color-naming times and better memory in both within- and between-subjects designs. Color naming of negative-emotion nontaboo words was slower than color naming of neutral words only during block presentation and at relatively short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). The nontaboo emotion words were remembered better than neutral words following blocked and random presentation and at both long and short ISIs, but only in mixed-list designs. Our results support multifactor theories of the effects of emotion on attention and memory. As compared with neutral words, threatening stimuli received increased attention, poststimulus elaboration, and benefit from item distinctiveness, whereas nonthreatening emotional stimuli benefited only from increased item distinctiveness.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa diversity in distinct paediatric patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    the other groups. A group of clonal isolates was observed among patients from the CF-chronic and CF-1 groups. These or different clonal isolates were not encountered among the three other patient groups. No characteristic resistance pattern could be identified among isolates from the distinct patient groups......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that often infects patients who are either immunocompromised or have local defects in host defences. It is known that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are sometimes infected with certain clonal isolates. It is not clear whether these clonal isolates also infect non......-CF patients and whether clonality of isolates occurs in other patient groups. The aim of this study was to investigate P. aeruginosa diversity and the occurrence of clones within five distinct paediatric patient groups susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection. P. aeruginosa isolates were cultured from 157...

  18. The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Knobe, Joshua; Newman, George

    2017-07-01

    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally. In particular, we consider recent findings that the true self is perceived as positive and moral and that this tendency is actor-observer invariant and cross-culturally stable. We then explore possible explanations for these findings and discuss their implications for a variety of issues in psychology.

  19. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  20. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node 67 Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland 67 Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures

  1. The influence of context on distinct facial expressions of disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Peter J; Walle, Eric A; Knothe, Jennifer M; Lopez, Lukas D

    2018-06-11

    Face perception is susceptible to contextual influence and perceived physical similarities between emotion cues. However, studies often use structurally homogeneous facial expressions, making it difficult to explore how within-emotion variability in facial configuration affects emotion perception. This study examined the influence of context on the emotional perception of categorically identical, yet physically distinct, facial expressions of disgust. Participants categorized two perceptually distinct disgust facial expressions, "closed" (i.e., scrunched nose, closed mouth) and "open" (i.e., scrunched nose, open mouth, protruding tongue), that were embedded in contexts comprising emotion postures and scenes. Results demonstrated that the effect of nonfacial elements was significantly stronger for "open" disgust facial expressions than "closed" disgust facial expressions. These findings provide support that physical similarity within discrete categories of facial expressions is mutable and plays an important role in affective face perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible....

  3. Parakeratosis pustulosa - a distinct but less familiar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandhi Deepika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parakeratosis pustulosa (PP is a distinct but less commonly known skin disease, which is frequently seen, in young girls. We describe the clinical and histological features of PP in a 7 month old female baby. Further, it is stressed that unless carefully looked for, this entity may be easily misdiagnosed as chronic paronychia, acrodermatitis of Hallopeau, pustular psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea pedis or dry fissured eczematoid dermatitis and mistreated subsequently.

  4. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  5. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  6. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  7. Distinctively human motivation and another view on human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prudkov, Pavel N.

    2006-01-01

    Human evolution is a multidisciplinary problem, one of its aspects is the origin and development of distinctively human psychological features. Cognitive properties (language, symbolic thinking) are considered as such features and numerous authors hypothesize its evolution. We suggest that the most important human characteristic is connected with motivation rather than cognition; this is the ability to construct and maintain long-term goal-directed processes having no biological basis. Once...

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  9. Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H

    2010-09-30

    The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.

  10. Mistakes To Avoid In Attacking The Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experimental critique of the moral/conventional (M/C distinction, Kelly et al. (2007 present new experimental data about responses to transgressions involving harm, where the novelty is that transgressors are grown-ups, rather than children. Their data do not support the moral/conventional distinction. The contrast between grown-up and schoolyard transgressions does not seem, however, to explain their results: they also use two schoolyard transgressions with similar negative results for the M/C distinction.I here attempt to explain away their results by calling attention to two mistakes in their experimental design. One refers to the use of questionnaire-items of the type that Turiel and collaborators have called mixed-domain situations, which extend over both a moral and a conventional domain. Participants respond to these cases differently than to prototypical moral situations, because some allow the authority rule to override the moral rule. The second mistake emerges in the grown-up transgressions labeled as Whipping/temporal, Whipping/Authority, Spanking/Authority, Prisoner abuse/Authority. These are not the typical transgressions unambiguously “involving a victim who has been harmed, whose rights have been violated, or who has been subject to an injustice”. The victims are also transgressors and harm is inflicted on them as punishment. Plausibly, rules about corporal punishment depend on authority in a way that rules about harming the innocent do not.

  11. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Ataques de nervios: culturally bound and distinct from panic attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E; Timpano, Kiara R; Schmidt, Norman B

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) has emphasized the importance of understanding psychopathology within a cultural framework by including culture-bound syndromes within its appendices. These syndromes are proposed to be bound to certain cultures and distinct from other psychological disorders. Included among the syndromes are ataques de nervios (ADN), which are reported to be bound to the Hispanic culture and closely resemble panic attacks. However, the cultural distinctiveness and phenomenology of ADN has not been adequately investigated. The current study employed an ethnically diverse study sample (N=342) of undergraduates. Participants completed a number of measures that assessed acculturation, syndrome and anxiety risk factors. In contrast to the DSM-IV's conceptualization of ADN, the rate of ADN did not significantly vary across the three main groups (African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic participants) nor did it vary based on acculturation. More consistent with the DSM-IV, the symptom comparisons indicated some differentiation between ADN and panic attacks. The present report provides data indicating that ADNs, as described by the DSM-IV, are not unique to the Hispanic culture and are experienced by non-Hispanic individuals at similar rates to Hispanic-endorsement. The findings are consistent with the DSM-IV assertion that ADNs and PAs are distinct syndromes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Participation and social participation: are they distinct concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Daniëls, Ramon; Jongmans, Marian J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Smeets, Rob J E M; Norton, Meghan; Beurskens, Anna J H M

    2014-03-01

    The concept of participation has been extensively used in health and social care literature since the World Health Organization introduced its description in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. More recently, the concept of social participation is frequently used in research articles and policy reports. However, in the ICF, no specific definition exists for social participation, and an explanation of differences between the concepts is not available. The central question in this discussion article is whether participation, as defined by the ICF, and social participation are distinct concepts. This article illustrates the concepts of participation and social participation, presents a critical discussion of their definitions, followed by implications for rehabilitation and possible future directions. A clear definition for participation or social participation does not yet exist. Definitions for social participation differ from each other and are not sufficiently distinct from the ICF definition of participation. Although the ICF is regarded an important conceptual framework, it is criticised for not being comprehensive. The relevance of societal involvement of clients is evident for rehabilitation, but the current ICF definition of participation does not sufficiently capture societal involvement. Changing the ICF's definition of participation towards social roles would overcome a number of its shortcomings. Societal involvement would then be understood in the light of social roles. Consequently, there would be no need to make a distinction between social participation and participation.

  14. Distinct Evening Fatigue Profiles in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Chen, Lee-May; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kober, Kord M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom experienced by oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Fatigue severity demonstrates a large amount of inter-individual and diurnal variability. Purpose Study purposes were to evaluate for subgroups of patients with distinct evening fatigue profiles and evaluate how these subgroups differed on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=1332) completed questionnaires six times over two cycles of CTX. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) evaluated evening fatigue severity. Latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct evening fatigue profiles. Results Four distinct evening fatigue classes (i.e., Low (14.0%), Moderate (17.2%), High (36.0%), Very High (32.8%)) were identified. Compared to the Low class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were: younger, female, had childcare responsibilities, had more years of education, had a lower functional status, had a higher comorbidity burden, and were diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients in the Very High class reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusions Findings provide new insights into modifiable risk factors for higher levels of evening fatigue. Clinicians can use this information to identify higher risk patients and plan appropriate interventions. PMID:29725554

  15. Organism versus mechanism: Losing our grip on the distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Reitsema

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between organism and mechanism is often subtle or unclear and yet can prove to be fundamental to our understanding of the world. It has been tempting for many thinkers to seek to ‘understand’ all of reality through the lens of either the one or the other of these concepts rather than by giving both a place. This article sets out to argue that there is a substantial loss of understanding when either of these metaphors is absolutised to explain all causal processes and patterns in reality. Clarifying the distinction between the two may provide one more tool to grasp what is reductionist in many of the perspectives that have come to dominate public life and science today. This contention is tested on the quest for the design of self-replicating systems (i.e. synthetic organisms in the nanotech industry. It is common that the concepts of organic functioning and mechanism are used imprecisely and in an overlapping way. This is also true of much scientific debate, especially in the fields of biology, micro-biology and nano-science. This imprecise use signals a reductionist tendency both in the way that the organic is perceived and in terms of the distinctive nature of mechanisms.

  16. Processing vertical size disparities in distinct depth planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Philip A; Howard, Ian P

    2012-08-17

    A textured surface appears slanted about a vertical axis when the image in one eye is horizontally enlarged relative to the image in the other eye. The surface appears slanted in the opposite direction when the same image is vertically enlarged. Two superimposed textured surfaces with different horizontal size disparities appear as two surfaces that differ in slant. Superimposed textured surfaces with equal and opposite vertical size disparities appear as a single frontal surface. The vertical disparities are averaged. We investigated whether vertical size disparities are averaged across two superimposed textured surfaces in different depth planes or whether they induce distinct slants in the two depth planes. In Experiment 1, two superimposed textured surfaces with different vertical size disparities were presented in two depth planes defined by horizontal disparity. The surfaces induced distinct slants when the horizontal disparity was more than ±5 arcmin. Thus, vertical size disparities are not averaged over surfaces with different horizontal disparities. In Experiment 2 we confirmed that vertical size disparities are processed in surfaces away from the horopter, so the results of Experiment 1 cannot be explained by the processing of vertical size disparities in a fixated surface only. Together, these results show that vertical size disparities are processed separately in distinct depth planes. The results also suggest that vertical size disparities are not used to register slant globally by their effect on the registration of binocular direction of gaze.

  17. Natural Microbial Assemblages Reflect Distinct Organismal and Functional Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, P.; Andersson, A.; Kalnejais, L. H.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Lefsrud, M. G.; Wexler, M.; Singer, S. W.; Shah, M.; Bond, P. L.; Thelen, M. P.; Hettich, R. L.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The ability to link microbial community structure to function has long been a primary focus of environmental microbiology. With the advent of community genomic and proteomic techniques, along with advances in microscopic imaging techniques, it is now possible to gain insights into the organismal and functional makeup of microbial communities. Biofilms growing within highly acidic solutions inside the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, Redding, California) exhibit distinct macro- and microscopic morphologies. They are composed of microorganisms belonging to the three domains of life, including archaea, bacteria and eukarya. The proportion of each organismal type depends on sampling location and developmental stage. For example, mature biofilms floating on top of acid mine drainage (AMD) pools exhibit layers consisting of a densely packed bottom layer of the chemoautolithotroph Leptospirillum group II, a less dense top layer composed mainly of archaea, and fungal filaments spanning across the entire biofilm. The expression of cytochrome 579 (the most highly abundant protein in the biofilm, believed to be central to iron oxidation and encoded by Leptospirillum group II) is localized at the interface of the biofilm with the AMD solution, highlighting that biofilm architecture is reflected at the functional gene expression level. Distinct functional partitioning is also apparent in a biological wastewater treatment system that selects for distinct polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Community genomic data from " Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" dominated activated sludge has enabled high mass-accuracy shotgun proteomics for identification of key metabolic pathways. Comprehensive genome-wide alignment of orthologous proteins suggests distinct partitioning of protein variants involved in both core-metabolism and specific metabolic pathways among the dominant population and closely related species. In addition, strain- resolved proteogenomic analysis of the AMD biofilms

  18. Reperfusion of specific cortical areas is associated with improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Shaan; Trupe, Lydia A; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Molitoris, John J; Medina, Jared; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E

    2012-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that restoring blood flow to specific right cortical regions in acute stroke results in improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect distinguished by reference frame: viewer-centered versus stimulus-centered neglect. Twenty five patients with acute right stroke were evaluated at Day 1 and Day 3-5 with a battery of neglect tests and Diffusion- and Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed Brodmann areas (BAs) where reperfusion predicted degree of improvement in scores on each type of neglect, independently of reperfusion of other areas, total change in the volume of infarct or hypoperfusion, and age. Reperfusion of dorsal frontoparietal cortex (including BAs 40, 46, and 4) independently predicted improvement in viewer-centered neglect, such as detecting stimuli on left in line cancellation and scene copying (r=.951; p<.0001). Reperfusion of a more ventral temporo-occipital cortex, including right BAs 37, 38, 21 and 18, independently contributed to improvement in stimulus-centered neglect, such as detecting left gaps in circles (r=.926; p<.0001). Reperfusion of right midfusiform gyrus (temporal occipital cortex), change in total volume of ischemia, change in volume of hypoperfusion and age predicted degree of improvement in reading (reduction in "neglect dyslexic" errors; r=.915; p<.0001). Results demonstrate that reperfusing specific cortical regions yields improvement in different types of neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  19. Planning the unknown: the simultaneity of predictive and non-predictive entrepreneurial strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Ratinho, Tiago; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct approaches have emerged to categorize entrepreneurial strategies. While some argue that planning is beneficial for entrepreneurs, a growing body of literature argues that non-predictive strategies can also lead to successful outcomes. The effectuation framework gained attention and it

  20. Distinct Host Tropism Protein Signatures to Identify Possible Zoonotic Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Christine L P; Tong, Joo Chuan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic influenza A viruses constantly pose a health threat to humans as novel strains occasionally emerge from the avian population to cause human infections. Many past epidemic as well as pandemic strains have originated from avian species. While most viruses are restricted to their primary hosts, zoonotic strains can sometimes arise from mutations or reassortment, leading them to acquire the capability to escape host species barrier and successfully infect a new host. Phylogenetic analyses and genetic markers are useful in tracing the origins of zoonotic infections, but there are still no effective means to identify high risk strains prior to an outbreak. Here we show that distinct host tropism protein signatures can be used to identify possible zoonotic strains in avian species which have the potential to cause human infections. We have discovered that influenza A viruses can now be classified into avian, human, or zoonotic strains based on their host tropism protein signatures. Analysis of all influenza A viruses with complete proteome using the host tropism prediction system, based on machine learning classifications of avian and human viral proteins has uncovered distinct signatures of zoonotic strains as mosaics of avian and human viral proteins. This is in contrast with typical avian or human strains where they show mostly avian or human viral proteins in their signatures respectively. Moreover, we have found that zoonotic strains from the same influenza outbreaks carry similar host tropism protein signatures characteristic of a common ancestry. Our results demonstrate that the distinct host tropism protein signature in zoonotic strains may prove useful in influenza surveillance to rapidly identify potential high risk strains circulating in avian species, which may grant us the foresight in anticipating an impending influenza outbreak.

  1. Predictable Medea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bertolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By focusing on the tragedy of the 'unpredictable' infanticide perpetrated by Medea, the paper speculates on the possibility of a non-violent ontological subjectivity for women victims of gendered violence and whether it is possible to respond to violent actions in non-violent ways; it argues that Medea did not act in an unpredictable way, rather through the very predictable subject of resentment and violence. 'Medea' represents the story of all of us who require justice as retribution against any wrong. The presupposition is that the empowered female subjectivity of women’s rights contains the same desire of mastering others of the masculine current legal and philosophical subject. The subject of women’s rights is grounded on the emotions of resentment and retribution and refuses the categories of the private by appropriating those of the righteous, masculine and public subject. The essay opposes the essentialised stereotypes of the feminine and the maternal with an ontological approach of people as singular, corporeal, vulnerable and dependent. There is therefore an emphasis on the excluded categories of the private. Forgiveness is taken into account as a category of the private and a possibility of responding to violence with newness. A violent act is seen in relations to the community of human beings rather than through an isolated setting as in the case of the individual of human rights. In this context, forgiveness allows to risk again and being with. The result is also a rethinking of feminist actions, feminine subjectivity and of the maternal. Overall the paper opens up the Arendtian category of action and forgiveness and the Cavarerian unique and corporeal ontology of the selfhood beyond gendered stereotypes.

  2. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Kamran; Armour-Marshall, Katrina; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Isaac, Nick J B

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE). Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  3. Load and distinctness interact in working memory for lexical manual gestures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eRudner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ease of Language Understanding model (ELU, Rönnberg et al., 2013 predicts that decreasing the distinctness of language stimuli increases working memory load; in the speech domain this notion is supported by empirical evidence. Our aim was to determine whether such an over-additive interaction can be generalized to sign processing in sign-naïve individuals and whether it is modulated by experience of computer gaming. Twenty young adults with no knowledge of sign language performed an n-back working memory task based on manual gestures lexicalized in sign language; the visual resolution of the signs and working memory load were manipulated. Performance was poorer when load was high and resolution was low. These two effects interacted over-additively, demonstrating that reducing the resolution of signed stimuli increases working memory load when there is no pre-existing semantic representation. This suggests that load and distinctness are handled by a shared amodal mechanism which can be revealed empirically when stimuli are degraded and load is high, even without pre-existing semantic representation. There was some evidence that the mechanism is influenced by computer gaming experience. Future work should explore how the shared mechanism is influenced by pre-existing semantic representation and sensory factors together with computer gaming experience.

  4. Global patterns of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered amphibians and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation of phylogenetic diversity allows maximising evolutionary information preserved within fauna and flora. The "EDGE of Existence" programme is the first institutional conservation initiative that prioritises species based on phylogenetic information. Species are ranked in two ways: one according to their evolutionary distinctiveness (ED and second, by including IUCN extinction status, their evolutionary distinctiveness and global endangerment (EDGE. Here, we describe the global patterns in the spatial distribution of priority ED and EDGE species, in order to identify conservation areas for mammalian and amphibian communities. In addition, we investigate whether environmental conditions can predict the observed spatial pattern in ED and EDGE globally. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Priority zones with high concentrations of ED and EDGE scores were defined using two different methods. The overlap between mammal and amphibian zones was very small, reflecting the different phylo-biogeographic histories. Mammal ED zones were predominantly found on the African continent and the neotropical forests, whereas in amphibians, ED zones were concentrated in North America. Mammal EDGE zones were mainly in South-East Asia, southern Africa and Madagascar; for amphibians they were in central and south America. The spatial pattern of ED and EDGE was poorly described by a suite of environmental variables. CONCLUSIONS: Mapping the spatial distribution of ED and EDGE provides an important step towards identifying priority areas for the conservation of mammalian and amphibian phylogenetic diversity in the EDGE of existence programme.

  5. Menzerath-Altmann law for distinct word distribution analysis in a large text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Sertac

    2013-06-01

    The empirical law uncovered by Menzerath and formulated by Altmann, known as the Menzerath-Altmann law (henceforth the MA law), reveals the statistical distribution behavior of human language in various organizational levels. Building on previous studies relating organizational regularities in a language, we propose that the distribution of distinct (or different) words in a large text can effectively be described by the MA law. The validity of the proposition is demonstrated by examining two text corpora written in different languages not belonging to the same language family (English and Turkish). The results show not only that distinct word distribution behavior can accurately be predicted by the MA law, but that this result appears to be language-independent. This result is important not only for quantitative linguistic studies, but also may have significance for other naturally occurring organizations that display analogous organizational behavior. We also deliberately demonstrate that the MA law is a special case of the probability function of the generalized gamma distribution.

  6. Temporal Distinctiveness in Task Switching: Assessing the Mixture-Distribution Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Grange

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task switching, increasing the response--cue interval has been shown to reduce the switch cost. This has been attributed to a time-based decay process influencing the activation of memory representations of tasks (task-sets. Recently, an alternative account based on interference rather than decay has been successfully applied to this data (Horoufchin et al., 2011. In this account, variation of the RCI is thought to influence the temporal distinctiveness (TD of episodic traces in memory, thus affecting their retrieval probability. This can affect performance as retrieval probability influences response time: If retrieval succeeds, responding is fast due to positive priming; if retrieval fails, responding is slow, due to having to perform the task via a slow algorithmic process. This account---and a recent formal model (Grange & Cross, 2015---makes the strong prediction that all RTs are a mixture of one of two processes: a fast process when retrieval succeeds, and a slow process when retrieval fails. The present paper assesses the evidence for this mixture-distribution assumption in TD data. In a first section, statistical evidence for mixture-distributions is found using the fixed-point property test. In a second section, a mathematical process model with mixture-distributions at its core is fitted to the response time distribution data. Both approaches provide good evidence in support of the mixture-distribution assumption, and thus support temporal distinctiveness accounts of the data.

  7. Extracellular Monomeric and Aggregated Tau Efficiently Enter Human Neurons through Overlapping but Distinct Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis D. Evans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In Alzheimer’s disease, neurofibrillary tangle pathology appears to spread along neuronal connections, proposed to be mediated by the release and uptake of abnormal, disease-specific forms of microtubule-binding protein tau MAPT. It is currently unclear whether transfer of tau between neurons is a toxic gain-of-function process in dementia or reflects a constitutive biological process. We report two entry mechanisms for monomeric tau to human neurons: a rapid dynamin-dependent phase typical of endocytosis and a second, slower actin-dependent phase of macropinocytosis. Aggregated tau entry is independent of actin polymerization and largely dynamin dependent, consistent with endocytosis and distinct from macropinocytosis, the major route for aggregated tau entry reported for non-neuronal cells. Anti-tau antibodies abrogate monomeric tau entry into neurons, but less efficiently in the case of aggregated tau, where internalized tau carries antibody with it into neurons. These data suggest that tau entry to human neurons is a physiological process and not a disease-specific phenomenon. : In contrast with predictions that transfer of the microtubule-associated protein tau between neurons is a toxic gain-of-function process in dementia, Evans et al. show that healthy human neurons efficiently take up both normal and aggregated tau, by distinct but overlapping uptake mechanisms. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, Tau, MAPT, iPSC, endocytosis, human neurons, intracellular transport

  8. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josiah; Iser, Wendy B; Chow, David K; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2008-07-30

    Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  9. Load and distinctness interact in working memory for lexical manual gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Toscano, Elena; Holmer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Ease of Language Understanding model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) predicts that decreasing the distinctness of language stimuli increases working memory load; in the speech domain this notion is supported by empirical evidence. Our aim was to determine whether such an over-additive interaction can be generalized to sign processing in sign-naïve individuals and whether it is modulated by experience of computer gaming. Twenty young adults with no knowledge of sign language performed an n-back working memory task based on manual gestures lexicalized in sign language; the visual resolution of the signs and working memory load were manipulated. Performance was poorer when load was high and resolution was low. These two effects interacted over-additively, demonstrating that reducing the resolution of signed stimuli increases working memory load when there is no pre-existing semantic representation. This suggests that load and distinctness are handled by a shared amodal mechanism which can be revealed empirically when stimuli are degraded and load is high, even without pre-existing semantic representation. There was some evidence that the mechanism is influenced by computer gaming experience. Future work should explore how the shared mechanism is influenced by pre-existing semantic representation and sensory factors together with computer gaming experience.

  10. The structure of a conserved piezo channel domain reveals a topologically distinct β sandwich fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens T; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C

    2014-10-07

    Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2,000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a topologically distinct β sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be-identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A Y; Aaker, J L; Gardner, W L

    2000-06-01

    Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between self-regulatory processes that focus on promotion and prevention strategies for goal pursuit. Five studies provide support for the hypothesis that these strategies differ for individuals with distinct self-construals. Specifically, individuals with a dominant independent self-construal were predicted to place more emphasis on promotion-focused information, and those with a dominant interdependent self-construal on prevention-focused information. Support for this hypothesis was obtained for participants who scored high versus low on the Self-Construal Scale, participants who were presented with an independent versus interdependent situation, and participants from a Western versus Eastern culture. The influence of interdependence on regulatory focus was observed in both importance ratings of information and affective responses consistent with promotion or prevention focus.

  12. Distinction between even and odd steps in the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Mertes, K. M.; Sarachik, M. P.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Rumberger, E. M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-03-01

    Data for the magnetization of a Mn_12-acetate crystal obtained for different sweep rates of a magnetic field applied along the anisotropy axis have been shown(K. M. Mertes, Y. Suzuki, M. P. Sarachik, Y. Paltiel, H. Shtrikman, E . Zeldov, E. M. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 227205 (2001). to collapse onto the single scaled curve predicted by Chudnovsky and Garanin(E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 187203 (2001).) for the case when the dominant symmetry-breaking term that drives tunneling is a second order transverse anisotropy. A detailed analysis of the data indicates there is a clear distinction between even resonances, driven by transverse anisotropy, and odd resonances which require a contribution due to a transverse internal magnetic field. It will also be shown that scaling is not obtained if one assumes that the tunneling is driven solely by transverse fields.

  13. Distinct Roles for the Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Representing the Relative Amount of Expected Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Rebecca A; Saez, Alexandre; Paton, Joseph J; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C Daniel

    2017-07-05

    The same reward can possess different motivational meaning depending upon its magnitude relative to other rewards. To study the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating assignment of motivational meaning, we recorded the activity of neurons in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys during a Pavlovian task in which the relative amount of liquid reward associated with one conditioned stimulus (CS) was manipulated by changing the reward amount associated with a second CS. Anticipatory licking tracked relative reward magnitude, implying that monkeys integrated information about recent rewards to adjust the motivational meaning of a CS. Upon changes in relative reward magnitude, neural responses to reward-predictive cues updated more rapidly in OFC than amygdala, and activity in OFC but not the amygdala was modulated by recent reward history. These results highlight a distinction between the amygdala and OFC in assessing reward history to support the flexible assignment of motivational meaning to sensory cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  15. Modeling stress wave propagation in rocks by distinct lattice spring model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the ability of the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM for modeling stress wave propagation in rocks was fully investigated. The influence of particle size on simulation of different types of stress waves (e.g. one-dimensional (1D P-wave, 1D S-wave and two-dimensional (2D cylindrical wave was studied through comparing results predicted by the DLSM with different mesh ratios (lr and those obtained from the corresponding analytical solutions. Suggested values of lr were obtained for modeling these stress waves accurately. Moreover, the weak material layer method and virtual joint plane method were used to model P-wave and S-wave propagating through a single discontinuity. The results were compared with the classical analytical solutions, indicating that the virtual joint plane method can give better results and is recommended. Finally, some remarks of the DLSM on modeling of stress wave propagation in rocks were provided.

  16. Distinct mechanisms of a phosphotyrosyl peptide binding to two SH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation is very common post-translational modification, catalyzed by kinases, for signaling and regulation. Phosphotyrosines frequently target SH2 domains. The spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins and for regulation of important pathways. Phosphorylation of both Y342 and Y346 in Syk linker B is required for optimal signaling. The SH2 domains of Vav1 and PLC-γ both bind this doubly phosphorylated motif. Here we used a recently developed method to calculate the effects of Y342 and Y346 phosphorylation on the rate constants of a peptide from Syk linker B binding to the SH2 domains of Vav1 and PLC-γ. The predicted effects agree well with experimental observations. Moreover, we found that the same doubly phosphorylated peptide binds the two SH2 domains via distinct mechanisms, with apparent rigid docking for Vav1 SH2 and dock-and-coalesce for PLC-γ SH2.

  17. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT INVERSIONS OF PLANAR KINEMATIC CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shubhashis Sanyal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 171 979 International Islamic University 8 2 1148 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Inversions are various structural possibilities of a kinematic chain. The number of inversions depends on the number of links of a kinematic chain. At the stage of structural synthesis, identification of distinct structural inversions of a particular type of kinematic chain is necessary. Various researchers have proposed methods for identification of distinct inversions. Present method based on Link joint connectivity is proposed to identify the distinct inversions of a planar kinematic chain. Method is tested successfully on single degree and multiple degree of freedom planar kinematic chains. ABSTRAK: Penyonsangan merupakan kebarangkalian pelbagai struktur suatu rangkaian kinematik. Jumlah songsangan bergantung kepada jumlah hubungan suatu rangkaian kinematik. Pada peringkat sintesis struktur, pengenalan songsangan struktur yang berbeza untuk suatu jenis rangkaian kinematik adalah perlu. Ramai penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai kaedah pengenalan songsangan yang berbeza. Kaedah terkini berdasarkan hubungan kesambungan bersama telah dicadangkan untuk mengenalpasti songsangan yang berbeza dalam suatu satah rangkaian kinematik.

  18. Genetically Distinct Subsets within ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul A.; Rayner, Tim F.; Trivedi, Sapna; Holle, Julia U.; Watts, Richard A.; Jayne, David R.W.; Baslund, Bo; Brenchley, Paul; Bruchfeld, Annette; Chaudhry, Afzal N.; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Deloukas, Panos; Feighery, Conleth; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Guillevin, Loic; Gunnarsson, Iva; P, Lorraine Harper M.R.C; Hrušková, Zdenka; Little, Mark A.; Martorana, Davide; Neumann, Thomas; Ohlsson, Sophie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pusey, Charles D.; Salama, Alan D.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Savage, Caroline O.; Segelmark, Mårten; Stegeman, Coen A.; Tesař, Vladimir; Vaglio, Augusto; Wieczorek, Stefan; Wilde, Benjamin; Zwerina, Jochen; Rees, Andrew J.; Clayton, David G.; Smith, Kenneth G.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)–associated vasculitis is a severe condition encompassing two major syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis. Its cause is unknown, and there is debate about whether it is a single disease entity and what role ANCA plays in its pathogenesis. We investigated its genetic basis. METHODS A genomewide association study was performed in a discovery cohort of 1233 U.K. patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and 5884 controls and was replicated in 1454 Northern European case patients and 1666 controls. Quality control, population stratification, and statistical analyses were performed according to standard criteria. RESULTS We found both major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) and non-MHC associations with ANCA-associated vasculitis and also that granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis were genetically distinct. The strongest genetic associations were with the antigenic specificity of ANCA, not with the clinical syndrome. Anti–proteinase 3 ANCA was associated with HLA-DP and the genes encoding α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and proteinase 3 (PRTN3) (P = 6.2×10−89, P = 5.6×10−12, and P = 2.6×10−7, respectively). Anti–myeloperoxidase ANCA was associated with HLA-DQ (P = 2.1×10−8). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has a genetic component, shows genetic distinctions between granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis that are associated with ANCA specificity, and suggests that the response against the autoantigen proteinase 3 is a central pathogenic feature of proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis. These data provide preliminary support for the concept that proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis and myeloperoxidase ANCA–associated vasculitis are distinct autoimmune syndromes. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID

  19. Rhinovirus infection induces distinct transcriptome profiles in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Charu; Walsh, Megan P; Eder, Breanna N; Metitiri, Ediri E; Popova, Antonia P; Hershenson, Marc B

    2018-05-01

    Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out by using IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2.1 exon arrays. Selected genes were validated by quantitative (q)PCR. Treatment of nonactivated (M0) macrophages with IFN-γ and IL-4 induced the expression of 252 and 153 distinct genes, respectively, including previously-identified M1 and M2 markers. RV infection of M0 macrophages induced upregulation of 232 genes; pathway analysis showed significant overrepresentation of genes involved in IFN-α/β signaling and cytokine signaling in the immune system. RV infection induced differential expression of 195 distinct genes in M1-like macrophages but only seven distinct genes in M2-like-polarized cells. In a secondary analysis, comparison between M0-, RV-infected, and M1-like-polarized, RV-infected macrophages revealed differential expression of 227 genes including those associated with asthma and its exacerbation. qPCR demonstrated increased expression of CCL8, CXCL10, TNFSF10, TNFSF18, IL6, NOD2, and GSDMD and reduced expression of VNN1, AGO1, and AGO2. Together, these data show that, in contrast to M2-like-polarized macrophages, gene expression of M1-like macrophages is highly regulated by RV.

  20. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  1. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  2. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Agüera, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-04-15

    Studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. A total sample of 2010 treatment-seeking patients with a gambling disorder participated in this stand-alone study. All were recruited from a single Pathological Gambling Unit in Spain (1709 strategic and 301 non-strategic gamblers). The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected at the start of treatment. Data was analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative responses. There were significant differences in several socio-demographic and clinical variables, as well as in personality traits (novelty seeking and cooperativeness). Multiple regression analysis showed harm avoidance and self-directedness were the main predictors of gambling severity and psychopathology, while age at assessment and age of onset of gambling behaviour were predictive of gambling severity. Strategic gambling (as opposed to non-strategic) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes, but the effect size of the relationships was small. It is possible to identify distinct phenotypes depending on the preference of gambling. While these phenotypes differ in relation to the severity of the gambling disorder, psychopathology and personality traits, they can be useful from a clinical and therapeutic perspective in enabling risk factors to be identified and prevention programs targeting specific individual profiles to be developed.

  3. Distinctive Design A Practical Guide to a Useful, Beautiful Web

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Learn to produce a web site that stands out from the crowd One of the web designer's greatest challenges is to create a site distinctive enough to get noticed among the millions of sites already on the web. This book examines the bond between code, content and visuals to guide you through the factors that increase your design's visibility, usability and beauty. Using this practical advice, even web designers who lack strong artistic skills can develop super sites that strengthen the message and stand out from the crowd.Most books focus primarily on graphic design principles; this one shows you

  4. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.; Wilson, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  6. Distinct termination morphologies for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinten, P; Marshall, P; Lefebvre, J; Finnie, P

    2010-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, including single-walled nanotubes, are imaged optically as they grow in situ from cobalt/alumina catalyst using water-assisted acetylene chemical vapor deposition. Three distinct termination morphologies are identified and investigated optically and via scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative growth dynamics are extracted and show gradual deceleration and sudden termination of growth. The termination morphology is discussed in terms of the balance of forces within the forest. We speculate that sudden termination is a collective effect arising from an imbalance in these forces.

  7. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs

  10. Distinct Oscillatory Frequencies Underlie Excitability of Human Occipital and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Gosseries, Olivia; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent EEG recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes after occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher-frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes. TMS-evoked responses related to phosphene perception were similar across stimulation sites and were characterized by an early (200 ms) posterior negativity and a later (>300 ms) parietal positivity in the time domain and an increase in low-frequency (∼5-7 Hz) power followed by a broadband decrease in alpha/beta power in the time-frequency domain. These correlates of phosphene perception closely resemble known electrophysiological correlates of conscious perception of near-threshold visual stimuli. The regionally differential pattern of prestimulus predictors of phosphene perception suggests that distinct frequencies may reflect cortical excitability in occipital versus posterior parietal cortex, calling into question the broader assumption that the alpha rhythm may serve as a general index of cortical excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alpha-band oscillations are thought to reflect cortical excitability and are therefore ascribed an important role in gating information transmission across cortex. We probed cortical excitability directly in human occipital and parietal cortex and observed that, whereas alpha-band dynamics indeed reflect excitability of occipital areas, beta-band activity was most predictive of parietal cortex excitability. Differences in the state of cortical excitability predicted perceptual outcomes (phosphenes), which were manifest in both early and late patterns of evoked activity, revealing the time

  11. Timing the Generation of Distinct Retinal Cells by Homeobox Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrini, Sarah; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Vignali, Robert; Barsacchi, Giuseppina; Cremisi, Federico

    2006-01-01

    The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of “sensors” in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), we found that the 3′ UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b) and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2). The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities. PMID:16903786

  12. Francis Bacon and the Art-Nature Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Sophie

    2007-07-01

    Commentators generally expound Bacon's position on the art-nature relationship in terms of how much it retained or departed from traditional conceptions. This paper argues that an appreciation of the Baconian meaning of the terms "art" and "nature" requires a close examination of his wider cosmogonical speculations. Bacon's cosmogonical account moves from a state of unbridled chaos to the relatively stable system for which the term "nature" is normally used. The fundamental principle lying at the heart of Baconian cosmogony is an enriched and appetitive matter: eternal, unchanging, and the plenipotentiary source of all things. Successive limitations of matter's absolute power produced a lazy and habitual nature, which Bacon labelled "nature free." To shift nature from this otiose condition, the Baconian operator recapitulates the original binding of matter. Bacon designated the systematic procedures of binding nature the science of magic. Magic is Bacon's human counterpart to the original cosmogonical process that gave rise to the current system of nature. In Bacon's cosmogony, all possible worlds unfold out of matter: the function of art is to shake out nature's hidden folds. Hence, the distinction between naturalia and artificialia maps on to the distinction between actual and potential. Nature free is without purpose, but art - nature bound - knowingly brings into being an alternative nature designed for human utility.

  13. BARE retrotransposons are translated and replicated via distinct RNA pools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chang

    Full Text Available The replication of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, which can constitute over 80% of higher plant genomes, resembles that of retroviruses. A major question for retrotransposons and retroviruses is how the two conflicting roles of their transcripts, in translation and reverse transcription, are balanced. Here, we show that the BARE retrotransposon, despite its organization into just one open reading frame, produces three distinct classes of transcripts. One is capped, polyadenylated, and translated, but cannot be copied into cDNA. The second is not capped or polyadenylated, but is destined for packaging and ultimate reverse transcription. The third class is capped, polyadenylated, and spliced to favor production of a subgenomic RNA encoding only Gag, the protein forming virus-like particles. Moreover, the BARE2 subfamily, which cannot synthesize Gag and is parasitic on BARE1, does not produce the spliced sub-genomic RNA for translation but does make the replication competent transcripts, which are packaged into BARE1 particles. To our knowledge, this is first demonstration of distinct RNA pools for translation and transcription for any retrotransposon.

  14. Branchial Cilia and Sperm Flagella Recruit Distinct Axonemal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Alu; Shiba, Kogiku; Cai, Chunhua; Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1) Isoforms of α- and β-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2) Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3) Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation. PMID:25962172

  15. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.

  16. Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia; Joo, Brian W; Hu, Jimmy K; Tran, Pamela V; Calicchio, Monica L; O'Connell, Daniel J; Maas, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-10-27

    We conducted a genetic analysis of the developing temporo-mandibular or temporomandi-bular joint (TMJ), a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mammalian jaw. First, we used laser capture microdissection to perform a genome-wide expression analysis of each of its developing components. The expression patterns of genes identified in this screen were examined in the TMJ and compared with those of other synovial joints, including the shoulder and the hip joints. Striking differences were noted, indicating that the TMJ forms via a distinct molecular program. Several components of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are among the genes identified in the screen, including Gli2, which is expressed specifically in the condyle and in the disk of the developing TMJ. We found that mice deficient in Gli2 display aberrant TMJ development such that the condyle loses its growth-plate-like cellular organization and no disk is formed. In addition, we used a conditional strategy to remove Smo, a positive effector of the Hh signaling pathway, from chondrocyte progenitors. This cell autonomous loss of Hh signaling allows for disk formation, but the resulting structure fails to separate from the condyle. Thus, these experiments establish that Hh signaling acts at two distinct steps in disk morphogenesis, condyle initiation, and disk-condyle separation and provide a molecular framework for future studies of the TMJ.

  17. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decembrini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of "sensors" in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3' untranslated region (UTR, we found that the 3' UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities.

  18. Distinct pathways of neural coupling for different basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Rognoni, Elena; Cafiero, Riccardo; Costa, Tommaso; Galati, Dario; Perani, Daniela

    2012-01-16

    Emotions are complex events recruiting distributed cortical and subcortical cerebral structures, where the functional integration dynamics within the involved neural circuits in relation to the nature of the different emotions are still unknown. Using fMRI, we measured the neural responses elicited by films representing basic emotions (fear, disgust, sadness, happiness). The amygdala and the associative cortex were conjointly activated by all basic emotions. Furthermore, distinct arrays of cortical and subcortical brain regions were additionally activated by each emotion, with the exception of sadness. Such findings informed the definition of three effective connectivity models, testing for the functional integration of visual cortex and amygdala, as regions processing all emotions, with domain-specific regions, namely: i) for fear, the frontoparietal system involved in preparing adaptive motor responses; ii) for disgust, the somatosensory system, reflecting protective responses against contaminating stimuli; iii) for happiness: medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices involved in understanding joyful interactions. Consistently with these domain-specific models, the results of the effective connectivity analysis indicate that the amygdala is involved in distinct functional integration effects with cortical networks processing sensorimotor, somatosensory, or cognitive aspects of basic emotions. The resulting effective connectivity networks may serve to regulate motor and cognitive behavior based on the quality of the induced emotional experience. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  20. The uses and abuses of the coherence – correspondence distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonioli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Kenneth Hammond introduced a distinction between coherence and correspondence criteria of rationality as a tool in the study of judgment and decision-making. This distinction has been widely used in the field. Yet, as this paper seeks to show, the relevant notions of coherence and correspondence have been progressively considered to be too narrow and have undergone non-trivial conceptual changes since their original introduction. I try to show, first, that the proliferation of conceptualizations of coherence and correspondence has created confusion in the literature and that appealing to such notions has not helped to elucidate discussions over the nature of rational judgment and decision-making. Nevertheless, I also argue for a reframing of the debate. In fact, what seems to underlie several contemporary appeals to the notions of coherence and correspondence is best explained in terms of a contrast between what I call rule-based and goal-based rationality. Whilst these categories do need further refinement, they do seem to be useful for organizing and understanding research on rational judgment and decision-making. PMID:25983700

  1. Vertically distinct microbial communities in the Mariana and Kermadec trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Sierra; Osuntokun, Oladayo; Xia, Qing; Nelson, Alex; Blanton, Jessica; Allen, Eric E.; Church, Matthew J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2018-01-01

    Hadal trenches, oceanic locations deeper than 6,000 m, are thought to have distinct microbial communities compared to those at shallower depths due to high hydrostatic pressures, topographical funneling of organic matter, and biogeographical isolation. Here we evaluate the hypothesis that hadal trenches contain unique microbial biodiversity through analyses of the communities present in the bottom waters of the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Estimates of microbial protein production indicate active populations under in situ hydrostatic pressures and increasing adaptation to pressure with depth. Depth, trench of collection, and size fraction are important drivers of microbial community structure. Many putative hadal bathytypes, such as members related to the Marinimicrobia, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhodospirilliceae, and Aquibacter, are similar to members identified in other trenches. Most of the differences between the two trench microbiomes consists of taxa belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria whose distributions extend throughout the water column. Growth and survival estimates of representative isolates of these taxa under deep-sea conditions suggest that some members may descend from shallower depths and exist as a potentially inactive fraction of the hadal zone. We conclude that the distinct pelagic communities residing in these two trenches, and perhaps by extension other trenches, reflect both cosmopolitan hadal bathytypes and ubiquitous genera found throughout the water column. PMID:29621268

  2. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  3. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  4. The mechanism of the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, You-Liang; Sun, Zhao-Yan, E-mail: zysun@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Lu, Zhong-Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2016-01-14

    Although multiple overstretched DNA states were identified in experiments, the mechanism of the emergence of distinct states is still unclear. Molecular dynamics simulation is an ideal tool to clarify the mechanism, but the force loading rates in stretching achieved by conventional all-atom DNA models are much faster, which essentially affect overstretching states. We employed a modified coarse-grained DNA model with an unprecedented low loading rate in simulations to study the overstretching transitions of end-opened double-stranded DNA. We observed two-strand peeling off for DNA with low stability and the S-DNA with high stability under tension. By introducing a melting-forbidden model which prevents base-pair breaking, we still observed the overstretching transition induced by the formation of S-DNA due to the change of dihedral angle. Hence, we confirmed that the competition between the two strain-softening manners, i.e., base-pair breaking and dihedral angle variation, results in the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states.

  5. Decadel climate prediction: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurrell, J W

    2008-01-01

    The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to show that climate change from global warming is already upon us, and the rate of change as projected exceeds anything seen in nature in the past 10,000 years. Uncertainties remain, however, especially regarding how climate will change at regional and local scales where the signal of natural variability is large. Addressing many of these uncertainties will require a movement toward high resolution climate system predictions, with a blurring of the distinction between shorter-term predictions and longer-term climate projections. The key is the realization that climate system predictions, regardless of timescale, will require initialization of coupled general circulation models with best estimates of the current observed state of the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, and land surface. Formidable challenges exist: for instance, what is the best method of initialization given imperfect observations and systematic errors in models? What effect does initialization have on climate predictions? What predictions should be attempted, and how would they be verified? Despite such challenges, the unrealized predictability that resides in slowly evolving phenomena, such as ocean current systems, is of paramount importance for society to plan and adapt for the next few decades. Moreover, initialized climate predictions will require stronger collaboration with shared knowledge, infrastructure and technical capabilities among those in the weather and climate prediction communities. The potential benefits include improved understanding and predictions on all time scales

  6. Self-other integration and distinction in schizophrenia: A theoretical analysis and a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weiden, Anouk; Prikken, Merel; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2015-10-01

    Difficulties in self-other processing lie at the core of schizophrenia and pose a problem for patients' daily social functioning. In the present selective review, we provide a framework for understanding self-other integration and distinction, and impairments herein in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we discuss classic motor prediction models in relation to mirror neuron functioning, theory of mind, mimicry, self-awareness, and self-agency phenomena. Importantly, we also discuss the role of more recent cognitive expectation models in these phenomena, and argue that these cognitive models form an essential contribution to our understanding of self-other integration and distinction. In doing so, we bring together different lines of research and connect findings from social psychology, affective neuropsychology, and psychiatry to further our understanding of when and how people integrate versus distinguish self and other, and how this goes wrong in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Peptidomic and transcriptomic profiling of four distinct spider venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Oldrati

    Full Text Available Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples. The present study illustrates a rapid and efficient method developed for the elucidation of venom composition based on NextGen mRNA sequencing of venom glands and LC-MS/MS venom proteome profiling. The analysis of the comprehensive data obtained was focused on cysteine rich peptide toxins from four spider species originating from phylogenetically distant families for comparison purposes. The studied species were Heteropoda davidbowie (Sparassidae, Poecilotheria formosa (Theraphosidae, Viridasius fasciatus (Viridasiidae and Latrodectus mactans (Theridiidae. This led to a high resolution profiling of 284 characterized cysteine rich peptides, 111 of which belong to the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot (ICK structural motif. The analysis of H. davidbowie venom revealed a high richness in term of venom diversity: 95 peptide sequences were identified; out of these, 32 peptides presented the ICK structural motif and could be classified in six distinct families. The profiling of P. formosa venom highlighted the presence of 126 peptide sequences, with 52 ICK toxins belonging to three structural distinct families. V. fasciatus venom was shown to contain 49 peptide sequences, out of which 22 presented the ICK structural motif and were attributed to five families. The venom of L. mactans, until now studied for its large neurotoxins (Latrotoxins, revealed the presence of 14

  8. Neural Elements for Predictive Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart SHIPP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backwards in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many ‘illusory’ instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc is unduly influenced by what is expected, based on past experience. This simple conception, the hierarchical exchange of prediction and prediction error, confronts a rich cortical microcircuitry that is yet to be fully documented. This article presents the view that, in the current state of theory and practice, it is profitable to begin a two-way exchange: that predictive coding theory can support an understanding of cortical microcircuit function, and prompt particular aspects of future investigation, whilst existing knowledge of microcircuitry can, in return, influence theoretical development. As an example, a neural inference arising from the earliest formulations of predictive coding is that the source populations of forwards and backwards pathways should be completely separate, given their functional distinction; this aspect of circuitry – that neurons with extrinsically bifurcating axons do not project in both directions – has only recently been confirmed. Here, the computational architecture prescribed by a generalized (free-energy formulation of predictive coding is combined with the classic ‘canonical microcircuit’ and the laminar architecture of hierarchical extrinsic connectivity to produce a template schematic, that is further examined in the light of (a updates in the microcircuitry of primate visual cortex, and (b rapid technical advances made

  9. Neural Elements for Predictive Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many 'illusory' instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc.) is unduly influenced by what is expected, based on past experience. This simple conception, the hierarchical exchange of prediction and prediction error, confronts a rich cortical microcircuitry that is yet to be fully documented. This article presents the view that, in the current state of theory and practice, it is profitable to begin a two-way exchange: that predictive coding theory can support an understanding of cortical microcircuit function, and prompt particular aspects of future investigation, whilst existing knowledge of microcircuitry can, in return, influence theoretical development. As an example, a neural inference arising from the earliest formulations of predictive coding is that the source populations of forward and backward pathways should be completely separate, given their functional distinction; this aspect of circuitry - that neurons with extrinsically bifurcating axons do not project in both directions - has only recently been confirmed. Here, the computational architecture prescribed by a generalized (free-energy) formulation of predictive coding is combined with the classic 'canonical microcircuit' and the laminar architecture of hierarchical extrinsic connectivity to produce a template schematic, that is further examined in the light of (a) updates in the microcircuitry of primate visual cortex, and (b) rapid technical advances made possible by transgenic neural

  10. The distinctive sequelae of children's coping with interparental conflict: Testing the reformulated emotional security theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Ripple, Michael T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-10-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about the distinctive psychological consequences of children's patterns of responding to interparental conflict. In Study 1, 174 preschool children (M = 4.0 years) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, 243 preschool children (M = 4.6 years) and their parents participated in 2 annual measurement occasions. Across both studies, multiple informants assessed children's psychological functioning. Guided by the reformulated version of emotional security theory, behavioral observations of children's coping with interparental conflict assessed their tendencies to exhibit 4 patterns based on their function in defusing threat: secure (i.e., efficiently address direct instances of threat), mobilizing (i.e., react to potential threat and social opportunities), dominant (i.e., directly defeat threat), and demobilizing (i.e., reduce salience as a target of hostility). As hypothesized, each profile predicted unique patterns of adjustment. Greater security was associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and greater social competence, whereas higher dominance was associated with externalizing problems and extraversion. In contrast, mobilizing patterns of reactivity predicted more problems with self-regulation, internalizing symptoms, externalizing difficulties, but also greater extraversion. Finally, higher levels of demobilizing reactivity were linked with greater internalizing problems and lower extraversion but also better self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Characterizing the nature of visual conscious access: the distinction between features and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-08-24

    The difference between the roles of features and locations has been a central topic in the theoretical debates on visual attention. A recent theory proposed that momentary visual awareness is limited to one Boolean map, that is the linkage of one feature per dimension with a set of locations (L. Huang & H. Pashler, 2007). This theory predicts that: (a) access to the features of a set of objects is inefficient whereas access to their locations is efficient; (b) shuffling the locations of objects disrupts access to their features whereas shuffling the features of objects has little impact on access to their locations. Both of these predictions were confirmed in Experiments 1 and 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that this feature/location distinction remains when the task involves the detection of changes to old objects rather than the coding of new objects. Experiments 5 and 6 showed that, in a pre-specified set, one missing location can be readily detected, but detecting one missing color is difficult. Taken together, multiple locations seem to be accessed and represented together as a holistic pattern, but features have to be handled as separate labels, one at a time, and do not constitute a pattern in featural space.

  12. Distinct mutation profile and prognostic relevance in patients with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndromes (h-MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chi-Yuan; Hou, Hsin-An; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Lin, Chien-Chin; Chou, Wen-Chien; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Wu, Shang-Ju; Liao, Xiu-Wen; Lin, Chien-Ting; Ko, Bor-Shen; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Li, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Yao, Ming; Tang, Jih-Luh; Tsay, Woei; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-27

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies. Although most MDS patients have normal or increased BM cellularity (NH-MDS), some have hypocellular BM (h-MDS). The reports concerning the differences in genetic alterations between h-MDS and NH-MDS patients are limited. In this study, 369 MDS patients diagnosed according to the WHO 2008 criteria were recruited. h-MDS patients had lower PB white blood cell and blast counts, and lower BM blast percentages, than those with NH-MDS. h-MDS was closely associated with lower-risk MDS, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and revised IPSS (IPSS-R). IPSS-R could properly predict the prognosis in h-MDS (PMDS patients. The h-MDS patients had lower incidences of RUNX1, ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2 and TP53 mutations than NH-MDS patients. The cumulated incidence of acute leukemic transformation at 5 years was 19.3% for h-MDS and 40.4% for NH-MDS patients (P= 0.001). Further, the patients with h-MDS had longer overall survival (OS) than those with NH-MDS (P= 0.001), and BM hypocellularity remains an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS irrespective of age, IPSS-R, and gene mutations. Our findings provide evidence that h-MDS indeed represent a distinct clinico-biological subgroup of MDS and can predict better leukemia-free survival and OS.

  13. Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Metabolomics Revealed a Distinct Lipid Profile in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer accounts for the largest number of newly diagnosed cases in female cancer patients. Although mammography is a powerful screening tool, about 20% of breast cancer cases cannot be detected by this method. New diagnostic biomarkers for breast cancer are necessary. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative metabolomics method to analyze plasma samples from 55 breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls. A number of 30 patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were used as a training dataset to establish a diagnostic model and to identify potential biomarkers. The remaining samples were used as a validation dataset to evaluate the predictive accuracy for the established model. Distinct separation was obtained from an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model with good prediction accuracy. Based on this analysis, 39 differentiating metabolites were identified, including significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines and higher levels of sphingomyelins in the plasma samples obtained from breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Using logical regression, a diagnostic equation based on three metabolites (lysoPC a C16:0, PC ae C42:5 and PC aa C34:2 successfully differentiated breast cancer patients from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 98.1% and a specificity of 96.0%.

  14. Twenty putative palmitoyl-acyl transferase genes with distinct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 20 genes containing DHHC domain predicted to encode putative palmitoyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. However, little is known about their characteristics such as genetic relationship and expression profile. Here, we present an overview of the putative PAT genes in A. thaliana focusing on their ...

  15. Euthanasia: The conceptualization of the problem and important distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Milijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the intention is to provide analysis of the issue of euthanasia. On the other hand, this approach necessarily leads to a discussion toward the provision of an adequate definition of euthanasia. Therefore the article, first of all, refers to the multi­layered aspect of the term euthanasia. To avoid ambiguity and other uncer­tainties while providing the definition of euthanasia, the authors carefully perform a conceptual analysis. This leads to the establishment of a clear distinction between actions which, due to their motives or their method of execution, cast a shadow on the meaning of this medical procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinamički sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  16. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  17. Memory Synapses Are Defined by Distinct Molecular Complexes: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-01-01

    Synapses are diverse in form and function. While there are strong evidential and theoretical reasons for believing that memories are stored at synapses, the concept of a specialized "memory synapse" is rarely discussed. Here, we review the evidence that memories are stored at the synapse and consider the opposing possibilities. We argue that if memories are stored in an active fashion at synapses, then these memory synapses must have distinct molecular complexes that distinguish them from other synapses. In particular, examples from Aplysia sensory-motor neuron synapses and synapses on defined engram neurons in rodent models are discussed. Specific hypotheses for molecular complexes that define memory synapses are presented, including persistently active kinases, transmitter receptor complexes and trans-synaptic adhesion proteins.

  18. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  19. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing/technology relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    I consider the discursive practices that have served conceptually and ontologically to trouble the boundaries between nursing and technology: between nurse/human/subject and machine/non-human/object. Nursing and technology have been semiotically related largely by two processes: (a) by the metaphor that depicts nursing as technology and (b) by opposition, or as not like and even in conflict with technology. Less frequently but no less significantly, nursing and technology have been semiotically linked (c) by the metaphor that depicts technology as nursing and (d) by metonymy, or by word or picture juxtapositions of nursing with technology. The troubling distinctions between nursing and technology suggest yet another reason why the construction of difference continues to elude nursing.

  20. Distinct conflict resolution deficits related to different facets of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, John G

    2009-11-01

    An important issue in understanding the nature of conflict processing is whether it is a unitary or multidimensional construct. One way to examine this is to study whether people with impaired conflict processing exhibit a general pattern of deficits or whether they exhibit impairments in distinct aspects of conflict processing. One group who might exhibit conflict deficits are people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder, with one way to break down the heterogeneity of schizophrenia is to examine specific symptoms. Previous research has found that specific symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with specific deficits in conflict processing. In particular, disorganization is associated with increased response conflict, alogia is associated with increased retrieval conflict, and anhedonia is associated with increased emotional conflict. Moreover, there is evidence that different types of conflict processing are unassociated with each other. This evidence suggests that conflict processing is a multidimensional construct and that different aspects of schizophrenia are associated with impairments in processing different types of conflict.

  1. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-12-04

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others.

  2. Distinct pattern of p53 mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spruck, C H; Rideout, W M; Olumi, A F

    1993-01-01

    A distinct mutational spectrum for the p53 tumor suppressor gene in bladder carcinomas was established in patients with known exposures to cigarette smoke. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene showed inactivating mutations in 16 of 40 (40%) bladder...... tumors from smokers and 13 of 40 (33%) tumors from lifetime nonsmokers. Overall, 13 of the 50 (26%) total point mutations discovered in this and previous work were G:C-->C:G transversions, a relatively rare mutational type in human tumors. In six tumors, identical AGA (Arg)-->ACA (Thr) point mutations...... double mutations, four of which were tandem mutations on the same allele. No double mutations were found in tumors from nonsmoking patients. None of the mutations in smokers were G:C-->T:A transversions, which would be anticipated for exposure to the suspected cigarette smoke carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl...

  3. Application of distinct element method to toppling failure of slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the stability of slopes during earthquakes has become to be an important engineering problem, especially in case of the earthquake-proof design of nuclear power plants. But, for fissured rock slopes, some problems are remained unresolved, because they can not be treated as continua. The authors have been investigating toppling failure of slopes, from a point of view which regards a fissured rock mass as an assemblage of rigid blocks. DEM (Distinct Element Method) proposed by Cundall (1974) seems to be very helpful to such a investigation. So, in this paper, the applicability of DEM to toppling failure of slopes is examined through the comparison between DEM results and theoretical or experimental results using 3 simple models. (author)

  4. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  5. Fuel -coolant interactions in LWRs and LMFBRs: relationships and distinctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, R B; Lellouche, G S [Nuclear Safety and Analysis Department, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1979-10-15

    The question of fuel-coolant interaction and of potential vapor explosion is raised here. lt is the contention of the authors that there is in fact no need to study this question vis a vis Light Water Reactors (LWR) except from an academic point of view since it does not impact on safety considerations. As for LMFBRs, the design basis whole core accidents for LWRs are derived from the fundamental concern of maintaining core geometry to provide for convective cooling. However, the important distinction is that the core is in its most reactive configuration, and core and fuel rearrangement is therefore not of such concern. The author's thesis is that even if the probability of steam explosion following core melt were two orders of magnitude greater than currently assumed (10{sup -2}) the total LWR risk would increase only by a factor of 2-6 for BWRs and less a factor of 10 for PWRs

  6. Distinctive striatal dopamine signaling after dieting and gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hesse, Swen; Horstmann, Annette; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Highly palatable and/or calorically dense foods, such as those rich in fat, engage the striatum to govern and set complex behaviors. Striatal dopamine signaling has been implicated in hedonic feeding and the development of obesity. Dieting and bariatric surgery have markedly different outcomes on weight loss, yet how these interventions affect central homeostatic and food reward processing remains poorly understood. Here, we propose that dieting and gastric bypass produce distinct changes in peripheral factors with known roles in regulating energy homeostasis, resulting in differential modulation of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuits. Enhancement of intestinal fat metabolism after gastric bypass may also modify striatal dopamine signaling contributing to its unique long-term effects on feeding behavior and body weight in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-29

    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.

  8. Stalled replication forks generate a distinct mutational signature in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B.; Liberti, Sascha E.; Vogel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells acquire genome alterations during the act of DNA replication. This leads to mutation accumulation and somatic cell mosaicism in multicellular organisms, and is also implicated as an underlying cause of aging and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms of DNA replication...... Escherichia coli Tus/Ter complex) engineered into the yeast genome. We demonstrate that transient stalling at this barrier induces a distinct pattern of genome rearrangements in the newly replicated region behind the stalled fork, which primarily consist of localized losses and duplications of DNA sequences....... These genetic alterations arise through the aberrant repair of a single-stranded DNA gap, in a process that is dependent on Exo1- and Shu1-dependent homologous recombination repair (HRR). Furthermore, aberrant processing of HRR intermediates, and elevated HRR-associated mutagenesis, is detectable in a yeast...

  9. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  10. Pediatric schwannomatosis, a rare but distinct form of neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Anna K. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Egelhoff, John C.; Curran, John G. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Thomas, Bobby

    2016-03-15

    Schwannomatosis is the third major form of neurofibromatosis, distinct from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and type 1 (NF1). This condition is rare with a variable phenotypic presentation and complex molecular and genetic findings. In this case, a previously healthy teenager was found to have multiple spinal lesions and an enhancing right parotid mass on MRI. On extensive further work-up, this patient met the existing clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. This case report aims to review the clinical features and current diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis and compare it to NF1 and NF2. Special emphasis will be placed on imaging features that should prompt the radiologist to suggest this rare diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Distinct facial processing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Cataldo, Andrea; Norton, Daniel J; Ongur, Dost

    2011-01-01

    Although schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have both similar and differing clinical features, it is not well understood whether similar or differing pathophysiological processes mediate patients’ cognitive functions. Using psychophysical methods, this study compared the performances of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, patients with schizoaffective disorder (SA), and a healthy control group in two face-related cognitive tasks: emotion discrimination, which tested perception of facial affect, and identity discrimination, which tested perception of non-affective facial features. Compared to healthy controls, SZ patients, but not SA patients, exhibited deficient performance in both fear and happiness discrimination, as well as identity discrimination. SZ patients, but not SA patients, also showed impaired performance in a theory-of-mind task for which emotional expressions are identified based upon the eye regions of face images. This pattern of results suggests distinct processing of face information in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. PMID:21868199

  12. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.

  13. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G.; Carter, R. McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others. PMID:26634909

  14. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  15. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2012-04-20

    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  16. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  17. Mammalian odorant receptor tuning breadth persists across distinct odorant panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Kepchia

    Full Text Available The molecular receptive range (MRR of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space. When screened with such a panel, ORs with different odorant specificities, but equal tuning breadths, might appear to have different tuning breadths due to chance. We hypothesized that ORs would maintain their tuning breadths across distinct odorant panels. We constructed a new screening panel that was broadly distributed across an estimated odor space and contained compounds distinct from previous panels. We used this new screening panel to test several murine ORs that were previously characterized as having different tuning breadths. ORs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology. MOR256-17, an OR previously characterized as broadly tuned, responded to nine novel compounds from our new screening panel that were structurally diverse and broadly dispersed across an estimated odor space. MOR256-22, an OR previously characterized as narrowly tuned, responded to a single novel compound that was structurally similar to a previously known ligand for this receptor. MOR174-9, a well-characterized receptor with a narrowly tuned MRR, did not respond to any novel compounds in our new panel. These results support the idea that variation in tuning breadth among these three ORs is not an artifact of the screening protocol, but is an intrinsic property of the receptors.

  18. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  19. Common and distinct brain networks underlying verbal and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Xia, Lingxiang; Beaty, Roger E; Yang, Wenjing; Tian, Fang; Sun, Jiangzhou; Cao, Guikang; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Xu; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Creativity is imperative to the progression of human civilization, prosperity, and well-being. Past creative researches tends to emphasize the default mode network (DMN) or the frontoparietal network (FPN) somewhat exclusively. However, little is known about how these networks interact to contribute to creativity and whether common or distinct brain networks are responsible for visual and verbal creativity. Here, we use functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate visual and verbal creativity-related regions and networks in 282 healthy subjects. We found that functional connectivity within the bilateral superior parietal cortex of the FPN was negatively associated with visual and verbal creativity. The strength of connectivity between the DMN and FPN was positively related to both creative domains. Visual creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the precuneus of the pDMN and right middle frontal gyrus of the FPN, and verbal creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the medial prefrontal cortex of the aDMN. Critically, the FPN mediated the relationship between the aDMN and verbal creativity, and it also mediated the relationship between the pDMN and visual creativity. Taken together, decreased within-network connectivity of the FPN and DMN may allow for flexible between-network coupling in the highly creative brain. These findings provide indirect evidence for the cooperative role of the default and executive control networks in creativity, extending past research by revealing common and distinct brain systems underlying verbal and visual creative cognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2094-2111, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  1. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  2. The Role of Techne in the Authenticity-Inauthenticity Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lebedeva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose to do the following: I will discuss the notions of intentionality and self-understanding of Dasein as developed in Heidegger's Basic Problems of Phenomenology. In doing so, I will try to show the interrelation of Dasein's always being intentionally directed towards something and its self-interpretation. As we will see, the everyday world has, for Heidegger, a character of "equipmental contexture." This means that Dasein returns to itself from out of things, equipment, tools, or - quite differently - the work of art. In a word, Dasein is mirrored back toward itself from the things made, from the products of techne. From this will follow the important distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity. There is a sense in which the following pairings could be discerned: tools or pieces of equipment link up with inauthenticity, while the work of art links up with authenticity. I will say more on the subject of tools a bit later in the essay. Both kinds of things are things insofar as they are entrenched in techne. The common root seems almost inexplicable in the light of the vast difference between tools and the artwork. Moreover, both Dasein and techne seem to have another equally enigmatic common root: that of temporality. Temporality is the essential bond between Dasein and the double sense of techne, which suggests the double-sidedness of temporality itself. It is precisely this doublesidedness that I would like to have as the backdrop to my discussion as a whole. Finally, I will turn to a few pages of Heidegger's Being and Time and Bernard Stiegler's book Technics and Time I in order to complicate this notion of the two senses of temporality, the owned and disowned, originary and everyday, and its relation to work and techne. The overarching question here will be: Can the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity be sustained?

  3. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Gillespie

    Full Text Available Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1 and violent offenders (Study 2. In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs.

  4. Dynamical seasonal prediction of Southern African summer precipitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yuan, C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacific as predictors. More recently, they were replaced by two- and one-tiered dynamical 75 forecast systems, but raw model outputs, such as geopotential height at 850 hPa, are often 76 statistically downscaled to achieve better prediction skills... above-normal years, all have a distinct La Niña signal in the tropical Pacific, and 315 among six successfully predicted below-normal years, all but the 2000/2001 austral summer 316 have a distinct El Niño signal. As a result, composites of SST...

  5. Distinct structural alterations independently contributing to working memory deficits and symptomatology in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierhut, Kathrin C; Schulte-Kemna, Anna; Kaufmann, Jörn; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schiltz, Kolja

    2013-04-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a brain disease with a quite heterogeneous clinical presentation. Studies in schizophrenia have yielded a wide array of correlations between structural and functional brain changes and clinical and cognitive symptoms. Reductions of grey matter volume (GMV) in the prefrontal and temporal cortex have been described which are crucial for the development of positive and negative symptoms and impaired working memory (WM). Associations between GMV reduction and positive and negative symptoms as well as WM impairment were assessed in schizophrenia patients (symptomatology in 34, WM in 26) and compared to healthy controls (36 total, WM in 26). GMV was determined by voxel-based morphometry and its relation to positive and negative symptoms as well as WM performance was assessed. In schizophrenia patients, reductions of GMV were evident in anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), superior temporal cortex, and insula. GMV reductions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) were associated with positive symptom severity as well as WM impairment. Furthermore, the absolute GMV of VLPFC was strongly related to negative symptoms. These predicted WM performance as well as processing speed. The present results support the assumption of two distinct pathomechanisms responsible for impaired WM in schizophrenia: (1) GMV reductions in the VLPFC predict the severity of negative symptoms. Increased negative symptoms in turn are associated with a slowing down of processing speed and predict an impaired WM. (2) GMV reductions in the temporal and mediofrontal cortex are involved in the development of positive symptoms and impair WM performance, too. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction During Natural Language Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L; Nijhof, Annabel D; Hagoort, Peter; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-06-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as well as surprisal A computational model determined entropy and surprisal for each word in 3 literary stories. Twenty-four healthy participants listened to the same 3 stories while their brain activation was measured using fMRI. Reversed speech fragments were presented as a control condition. Brain areas sensitive to entropy were left ventral premotor cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left supplementary motor area. Areas sensitive to surprisal were left inferior temporal sulcus ("visual word form area"), bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right amygdala, bilateral anterior temporal poles, and right inferior frontal sulcus. We conclude that prediction during language comprehension can occur at several levels of processing, including at the level of word form. Our study exemplifies the power of combining computational linguistics with cognitive neuroscience, and additionally underlines the feasibility of studying continuous spoken language materials with fMRI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  8. CLT and CLS job responsibilities: current distinctions and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, K; Beck, S J; Kolenc, K

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address the following questions: 1. What tasks distinguish the job of a clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) from that of a clinical laboratory technician (CLT)? 2. What changes in role distinctions, have occurred for entry-level CLS and CLT practitioners over the five-year period 1993-98? 3. What tasks have been deleted from the CLT and CLS content outlines because they were not frequently performed or not considered entry-level? 4. What changes in practice are reflected in the current job analyses? A national job analysis of tasks constituting the job of clinical laboratory scientists (CLSs) and clinical laboratory technicians (CLTs) was conducted in 1998-99 as part of a standard setting process for the certifying examinations of the National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory Personnel (NCA). The job analyses relied upon mail surveys to 1200 individuals for each job level asking respondents to identify tasks significant to effective practice at job entry. The task lists resulting from statistical analysis of those surveys were examined to answer the study questions. The sample for each survey included 1200 practitioners, educators and laboratory managers selected at random from membership in professional organizations or from NCA certificant lists. Sampling was stratified to insure adequate practitioner representation. The mean rating on a four point scale for each item on the surveys was evaluated for overall significance as well as significance across geographic regions. The tasks meeting specified criteria were retained in the final task lists. Tasks were counted and their content evaluated to compare CLS and CLT job tasks. The response rates to the surveys were 33% for CLT and 21% for CLS. Reliability was judged based on average intraclass correlation coefficients of .86 and .82 for the CLT and CLS surveys, respectively. There were 952 tasks retained on the CLS content outline and 725 retained on the CLT content outline of the

  9. Is there a distinct continental slope fauna in the Antarctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Brandão, Simone N.; Brandt, Angelika; O'Brien, Philip E.

    2011-02-01

    The Antarctic continental slope spans the depths from the shelf break (usually between 500 and 1000 m) to ˜3000 m, is very steep, overlain by 'warm' (2-2.5 °C) Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), and life there is poorly studied. This study investigates whether life on Antarctica's continental slope is essentially an extension of the shelf or the abyssal fauna, a transition zone between these or clearly distinct in its own right. Using data from several cruises to the Weddell Sea and Scotia Sea, including the ANDEEP (ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity, colonisation history and recent community patterns) I-III, BIOPEARL (BIOdiversity, Phylogeny, Evolution and Adaptive Radiation of Life in Antarctica) 1 and EASIZ (Ecology of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone) II cruises as well as current databases (SOMBASE, SCAR-MarBIN), four different taxa were selected (i.e. cheilostome bryozoans, isopod and ostracod crustaceans and echinoid echinoderms) and two areas, the Weddell Sea and the Scotia Sea, to examine faunal composition, richness and affinities. The answer has important ramifications to the link between physical oceanography and ecology, and the potential of the slope to act as a refuge and resupply zone to the shelf during glaciations. Benthic samples were collected using Agassiz trawl, epibenthic sledge and Rauschert sled. By bathymetric definition, these data suggest that despite eurybathy in some of the groups examined and apparent similarity of physical conditions in the Antarctic, the shelf, slope and abyssal faunas were clearly separated in the Weddell Sea. However, no such separation of faunas was apparent in the Scotia Sea (except in echinoids). Using a geomorphological definition of the slope, shelf-slope-abyss similarity only changed significantly in the bryozoans. Our results did not support the presence of a homogenous and unique Antarctic slope fauna despite a high number of species being restricted to the slope. However, it remains the case that there may be

  10. Convergent Metabolic Specialization through Distinct Evolutionary Paths in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2018-04-10

    Evolution by natural selection under complex and dynamic environmental conditions occurs through intricate and often counterintuitive trajectories affecting many genes and metabolic solutions. To study short- and long-term evolution of bacteria in vivo , we used the natural model system of cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. In this work, we investigated how and through which trajectories evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when migrating from the environment to the airways of CF patients, and specifically, we determined reduction of growth rate and metabolic specialization as signatures of adaptive evolution. We show that central metabolic pathways of three distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineages coevolving within the same environment become restructured at the cost of versatility during long-term colonization. Cell physiology changes from naive to adapted phenotypes resulted in (i) alteration of growth potential that particularly converged to a slow-growth phenotype, (ii) alteration of nutritional requirements due to auxotrophy, (iii) tailored preference for carbon source assimilation from CF sputum, (iv) reduced arginine and pyruvate fermentation processes, and (v) increased oxygen requirements. Interestingly, although convergence was evidenced at the phenotypic level of metabolic specialization, comparative genomics disclosed diverse mutational patterns underlying the different evolutionary trajectories. Therefore, distinct combinations of genetic and regulatory changes converge to common metabolic adaptive trajectories leading to within-host metabolic specialization. This study gives new insight into bacterial metabolic evolution during long-term colonization of a new environmental niche. IMPORTANCE Only a few examples of real-time evolutionary investigations in environments outside the laboratory are described in the scientific literature. Remembering that biological evolution, as it has progressed in nature, has not taken place in test tubes, it is not

  11. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  12. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  13. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  14. Quantitative image analysis reveals distinct structural transitions during aging in Caenorhabditis elegans tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Johnston

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with functional and structural declines in many body systems, even in the absence of underlying disease. In particular, skeletal muscles experience severe declines during aging, a phenomenon termed sarcopenia. Despite the high incidence and severity of sarcopenia, little is known about contributing factors and development. Many studies focus on functional aspects of aging-related tissue decline, while structural details remain understudied. Traditional approaches for quantifying structural changes have assessed individual markers at discrete intervals. Such approaches are inadequate for the complex changes associated with aging. An alternative is to consider changes in overall morphology rather than in specific markers. We have used this approach to quantitatively track tissue architecture during adulthood and aging in the C. elegans pharynx, the neuromuscular feeding organ. Using pattern recognition to analyze aged-grouped pharynx images, we identified discrete step-wise transitions between distinct morphologies. The morphology state transitions were maintained in mutants with pharynx neurotransmission defects, although the pace of the transitions was altered. Longitudinal measurements of pharynx function identified a predictive relationship between mid-life pharynx morphology and function at later ages. These studies demonstrate for the first time that adult tissues undergo distinct structural transitions reflecting postdevelopmental events. The processes that underlie these architectural changes may contribute to increased disease risk during aging, and may be targets for factors that alter the aging rate. This work further demonstrates that pattern analysis of an image series offers a novel and generally accessible approach for quantifying morphological changes and identifying structural biomarkers.

  15. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Warshaw, Johanna; Berger, Lee R

    2015-10-15

    Studies of facial ontogeny in immature hominins have contributed significantly to understanding the evolution of human growth and development. The recently discovered hominin species Autralopithecus sediba is represented by a well-preserved and nearly complete facial skeleton of a juvenile (MH1) which shows a derived facial anatomy. We examined MH1 using high radiation synchrotron to interpret features of the oronasal complex pertinent to facial growth. We also analyzed bone surface microanatomy to identify and map fields of bone deposition and bone resorption, which affect the development of the facial skeleton. The oronasal anatomy (premaxilla-palate-vomer architecture) is similar to other Australopithecus species. However surface growth remodeling of the midface (nasomaxillary complex) differs markedly from Australopithecus, Paranthropus, early Homo and from KNM-WT 15000 (H. erectus/ergaster) showing a distinct distribution of vertically disposed alternating depository and resorptive fields in relation to anterior dental roots and the subnasal region. The ontogeny of the MH1 midface superficially resembles some H. sapiens in the distribution of remodeling fields. The facial growth of MH1 appears unique among early hominins representing an evolutionary modification in facial ontogeny at 1.9 my, or to changes in masticatory system loading associated with diet.

  16. Distinct timing mechanisms produce discrete and continuous movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Huys

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of discrete and continuous movement is one of the pillars of motor behavior classification. Discrete movements have a definite beginning and end, whereas continuous movements do not have such discriminable end points. In the past decade there has been vigorous debate whether this classification implies different control processes. This debate up until the present has been empirically based. Here, we present an unambiguous non-empirical classification based on theorems in dynamical system theory that sets discrete and continuous movements apart. Through computational simulations of representative modes of each class and topological analysis of the flow in state space, we show that distinct control mechanisms underwrite discrete and fast rhythmic movements. In particular, we demonstrate that discrete movements require a time keeper while fast rhythmic movements do not. We validate our computational findings experimentally using a behavioral paradigm in which human participants performed finger flexion-extension movements at various movement paces and under different instructions. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system employs different timing control mechanisms (presumably via differential recruitment of neural subsystems to accomplish varying behavioral functions such as speed constraints.

  17. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne L. Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1 to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2 and Rhizophora mangle (S3. Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  18. Differentiating intolerance of uncertainty from three related but distinct constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Ivanova, Elena; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in uncertainty have been associated with heightened anxiety, stress and approach-oriented coping. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trait characteristic that arises from negative beliefs about uncertainty and its consequences. Researchers have established the central role of IU in the development of problematic worry and maladaptive coping, highlighting the importance of this construct to anxiety disorders. However, there is a need to improve our understanding of the phenomenology of IU. The goal of this paper was to present hypotheses regarding the similarities and differences between IU and three related constructs--intolerance of ambiguity, uncertainty orientation, and need for cognitive closure--and to call for future empirical studies to substantiate these hypotheses. To assist with achieving this goal, we conducted a systematic review of the literature, which also served to identify current gaps in knowledge. This paper differentiates these constructs by outlining each definition and general approaches to assessment, reviewing the existing empirical relations, and proposing theoretical similarities and distinctions. Findings may assist researchers in selecting the appropriate construct to address their research questions. Future research directions for the application of these constructs, particularly within the field of clinical and health psychology, are discussed.

  19. Distinctive fingerprints of erosional regimes in terrestrial channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite imagery and digital elevation maps capture the large scale morphology of channel networks attributed to long term erosional processes, such as fluvial, glacial, groundwater sapping and subglacial erosion. Characteristic morphologies associated with each of these styles of erosion have been studied in detail, but there exists a knowledge gap related to their parameterization and quantification. This knowledge gap prevents a rigorous analysis of the dominant processes that shaped a particular landscape, and a comparison across styles of erosion. To address this gap, we use previous morphological descriptions of glaciers, rivers, sapping valleys and tunnel valleys to identify and measure quantitative metrics diagnostic of these distinctive styles of erosion. From digital elevation models, we identify four geometric metrics: The minimum channel width, channel aspect ratio (longest length to channel width at the outlet), presence of undulating longitudinal profiles, and tributary junction angle. We also parameterize channel network complexity in terms of its stream order and fractal dimension. We then perform a statistical classification of the channel networks using a Principal Component Analysis on measurements of these six metrics on a dataset of 70 channelized systems. We show that rivers, glaciers, groundwater seepage and subglacial meltwater erode the landscape in rigorously distinguishable ways. Our methodology can more generally be applied to identify the contributions of different processes involved in carving a channel network. In particular, we are able to identify transitions from fluvial to glaciated landscapes or vice-versa.

  20. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Johnson, Warren E; Nash, Willliam G; Stanyon, Roscoe; Menninger, Joan C; Driscoll, Carlos A; Howard, JoGayle; Bush, Mitch; Page, John E; Roelke, Melody E; Stone, Gary; Martelli, Paolo P; Wen, Ci; Ling, Lin; Duraisingam, Ratna K; Lam, Phan V; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2006-12-05

    Among the 37 living species of Felidae, the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is generally classified as a monotypic genus basal to the Panthera lineage of great cats. This secretive, mid-sized (16-23 kg) carnivore, now severely endangered, is traditionally subdivided into four southeast Asian subspecies (Figure 1A). We used molecular genetic methods to re-evaluate subspecies partitions and to quantify patterns of population genetic variation among 109 clouded leopards of known geographic origin (Figure 1A, Tables S1 ans S2 in the Supplemental Data available online). We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci. Thirty-six fixed mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide differences and 20 microsatellite loci with nonoverlapping allele-size ranges distinguished N. n. nebulosa from N. n. diardi. Along with fixed subspecies-specific chromosomal differences, this degree of differentiation is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among five recognized Panthera species (lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, and snow leopard). These distinctions increase the urgency of clouded leopard conservation efforts, and if affirmed by morphological analysis and wider sampling of N. n. diardi in Borneo and Sumatra, would support reclassification of N. n. diardi as a new species (Neofelis diardi).

  1. Distinct neutrophil subpopulations phenotype by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentiou, Myrofora; Psarra, Katerina; Kapsimali, Violetta; Liapis, Konstantinos; Michael, Michalis; Tsionos, Konstantinos; Lianidou, Evi; Papasteriades, Chryssa

    2009-03-01

    The cardinal feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is dysplasia involving one or more myeloid cell lineages. In the present study, we used 4-color flow cytometric analysis to investigate dysgranulopoiesis in bone marrow specimens from 65 patients with MDS. The antigen expression patterns of total neutrophil granulocytes (TNG) and of the two distinct neutrophil granulocytic subpopulations (NGSs), NGS-1 (dimmer CD45 expression) and NGS-2 (stronger CD45 expression) identified on the side scatter (SS) vs. CD45-intensity plot, were studied. The neutrophil granulocytes from patients with MDS showed characteristic antigen expression aberrancies which were more pronounced in NGS-2 subpopulation. Studying separately the NGS-2 subpopulation with the CD16/MPO/LF combination, the low CD16(+)/MPO(+) and low CD16(+)/LF(+) percentages seemed to discriminate between lower-risk and higher-risk patients with MDS in most occasions. Furthermore, a detailed assessment of the NGS-1 and NGS-2 immunophenotypic patterns revealed early dysplastic changes, not otherwise observed by standard TNG analysis, especially in cases of lower-risk MDS.

  2. Topic Modeling Reveals Distinct Interests within an Online Conspiracy Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories play a troubling role in political discourse. Online forums provide a valuable window into everyday conspiracy theorizing, and can give a clue to the motivations and interests of those who post in such forums. Yet this online activity can be difficult to quantify and study. We describe a unique approach to studying online conspiracy theorists which used non-negative matrix factorization to create a topic model of authors' contributions to the main conspiracy forum on Reddit.com. This subreddit provides a large corpus of comments which spans many years and numerous authors. We show that within the forum, there are multiple sub-populations distinguishable by their loadings on different topics in the model. Further, we argue, these differences are interpretable as differences in background beliefs and motivations. The diversity of the distinct subgroups places constraints on theories of what generates conspiracy theorizing. We argue that traditional “monological” believers are only the tip of an iceberg of commenters. Neither simple irrationality nor common preoccupations can account for the observed diversity. Instead, we suggest, those who endorse conspiracies seem to be primarily brought together by epistemological concerns, and that these central concerns link an otherwise heterogenous group of individuals.

  3. Minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jennifer K; Campbell, Louise; Rooney, Deirdre; Clipson, Nicholas; Gleeson, Deirdre B

    2009-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different minerals in soil select distinct bacterial communities in their microhabitats. Mica (M), basalt (B) and rock phosphate (RP) were incubated separately in soil planted with Trifolium subterraneum, Lolium rigidum or left unplanted. After 70 days, the mineral and soil fractions were separated by sieving. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was used to determine whether the bacterial community structure was affected by the mineral, fraction and plant treatments. Principal coordinate plots showed clustering of bacterial communities from different fraction and mineral treatments, but not from different plant treatments. Permutational multivariate anova (permanova) showed that the microhabitats of M, B and RP selected bacterial communities different from each other in unplanted and L. rigidum, and in T. subterraneum, bacterial communities from M and B differed (Ppermanova also showed that each mineral fraction selected bacterial communities different from the surrounding soil fraction (P<0.05). This study shows that the structure of bacterial communities in soil is influenced by the mineral substrates in their microhabitat and that minerals in soil play a greater role in bacterial ecology than simply providing an inert matrix for bacterial growth. This study suggests that mineral heterogeneity in soil contributes to the spatial variation in bacterial communities.

  4. Freedom of conscience in health care: distinctions and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    The widespread emergence of innumerable technologies within health care has complicated the choices facing caregivers and their patients. The escalation of knowledge and technical innovation has been accompanied by an erosion of moral and ethical consensus among health providers that is reflected in the abandonment of the Hippocratic Oath as the immutable bedrock of medical ethics. Ethical conflicts arise when the values of health professionals collide with the expressed wishes of patients or the dictates of regulatory bodies and administrators. Increasing attempts by groups outside of the medical profession to limit freedom of conscience for health providers has raised concern and consternation among some health professionals. The personal and professional impact of health professionals surrendering freedom of conscience and participating in actions they deem malevolent or unethical has not been adequately studied and may not be inconsequential when considering the recognized impact of other circumstances of coerced complicity. We argue that the distinction between the two ways that freedom of conscience is exercised (avoiding a perceived evil and seeking a perceived good) provides a rational basis for a principled limitation of this fundamental freedom.

  5. Perceptual learning shapes multisensory causal inference via two distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, David P; Roudaia, Eugenie; Newell, Fiona N; Roach, Neil W

    2016-04-19

    To accurately represent the environment, our brains must integrate sensory signals from a common source while segregating those from independent sources. A reasonable strategy for performing this task is to restrict integration to cues that coincide in space and time. However, because multisensory signals are subject to differential transmission and processing delays, the brain must retain a degree of tolerance for temporal discrepancies. Recent research suggests that the width of this 'temporal binding window' can be reduced through perceptual learning, however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent effects. Here, in separate experiments, we measure the temporal and spatial binding windows of human participants before and after training on an audiovisual temporal discrimination task. We show that training leads to two distinct effects on multisensory integration in the form of (i) a specific narrowing of the temporal binding window that does not transfer to spatial binding and (ii) a general reduction in the magnitude of crossmodal interactions across all spatiotemporal disparities. These effects arise naturally from a Bayesian model of causal inference in which learning improves the precision of audiovisual timing estimation, whilst concomitantly decreasing the prior expectation that stimuli emanate from a common source.

  6. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Lidianne L.; Colares, Geórgia B.; Nogueira, Vanessa L. R.; Paes, Fernanda A.; Melo, Vânia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1) to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2) and Rhizophora mangle (S3). Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole. PMID:26989418

  7. Specialization of the Rostral Prefrontal Cortex for Distinct Analogy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Benoit, Roland G.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is central to learning and abstract thinking. It involves using a more familiar situation (source) to make inferences about a less familiar situation (target). According to the predominant cognitive models, analogical reasoning includes 1) generation of structured mental representations and 2) mapping based on structural similarities between them. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to specify the role of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in these distinct processes. An experimental paradigm was designed that enabled differentiation between these processes, by temporal separation of the presentation of the source and the target. Within rostral PFC, a lateral subregion was activated by analogy task both during study of the source (before the source could be compared with a target) and when the target appeared. This may suggest that this subregion supports fundamental analogy processes such as generating structured representations of stimuli but is not specific to one particular processing stage. By contrast, a dorsomedial subregion of rostral PFC showed an interaction between task (analogy vs. control) and period (more activated when the target appeared). We propose that this region is involved in comparison or mapping processes. These results add to the growing evidence for functional differentiation between rostral PFC subregions. PMID:20156841

  8. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy water: a distinctive and essential component of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; van Alstyne, H.M.

    1994-06-01

    The exceptional properties of heavy water as a neutron moderator provide one of the distinctive features of CANDU reactors. Although most of the chemical and physical properties of deuterium and protium (mass 1 hydrogen) are appreciably different, the low terrestrial abundance of deuterium makes the separation of heavy water a relatively costly process, and so of considerable importance to the CANDU system. World heavy-water supplies are currently provided by the Girdler-Sulphide process or processes based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange. Due to cost and hazard considerations, new processes will be required for the production of heavy water in and beyond the next decade. Through AECL's development and refinement of wetproofed catalysts for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between water and hydrogen, a family of new processes is expected to be deployed. Two monothermal processes, CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange, using water-to-hydrogen conversion by electrolysis) and CIRCE (Combined Industrially Reformed hydrogen and Catalytic Exchange, based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons), are furthest advanced. Besides its use for heavy-water production, the CECE process is a highly effective technology for heavy-water upgrading and for tritium separation from heavy (or light) water. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  10. Excitations Partition into Two Distinct Populations in Bulk Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lili [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Brawand, Nicholas P. [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Vörös, Márton [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Dahlberg, Peter D. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Otto, John P. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Williams, Nicholas E. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Tiede, David M. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Galli, Giulia [The Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago IL 60637 USA

    2018-01-09

    Organolead halide perovskites convert optical excitations to charge carriers with remarkable efficiency in optoelectronic devices. Previous research predominantly documents dynamics in perovskite thin films; however, extensive disorder in this platform may obscure the observed carrier dynamics. Here, carrier dynamics in perovskite single-domain single crystals is examined by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a transmissive geometry. Two distinct sets of carrier populations that coexist at the same radiation fluence, but display different decay dynamics, are observed: one dominated by second-order recombination and the other by third-order recombination. Based on ab initio simulations, this observation is found to be most consistent with the hypothesis that free carriers and localized carriers coexist due to polaron formation. The calculations suggest that polarons will form in both CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystals, but that they are more pronounced in CH3NH3PbBr3. Single-crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 could represent the key to understanding the impact of polarons on the transport properties of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

  11. Tributyltin Differentially Promotes Development of a Phenotypically Distinct Adipocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Shane M.; El-Hashani, Essam; Kamau, Wakanene; Zhang, Xiaojie; Massad, Nicole L.; Sargis, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Evidence implicates various EDCs as being pro-adipogenic, including tributyltin (TBT), which activates the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the conditions required for TBT-induced adipogenesis and its functional consequences are incompletely known. Methods The co-stimulatory conditions necessary for preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation were compared between TBT and the pharmacological PPARγ agonist troglitazone (Trog) in the 3T3-L1 cell line; basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were assessed using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. Results TBT enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker C/EBPα with co-exposure to either isobutylmethylxanthine or insulin in the absence of other adipogenic stimuli. Examination of several adipocyte-specific proteins revealed that TBT and Trog differentially affected protein expression despite comparable PPARγ stimulation. In particular, TBT reduced adiponectin expression upon maximal adipogenic stimulation. Under submaximal stimulation, TBT and Trog differentially promoted adipocyte-specific gene expression despite similar lipid accumulation. Moreover, TBT attenuated Trog-induced adipocyte gene expression under conditions of co-treatment. Finally, TBT-induced adipocytes exhibited altered glucose metabolism, with increased basal glucose uptake. Conclusions TBT-induced adipocytes are functionally distinct from those generated by a pharmacological PPARγ agonist, suggesting that obesogen-induced adipogenesis may generate dysfunctional adipocytes with the capacity to deleteriously affect global energy homeostasis. PMID:26243053

  12. Tributyltin differentially promotes development of a phenotypically distinct adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Shane M; El-Hashani, Essam; Kamau, Wakanene; Zhang, Xiaojie; Massad, Nicole L; Sargis, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Evidence implicates various EDCs as being proadipogenic, including tributyltin (TBT), which activates the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). However, the conditions required for TBT-induced adipogenesis and its functional consequences are incompletely known. The costimulatory conditions necessary for preadipocyte-to-adipocyte differentiation were compared between TBT and the pharmacological PPARγ agonist troglitazone (Trog) in the 3T3-L1 cell line; basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were assessed using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose. TBT enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker C/EBPα with coexposure to either isobutylmethylxanthine or insulin in the absence of other adipogenic stimuli. Examination of several adipocyte-specific proteins revealed that TBT and Trog differentially affected protein expression despite comparable PPARγ stimulation. In particular, TBT reduced adiponectin expression upon maximal adipogenic stimulation. Under submaximal stimulation, TBT and Trog differentially promoted adipocyte-specific gene expression despite similar lipid accumulation. Moreover, TBT attenuated Trog-induced adipocyte gene expression under conditions of cotreatment. Finally, TBT-induced adipocytes exhibited altered glucose metabolism, with increased basal glucose uptake. TBT-induced adipocytes are functionally distinct from those generated by a pharmacological PPARγ agonist, suggesting that obesogen-induced adipogenesis may generate dysfunctional adipocytes with the capacity to deleteriously affect global energy homeostasis. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Finzi, Rebecca Dawn; Drew, Daniel; Husain, Masud

    2017-07-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency-the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined. Eye movements were faster when the cue indicated that monetary rewards would be contingent on performance than when the cue indicated that rewards would be random. But even when the cue indicated that a reward was guaranteed regardless of speed, movement was still faster than when no reward was available. Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Contingent motivation generated autonomic arousal, and unlike noncontingent motivation, was effective with penalties as well as rewards.

  14. Constructing Taxonomies to Identify Distinctive Forms of Primary Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Quebec that included urban, suburban, and rural areas. An organizational survey was conducted in 473 PHC practices. We used multidimensional nonparametric statistical methods, namely, multiple correspondence and principal component analyses, and an ascending hierarchical classification method to construct a taxonomy of organizations. Results. PHC organizations were classified into five distinct models: four professional and one community. Study findings indicate that the professional integrated coordination and the community model have great potential for organizational development since they are closest to the ideal type promoted by current reforms. Conclusion. Results showed that the configurational approach is useful to assess complex phenomena such as the organization of PHC. The analysis highlights the most promising organizational models. Our study enhances our understanding of organizational change in health services organizations. PMID:24959575

  15. Forged Signature Distinction Using Convolutional Neural Network for Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungsoo Nam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic verification scheme for finger-drawn signatures in smartphones. As a dynamic feature, the movement of a smartphone is recorded with accelerometer sensors in the smartphone, in addition to the moving coordinates of the signature. To extract high-level longitudinal and topological features, the proposed scheme uses a convolution neural network (CNN for feature extraction, and not as a conventional classifier. We assume that a CNN trained with forged signatures can extract effective features (called S-vector, which are common in forging activities such as hesitation and delay before drawing the complicated part. The proposed scheme also exploits an autoencoder (AE as a classifier, and the S-vector is used as the input vector to the AE. An AE has high accuracy for the one-class distinction problem such as signature verification, and is also greatly dependent on the accuracy of input data. S-vector is valuable as the input of AE, and, consequently, could lead to improved verification accuracy especially for distinguishing forged signatures. Compared to the previous work, i.e., the MLP-based finger-drawn signature verification scheme, the proposed scheme decreases the equal error rate by 13.7%, specifically, from 18.1% to 4.4%, for discriminating forged signatures.

  16. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  17. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  18. Virus Infection Triggers MAVS Polymers of Distinct Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zamorano Cuervo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS adaptor protein is a central signaling hub required for cells to mount an antiviral response following virus sensing by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors. MAVS localizes in the membrane of mitochondria and peroxisomes and in mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Structural and functional studies have revealed that MAVS activity relies on the formation of functional high molecular weight prion-like aggregates. The formation of protein aggregates typically relies on a dynamic transition between oligomerization and aggregation states. The existence of intermediate state(s of MAVS polymers, other than aggregates, has not yet been documented. Here, we used a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE and semi-denaturing detergent agarose gel electrophoresis (SDD-AGE to resolve whole cell extract preparations to distinguish MAVS polymerization states. While SDD-AGE analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the formation of previously described high molecular weight prion-like aggregates upon constitutively active RIG-I ectopic expression and virus infection, non-reducing SDS-PAGE allowed us to demonstrate the induction of lower molecular weight oligomers. Cleavage of MAVS using the NS3/4A protease revealed that anchoring to intracellular membranes is required for the appropriate polymerization into active high molecular weight aggregates. Altogether, our data suggest that RIG-I-dependent MAVS activation involves the coexistence of MAVS polymers with distinct molecular weights.

  19. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Abate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%, in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL, we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF. We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  20. Distinct Grammars and their Role in Interlanguage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida de Araújo Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression of temporality encompasses the concepts of tense and aspect, typically conveyed by lexical and inflectional morphemes that usually vary from language to language. This kind of cross-linguistic distinctions often affects L2 learning. In this paper I discuss the role of the Portuguese grammar in the acquisition of the English present perfect tense by eighteen Brazilian EFL learners. I compared patterns found in interlanguage data to L2 patterns, and, as expected, L1 phonology affected learners’ production of regular past tenses, especially in early interlanguage. As for form-function mappings, besides L2 patterns, learners created two major meaning categories of current relevance, based on persisting / non-persisting situations, which were systematically conveyed by forms that resembled their L1 grammar. Durative events and states (imperfective situations persisting into the present were expressed by present tenses, while all aspectual categories of concluded (perfective situations were encoded by past tenses. Specific adverbials were used in each category

  1. Forgetting in immediate serial recall: decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Three hypotheses of forgetting from immediate memory were tested: time-based decay, decreasing temporal distinctiveness, and interference. The hypotheses were represented by 3 models of serial recall: the primacy model, the SIMPLE (scale-independent memory, perception, and learning) model, and the SOB (serial order in a box) model, respectively. The models were fit to 2 experiments investigating the effect of filled delays between items at encoding or at recall. Short delays between items, filled with articulatory suppression, led to massive impairment of memory relative to a no-delay baseline. Extending the delays had little additional effect, suggesting that the passage of time alone does not cause forgetting. Adding a choice reaction task in the delay periods to block attention-based rehearsal did not change these results. The interference-based SOB fit the data best; the primacy model overpredicted the effect of lengthening delays, and SIMPLE was unable to explain the effect of delays at encoding. The authors conclude that purely temporal views of forgetting are inadequate. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Soft and hard pomerons: Is there a distinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    One of the big unsolved problems of QCD remains the problem of the Pomeron: what is the relation of high energy elastic and diffractive phenomena to the underlying theory? This is not a subject in which I have actively worked. But my interest in it has in this year increased greatly. The reason has to do with ideas for experimentation at SSC/LHC which either directly address the problem or which require the understanding of strong-interaction diffractive phenomena as backgrounds for discovery-physics processes involving electroweak boson exchanges. I will in this talk omit these motivations, which can be found elsewhere, and instead concentrate on some personal veiwpoints regarding the Pomeron which may or may not be conventional. The main question has to do with the distinction between the original, old-fashioned ''soft'' Pomeron of the 1960s, built out of multiperipheral hadron-exchanges, and the more modern perturbative-QCD ''hard'' Pomeron, built out of multiperipheral gluon exchanges. The perspective I offer comes mainly from two sources: one is heavy-flavor physics, and the other is the Manohar-Georgi view of constituent quark physics. 27 refs., 5 figs

  3. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  4. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  5. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and related complications are associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. The line of demarcation between the pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and differing responses to therapeutic interventions is blurred. Diabetes induces changes in the microvasculature, causing extracellular matrix protein synthesis, and capillary basement membrane thickening which are the pathognomic features of diabetic microangiopathy. These changes in conjunction with advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, and neovascularization of vasa vasorum can lead to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycemia is the principal cause of microvasculopathy but also appears to play an important role in causation of macrovasculopathy. There is thought to be an intersection between micro and macro vascular complications, but the two disorders seem to be strongly interconnected, with micro vascular diseases promoting atherosclerosis through processes such as hypoxia and changes in vasa vasorum. It is thus imperative to understand whether microvascular complications distinctly precede macrovascular complications or do both of them progress simultaneously as a continuum. This will allow re-focusing on the clinical issues with a unifying perspective which can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes.

  7. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  8. Distinct frontal regions for processing sentence syntax and story grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigu, A; Cohen, L; Zalla, T; Pradat-Diehl, P; Van Eeckhout, P; Grafman, J; Agid, Y

    1998-12-01

    Time is a fundamental dimension of cognition. It is expressed in the sequential ordering of individual elements in a wide variety of activities such as language, motor control or in the broader domain of long range goal-directed actions. Several studies have shown the importance of the frontal lobes in sequencing information. The question addressed in this study is whether this brain region hosts a single supramodal sequence processor, or whether separate mechanisms are required for different kinds of temporally organised knowledge structures such as syntax and action knowledge. Here we show that so-called agrammatic patients, with lesions in Broca's area, ordered word groups correctly to form a logical sequence of actions but they were severely impaired when similar word groups had to be ordered as a syntactically well-formed sentence. The opposite performance was observed in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions, that is, while their syntactic processing was intact at the sentence level, they demonstrated a pronounced deficit in producing temporally coherent sequences of actions. Anatomical reconstruction of lesions from brain scans revealed that the sentence and action grammar deficits involved distinct, non-overlapping sites within the frontal lobes. Finally, in a third group of patients whose lesions encompassed both Broca's area and the prefrontal cortex, the two types of deficits were found. We conclude that sequence processing is specific to knowledge domains and involves different networks within the frontal lobes.

  9. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca2+ channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  10. Distinct phenotype of PHF6 deletions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, N; Isidor, B; Lopez Cazaux, S; Le Caignec, C; Klink, B; Kraus, C; Schrock, E; Hackmann, K

    2014-02-01

    We report on two female patients carrying small overlapping Xq26.2 deletions of 100 kb and 270 kb involving the PHF6 gene. Mutations in PHF6 have been reported in individuals with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, a condition present almost exclusively in males. Two very recent papers revealed de novo PHF6 defects in seven female patients with intellectual disability and a phenotype resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome (sparse hair, bitemporal narrowing, arched eyebrows, synophrys, high nasal root, bulbous nasal tip, marked clinodactyly with the hypoplastic terminal phalanges of the fifth fingers and cutaneous syndactyly of the toes, Blaschkoid linear skin hyperpigmentation, dental anomalies and occasional major malformations). The clinical presentation of these patients overlaps completely with our first patient, who carries a germline deletion involving PHF6. The second patient has a mosaic deletion and presented with a very mild phenotype of PHF6 loss in females. Our report confirms that PHF6 loss in females results in a recognizable phenotype overlapping with Coffin-Siris syndrome and distinct from Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome. We expand the clinical spectrum and provide the first summary of the recommended medical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  12. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  13. The evolution of compositionally and functionally distinct actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Whitaker, Shane; Popp, David; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    The actin filament is astonishingly well conserved across a diverse set of eukaryotic species. It has essentially remained unchanged in the billion years that separate yeast, Arabidopsis and man. In contrast, bacterial actin-like proteins have diverged to the extreme, and many of them are not readily identified from sequence-based homology searches. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses that point to an evolutionary drive to diversify actin filament composition across kingdoms. Bacteria use a one-filament-one-function system to create distinct filament systems within a single cell. In contrast, eukaryotic actin is a universal force provider in a wide range of processes. In plants, there has been an expansion of the number of closely related actin genes, whereas in fungi and metazoa diversification in tropomyosins has increased the compositional variety in actin filament systems. Both mechanisms dictate the subset of actin-binding proteins that interact with each filament type, leading to specialization in function. In this Hypothesis, we thus propose that different mechanisms were selected in bacteria, plants and metazoa, which achieved actin filament compositional variation leading to the expansion of their functional diversity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  15. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Francesco; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mundo, Lucia; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Fuligni, Fabio; Rossi, Maura; Zairis, Sakellarios; Gazaneo, Sara; De Falco, Giulia; Lazzi, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Amato, Teresa; Marasco, Elena; Etebari, Maryam; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Ndede, Isaac; Patel, Kirtika; Chumba, David; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-10-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%), in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL), we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF). We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  16. Bacterial protease uses distinct thermodynamic signatures for substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Cornaciu, Irina; Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Round, Adam; Márquez, José A; Nemoto, Takayuki K; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-06-06

    Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis are important bacteria related to periodontitis, the most common chronic inflammatory disease in humans worldwide. Its comorbidity with systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, oral cancers and cardiovascular diseases, continues to generate considerable interest. Surprisingly, these two microorganisms do not ferment carbohydrates; rather they use proteinaceous substrates as carbon and energy sources. However, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of their energy metabolism remain unknown. Here, we show that dipeptidyl peptidase 11 (DPP11), a central metabolic enzyme in these bacteria, undergoes a conformational change upon peptide binding to distinguish substrates from end products. It binds substrates through an entropy-driven process and end products in an enthalpy-driven fashion. We show that increase in protein conformational entropy is the main-driving force for substrate binding via the unfolding of specific regions of the enzyme ("entropy reservoirs"). The relationship between our structural and thermodynamics data yields a distinct model for protein-protein interactions where protein conformational entropy modulates the binding free-energy. Further, our findings provide a framework for the structure-based design of specific DPP11 inhibitors.

  17. Segmental stiff skin syndrome (SSS): A distinct clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathryn L; Mir, Adnan; Schaffer, Julie V; Meehan, Shane A; Orlow, Seth J; Brinster, Nooshin K

    2016-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome (SSS) is a noninflammatory, fibrosing condition of the skin, often affecting the limb girdles. We present 4 new patients with SSS with largely unilateral, segmental distribution. To date, reported cases of SSS have been grouped based on generally accepted clinical and histopathologic findings. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and histopathologic findings between previously reported SSS cases. This is a retrospective review of 4 new cases and 48 previously published cases of SSS obtained from PubMed search. Of 52 total cases, 18 (35%) were segmentally distributed and 34 (65%) were widespread. The average age of onset was 4.1 years versus 1.6 years for segmental versus widespread SSS, respectively. Limitation in joint mobility affected 44% of patients with segmental SSS and 97% of patients with widespread SSS. Histopathologic findings were common between the 2 groups. This was a retrospective study of previously published cases limited by the completeness and accuracy of the reviewed cases. We propose a distinct clinical entity, segmental SSS, characterized by a segmental distribution, later age of onset, and less severe functional limitation. Both segmental SSS and widespread SSS share common diagnostic histopathologic features. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.

  19. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT......-term weight maintenance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00390637. ©American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved....

  20. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  1. Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: distinct temperament and interpersonal typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-03-01

    Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA

  2. Distinct metal-exchange pathways of doped Ag25 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-09-09

    Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) containing more than one type of metal atom (i.e., doped or alloyed), due to synergistic effects, open new avenues for engineering the catalytic and optical properties of NCs in a manner that homometal NCs cannot. Unfortunately, it is still a major challenge to controllably introduce multimetallic dopants in NCs, understanding the dopants\\' positions, mechanism, and synergistic effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a metal-exchange approach involving NCs as molecular templates and metal ions as the source of the incoming dopant. In particular, two structurally similar monodoped silver-rich NCs, [MAg24(SR)(18)](2-) (M = Pd/Pt and SR: thiolate), were synthesized as templates to study their mechanistic transformation in response to the introduction of gold atoms. The controllable incorporation of Au atoms into the MAg24 framework facilitated the elucidation of distinct doping pathways through high-resolution mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Interestingly, gold replaced the central Pd atom of [PdAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters to produce predominantly bimetallic [AuAg24(SR)(18)](-) clusters along with a minor product of an [Au2Ag23(SR)(18)](-) cluster. In contrast, the central Pt atom remained intact in [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters, and gold replaced the noncentral Ag atoms to form trimetallic [AuxPtAg24-x(SR)(18)](2-) NCs, where x = 1-2, with a portion of the starting [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) NCs remaining. This study reveals some of the unusual metal-exchange pathways of doped NCs and the important role played by the initial metal dopant in directing the position of a second dopant in the final product.

  3. Women with preterm birth have a distinct cervicovaginal metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartey, Jeny; Bastek, Jamie A; Brown, Amy G; Anglim, Laura; Elovitz, Michal A

    2015-06-01

    Metabolomics has the potential to reveal novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the cervicovaginal (CV) metabolome was different in asymptomatic women destined to have a PTB compared with term birth. A nested case-control study was performed using CV fluid collected from a larger prospective cohort. The CV fluid was collected between 20-24 weeks (V1) and 24-28 weeks (V2). The metabolome was compared between women with a spontaneous PTB (n = 10) to women who delivered at term (n = 10). Samples were extracted and prepared for analysis using a standard extraction solvent method. Global biochemical profiles were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. An ANOVA was used to detect differences in biochemical compounds between the groups. A false discovery rate was estimated to account for multiple comparisons. A total of 313 biochemicals were identified in CV fluid. Eighty-two biochemicals were different in the CV fluid at V1 in those destined to have a PTB compared with term birth, whereas 48 were different at V2. Amino acid, carbohydrate, and peptide metabolites were distinct between women with and without PTB. These data suggest that the CV space is metabolically active during pregnancy. Changes in the CV metabolome may be observed weeks, if not months, prior to any clinical symptoms. Understanding the CV metabolome may hold promise for unraveling the pathogenesis of PTB and may provide novel biomarkers to identify women most at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RASopathies are associated with a distinct personality profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizaoui, Varoona; Gage, Jessica; Brar, Rita; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

    2018-06-01

    Personality is a complex, yet partially heritable, trait. Although some Mendelian diseases like Williams-Beuren syndrome are associated with a particular personality profile, studies have failed to assign the personality features to a single gene or pathway. As a family of monogenic disorders caused by mutations in the Ras/MAPK pathway known to influence social behavior, RASopathies are likely to provide insight into the genetic basis of personality. Eighty subjects diagnosed with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and Noonan syndrome were assessed using a parent-report BFQ-C (Big Five Questionnaire for Children) evaluating agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, intellect/openness, and neuroticism, along with 55 unaffected sibling controls. A short questionnaire was added to assess sense of humor. RASopathy subjects and sibling controls were compared for individual components of personality, multidimensional personality profiles, and individual questions using Student tests, analysis of variance, and principal component analysis. RASopathy subjects were given lower scores on average compared to sibling controls in agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and sense of humor, and similar scores in neuroticism. When comparing the multidimensional personality profile between groups, RASopathies showed a distinct profile from unaffected siblings, but no difference in this global profile was found within RASopathies, revealing a common profile for the Ras/MAPK-related disorders. In addition, several syndrome-specific strengths or weaknesses were observed in individual domains. We describe for the first time an association between a single pathway and a specific personality profile, providing a better understanding of the genetics underlying personality, and new tools for tailoring educational and behavioral approaches for individuals with RASopathies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Czaja, Albert-J; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Maccariello, Silvana; Cassani, Fabio; Granito, Alessandro; Ferrari, Rodolfo; Mantovani, Vilma; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco-B

    2005-03-28

    Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3, DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2 phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57 with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls. B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs 48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs 43%, P = 0.01) and in controls (16% vs 34%, P = 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2 Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs 35%, P = 0.01). HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for AIH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  6. Towards a Logical Distinction Between Swarms and Aftershock Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, M.; Burris, L.; McNutt, S.

    2007-12-01

    The distinction between swarms and aftershock sequences has, up to this point, been fairly arbitrary and non- uniform. Typically 0.5 to 1 order of magnitude difference between the mainshock and largest aftershock has been a traditional choice, but there are many exceptions. Seismologists have generally assumed that the mainshock carries most of the energy, but this is only true if it is sufficiently large compared to the size and numbers of aftershocks. Here we present a systematic division based on energy of the aftershock sequence compared to the energy of the largest event of the sequence. It is possible to calculate the amount of aftershock energy assumed to be in the sequence using the b-value of the frequency-magnitude relation with a fixed choice of magnitude separation (M-mainshock minus M-largest aftershock). Assuming that the energy of an aftershock sequence is less than the energy of the mainshock, the b-value at which the aftershock energy exceeds that of the mainshock energy determines the boundary between aftershock sequences and swarms. The amount of energy for various choices of b-value is also calculated using different values of magnitude separation. When the minimum b-value at which the sequence energy exceeds that of the largest event/mainshock is plotted against the magnitude separation, a linear trend emerges. Values plotting above this line represent swarms and values plotting below it represent aftershock sequences. This scheme has the advantage that it represents a physical quantity - energy - rather than only statistical features of earthquake distributions. As such it may be useful to help distinguish swarms from mainshock/aftershock sequences and to better determine the underlying causes of earthquake swarms.

  7. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  8. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  9. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon S Shange

    Full Text Available Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of

  11. Psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits: modest association but distinct genetic architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Ried, Janina S.; Rodriguez, Elke; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Volks, Natalie; Gieger, Christian; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Heinrich, Luise; Willenborg, Christina; Smith, Catherine; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Jansen, Henning; Kronenberg, Florian; Seissler, Jochen; Thiery, Joachim; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Barker, Jonathan; Nair, Rajan P; Tsoi, Lam C; Elder, James T; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Weichenthal, Michael; Mucha, Sören; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Schmitt, Jochen; Lieb, Wolfgang; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. We investigated the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic outcomes in a German cross-sectional study (n=4.185) and a prospective cohort of German Health Insurance beneficiaries (n=1.811.098). A potential genetic overlap was explored using genome-wide data from >22.000 coronary artery disease (CAD) and >4.000 psoriasis cases, and with a dense genotyping study of cardiometabolic risk loci on 927 psoriasis cases and 3.717 controls. Controlling for major confounders, in the cross-sectional analysis psoriasis was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, adjusted odd’s ratio OR=2.36; 95% confidence interval CI=1.26–4.41) and myocardial infarction (MI, OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.03–4.96). In the longitudinal study, psoriasis slightly increased the risk for incident T2D (adjusted relative risk RR=1.11; 95%CI=1.08–1.14) and MI (RR=1.14; 95%CI=1.06–1.22), with highest risk increments in systemically treated psoriasis, which accounted for 11 and 17 excess cases of T2D and MI per 10,000 person-years. Except for weak signals from within the MHC, there was no evidence for genetic risk loci shared between psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits. Our findings suggest that psoriasis, in particular severe psoriasis, increases risk for T2D and MI, and that the genetic architecture of psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits is largely distinct. PMID:25599394

  12. Distinct modes of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, L da Rocha; Troleis, J; Mastroberti, A A; Mariath, J E A; Fett-Neto, A G

    2012-01-01

    The literature describes different rooting protocols for Arabidopsis thaliana as models to study adventitious rooting, and results are generally perceived as comparable. However, there is a lack of investigations focusing on the distinct features, advantages and limitations of each method in the study of adventitious rooting with both wild-type (WT) ecotypes and their respective mutants. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the adventitious rooting process in three different experimental systems, all using A. thaliana, analysing the same rooting parameters after transient exposure to auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and control conditions: excised leaves, de-rooted plants and etiolated seedlings. The founding tissues and sites of origin of roots differed depending on the system used, whereas all rooting patterns were of the direct type (i.e., without callus formation). None of the systems had an absolute requirement for exogenous auxin, although rooting was enhanced by this phytohormone, with the exception of de-rooted plants, which had adventitious rooting strongly inhibited by exogenous auxin. Root elongation was much favoured in isolated leaves. Auxin-overproducing mutants could not be used in the detached leaf system due to precocious senescence; in the de-rooted plant system, these mutants had a WT-like rooting response, whereas the expression of the 'rooty' phenotype was only evident in the etiolated seedling system. Adventitious rooting of etiolated WT seedlings in the presence of exogenous auxin was inhibited by exogenous flavonoids, which act as auxin transport inhibitors; surprisingly, the flavonoid-deficient mutant chs had a lower rooting response compared to WT. Although Arabidopsis is an excellent model system to study adventitious rooting, physiological and developmental responses differed significantly, underlining the importance of avoiding data generalisation on rooting responses derived from different experimental systems with this species.

  13. Using choice architecture to exploit a university Distinct Urban Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Xavier; Williams, Ian D; Shaw, Peter J; Cleaver, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy. This study aimed to evaluate small household appliances (SHA) DUM from a UK university, with the objectives to identify and quantify student households' SHA ownership, WEEE recycling, stockpiling and discarding habits amongst student households, assess and evaluate the monetary potential of SHA DUM at UK level, and propose methods to exploit DUM for universities in the UK. To this purpose, a quantitative survey was undertaken to measure students' ownership and discarding behaviour with respect to SHA. The amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were then estimated and converted to monetary values from secondary materials market data to appraise the SHA DUM overall value. Thirty-five per cent of SHA are discarded in the general refuse. Broken personal care appliances (PCA) tend to be discarded due to hygiene and small size factors. When in working order, SHA tend to be equally reused, recycled or stockpiled. We conclude that a total of 189 tonnes of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were available via discarding or being stockpiled at the University of Southampton. Extrapolated to UK higher education level, discarded and stockpiled SHA represent a potential worth ∼USD 11 million. To initiate DUM exploitation within Higher Education campuses, we suggest improving users' choice architecture by providing collection methods specific to broken SHA

  14. Origin of chemically distinct discs in the Auriga cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Bustamante, Sebastián; Gómez, Facundo A.; Kawata, Daisuke; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Rix, Hans-Walter; Simpson, Christine M.; Sparre, Martin; Springel, Volker

    2018-03-01

    The stellar disc of the Milky Way shows complex spatial and abundance structure that is central to understanding the key physical mechanisms responsible for shaping our Galaxy. In this study, we use six very high resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes to study the prevalence and formation of chemically distinct disc components. We find that our simulations develop a clearly bimodal distribution in the [α/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane. We find two main pathways to creating this dichotomy, which operate in different regions of the galaxies: (a) an early (z > 1) and intense high-[α/Fe] star formation phase in the inner region (R ≲ 5 kpc) induced by gas-rich mergers, followed by more quiescent low-[α/Fe] star formation; and (b) an early phase of high-[α/Fe] star formation in the outer disc followed by a shrinking of the gas disc owing to a temporarily lowered gas accretion rate, after which disc growth resumes. In process (b), a double-peaked star formation history around the time and radius of disc shrinking accentuates the dichotomy. If the early star formation phase is prolonged (rather than short and intense), chemical evolution proceeds as per process (a) in the inner region, but the dichotomy is less clear. In the outer region, the dichotomy is only evident if the first intense phase of star formation covers a large enough radial range before disc shrinking occurs; otherwise, the outer disc consists of only low-[α/Fe] sequence stars. We discuss the implication that both processes occurred in the Milky Way.

  15. Is there anything distinctive about epileptic deja vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Zeman, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Déjà vu can occur as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and in some psychiatric conditions but is also common in the general population. It is unclear whether any clinical features distinguish pathological and physiological forms of déjà vu. 50 epileptic patients with ictal déjà vu, 50 non-epileptic patients attending general neurology clinics and 50 medical students at Edinburgh University were recruited. Data were collected on demographic factors, the experience of déjà vu using a questionnaire based on Sno's Inventory for Déjà Vu Experiences Assessment, symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as well as seizure characteristics, anti-epileptic medications, handedness, EEG and neuroimaging findings for epileptic patients. 73.5% of neurology patients, 88% of students and (by definition) all epilepsy patients had experienced déjà vu. The experience of déjà vu itself was similar in the three groups. Epileptic déjà vu occurred more frequently and lasted somewhat longer than physiological déjà vu. Epilepsy patients were more likely to report prior fatigue and concentrated activity, associated derealisation, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, physical symptoms such as headaches, abdominal sensations and fear. After controlling for study group, anxiety and depression scores were not associated with déjà vu frequency. Déjà vu is common and qualitatively similar whether it occurs as an epileptic aura or normal phenomenon. However ictal déjà vu occurs more frequently and is accompanied by several distinctive features. It is distinguished primarily by 'the company it keeps'.

  16. Heterogeneity in Neutrophil Microparticles Reveals Distinct Proteome and Functional Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Norling, Lucy V; Yin, Xiaoke; Hinds, Charles; Haskard, Dorian; Mayr, Manuel; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Altered plasma neutrophil microparticle levels have recently been implicated in a number of vascular and inflammatory diseases, yet our understanding of their actions is very limited. Herein, we investigate the proteome of neutrophil microparticles in order to shed light on their biological actions. Stimulation of human neutrophils, either in suspension or adherent to an endothelial monolayer, led to the production of microparticles containing >400 distinct proteins with only 223 being shared by the two subsets. For instance, postadherent microparticles were enriched in alpha-2 macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, whereas microparticles produced by neutrophils in suspension were abundant in heat shock 70 kDa protein 1. Annexin A1 and lactotransferrin were expressed in both microparticle subsets. We next determined relative abundance of these proteins in three types of human microparticle samples: healthy volunteer plasma, plasma of septic patients and skin blister exudates finding that these proteins were differentially expressed on neutrophil microparticles from these samples reflecting in part the expression profiles we found in vitro. Functional assessment of the neutrophil microparticles subsets demonstrated that in response to direct stimulation neutrophil microparticles produced reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 as well as locomoted toward a chemotactic gradient. Finally, we investigated the actions of the two neutrophil microparticles subsets described herein on target cell responses. Microarray analysis with human primary endothelial cells incubated with either microparticle subset revealed a discrete modulation of endothelial cell gene expression profile. These findings demonstrate that neutrophil microparticles are heterogenous and can deliver packaged information propagating the activation status of the parent cell, potentially exerting novel and fundamental roles both under homeostatic and disease conditions. PMID:23660474

  17. Depression and demoralization as distinct syndromes: Preliminary data from a cohort of advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The term demoralization has been used to describe existential distress and despair of patients with advanced disease. Aim: This study sought to determine whether a cluster of symptoms interpreted as demoralization could be identified and distinguished from a cluster of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods: As part of the Coping with Cancer Study, a federally funded multi-site study of advanced cancer patients, 242 patients were interviewed on a broad range of mental health parameters related to depression, grief, quality of life, self-efficacy, coping and religiousness/spirituality. Results: A principal components analysis revealed separate depression and demoralization/despair factors. Seven symptoms constituted the demoralization/despair factor: loss of control, loss of hope, anger/bitterness, sense of failure, feeling life was a burden, loss of meaning and a belief that life′s meaning is dependent on health and were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach′s a = 0.78. Only 14.8% of subjects with "syndromal demoralization" met DSM-IV criteria for Major Depression (MDD; 7.4% for Minor Depression. Of those with MDD only 28.6% had syndromal level demoralization. Prior history of MDD predicted current MDD, but not syndromal demoralization. Demoralization, not MDD, was significantly associated with the patient′s reported level of inner peacefulness. When compared with MDD, syndromal demoralization was more strongly associated with wish to live and wish to die and equally predictive of mental health service use. Conclusion: The symptoms of demoralization are distinct from depressive symptoms and appear to be associated with the patient′s degree of inner peacefulness.

  18. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, Khaled; Del Campo, Antonio D; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Bellés, José M; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J; López-Nicolás, José M; Mulet, José M

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis . Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  19. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taïbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis. Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  20. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moreno, E.; Nissen, Poul Erik

    2012-01-01

    spectroscopic analyses, but possible systematic errors in Teff and log g are considered and corrected. With space velocities from Paper I as initial conditions, orbital integrations have been carried out using a detailed, observationally constrained Milky Way model including a bar and spiral arms. Results...... populations in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Methods. Ages are derived by comparing the positions of stars in the log Teff–log g diagram with isochrones from the Y2 models interpolated to the exact [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] values of each star. The stellar parameters have been adopted from the preceding...... explains the existence and characteristics of these two metal-rich halo populations, but one remaining defect is that this model is not consistent regarding the rmax’s obtained for the in situ “high-alpha” component; the predicted values are too small. It appears that ω Cen may have contributed...

  1. Genetic selection for coping style predicts stressor susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM

    Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive (LAL) male wild house-mice which show distinctly different coping styles, also display a differential regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after exposure to an acute stressor. To test the hypothesis that coping style predicts

  2. Rethinking the distinction between black and brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, G. A.; Franchin, A.; Lamb, K. D.; Manfred, K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Womack, C.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative properties contribute large uncertainty to modeling of the earth's radiative budget. Black carbon (BC) aerosols originate from combustion processes and substantially contribute to warming and uncertainty - ongoing efforts are focused on reducing their anthropogenic emissions even as their emissions from biomass burning sources, such as wildfire, may increase in the future. Quantifying the radiative effect of BC is challenging, in part due to its association with other light absorbing materials including Brown carbon organic aerosol (BrC) that absorbs primarily blue and ultraviolet light while BC absorbs broadly across the visible. Conventionally BrC is thought of a low volatility spherical particles, distinguishing it from BC, which has a distinctive agglomerate morphology and is refractory at high temperatures. However, the separation of BC and BrC is often operationally defined and dependent on the measurement method. Using measurements of aerosol morphology, mass, absorption, and refractory BC mass content we were able to identify a light absorbing contribution from biomass burning aerosol that does not correspond to either BC or BrC as conventionally defined. Our measurements were collected from realistic biomass burning fires at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory as part of the NOAA FIREX project (2016) and from extensive natural wildfire sampled aloft during NASA SEAC4RS field study (2013). We coin the term Dark Brown Carbon (DBrC) to describe this material, which absorbs broadly across the visible and survives thermal denuding at 250°C but does not incandesce in laser induced incandesce (LII) measurements. DBrC may be an intermediate burning stage product between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mature soot. DBrC deserves further study to quantify its abundance and aging in ambient biomass burning plumes, and its relationship to tar balls. Our findings show that more than half of the light absorption in biomass burning

  3. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  4. Two distinct classes of QTL determine rust resistance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; Mace, Emma; Hunt, Colleen; Cruickshank, Alan; Henzell, Robert; Parkes, Heidi; Jordan, David

    2014-12-31

    rust resistance QTL. The distinction of disease resistance QTL hot-spots, enriched with defence-related gene families from QTL which impact on development and partitioning, provides plant breeders with knowledge which will allow for fast-tracking varieties with both durable pathogen resistance and appropriate adaptive traits.

  5. A distinct epigenetic signature at targets of a leukemia protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Spek Peter

    2007-02-01

    leukemia-associated fusion protein can impose a distinct epigenetic repressive signature at specific sites in the genome. These findings strengthen the conclusion that leukemia-specific oncoproteins can induce non-random epigenetic changes.

  6. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B cell lymphoma are associated with distinct pathogenic mechanisms and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Stewart, Chip; Dunford, Andrew J; Kim, Jaegil; Kamburov, Atanas; Redd, Robert A; Lawrence, Mike S; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Li, Amy J; Ziepert, Marita; Staiger, Annette M; Wala, Jeremiah A; Ducar, Matthew D; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Rheinbay, Ester; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Coughlin, Caroline A; Hess, Julian M; Pedamallu, Chandra S; Livitz, Dimitri; Rosebrock, Daniel; Rosenberg, Mara; Tracy, Adam A; Horn, Heike; van Hummelen, Paul; Feldman, Andrew L; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Cerhan, James R; Habermann, Thomas M; Siebert, Reiner; Rosenwald, Andreas; Thorner, Aaron R; Meyerson, Matthew L; Golub, Todd R; Beroukhim, Rameen; Wulf, Gerald G; Ott, German; Rodig, Scott J; Monti, Stefano; Neuberg, Donna S; Loeffler, Markus; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Trümper, Lorenz; Getz, Gad; Shipp, Margaret A

    2018-04-30

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease that is further classified into transcriptionally defined activated B cell (ABC) and germinal center B cell (GCB) subtypes. We carried out a comprehensive genetic analysis of 304 primary DLBCLs and identified low-frequency alterations, captured recurrent mutations, somatic copy number alterations, and structural variants, and defined coordinate signatures in patients with available outcome data. We integrated these genetic drivers using consensus clustering and identified five robust DLBCL subsets, including a previously unrecognized group of low-risk ABC-DLBCLs of extrafollicular/marginal zone origin; two distinct subsets of GCB-DLBCLs with different outcomes and targetable alterations; and an ABC/GCB-independent group with biallelic inactivation of TP53, CDKN2A loss, and associated genomic instability. The genetic features of the newly characterized subsets, their mutational signatures, and the temporal ordering of identified alterations provide new insights into DLBCL pathogenesis. The coordinate genetic signatures also predict outcome independent of the clinical International Prognostic Index and suggest new combination treatment strategies. More broadly, our results provide a roadmap for an actionable DLBCL classification.

  7. Two genetic loci produce distinct carbohydrate-rich structural components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto

    2004-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  8. Distinct brain systems mediate the effects of nociceptive input and self-regulation on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Wan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive self-regulation can strongly modulate pain and emotion. However, it is unclear whether self-regulation primarily influences primary nociceptive and affective processes or evaluative ones. In this study, participants engaged in self-regulation to increase or decrease pain while experiencing multiple levels of painful heat during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI imaging. Both heat intensity and self-regulation strongly influenced reported pain, but they did so via two distinct brain pathways. The effects of stimulus intensity were mediated by the neurologic pain signature (NPS, an a priori distributed brain network shown to predict physical pain with over 90% sensitivity and specificity across four studies. Self-regulation did not influence NPS responses; instead, its effects were mediated through functional connections between the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pathway was unresponsive to noxious input, and has been broadly implicated in valuation, emotional appraisal, and functional outcomes in pain and other types of affective processes. These findings provide evidence that pain reports are associated with two dissociable functional systems: nociceptive/affective aspects mediated by the NPS, and evaluative/functional aspects mediated by a fronto-striatal system.

  9. Distinct electrophysiological indices of maintenance in auditory and visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Grimault, Stephan; Thibault, Jennifer; Guimond, Synthia; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert J; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We compared the electrophysiological correlates for the maintenance of non-musical tones sequences in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) to those for the short-term maintenance of sequences of coloured disks held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). The visual stimuli yielded a sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), suggesting that the maintenance of sequences of coloured stimuli engaged structures similar to those involved in the maintenance of simultaneous visual displays. On the other hand, maintenance of acoustic sequences produced a sustained negativity at fronto-central sites. This component is named the Sustained Anterior Negativity (SAN). The amplitude of the SAN increased with increasing load in ASTM and predicted individual differences in the performance. There was no SAN in a control condition with the same auditory stimuli but no memory task, nor one associated with visual memory. These results suggest that the SAN is an index of brain activity related to the maintenance of representations in ASTM that is distinct from the maintenance of representations in VSTM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct forms of the β subunit of GTP-binding regulatory proteins identified by molecular cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, H.K.W.; Amatruda, T.T. III; Birren, B.W.; Simon, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinct β subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins have been identified by cDNA cloning and are referred to as β 1 and β 1 subunits. The bovine transducin β subunit (β 1 ) has been cloned previously. The author now isolated and analyzed cDNA clones that encode the β 2 subunit from bovine adrenal, bovine brain, and a human myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60. The 340-residue M/sub r/ 37,329 Β 2 protein is 90% identical with β 1 in predicted amino acid sequence, and it is also organized as a series of repetitive homologous segments. The major mRNA that encodes the bovine β 2 subunit is 1.7 kilobases in length. It is expressed at lower levels than β 1 subunit mRNA in all tissues examined. The β 1 and β 2 messages are expressed in cloned human cell lines. Hybridization of cDNA probes to bovine DNA showed that β 1 and β 2 are encoded by separate genes. The amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 2 subunit are identical, as are the amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 1 subunit. This evolutionary conservation suggests that the two β subunits have different roles in the signal transduction process

  11. Functionally distinct amygdala subregions identified using DTI and high-resolution fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L.; Schultz, Douglas H.; Hopkins, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is often directly linked with fear and emotion, amygdala neurons are activated by a wide variety of emotional and non-emotional stimuli. Different subregions within the amygdala may be engaged preferentially by different aspects of emotional and non-emotional tasks. To test this hypothesis, we measured and compared the effects of novelty and fear on amygdala activity. We used high-resolution blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging and streamline tractography to subdivide the amygdala into three distinct functional subunits. We identified a laterobasal subregion connected with the visual cortex that responds generally to visual stimuli, a non-projecting region that responds to salient visual stimuli, and a centromedial subregion connected with the diencephalon that responds only when a visual stimulus predicts an aversive outcome. We provide anatomical and functional support for a model of amygdala function where information enters through the laterobasal subregion, is processed by intrinsic circuits in the interspersed tissue, and is then passed to the centromedial subregion, where activation leads to behavioral output. PMID:25969533

  12. Immediate perception of a reward is distinct from the reward’s long-term salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, John P; Jiang, Huoqing; Agha, Moutaz Ali; Sanchez, Consuelo Perez; Lange, Jeff; Yu, Zulin; Marion-Poll, Frederic; Si, Kausik

    2016-01-01

    Reward perception guides all aspects of animal behavior. However, the relationship between the perceived value of a reward, the latent value of a reward, and the behavioral response remains unclear. Here we report that, given a choice between two sweet and chemically similar sugars—L- and D-arabinose—Drosophila melanogaster prefers D- over L- arabinose, but forms long-term memories of L-arabinose more reliably. Behavioral assays indicate that L-arabinose-generated memories require sugar receptor Gr43a, and calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings indicate that L- and D-arabinose differentially activate Gr43a-expressing neurons. We posit that the immediate valence of a reward is not always predictive of the long-term reinforcement value of that reward, and that a subset of sugar-sensing neurons may generate distinct representations of similar sugars, allowing for rapid assessment of the salient features of various sugar rewards and generation of reward-specific behaviors. However, how sensory neurons communicate information about L-arabinose quality and concentration—features relevant for long-term memory—remains unknown. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22283.001 PMID:28005005

  13. Phosphorene as a Superior Gas Sensor: Selective Adsorption and Distinct I-V Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Frauenheim, Thomas; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-08-07

    Recent reports on the fabrication of phosphorene, that is, mono- or few-layer black phosphorus, have raised exciting prospects of an outstanding two-dimensional (2D) material that exhibits excellent properties for nanodevice applications. Here, we study by first-principles calculations the adsorption of CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 gas molecules on a monolayer phosphorene. Our results predict superior sensing performance of phosphorene that rivals or even surpasses that of other 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. We determine the optimal adsorption positions of these molecules on the phosphorene and identify molecular doping, that is, charge transfer between the molecules and phosphorene, as the driving mechanism for the high adsorption strength. We further calculated the current-voltage (I-V) relation using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The transport features show large (1-2 orders of magnitude) anisotropy along different (armchair or zigzag) directions, which is consistent with the anisotropic electronic band structure of phosphorene. Remarkably, the I-V relation exhibits distinct responses with a marked change of the I-V relation along either the armchair or the zigzag directions depending on the type of molecules. Such selectivity and sensitivity to adsorption makes phosphorene a superior gas sensor that promises wide-ranging applications.

  14. Differential Influence of Distinct Components of Increased Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular OutcomesR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K.; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A. Richey; Shah, Amil M.; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13,340 participants (aged 54±6 years, 56% women, 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 CHD events, 1669 HF events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during up to 18±5 years of follow up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were: SBP for CHD (AUC=0.74); PP for HF (AUC=0.79), SBP for stroke (AUC=0.74), and PP for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:23876475

  15. Distinct Hippocampal versus Frontoparietal Network Contributions to Retrieval and Memory-guided Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

    2017-08-01

    Memory can profoundly influence new learning, presumably because memory optimizes exploration of to-be-learned material. Although hippocampus and frontoparietal networks have been implicated in memory-guided exploration, their specific and interactive roles have not been identified. We examined eye movements during fMRI scanning to identify neural correlates of the influences of memory retrieval on exploration and learning. After retrieval of one object in a multiobject array, viewing was strategically directed away from the retrieved object toward nonretrieved objects, such that exploration was directed toward to-be-learned content. Retrieved objects later served as optimal reminder cues, indicating that exploration caused memory to become structured around the retrieved content. Hippocampal activity was associated with memory retrieval, whereas frontoparietal activity varied with strategic viewing patterns deployed after retrieval, thus providing spatiotemporal dissociation of memory retrieval from memory-guided learning strategies. Time-lagged fMRI connectivity analyses indicated that hippocampal activity predicted frontoparietal activity to a greater extent for a condition in which retrieval guided exploration occurred than for a passive control condition in which exploration was not influenced by retrieval. This demonstrates network-level interaction effects specific to influences of memory on strategic exploration. These findings show how memory guides behavior during learning and demonstrate distinct yet interactive hippocampal-frontoparietal roles in implementing strategic exploration behaviors that determine the fate of evolving memory representations.

  16. Distinct hippocampal versus frontoparietal-network contributions to retrieval and memory-guided exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Cohen, Neal J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2017-01-01

    Memory can profoundly influence new learning, presumably because memory optimizes exploration of to-be-learned material. Although hippocampus and frontoparietal networks have been implicated in memory-guided exploration, their specific and interactive roles have not been identified. We examined eye movements during fMRI scanning to identify neural correlates of the influences of memory retrieval on exploration and learning. Following retrieval of one object in a multi-object array, viewing was strategically directed away from the retrieved object toward non-retrieved objects, such that exploration was directed towards to-be-learned content. Retrieved objects later served as optimal reminder cues, indicating that exploration caused memory to become structured around the retrieved content. Hippocampal activity was associated with memory retrieval whereas frontoparietal activity varied with strategic viewing patterns deployed following retrieval, thus providing spatiotemporal dissociation of memory retrieval from memory-guided learning strategies. Time-lagged fMRI connectivity analyses indicated that hippocampal activity predicted frontoparietal activity to a greater extent for a condition in which retrieval guided exploration than for a passive control condition in which exploration was not influenced by retrieval. This demonstrates network-level interaction effects specific to influences of memory on strategic exploration. These findings show how memory guides behavior during learning and demonstrate distinct yet interactive hippocampal-frontoparietal roles in implementing strategic exploration behaviors that determine the fate of evolving memory representations. PMID:28471729

  17. Distinct colicin M-like bacteriocin-immunity pairs in Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Mot, René

    2015-11-27

    The Escherichia coli bacteriocin colicin M (ColM) acts via degradation of the cell wall precursor lipid II in target cells. ColM producers avoid self-inhibition by a periplasmic immunity protein anchored in the inner membrane. In this study, we identified colM-like bacteriocin genes in genomes of several β-proteobacterial strains belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and the Burkholderia pseudomallei group. Two selected Burkholderia ambifaria proteins, designated burkhocins M1 and M2, were produced recombinantly and showed antagonistic activity against Bcc strains. In their considerably sequence-diverged catalytic domain, a conserved aspartate residue equally proved pivotal for cytotoxicity. Immunity to M-type burkhocins is conferred upon susceptible strains by heterologous expression of a cognate gene located either upstream or downstream of the toxin gene. These genes lack homology with currently known ColM immunity genes and encode inner membrane-associated proteins of two distinct types, differing in predicted transmembrane topology and moiety exposed to the periplasm. The addition of burkhocins to the bacteriocin complement of Burkholderia reveals a wider phylogenetic distribution of ColM-like bacteriotoxins, beyond the γ-proteobacterial genera Escherichia, Pectobacterium and Pseudomonas, and illuminates the diversified nature of immunity-providing proteins.

  18. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic assessment of prognostic gene signatures for breast cancer shows distinct influence of time and ER status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xi; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Sørlie, Therese; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Russnes, Hege G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare prognostic power of nine breast cancer gene signatures (Intrinsic, PAM50, 70-gene, 76-gene, Genomic-Grade-Index, 21-gene-Recurrence-Score, EndoPredict, Wound-Response and Hypoxia) in relation to ER status and follow-up time. A gene expression dataset from 947 breast tumors was used to evaluate the signatures for prediction of Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS). A total of 912 patients had available DMFS status. The recently published METABRIC cohort was used as an additional validation set. Survival predictions were fairly concordant across most signatures. Prognostic power declined with follow-up time. During the first 5 years of followup, all signatures except for Hypoxia were predictive for DMFS in ER-positive disease, and 76-gene, Hypoxia and Wound-Response were prognostic in ER-negative disease. After 5 years, the signatures had little prognostic power. Gene signatures provide significant prognostic information beyond tumor size, node status and histological grade. Generally, these signatures performed better for ER-positive disease, indicating that risk within each ER stratum is driven by distinct underlying biology. Most of the signatures were strong risk predictors for DMFS during the first 5 years of follow-up. Combining gene signatures with histological grade or tumor size, could improve the prognostic power, perhaps also of long-term survival

  20. Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M

    2018-02-02

    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Prediction Models for Cardiovascular Disease: Tufts Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Prediction Model Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Lai Yh, Lana; Kramer, Whitney; Cangelosi, Michael; Raman, Gowri; Lutz, Jennifer S; Kent, David M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. For patients with cardiovascular disease, there are numerous CPMs available although the extent of this literature is not well described. We conducted a systematic review for articles containing CPMs for cardiovascular disease published between January 1990 and May 2012. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral vascular disease. We created a novel database and characterized CPMs based on the stage of development, population under study, performance, covariates, and predicted outcomes. There are 796 models included in this database. The number of CPMs published each year is increasing steadily over time. Seven hundred seventeen (90%) are de novo CPMs, 21 (3%) are CPM recalibrations, and 58 (7%) are CPM adaptations. This database contains CPMs for 31 index conditions, including 215 CPMs for patients with coronary artery disease, 168 CPMs for population samples, and 79 models for patients with heart failure. There are 77 distinct index/outcome pairings. Of the de novo models in this database, 450 (63%) report a c-statistic and 259 (36%) report some information on calibration. There is an abundance of CPMs available for a wide assortment of cardiovascular disease conditions, with substantial redundancy in the literature. The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Predictive modeling of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Joseph A; Scheer, Justin K; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-09-01

    Predictive analytic algorithms are designed to identify patterns in the data that allow for accurate predictions without the need for a hypothesis. Therefore, predictive modeling can provide detailed and patient-specific information that can be readily applied when discussing the risks of surgery with a patient. There are few studies using predictive modeling techniques in the adult spine surgery literature. These types of studies represent the beginning of the use of predictive analytics in spine surgery outcomes. We will discuss the advancements in the field of spine surgery with respect to predictive analytics, the controversies surrounding the technique, and the future directions.

  3. Distinct mechanisms act in concert to mediate cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toettcher, Jared E; Loewer, Alexander; Ostheimer, Gerard J; Yaffe, Michael B; Tidor, Bruce; Lahav, Galit

    2009-01-20

    In response to DNA damage, cells arrest at specific stages in the cell cycle. This arrest must fulfill at least 3 requirements: it must be activated promptly; it must be sustained as long as damage is present to prevent loss of genomic information; and after the arrest, cells must re-enter into the appropriate cell cycle phase to ensure proper ploidy. Multiple molecular mechanisms capable of arresting the cell cycle have been identified in mammalian cells; however, it is unknown whether each mechanism meets all 3 requirements or whether they act together to confer specific functions to the arrest. To address this question, we integrated mathematical models describing the cell cycle and the DNA damage signaling networks and tested the contributions of each mechanism to cell cycle arrest and re-entry. Predictions from this model were then tested with quantitative experiments to identify the combined action of arrest mechanisms in irradiated cells. We find that different arrest mechanisms serve indispensable roles in the proper cellular response to DNA damage over time: p53-independent cyclin inactivation confers immediate arrest, whereas p53-dependent cyclin downregulation allows this arrest to be sustained. Additionally, p21-mediated inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity is indispensable for preventing improper cell cycle re-entry and endoreduplication. This work shows that in a complex signaling network, seemingly redundant mechanisms, acting in a concerted fashion, can achieve a specific cellular outcome.

  4. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  5. Learning Predictive Statistics: Strategies and Brain Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Shen, Yuan; Tino, Peter; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2017-08-30

    When immersed in a new environment, we are challenged to decipher initially incomprehensible streams of sensory information. However, quite rapidly, the brain finds structure and meaning in these incoming signals, helping us to predict and prepare ourselves for future actions. This skill relies on extracting the statistics of event streams in the environment that contain regularities of variable complexity from simple repetitive patterns to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we test the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to the environment's statistics and predict upcoming events. By combining behavioral training and multisession fMRI in human participants (male and female), we track the corticostriatal mechanisms that mediate learning of temporal sequences as they change in structure complexity. We show that learning of predictive structures relates to individual decision strategy; that is, selecting the most probable outcome in a given context (maximizing) versus matching the exact sequence statistics. These strategies engage distinct human brain regions: maximizing engages dorsolateral prefrontal, cingulate, sensory-motor regions, and basal ganglia (dorsal caudate, putamen), whereas matching engages occipitotemporal regions (including the hippocampus) and basal ganglia (ventral caudate). Our findings provide evidence for distinct corticostriatal mechanisms that facilitate our ability to extract behaviorally relevant statistics to make predictions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. Past work has studied how humans identify repetitive patterns and associative pairings. However, the natural environment contains regularities that vary in complexity from simple repetition to complex probabilistic combinations. Here, we combine behavior and multisession fMRI to track the brain mechanisms that mediate our ability to adapt to

  6. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elliot C.; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the “predictive brain” are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a “social predictive brain” are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating

  7. MicroRNAs define distinct human neuroblastoma cell phenotypes and regulate their differentiation and tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaraweera, Leleesha; Grandinetti, Kathryn B; Huang, Ruojun; Spengler, Barbara A; Ross, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. NB tumors and derived cell lines are phenotypically heterogeneous. Cell lines are classified by phenotype, each having distinct differentiation and tumorigenic properties. The neuroblastic phenotype is tumorigenic, has neuronal features and includes stem cells (I-cells) and neuronal cells (N-cells). The non-neuronal phenotype (S-cell) comprises cells that are non-tumorigenic with features of glial/smooth muscle precursor cells. This study identified miRNAs associated with each distinct cell phenotypes and investigated their role in regulating associated differentiation and tumorigenic properties. A miRNA microarray was performed on the three cell phenotypes and expression verified by qRT-PCR. miRNAs specific for certain cell phenotypes were modulated using miRNA inhibitors or stable transfection. Neuronal differentiation was induced by RA; non-neuronal differentiation by BrdU. Changes in tumorigenicity were assayed by soft agar colony forming ability. N-myc binding to miR-375 promoter was assayed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of miRNA microarray data segregated neuroblastic and non-neuronal cell lines and showed that specific miRNAs define each phenotype. qRT-PCR validation confirmed that increased levels of miR-21, miR-221 and miR-335 are associated with the non-neuronal phenotype, whereas increased levels of miR-124 and miR-375 are exclusive to neuroblastic cells. Downregulation of miR-335 in non-neuronal cells modulates expression levels of HAND1 and JAG1, known modulators of neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of miR-124 in stem cells induces terminal neuronal differentiation with reduced malignancy. Expression of miR-375 is exclusive for N-myc-expressing neuroblastic cells and is regulated by N-myc. Moreover, miR-375 downregulates expression of the neuronal-specific RNA binding protein HuD. Thus, miRNAs define distinct NB cell phenotypes

  8. Does diabetes appear in distinct phenotypes in young people? Results of the diabetes mellitus incidence Cohort Registry (DiMelli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Warncke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The diabetes mellitus Incidence Cohort Registry (DiMelli aims to characterize diabetes phenotypes by immunologic, metabolic, and genetic markers. We classified patients into three groups according to islet autoantibody status and examined whether patients with multiple diabetes-associated autoantibodies, one autoantibody, or without autoantibodies differed with respect to clinical, metabolic, and genetic parameters, including an insulin sensitivity (IS score based on waist, HbA1c, and triglycerides. We also assessed whether metabolic markers predicted the immune status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As of June 2012, 630 patients in Bavaria, Germany, aged <20 years diagnosed with any type of diabetes within the preceding 6 months were registered in DiMelli. We compared the clinical and laboratory parameters between islet autoantibody status defined patient groups. Parameters showing the strongest associations were included in principal component analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the ability of the IS Score to predict islet autoantibody status. RESULTS: Patients with multiple islet autoantibodies, one autoantibody, or without autoantibodies were significantly different in terms of BMI percentile, weight loss before diagnosis, fasting C-peptide (all, P<0.001, and IS Score (P=0.034. However, principal component analysis revealed no distinct patterns according to autoantibody status. At the optimal IS Score cut-off for predicting islet autoantibody positivity (single compared to none, the specificity was 52.0% and the sensitivity was 86.8%. With respect to prediction of multiple autoantibodies (compared to none, specificity and sensitivity were slightly lower and in combination inferior to those obtained using the BMI percentile and fasting C-peptide. DISCUSSION: The DiMelli study indicated that patients with and without islet autoantibodies differed with respect to metabolic and genetic markers but there

  9. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Sutphin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs between 6 eukaryotic species-humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/.

  10. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, George L.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Sheppard, Keith; Walton, David O.; Korstanje, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs) between 6 eukaryotic species—humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/. PMID:27812085

  11. Learning from sensory and reward prediction errors during motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Voluntary motor commands produce two kinds of consequences. Initially, a sensory consequence is observed in terms of activity in our primary sensory organs (e.g., vision, proprioception). Subsequently, the brain evaluates the sensory feedback and produces a subjective measure of utility or usefulness of the motor commands (e.g., reward). As a result, comparisons between predicted and observed consequences of motor commands produce two forms of prediction error. How do these errors contribute to changes in motor commands? Here, we considered a reach adaptation protocol and found that when high quality sensory feedback was available, adaptation of motor commands was driven almost exclusively by sensory prediction errors. This form of learning had a distinct signature: as motor commands adapted, the subjects altered their predictions regarding sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized this learning broadly to neighboring motor commands. In contrast, as the quality of the sensory feedback degraded, adaptation of motor commands became more dependent on reward prediction errors. Reward prediction errors produced comparable changes in the motor commands, but produced no change in the predicted sensory consequences of motor commands, and generalized only locally. Because we found that there was a within subject correlation between generalization patterns and sensory remapping, it is plausible that during adaptation an individual's relative reliance on sensory vs. reward prediction errors could be inferred. We suggest that while motor commands change because of sensory and reward prediction errors, only sensory prediction errors produce a change in the neural system that predicts sensory consequences of motor commands.

  12. Applied predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Sunan, Huang; Heng, Lee Tong

    2002-01-01

    The presence of considerable time delays in the dynamics of many industrial processes, leading to difficult problems in the associated closed-loop control systems, is a well-recognized phenomenon. The performance achievable in conventional feedback control systems can be significantly degraded if an industrial process has a relatively large time delay compared with the dominant time constant. Under these circumstances, advanced predictive control is necessary to improve the performance of the control system significantly. The book is a focused treatment of the subject matter, including the fundamentals and some state-of-the-art developments in the field of predictive control. Three main schemes for advanced predictive control are addressed in this book: • Smith Predictive Control; • Generalised Predictive Control; • a form of predictive control based on Finite Spectrum Assignment. A substantial part of the book addresses application issues in predictive control, providing several interesting case studie...

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of the Lipase3 gene family in five plant species reveals distinct evolutionary origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Hu, JunFeng; Gao, Dianshuai; Liu, Xin; Sha, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Lipases are physiologically important and ubiquitous enzymes that share a conserved domain and are classified into eight different families based on their amino acid sequences and fundamental biological properties. The Lipase3 family of lipases was reported to possess a canonical fold typical of α/β hydrolases and a typical catalytic triad, suggesting a distinct evolutionary origin for this family. Genes in the Lipase3 family do not have the same functions, but maintain the conserved Lipase3 domain. There have been extensive studies of Lipase3 structures and functions, but little is known about their evolutionary histories. In this study, all lipases within five plant species were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships and genetic properties were analyzed and used to group them into distinct evolutionary families. Each identified lipase family contained at least one dicot and monocot Lipase3 protein, indicating that the gene family was established before the split of dicots and monocots. Similar intron/exon numbers and predicted protein sequence lengths were found within individual groups. Twenty-four tandem Lipase3 gene duplications were identified, implying that the distinctive function of Lipase3 genes appears to be a consequence of translocation and neofunctionalization after gene duplication. The functional genes EDS1, PAD4, and SAG101 that are reportedly involved in pathogen response were all located in the same group. The nucleotide diversity (Dxy) and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions rates (Ka/Ks) of the three genes were significantly greater than the average across the genomes. We further observed evidence for selection maintaining diversity on three genes in the Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor type of nucleotide binding/leucine-rich repeat immune receptor (TIR-NBS LRR) immunity-response signaling pathway, indicating that they could be vulnerable to pathogen effectors.

  14. Learning to Predict Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A.; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles respectively are not high-throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, or lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry dataset consisting of 1630 full multi-step reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval, problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of non-productive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system

  15. Learning to predict chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H; Baldi, Pierre

    2011-09-26

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles, respectively, are not high throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, and lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry data set consisting of 1630 full multistep reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top-ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of nonproductive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system

  16. Predictable or not predictable? The MOV question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, C.L.; Matzkiw, J.N.; Anderson, J.W.; Kessler, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 8 years, the nuclear industry has struggled to understand the dynamic phenomena experienced during motor-operated valve (MOV) operation under differing flow conditions. For some valves and designs, their operational functionality has been found to be predictable; for others, unpredictable. Although much has been accomplished over this period of time, especially on modeling valve dynamics, the unpredictability of many valves and designs still exists. A few valve manufacturers are focusing on improving design and fabrication techniques to enhance product reliability and predictability. However, this approach does not address these issues for installed and inpredictable valves. This paper presents some of the more promising techniques that Wyle Laboratories has explored with potential for transforming unpredictable valves to predictable valves and for retrofitting installed MOVs. These techniques include optimized valve tolerancing, surrogated material evaluation, and enhanced surface treatments

  17. Neuro- and social-cognitive clustering highlights distinct profiles in adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Beth; Musiat, Peter; Lose, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; Loomes, Rachel; Watson, Charlotte; Ghelani, Shreena; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuro- and social-cognitive profile of a consecutive series of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) when compared with widely available age and gender matched historical control data. The relationship between performance profiles, clinical characteristics, service utilization, and treatment adherence was also investigated. Consecutively recruited outpatients with a broad diagnosis of AN (restricting subtype AN-R: n = 44, binge-purge subtype AN-BP: n = 33 or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-AN subtype EDNOS-AN: n = 23) completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive (set-shifting, central coherence) and social-cognitive measures (Emotional Theory of Mind). Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and a discriminant function analysis. Three separate, meaningful clusters emerged. Cluster 1 (n = 45) showed overall average to high average neuro- and social- cognitive performance, Cluster 2 (n = 38) showed mixed performance characterized by distinct strengths and weaknesses, and Cluster 3 (n = 17) showed poor overall performance (Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) like cluster). The three clusters did not differ in terms of eating disorder symptoms, comorbid features or service utilization and treatment adherence. A discriminant function analysis confirmed that the clusters were best characterized by performance in perseveration and set-shifting measures. The findings suggest that considerable neuro- and social-cognitive heterogeneity exists in patients with AN, with a subset showing ASD-like features. The value of this method of profiling in predicting longer term patient outcomes and in guiding development of etiologically targeted treatments remains to be seen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Geomechanical Simulations of CO2 Storage Integrity using the Livermore Distinct Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M; Friedmann, S J

    2008-07-11

    Large-scale carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects involving annual injections of millions of tons of CO{sub 2} are a key infrastructural element needed to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The large rate and volume of injection will induce pressure and stress gradients within the formation that could activate existing fractures and faults, or drive new fractures through the caprock. We will present results of an ongoing investigation to identify conditions that will activate existing fractures/faults or make new fractures within the caprock using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC is a multiphysics code, developed at LLNL, capable of simulating dynamic fracture of rock masses under a range of conditions. As part of a recent project, LDEC has been extended to consider fault activation and dynamic fracture of rock masses due to pressurization of the pore-space. We will present several demonstrations of LDEC functionality and applications of LDEC to CO{sub 2} injection scenarios including injection into an extensively fractured rockmass. These examples highlight the advantages of explicitly including the geomechanical response of each interface within the rockmass. We present results from our investigations of Teapot Dome using LDEC to study the potential for fault activation during injection. Using this approach, we built finite element models of the rock masses surrounding bounding faults and explicitly simulated the compression and shear on the fault interface. A CO{sub 2} injection source was introduced and the area of fault activation was predicted as a function of injection rate. This work presents an approach where the interactions of all locations on the fault are considered in response to specific injection scenarios. For example, with LDEC, as regions of the fault fail, the shear load is taken up elsewhere on the fault. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies of Teapot Dome and indicate

  19. Distinct HLA associations of LGI1 and CASPR2-antibody diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Sophie; Varley, James; Lee, Wanseon; Makuch, Mateusz; Elliott, Katherine; Gelfand, Jeffrey M; Jacob, Saiju; Leite, M Isabel; Maddison, Paul; Chen, Mian; Geschwind, Michael D; Grant, Eleanor; Sen, Arjune; Waters, Patrick; McCormack, Mark; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Barnardo, Martin; Knight, Julian C; Irani, Sarosh R

    2018-05-18

    The recent biochemical distinction between antibodies against leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated-1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2) and intracellular epitopes of voltage-gated potassium-channels (VGKCs) demands aetiological explanations. Given established associations between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and adverse drug reactions, and our clinical observation of frequent adverse drugs reactions in patients with LGI1 antibodies, we compared HLA alleles between healthy controls (n = 5553) and 111 Caucasian patients with VGKC-complex autoantibodies. In patients with LGI1 antibodies (n = 68), HLA-DRB1*07:01 was strongly represented [odds ratio = 27.6 (95% confidence interval 12.9-72.2), P = 4.1 × 10-26]. In contrast, patients with CASPR2 antibodies (n = 31) showed over-representation of HLA-DRB1*11:01 [odds ratio = 9.4 (95% confidence interval 4.6-19.3), P = 5.7 × 10-6]. Other allelic associations for patients with LGI1 antibodies reflected linkage, and significant haplotypic associations included HLA-DRB1*07:01-DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02, by comparison to DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*03:01 in CASPR2-antibody patients. Conditional analysis in LGI1-antibody patients resolved further independent class I and II associations. By comparison, patients with both LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies (n = 3) carried yet another complement of HLA variants, and patients with intracellular VGKC antibodies (n = 9) lacked significant HLA associations. Within LGI1- or CASPR2-antibody patients, HLA associations did not correlate with clinical features. In silico predictions identified unique CASPR2- and LGI1-derived peptides potentially presented by the respective over-represented HLA molecules. These highly significant HLA associations dichotomize the underlying immunology in patients with LGI1 or CASPR2 antibodies, and inform T cell specificities and cellular interactions at disease initiation.

  20. Behavioral states may be associated with distinct spatial patterns in electrocorticogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotides, Heracles; Freeman, Walter J; Holmes, Mark D; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    To determine if behavioral states are associated with unique spatial electrocorticographic (ECoG) patterns, we obtained recordings with a microgrid electrode array applied to the cortical surface of a human subject. The array was constructed with the intent of extracting maximal spatial information by optimizing interelectrode distances. A 34-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy underwent intracranial ECoG monitoring after standard methods failed to reveal localization of seizures. During the 8-day period of invasive recording, in addition to standard clinical electrodes a square 1 × 1 cm microgrid array with 64 electrodes (1.25 mm separation) was placed on the right inferior temporal gyrus. Careful review of video recordings identified four extended naturalistic behaviors: reading, conversing on the telephone, looking at photographs, and face-to-face interactions. ECoG activity recorded with the microgrid that corresponded to these behaviors was collected and ECoG spatial patterns were analyzed. During periods of ECoG selected for analysis, no electrographic seizures or epileptiform patterns were present. Moments of maximal spatial variance are shown to cluster by behavior. Comparisons between conditions using a permutation test reveal significantly different spatial patterns for each behavior. We conclude that ECoG recordings obtained on the cortical surface with optimal high spatial frequency resolution reveal distinct local spatial patterns that reflect different behavioral states, and we predict that similar patterns will be found in many if not most cortical areas on which a microgrid is placed.

  1. Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Bender, Kelly S.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stahl, David A.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) was investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. Microarray data demonstrated that gene expression was extensively affected by H2O2 with the response peaking at 120 min after H2O2 treatment. Genes affected include those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction, ribosomal structure and translation, H2O2 scavenging, posttranslational modification and DNA repair as evidenced by gene coexpression networks generated via a random matrix-theory based approach. Data from this study support the hypothesis that both PerR and Fur play important roles in H2O2-induced oxidative stress response. First, both PerR and Fur regulon genes were significantly up-regulated. Second, predicted PerR regulon genes ahpC and rbr2 were derepressedin Delta PerR and Delta Fur mutants and induction of neither gene was observed in both Delta PerR and Delta Fur when challenged with peroxide, suggesting possible overlap of these regulons. Third, both Delta PerR and Delta Fur appeared to be more tolerant of H2O2 as measured by optical density. Forth, proteomics data suggested de-repression of Fur during the oxidative stress response. In terms of the intracellular enzymatic H2O2 scavenging, gene expression data suggested that Rdl and Rbr2 may play major roles in the detoxification of H2O2. In addition, induction of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin appeared to be independent of PerR and Fur. Considering all data together, D. vulgaris employed a distinctive stress resistance mechanism to defend against increased cellular H2O2, and the temporal gene expression changes were consistent with the slowdown of cell growth at the onset of oxidative stress.

  2. Distinctive Left Ventricular Activations Associated With ECG Pattern in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derval, Nicolas; Duchateau, Josselin; Mahida, Saagar; Eschalier, Romain; Sacher, Frederic; Lumens, Joost; Cochet, Hubert; Denis, Arnaud; Pillois, Xavier; Yamashita, Seigo; Komatsu, Yuki; Ploux, Sylvain; Amraoui, Sana; Zemmoura, Adlane; Ritter, Philippe; Hocini, Mélèze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Bordachar, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In contrast to patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), heart failure patients with narrow QRS and nonspecific intraventricular conduction delay (NICD) display a relatively limited response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. We sought to compare left ventricular (LV) activation patterns in heart failure patients with narrow QRS and NICD to patients with LBBB using high-density electroanatomic activation maps. Fifty-two heart failure patients (narrow QRS [n=18], LBBB [n=11], NICD [n=23]) underwent 3-dimensional electroanatomic mapping with a high density of mapping points (387±349 LV). Adjunctive scar imaging was available in 37 (71%) patients and was analyzed in relation to activation maps. LBBB patients typically demonstrated (1) a single LV breakthrough at the septum (38±15 ms post-QRS onset); (2) prolonged right-to-left transseptal activation with absence of direct LV Purkinje activity; (3) homogeneous propagation within the LV cavity; and (4) latest activation at the basal lateral LV. In comparison, both NICD and narrow QRS patients demonstrated (1) multiple LV breakthroughs along the posterior or anterior fascicles: narrow QRS versus LBBB, 5±2 versus 1±1; P =0.0004; NICD versus LBBB, 4±2 versus 1±1; P =0.001); (2) evidence of early/pre-QRS LV electrograms with Purkinje potentials; (3) rapid propagation in narrow QRS patients and more heterogeneous propagation in NICD patients; and (4) presence of limited areas of late activation associated with LV scar with high interindividual heterogeneity. In contrast to LBBB patients, narrow QRS and NICD patients are characterized by distinct mechanisms of LV activation, which may predict poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  5. Legal distinction between employee and independent contractor as applied to collective bargaining activities in timber harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; William C. Siegal

    1977-01-01

    Collective bargaining attempts by timber harvesting labor groups is often complicated by lack of a clear legal distinction between "employees" and "independent contractors." the primary criterion to make the distinction - the "right-to-control" test of common law - has now been amplified by a number of secondary tests, including: 1) the...

  6. 76 FR 9734 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... December 10, 2010, we, NMFS, published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population..., 2010 (75 FR 77476), we published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population...

  7. The usefulness of the grammaticality-acceptability distinction in functional approaches to language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    between competence and performance, rather than on a distinction between syntax and meaning. The basic rationale for having such a distinction is that much of linguistics is concerned with describing relatively stable grammatical knowledge, rather than the psycholinguistic dynamics of language use...

  8. Unsentimental Ethics: Towards a Content-Specific Account of the Moral-Conventional Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royzman, Edward B.; Leeman, Robert F.; Baron, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer an overview and a critique of the existing theories of the moral-conventional distinction, with emphasis on Nichols's [Nichols, S. (2002). Norms with feeling: Towards a psychological account of moral judgment. "Cognition, 84", 221-236] neo-sentimentalist approach. After discussing some distinctive features of Nichols's…

  9. What Makes Counsellors Working in Primary Care Distinct from Counsellors Working in Other Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Allez, Glyn

    2000-01-01

    Counseling in primary care can be considered a fast-evolving profession that is distinct from counseling in the private sector. Differences in counselor roles, specifically confidentiality ethics and working hours, are discussed. Referrals and attrition are also discussed. The distinctiveness of primary care counseling versus working in more…

  10. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in distinct circuits of the extended amygdala determine fear responsiveness to unpredictable threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M D; Daldrup, T; Remmers, F; Szkudlarek, H J; Lesting, J; Guggenhuber, S; Ruehle, S; Jüngling, K; Seidenbecher, T; Lutz, B; Pape, H C

    2017-10-01

    The brain circuits underlying behavioral fear have been extensively studied over the last decades. Although the vast majority of experimental studies assess fear as a transient state of apprehension in response to a discrete threat, such phasic states of fear can shift to a sustained anxious apprehension, particularly in face of diffuse cues with unpredictable environmental contingencies. Unpredictability, in turn, is considered an important variable contributing to anxiety disorders. The networks of the extended amygdala have been suggested keys to the control of phasic and sustained states of fear, although the underlying synaptic pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system acting in synaptic circuits of the extended amygdala can explain the fear response profile during exposure to unpredictable threat. Using fear training with predictable or unpredictable cues in mice, combined with local and cell-type-specific deficiency and rescue of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, we found that presynaptic CB1 receptors on distinct amygdala projections to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are both necessary and sufficient for the shift from phasic to sustained fear in response to an unpredictable threat. These results thereby identify the causal role of a defined protein in a distinct brain pathway for the temporal development of a sustained state of anxious apprehension during unpredictability of environmental influences, reminiscent of anxiety symptoms in humans.

  11. The Intergenic Recombinant HLA-B∗46:01 Has a Distinctive Peptidome that Includes KIR2DL3 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Hilton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HLA-B∗46:01 was formed by an intergenic mini-conversion, between HLA-B∗15:01 and HLA-C∗01:02, in Southeast Asia during the last 50,000 years, and it has since become the most common HLA-B allele in the region. A functional effect of the mini-conversion was introduction of the C1 epitope into HLA-B∗46:01, making it an exceptional HLA-B allotype that is recognized by the C1-specific natural killer (NK cell receptor KIR2DL3. High-resolution mass spectrometry showed that HLA-B∗46:01 has a low-diversity peptidome that is distinct from those of its parents. A minority (21% of HLA-B∗46:01 peptides, with common C-terminal characteristics, form ligands for KIR2DL3. The HLA-B∗46:01 peptidome is predicted to be enriched for peptide antigens derived from Mycobacterium leprae. Overall, the results indicate that the distinctive peptidome and functions of HLA-B∗46:01 provide carriers with resistance to leprosy, which drove its rapid rise in frequency in Southeast Asia.

  12. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  13. A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganaro, Lucia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; Catalano, Carlo; Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.; Scialpi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20 % of incidentally found testicular lesions are benign Leydig cell tumours (LCTs). This study evaluates the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of LCTs in a large prospective cohort study. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with at least one solid non-palpable testicular lesion who underwent scrotal MRI. Margins of the lesions, signal intensity and pattern of wash-in and wash-out were analysed by two radiologists. The frequency distribution of malignant and benign MRI features in the different groups was compared by using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The sensitivity of scrotal MRI to diagnose LCTs was 89.47 % with 95.65 % specificity; sensitivity for malignant lesions was 95.65 % with 80.95 % specificity. A markedly hypointense signal on T2-WI, rapid and marked wash-in followed by a prolonged washout were distinctive features significantly associated with LCTs. Malignant lesions were significantly associated with blurred margins, weak hypointense signal on T2-WI,and weak and progressive wash-in. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93 %. LCTs have distinctive contrast-enhanced MRI features that allow the differential diagnosis of incidental testicular lesions. (orig.)

  14. A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganaro, Lucia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; Catalano, Carlo [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Scialpi, Michele [Perugia University, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Division of Radiology 2, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Up to 20 % of incidentally found testicular lesions are benign Leydig cell tumours (LCTs). This study evaluates the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of LCTs in a large prospective cohort study. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with at least one solid non-palpable testicular lesion who underwent scrotal MRI. Margins of the lesions, signal intensity and pattern of wash-in and wash-out were analysed by two radiologists. The frequency distribution of malignant and benign MRI features in the different groups was compared by using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The sensitivity of scrotal MRI to diagnose LCTs was 89.47 % with 95.65 % specificity; sensitivity for malignant lesions was 95.65 % with 80.95 % specificity. A markedly hypointense signal on T2-WI, rapid and marked wash-in followed by a prolonged washout were distinctive features significantly associated with LCTs. Malignant lesions were significantly associated with blurred margins, weak hypointense signal on T2-WI,and weak and progressive wash-in. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93 %. LCTs have distinctive contrast-enhanced MRI features that allow the differential diagnosis of incidental testicular lesions. (orig.)

  15. Distinct focal lesions of the femoral head: imaging features suggesting an atypical and minimal form of bone necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, Daphne J.; Theodorou, Stavroula J.; Resnick, Donald; Haghighi, Parviz

    2002-01-01

    Heading AbstractObjective. To document the imaging findings observed in patients with an unusual pattern of abnormality of the femoral head, most likely representing osteonecrosis.Design and patients. The imaging findings in 11 patients (10 men, 1 woman; age range 32-55 years) with a distinct lesion of the femoral head were reviewed with particular attention to the morphologic appearance, location, and extent of the lesion(s) in the proximal femur.Results. The 16 lesions identified in these patients extended to the subchondral area. Articular collapse was not evident in any hip. Radiography and CT showed areas of mixed bone sclerosis and osteolysis surrounded by sclerotic margins. On MR imaging, the signal intensity characteristics of the osseous lesion(s) were most commonly similar to those of fluid. Histopathologic findings, available in two hips, were typical of osteonecrosis. There was evidence of correlation of the site of the lesion with the known general distribution and anastomoses of arteries supplying the femoral head.Conclusion. A distinct, focal lesion of the femoral head is believed to represent an atypical form of bone necrosis. Its restriction to a small portion of the femoral head may relate to localized vascular anatomy. Recognition of the quite characteristic imaging findings can prevent misdiagnosis and may have implications for the prediction of the natural course of the disease. (orig.)

  16. Dissociative effects of orthographic distinctiveness in pure and mixed lists: an item-order account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Cahill, Michael; Bugg, Julie M; Meadow, Nathaniel G

    2011-10-01

    We apply the item-order theory of list composition effects in free recall to the orthographic distinctiveness effect. The item-order account assumes that orthographically distinct items advantage item-specific encoding in both mixed and pure lists, but at the expense of exploiting relational information present in the list. Experiment 1 replicated the typical free recall advantage of orthographically distinct items in mixed lists and the elimination of that advantage in pure lists. Supporting the item-order account, recognition performances indicated that orthographically distinct items received greater item-specific encoding than did orthographically common items in mixed and pure lists (Experiments 1 and 2). Furthermore, order memory (input-output correspondence and sequential contiguity effects) was evident in recall of pure unstructured common lists, but not in recall of unstructured distinct lists (Experiment 1). These combined patterns, although not anticipated by prevailing views, are consistent with an item-order account.

  17. Non-additive costs and interactions alter the competitive dynamics of co-occurring ecologically distinct plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Elise R; Platt, Thomas G; Fuqua, Clay; Bever, James D

    2014-03-22

    Plasmids play an important role in shaping bacterial evolution and adaptation to heterogeneous environments. As modular genetic elements that are often conjugative, the selective pressures that act on plasmid-borne genes are distinct from those that act on the chromosome. Many bacteria are co-infected by multiple plasmids that impart niche-specific phenotypes. Thus, in addition to host-plasmid dynamics, interactions between co-infecting plasmids are likely to be important drivers of plasmid population dynamics, evolution and ecology. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a facultative plant pathogen that commonly harbours two distinct megaplasmids. Virulence depends on the presence of the tumour-inducing (Ti) plasmid, with benefits that are primarily restricted to the disease environment. Here, we demonstrate that a second megaplasmid, the At plasmid, confers a competitive advantage in the rhizosphere. To assess the individual and interactive costs of these plasmids, we generated four isogenic derivatives: plasmidless, pAt only, pTi only and pAtpTi, and performed pairwise competitions under carbon-limiting conditions. These studies reveal a low cost to the virulence plasmid when outside of the disease environment, and a strikingly high cost to the At plasmid. In addition, the costs of pAt and pTi in the same host were significantly lower than predicted based on single plasmid costs, signifying the first demonstration of non-additivity between naturally occurring co-resident plasmids. Based on these empirically demonstrated costs and benefits, we developed a resource-consumer model to generate predictions about the frequencies of these genotypes in relevant environments, showing that non-additivity between co-residing plasmids allows for their stable coexistence across environments.

  18. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  19. Seismology for rockburst prediction.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, W

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available project GAP409 presents a method (SOOTHSAY) for predicting larger mining induced seismic events in gold mines, as well as a pattern recognition algorithm (INDICATOR) for characterising the seismic response of rock to mining and inferring future... State. Defining the time series of a specific function on a catalogue as a prediction strategy, the algorithm currently has a success rate of 53% and 65%, respectively, of large events claimed as being predicted in these two cases, with uncertainties...

  20. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  1. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  2. Characterization of non-coding DNA satellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae - definition of a distinct class of begomovirus-associated satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria eLozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas. Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus–satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus, with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  3. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  4. Predicting scholars' scientific impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mazloumian

    Full Text Available We tested the underlying assumption that citation counts are reliable predictors of future success, analyzing complete citation data on the careers of ~150,000 scientists. Our results show that i among all citation indicators, the annual citations at the time of prediction is the best predictor of future citations, ii future citations of a scientist's published papers can be predicted accurately (r(2 = 0.80 for a 1-year prediction, P<0.001 but iii future citations of future work are hardly predictable.

  5. A Distinct DNA Methylation Shift in a Subset of Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotypes during Tumor Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira de Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioma diagnosis is based on histomorphology and grading; however, such classification does not have predictive clinical outcome after glioblastomas have developed. To date, no bona fide biomarkers that significantly translate into a survival benefit to glioblastoma patients have been identified. We previously reported that the IDH mutant G-CIMP-high subtype would be a predecessor to the G-CIMP-low subtype. Here, we performed a comprehensive DNA methylation longitudinal analysis of diffuse gliomas from 77 patients (200 tumors to enlighten the epigenome-based malignant transformation of initially lower-grade gliomas. Intra-subtype heterogeneity among G-CIMP-high primary tumors allowed us to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of malignant recurrence at early stages of disease. G-CIMP-low recurrence appeared in 9.5% of all gliomas, and these resembled IDH-wild-type primary glioblastoma. G-CIMP-low recurrence can be characterized by distinct epigenetic changes at candidate functional tissue enhancers with AP-1/SOX binding elements, mesenchymal stem cell-like epigenomic phenotype, and genomic instability. Molecular abnormalities of longitudinal G-CIMP offer possibilities to defy glioblastoma progression. : IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma glioblastoma often progresses to a more aggressive phenotype upon recurrence. de Souza et al. examines the intra-subtype heterogeneity of initial G-CIMP-high and use this information to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. Keywords: longitudinal gliomas, DNA methylation, IDH mutation, G-CIMP-high, intra-subtype heterogeneity, malignant transformation and recurrence, G-CIMP-low, stem cell-like glioblastoma, predictive biomarkers

  6. A novel and lethal de novo LQT-3 mutation in a newborn with distinct molecular pharmacology and therapeutic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Bankston

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SCN5A encodes the alpha-subunit (Na(v1.5 of the principle Na(+ channel in the human heart. Genetic lesions in SCN5A can cause congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS variant 3 (LQT-3 in adults by disrupting inactivation of the Na(v1.5 channel. Pharmacological targeting of mutation-altered Na(+ channels has proven promising in developing a gene-specific therapeutic strategy to manage specifically this LQTS variant. SCN5A mutations that cause similar channel dysfunction may also contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS and other arrhythmias in newborns, but the prevalence, impact, and therapeutic management of SCN5A mutations may be distinct in infants compared with adults.Here, in a multidisciplinary approach, we report a de novo SCN5A mutation (F1473C discovered in a newborn presenting with extreme QT prolongation and differential responses to the Na(+ channel blockers flecainide and mexiletine. Our goal was to determine the Na(+ channel phenotype caused by this severe mutation and to determine whether distinct effects of different Na(+ channel blockers on mutant channel activity provide a mechanistic understanding of the distinct therapeutic responsiveness of the mutation carrier. Sequence analysis of the proband revealed the novel missense SCN5A mutation (F1473C and a common variant in KCNH2 (K897T. Patch clamp analysis of HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with wild-type or mutant Na(+ channels revealed significant changes in channel biophysics, all contributing to the proband's phenotype as predicted by in silico modeling. Furthermore, subtle differences in drug action were detected in correcting mutant channel activity that, together with both the known genetic background and age of the patient, contribute to the distinct therapeutic responses observed clinically.The results of our study provide further evidence of the grave vulnerability of newborns to Na(+ channel defects and suggest that both genetic background and age are

  7. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Prediction Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Kurz, S.; Lindner, I.; Napel, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the prediction value (PV) as a measure of players’ informational importance in probabilistic TU games. The latter combine a standard TU game and a probability distribution over the set of coalitions. Player i’s prediction value equals the difference between the conditional expectations

  9. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  10. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  11. Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  12. Archaeological predictive model set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is the documentation for Task 7 of the Statewide Archaeological Predictive Model Set. The goal of this project is to : develop a set of statewide predictive models to assist the planning of transportation projects. PennDOT is developing t...

  13. Brittle Fracture Mechanics of Snow : In Situ Testing and Distinct Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillettaz, J.; Daudon, D.; Louchet, F.

    A snow slab avalanche release usually results from the rupture of the snow cover at the interface between an upper layer (slab) and an underlying substrate. Amazingly, the models proposed so far to predict this kind of rupture were only based on continuum mechanics, as they did not take into account the existing cracks or cohesion defects at the interface between the two layers, and their possible unstable propagation that eventually triggers the avalanche. This is why the present work, essentially devoted to human triggered avalanches, is based instead on Griffith's fracture approach, widely used in modelling brittle fracture of materials. The possible rupture scenario involves a propagation in a shear mode of a "basal crack" nucleated and gradually grown at the interface by the skier's weight, followed by a mode I opening and propagation of a "crown crack" at the top of the sheared zone. Different avalanche sizes are predicted according whether the basal crack propagation reaches or not the Griffith's instabil- ity size before crown crack opening (Louchet 2000). Accurate predictions therefore require a precise knowledge of snow toughness values in both modes. A theoretical estimation of toughness considering snow as an ice foam was proposed by Kirchner and Michot (2000), but the question of whether these results may be extended to an assembly of sintered grains is still open. A mode I toughness measurement of snow was also published for the first time by Kirchner and Michot on samples gathered in the Vosges range. In the present work, we developed an experimental set similar to Michot's, in order to measure mode I toughness: a vertical crack of increasing size is gradually machined from the top surface in an horizontal snow beam until failure takes place under its own weight. The toughness value is computed from the snow weight and the crack length at the onset of rapid crack propagation. A similar device was designed for mode II testing, but is still under

  14. Evaluating prediction uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    The probability distribution of a model prediction is presented as a proper basis for evaluating the uncertainty in a model prediction that arises from uncertainty in input values. Determination of important model inputs and subsets of inputs is made through comparison of the prediction distribution with conditional prediction probability distributions. Replicated Latin hypercube sampling and variance ratios are used in estimation of the distributions and in construction of importance indicators. The assumption of a linear relation between model output and inputs is not necessary for the indicators to be effective. A sequential methodology which includes an independent validation step is applied in two analysis applications to select subsets of input variables which are the dominant causes of uncertainty in the model predictions. Comparison with results from methods which assume linearity shows how those methods may fail. Finally, suggestions for treating structural uncertainty for submodels are presented

  15. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  16. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  17. Structural prediction in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Warren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that young healthy comprehenders predict the structure of upcoming material, and that their processing is facilitated when they encounter material matching those predictions (e.g., Staub & Clifton, 2006; Yoshida, Dickey & Sturt, 2013. However, less is known about structural prediction in aphasia. There is evidence that lexical prediction may be spared in aphasia (Dickey et al., 2014; Love & Webb, 1977; cf. Mack et al, 2013. However, predictive mechanisms supporting facilitated lexical access may not necessarily support structural facilitation. Given that many people with aphasia (PWA exhibit syntactic deficits (e.g. Goodglass, 1993, PWA with such impairments may not engage in structural prediction. However, recent evidence suggests that some PWA may indeed predict upcoming structure (Hanne, Burchert, De Bleser, & Vashishth, 2015. Hanne et al. tracked the eyes of PWA (n=8 with sentence-comprehension deficits while they listened to reversible subject-verb-object (SVO and object-verb-subject (OVS sentences in German, in a sentence-picture matching task. Hanne et al. manipulated case and number marking to disambiguate the sentences’ structure. Gazes to an OVS or SVO picture during the unfolding of a sentence were assumed to indicate prediction of the structure congruent with that picture. According to this measure, the PWA’s structural prediction was impaired compared to controls, but they did successfully predict upcoming structure when morphosyntactic cues were strong and unambiguous. Hanne et al.’s visual-world evidence is suggestive, but their forced-choice sentence-picture matching task places tight constraints on possible structural predictions. Clearer evidence of structural prediction would come from paradigms where the content of upcoming material is not as constrained. The current study used self-paced reading study to examine structural prediction among PWA in less constrained contexts. PWA (n=17 who

  18. Subthreshold membrane currents confer distinct tuning properties that enable neurons to encode the integral or derivative of their input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRatté

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons rely on action potentials, or spikes, to encode information. But spikes can encode different stimulus features in different neurons. We show here through simulations and experiments how neurons encode the integral or derivative of their input based on the distinct tuning properties conferred upon them by subthreshold currents. Slow-activating subthreshold inward (depolarizing current mediates positive feedback control of subthreshold voltage, sustaining depolarization and allowing the neuron to spike on the basis of its integrated stimulus waveform. Slow-activating subthreshold outward (hyperpolarizing current mediates negative feedback control of subthreshold voltage, truncating depolarization and forcing the neuron to spike on the basis of its differentiated stimulus waveform. Depending on its direction, slow-activating subthreshold current cooperates or competes with fast-activating inward current during spike initiation. This explanation predicts that sensitivity to the rate of change of stimulus intensity differs qualitatively between integrators and differentiators. This was confirmed experimentally in spinal sensory neurons that naturally behave as specialized integrators or differentiators. Predicted sensitivity to different stimulus features was confirmed by covariance analysis. Integration and differentiation, which are themselves inverse operations, are thus shown to be implemented by the slow feedback mediated by oppositely directed subthreshold currents expressed in different neurons.

  19. A Distinct DNA Methylation Shift in a Subset of Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotypes during Tumor Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila Ferreira; Sabedot, Thais S; Malta, Tathiane M; Stetson, Lindsay; Morozova, Olena; Sokolov, Artem; Laird, Peter W; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Iavarone, Antonio; Snyder, James; deCarvalho, Ana; Sanborn, Zachary; McDonald, Kerrie L; Friedman, William A; Tirapelli, Daniela; Poisson, Laila; Mikkelsen, Tom; Carlotti, Carlos G; Kalkanis, Steven; Zenklusen, Jean; Salama, Sofie R; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Noushmehr, Houtan

    2018-04-10

    Glioma diagnosis is based on histomorphology and grading; however, such classification does not have predictive clinical outcome after glioblastomas have developed. To date, no bona fide biomarkers that significantly translate into a survival benefit to glioblastoma patients have been identified. We previously reported that the IDH mutant G-CIMP-high subtype would be a predecessor to the G-CIMP-low subtype. Here, we performed a comprehensive DNA methylation longitudinal analysis of diffuse gliomas from 77 patients (200 tumors) to enlighten the epigenome-based malignant transformation of initially lower-grade gliomas. Intra-subtype heterogeneity among G-CIMP-high primary tumors allowed us to identify predictive biomarkers for assessing the risk of malignant recurrence at early stages of disease. G-CIMP-low recurrence appeared in 9.5% of all gliomas, and these resembled IDH-wild-type primary glioblastoma. G-CIMP-low recurrence can be characterized by distinct epigenetic changes at candidate functional tissue enhancers with AP-1/SOX binding elements, mesenchymal stem cell-like epigenomic phenotype, and genomic instability. Molecular abnormalities of longitudinal G-CIMP offer possibilities to defy glioblastoma progression. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinicopathologic and gene expression parameters predict liver cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ke; Zhong, Hua; Greenawalt, Danielle; Ferguson, Mark D; Ng, Irene O; Sham, Pak C; Poon, Ronnie T; Molony, Cliona; Schadt, Eric E; Dai, Hongyue; Luk, John M; Lamb, John; Zhang, Chunsheng; Xie, Tao; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bin; Chudin, Eugene; Lee, Nikki P; Mao, Mao

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies following surgical resection and the large variation remains largely unexplained. Studies have revealed the ability of clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression to predict HCC prognosis. However, there has been little systematic effort to compare the performance of these two types of predictors or combine them in a comprehensive model. Tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were collected from 272 ethnic Chinese HCC patients who received curative surgery. We combined clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression data (from both tissue types) in predicting HCC prognosis. Cross-validation and independent studies were employed to assess prediction. HCC prognosis was significantly associated with six clinicopathologic parameters, which can partition the patients into good- and poor-prognosis groups. Within each group, gene expression data further divide patients into distinct prognostic subgroups. Our predictive genes significantly overlap with previously published gene sets predictive of prognosis. Moreover, the predictive genes were enriched for genes that underwent normal-to-tumor gene network transformation. Previously documented liver eSNPs underlying the HCC predictive gene signatures were enriched for SNPs that associated with HCC prognosis, providing support that these genes are involved in key processes of tumorigenesis. When applied individually, clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression offered similar predictive power for HCC prognosis. In contrast, a combination of the two types of data dramatically improved the power to predict HCC prognosis. Our results also provided a framework for understanding the impact of gene expression on the processes of tumorigenesis and clinical outcome

  1. Distinctly December.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This special section presents Christmas and Hanukkah holiday activities and describes decorations and gifts that children can make. Other seasonal ideas include a Christmas luau dance, a magic Christmas tree, and Christmas and Hanukkah games and stories. (PP)

  2. Distinctive marketing and information technology capabilities and strategic types : A cross-national investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Nason, Robert W.; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between strategic type and development of distinctive marketing, market-linking, technology, and information technology (IT) capabilities to implement innovation strategy. They hypothesize that prospectors must build technical and IT capabilities, whereas

  3. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  4. Contesting the science/ethics distinction in the review of clinical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus J; Yentis, Steve M

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy in relation to clinical research proposals in the UK has distinguished between two types of review: scientific and ethical. This distinction has been formally enshrined in the recent changes to research ethics committee (REC) structure and operating procedures, introduced as the UK response to the EU Directive on clinical trials. Recent reviews and recommendations have confirmed the place of the distinction and the separate review processes. However, serious reservations can be mounted about the science/ethics distinction and the policy of separate review that has been built upon it. We argue here that, first, the science/ethics distinction is incoherent, and, second, that RECs should not only be permitted to consider a study's science, but that they have anobligation do so. PMID:17329389

  5. Distinctive research patterns on public sector performance measurement of public administration and accounting disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or

  6. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  7. 37 CFR 2.41 - Proof of distinctiveness under section 2(f).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mark may be accepted as prima facie evidence of distinctiveness. Also, if the mark is said to have... with § 2.20, in the application may, in appropriate cases, be accepted as prima facie evidence of...

  8. Functionally distinct dopamine signals in nucleus accumbens core and shell in the freely moving rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Lovic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic signaling of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons has been implicated in reward learning, drug abuse, and motivation. However, this system is complex because firing patterns of these neurons are heterogeneous; subpopulations receive distinct synaptic inputs, and project to anatomically...

  9. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  10. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bootstrap prediction and Bayesian prediction under misspecified models

    OpenAIRE

    Fushiki, Tadayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We consider a statistical prediction problem under misspecified models. In a sense, Bayesian prediction is an optimal prediction method when an assumed model is true. Bootstrap prediction is obtained by applying Breiman's `bagging' method to a plug-in prediction. Bootstrap prediction can be considered to be an approximation to the Bayesian prediction under the assumption that the model is true. However, in applications, there are frequently deviations from the assumed model. In this paper, bo...

  12. SIFT-CCH: Increasing the SIFT distinctness by color co-occurrence histograms

    OpenAIRE

    ANCUTI, Cosmin; BEKAERT, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Describing regions in a distinctive way, in order to find correct correspondences in images of two separated views, represents a complex and essential task of computer vision. Until now, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) has been proven to be the most reliable descriptor among the others. One of the main drawbacks of SIFT is its vulnerability to color images, being designed mainly for the gray images. To overcome this problem and also to increase the overall distinctness of the SIFT ...

  13. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1 coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2 incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3 modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA, Porites tissue loss (PorTL, Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem, and Montipora white syndrome (MWS, and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response, led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to

  14. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  15. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  16. Protein Sorting Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    and drawbacks of each of these approaches is described through many examples of methods that predict secretion, integration into membranes, or subcellular locations in general. The aim of this chapter is to provide a user-level introduction to the field with a minimum of computational theory.......Many computational methods are available for predicting protein sorting in bacteria. When comparing them, it is important to know that they can be grouped into three fundamentally different approaches: signal-based, global-property-based and homology-based prediction. In this chapter, the strengths...

  17. 'Red Flag' Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul; Tveterås, Sigbjørn

    -generation prediction markets and outline its unique features as a third-generation prediction market. It is argued that frontline employees gain deep insights when they execute operational activities on an ongoing basis in the organization. The experiential learning from close interaction with internal and external......This conceptual article introduces a new way to predict firm performance based on aggregation of sensing among frontline employees about changes in operational capabilities to update strategic action plans and generate innovations. We frame the approach in the context of first- and second...

  18. Towards Predictive Association Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2011-01-01

    Association equations of state like SAFT, CPA and NRHB have been previously applied to many complex mixtures. In this work we focus on two of these models, the CPA and the NRHB equations of state and the emphasis is on the analysis of their predictive capabilities for a wide range of applications....... We use the term predictive in two situations: (i) with no use of binary interaction parameters, and (ii) multicomponent calculations using binary interaction parameters based solely on binary data. It is shown that the CPA equation of state can satisfactorily predict CO2–water–glycols–alkanes VLE...

  19. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  20. Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates, irrespective of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-08-01

    Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Aline; Sperisen, Christoph; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Brang, Peter; Walthert, Lorenz; St Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. Although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. Which species are most vulnerable to climate change? Which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? Even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists vs. adaptive generalists, large-scale studies comparing different species in the same experiment are rare. We studied the genecology of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba), two co-occurring but ecologically distinct European conifers in Central Europe. For each species, we collected seed from more than 90 populations across Switzerland, established a seedling common-garden test, and developed genecological models that associate population variation in seedling growth and phenology to climate, soil properties, and site water balance. Population differentiation and associations between seedling traits and environmental variables were much stronger for Norway spruce than for silver fir, and stronger for seedling height growth than for bud phenology. In Norway spruce, height growth and second flushing were strongly associated with temperature and elevation, with seedlings from the lowlands being taller and more prone to second flush than seedlings from the Alps. In silver fir, height growth was more weakly associated with temperature and elevation, but also associated with water availability. Soil characteristics explained little population variation in both species. We conclude that Norway spruce has become an adaptive specialist because trade-offs between rapid juvenile growth and frost avoidance have subjected it to strong diversifying natural selection based on temperature. In contrast, because silver fir has a more conservative growth habit, it has

  2. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodale, Britton C.; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GC–MS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: • Defined global mRNA expression

  3. How Human Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis May Drive Distinct Defensive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Baas, Johanna M P; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-10-04

    The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we used data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies [ n = 108 males and n = 70 (45 females)] to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation. In a subset of participants from Sample 2 ( n = 48) we demonstrate that anticipation and confrontation evoke bradycardic and tachycardic responses, respectively. Further, we show that in each sample when going from shock anticipation to the moment of shock confrontation neural activity shifted from a region anatomically consistent with the BNST toward the amygdala. Comparisons of functional connectivity during threat processing showed overlapping yet also consistently divergent functional connectivity profiles for the BNST and amygdala. Finally, childhood maltreatment levels predicted amygdala, but not BNST, hyperactivity during shock anticipation. Our results support an evolutionary conserved, defensive distance-dependent dynamic balance between BNST and amygdala activity. Shifts in this balance may enable shifts in defensive reactions via the demonstrated differential functional connectivity. Our results indicate that early life stress may tip the neural balance toward acute threat responding and via that route predispose for affective disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previously proposed differential contributions of the BNST and amygdala to fear and anxiety have been recently debated. Despite the significance of understanding their

  4. Distinct expression profile of HCMV encoded miRNAs in plasma from oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Zen, Ke; Wang, Wenmei; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni

    2017-06-07

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of OLP remain unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a causal factor in the development of various diseases, but the clinical relevance of HCMV in OLP has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we firstly examined twenty-three HCMV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in plasma from training set that including 21 OLP patients and 18 healthy controls using RT-qPCR technology. Dysregulated miRNAs were subsequently confirmed in another larger cohort refereed as validation set consisting of 40 OLP patients and 33 healthy controls. HCMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was also measured in an additional cohort of 13 OLP patients and 12 control subjects. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were also performed to predict and verify the direct potential targets of HCMV-encoded miRNAs. The RT-qPCR results showed that the plasma levels of five HCMV-encoded miRNAs including hcmv-miR-UL112-3p, hcmv-miR-UL22a-5p, hcmv-miR-UL148d, hcmv-miR-UL36-5p and hcmv-miR-UL59 were significantly increased in OLP patients in both training and validation sets. HCMV DNA in PBLs was also significantly higher in OLP patients than in control subjects. Additionally, by using a combination of luciferase reporter assay and western blotting, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus UL16-binding protein 1, a molecule that mediates the killing of virus-infected cells by natural killer cells, is a direct target of hcmv-miR-UL59. Our results demonstrate a distinct expression pattern of HCMV-encoded miRNAs in OLP patients, which may provide insight into the relationship between HCMV infection and OLP, and warrants additional study in the diagnosis and aetiology of OLP.

  5. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  6. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ predicted ozone. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gantt, B., G. Sarwar, J. Xing, H. Simon, D. Schwede, B. Hutzell, R. Mathur, and A....

  7. Methane prediction in collieries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Creedy, DP

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the project was to assess the current status of research on methane emission prediction for collieries in South Africa in comparison with methods used and advances achieved elsewhere in the world....

  8. Climate Prediction Center - Outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Web resources and services. HOME > Outreach > Publications > Climate Diagnostics Bulletin Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Tropics Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Forecast Climate Diagnostics

  9. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  10. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis

  11. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  12. Genomic prediction using subsampling

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Alencar; Xu, Shizhong; Muir, William; Rainey, Katy Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Genome-wide assisted selection is a critical tool for the?genetic improvement of plants and animals. Whole-genome regression models in Bayesian framework represent the main family of prediction methods. Fitting such models with a large number of observations involves a prohibitive computational burden. We propose the use of subsampling bootstrap Markov chain in genomic prediction. Such method consists of fitting whole-genome regression models by subsampling observations in each rou...

  13. Predicting Online Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    W.R BUCKINX; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2003-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the contribution of different types of predictors to the purchasing behaviour at an online store. We use logit modelling to predict whether or not a purchase is made during the next visit to the website using both forward and backward variable-selection techniques, as well as Furnival and Wilson’s global score search algorithm to find the best subset of predictors. We contribute to the literature by using variables from four different categories in predicting...

  14. Empirical Flutter Prediction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-05

    been used in this way to discover species or subspecies of animals, and to discover different types of voter or comsumer requiring different persuasions...respect to behavior or performance or response variables. Once this were done, corresponding clusters might be sought among descriptive or predictive or...jump in a response. The first sort of usage does not apply to the flutter prediction problem. Here the types of behavior are the different kinds of

  15. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  16. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  17. Genomic prediction using subsampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Alencar; Xu, Shizhong; Muir, William; Rainey, Katy Martin

    2017-03-24

    Genome-wide assisted selection is a critical tool for the genetic improvement of plants and animals. Whole-genome regression models in Bayesian framework represent the main family of prediction methods. Fitting such models with a large number of observations involves a prohibitive computational burden. We propose the use of subsampling bootstrap Markov chain in genomic prediction. Such method consists of fitting whole-genome regression models by subsampling observations in each round of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We evaluated the effect of subsampling bootstrap on prediction and computational parameters. Across datasets, we observed an optimal subsampling proportion of observations around 50% with replacement, and around 33% without replacement. Subsampling provided a substantial decrease in computation time, reducing the time to fit the model by half. On average, losses on predictive properties imposed by subsampling were negligible, usually below 1%. For each dataset, an optimal subsampling point that improves prediction properties was observed, but the improvements were also negligible. Combining subsampling with Gibbs sampling is an interesting ensemble algorithm. The investigation indicates that the subsampling bootstrap Markov chain algorithm substantially reduces computational burden associated with model fitting, and it may slightly enhance prediction properties.

  18. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  19. Do Implicit Attitudes Predict Actual Voting Behavior Particularly for Undecided Voters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Smith, Colin Tucker; Plischke, Thomas; Bluemke, Matthias; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of voting behavior of undecided voters poses a challenge to psychologists and pollsters. Recently, researchers argued that implicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for undecided voters whereas explicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for decided voters. We tested this assumption in two studies in two countries with distinct political systems in the context of real political elections. Results revealed that (a) explicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better than implicit attitudes for both decided and undecided voters, and (b) implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better for decided than undecided voters. We propose that greater elaboration of attitudes produces stronger convergence between implicit and explicit attitudes resulting in better predictive validity of both, and less incremental validity of implicit over explicit attitudes for the prediction of voting behavior. However, greater incremental predictive validity of implicit over explicit attitudes may be associated with less elaboration. PMID:22952898

  20. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Correlation of neural activity with behavioral kinematics reveals distinct sensory encoding and evidence accumulation processes during active tactile sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Sajda, Paul; Wang, Qi

    2018-03-23

    Many real-world decisions rely on active sensing, a dynamic process for directing our sensors (e.g. eyes or fingers) across a stimulus to maximize information gain. Though ecologically pervasive, limited work has focused on identifying neural correlates of the active sensing process. In tactile perception, we often make decisions about an object/surface by actively exploring its shape/texture. Here we investigate the neural correlates of active tactile decision-making by simultaneously measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and finger kinematics while subjects interrogated a haptic surface to make perceptual judgments. Since sensorimotor behavior underlies decision formation in active sensing tasks, we hypothesized that the neural correlates of decision-related processes would be detectable by relating active sensing to neural activity. Novel brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed that three distinct EEG components, localizing to right-lateralized occipital cortex (LOC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and supplementary motor area (SMA), respectively, were coupled with active sensing as their activity significantly correlated with finger kinematics. To probe the functional role of these components, we fit their single-trial-couplings to decision-making performance using a hierarchical-drift-diffusion-model (HDDM), revealing that the LOC modulated the encoding of the tactile stimulus whereas the MFG predicted the rate of information integration towards a choice. Interestingly, the MFG disappeared from components uncovered from control subjects performing active sensing but not required to make perceptual decisions. By uncovering the neural correlates of distinct stimulus encoding and evidence accumulation processes, this study delineated, for the first time, the functional role of cortical areas in active tactile decision-making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relating Language and Music Skills in Young Children: A First Approach to Systemize and Compare Distinct Competencies on Different Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Grolig, Lorenz; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed toward substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study, we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and music skills as well

  3. Distinct gene number-genome size relationships for eukaryotes and non-eukaryotes: gene content estimation for dinoflagellate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Hou

    Full Text Available The ability to predict gene content is highly desirable for characterization of not-yet sequenced genomes like those of dinoflagellates. Using data from completely sequenced and annotated genomes from phylogenetically diverse lineages, we investigated the relationship between gene content and genome size using regression analyses. Distinct relationships between log(10-transformed protein-coding gene number (Y' versus log(10-transformed genome size (X', genome size in kbp were found for eukaryotes and non-eukaryotes. Eukaryotes best fit a logarithmic model, Y' = ln(-46.200+22.678X', whereas non-eukaryotes a linear model, Y' = 0.045+0.977X', both with high significance (p0.91. Total gene number shows similar trends in both groups to their respective protein coding regressions. The distinct correlations reflect lower and decreasing gene-coding percentages as genome size increases in eukaryotes (82%-1% compared to higher and relatively stable percentages in prokaryotes and viruses (97%-47%. The eukaryotic regression models project that the smallest dinoflagellate genome (3x10(6 kbp contains 38,188 protein-coding (40,086 total genes and the largest (245x10(6 kbp 87,688 protein-coding (92,013 total genes, corresponding to 1.8% and 0.05% gene-coding percentages. These estimates do not likely represent extraordinarily high functional diversity of the encoded proteome but rather highly redundant genomes as evidenced by high gene copy numbers documented for various dinoflagellate species.

  4. Relating language and music skills in young children: a first approach to systemize and compare distinct competencies on different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cohrdes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Children in transition from kindergarten to school develop fundamental skills important for the acquisition of reading and writing. Previous research pointed towards substantial correlations between specific language- and music-related competencies as well as positive transfer effects from music on pre-literacy skills. However, until now the relationship between diverse music and language competencies remains unclear. In the present study we used a comprehensive approach to clarify the relationships between a broad variety of language and music skills on different levels, not only between but also within domains. In order to do so, we selected representative language- and music-related competencies and systematically compared the performance of N = 44 5- to 7-year-old children with a control group of N = 20 young adults aged from 20 to 30. Competencies were organized in distinct levels according to varying units of vowels/sounds, words or syllables/short melodic or rhythmic phrases, syntax/harmony and context of a whole story/song to test for their interrelatedness within each domain. Following this, we conducted systematic correlation analyses between the competencies of both domains. Overall, selected competencies appeared to be appropriate for the measurement of language and music skills in young children with reference to comprehension, difficulty and a developmental perspective. In line with a hierarchical model of skill acquisition, performance on lower levels was predictive for the performance on higher levels within domains. Moreover, correlations between domains were stronger for competencies reflecting a similar level of cognitive processing, as expected. In conclusion, a systematic comparison of various competencies on distinct levels according to varying units turned out to be appropriate regarding comparability and interrelatedness. Results are discussed with regard to similarities and differences in the development of language and

  5. Everyday distinction and omnivorous orientation: An analysis of food choice, attitudinal dispositions and social background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative genome and transcriptome analysis reveals distinctive surface characteristics and unique physiological potentials of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Huiluo

    2017-06-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was isolated from a hospital blood specimen in 1971 and has been widely used as a model strain to survey antibiotics susceptibilities, biofilm development, and metabolic activities of Pseudomonas spp.. Although four draft genomes of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 have been sequenced, the complete genome of this strain is still lacking, hindering a comprehensive understanding of its physiology and functional genome.Here we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 using the Pacific Biosciences SMRT (PacBio) technology and Illumina sequencing platform. We found that accessory genes of ATCC 27853 including prophages and genomic islands (GIs) mainly contribute to the difference between P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and other P. aeruginosa strains. Seven prophages were identified within the genome of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Of the predicted 25 GIs, three contain genes that encode monoxoygenases, dioxygenases and hydrolases that could be involved in the metabolism of aromatic compounds. Surveying virulence-related genes revealed that a series of genes that encode the B-band O-antigen of LPS are lacking in ATCC 27853. Distinctive SNPs in genes of cellular adhesion proteins such as type IV pili and flagella biosynthesis were also observed in this strain. Colony morphology analysis confirmed an enhanced biofilm formation capability of ATCC 27853 on solid agar surface compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We then performed transcriptome analysis of ATCC 27853 and PAO1 using RNA-seq and compared the expression of orthologous genes to understand the functional genome and the genomic details underlying the distinctive colony morphogenesis. These analyses revealed an increased expression of genes involved in cellular adhesion and biofilm maturation such as type IV pili, exopolysaccharide and electron transport chain components in ATCC 27853 compared with PAO1. In addition, distinctive expression profiles of the

  7. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  8. Transionospheric propagation predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucher, J. A.; Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Davies, K.; Donatelli, D. E.; Fremouw, E. J.; Goodman, J. M.; Hartmann, G. K.; Leitinger, R.

    1979-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the capability to make transionospheric propagation predictions are addressed, highlighting the effects of the ionized media, which dominate for frequencies below 1 to 3 GHz, depending upon the state of the ionosphere and the elevation angle through the Earth-space path. The primary concerns are the predictions of time delay of signal modulation (group path delay) and of radio wave scintillation. Progress in these areas is strongly tied to knowledge of variable structures in the ionosphere ranging from the large scale (thousands of kilometers in horizontal extent) to the fine scale (kilometer size). Ionospheric variability and the relative importance of various mechanisms responsible for the time histories observed in total electron content (TEC), proportional to signal group delay, and in irregularity formation are discussed in terms of capability to make both short and long term predictions. The data base upon which predictions are made is examined for its adequacy, and the prospects for prediction improvements by more theoretical studies as well as by increasing the available statistical data base are examined.

  9. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting that these p......My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting...... that these predictable units should be considered grammatical constructions on a par with the nonpredictable constructions. Frequency has usually been seen as the only possible argument speaking in favor of viewing some formally and semantically fully predictable units as grammatical constructions. However, this paper...... semantically and formally predictable. Despite this difference, [méllo INF], like the other future periphrases, seems to be highly entrenched in the cognition (and grammar) of Early Medieval Greek language users, and consequently a grammatical construction. The syntactic evidence speaking in favor of [méllo...

  10. Unified thalamic model generates multiple distinct oscillations with state-dependent entrainment by stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshi Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh and norepinephrine (NE and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention. Our simulation results indicate that generation of these distinct thalamic oscillations is a result of both intrinsic oscillatory cellular properties and specific network connectivity patterns. We then systematically varied the ACh/NE and input levels to generate a complete map of the different oscillatory states and their transitions. Lastly, we applied periodic stimulation to the thalamic network and found that entrainment of thalamic oscillations is highly state-dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that ACh/NE modulation and afferent excitation define thalamic oscillatory states and their response to brain stimulation. Our model proposes a broader and more central role of the thalamus in the genesis of multiple distinct thalamo-cortical rhythms than previously assumed.

  11. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jessica L; Graham, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants' reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., "Look at this one") and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug ). Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  12. 14- to 16-Month-Olds Attend to Distinct Labels in an Inductive Reasoning Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Graham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how naming objects with unique labels influenced infants’ reasoning about the non-obvious properties of novel objects. Seventy 14- to 16-month-olds participated in an imitation-based inductive inference task during which they were presented with target objects possessing a non-obvious sound property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity in comparison to the target. Infants were assigned to one of two groups: a No Label group in which objects were introduced with a general attentional phrase (i.e., “Look at this one” and a Distinct Label group in which target and test objects were labeled with two distinct count nouns (i.e., fep vs. wug. Infants in the Distinct Label group performed significantly fewer target actions on the high-similarity objects than infants in the No Label group but did not differ in performance of actions on the low-similarity object. Within the Distinct Label group, performance on the inductive inference task was related to age, but not to working memory, inhibitory control, or vocabulary. Within the No Label condition, performance on the inductive inference task was related to a measure of inhibitory control. Our findings suggest that between 14- and 16-months, infants begin to use labels to carve out distinct categories, even when objects are highly perceptually similar.

  13. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  14. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  15. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps... Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced miners. Hard hats or hard caps distinctively different in color from those worn by experienced miners shall be worn at...

  18. 50 CFR 226.217 - Critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). 226.217 Section 226.217 Wildlife and... Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Critical habitat is designated to include all... the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (GOM DPS), except for those...

  19. Essays on Earnings Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Mark

    This dissertation addresses the prediction of corporate earnings. The thesis aims to examine whether the degree of precision in earnings forecasts can be increased by basing them on historical financial ratios. Furthermore, the intent of the dissertation is to analyze whether accounting standards...... forecasts are not more accurate than the simpler forecasts based on a historical timeseries of earnings. Secondly, the dissertation shows how accounting standards affect analysts’ earnings predictions. Accounting conservatism contributes to a more volatile earnings process, which lowers the accuracy...... of analysts’ earnings forecasts. Furthermore, the dissertation shows how the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of information about corporate earnings depends on how well corporate earnings can be predicted. The dissertation indicates that the stock market’s reaction to the disclosure of earnings...

  20. Pulverized coal devolatilization prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Barraza, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the two bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate of heating (50 Celsius degrade/min), with program FG-DVC (functional group Depolymerization. Vaporization and crosslinking), and to compare the devolatilization profiles predicted by program FG-DVC, which are obtained in the thermogravimetric analyzer. It was also study the volatile liberation at (10 4 k/s) in a drop-tube furnace. The tar, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, formation rate profiles, and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, elemental distribution in the devolatilization products by FG-DVC program at low rate of heating was obtained; and the liberation volatile and R factor at high rate of heating was calculated. it was found that the program predicts the bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate heating, at high rate heating, a volatile liberation around 30% was obtained